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Please help me out with a link to data on Inward flow/stock of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) by sectors (e.g., primary, secondary, etc) for individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
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Not a global dataset, but provides sufficient variations for some statistical modelling. Hope this helps!
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I am a student of BBA. I want to do my research project on FDI in Bangladesh. As Bangladesh is basically a country of agrarian economy.
Does Foreign Direct Investment plays a dominant role in the economy of Bangladesh through accelerating Gross Domestic Product?
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FDI will boost investment and will increase the consumption levels in an economy and this in turn will have a direct corresponding impact on the GDP.
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This research is based primarily on the context of the business sector in Thailand; the country is a developing country; hence, there is a need to be cognizant of the factors driving foreign business investment in Thailand. Additionally, the question seeks to familiarize with the legal peculiarities involved in foreign business investment.
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how to allow adjusted foreign currency in to domestic currency based on the future exchange
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I am a student of BBA. I want to do my research project on FDI in Bangladesh. As unemployment is a severe problem in our country, foreign direct investment can play a significant role.
What could be the relationship between FDI and unemployment in the context of developing country.
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1 percent increase in FDI raises employment growth by about 3 percent and exports by almost 9 percent, concluding that FDI tends to provide an outlet for surplus productive capacity and labour in the receiving country. Which is why FDI can play a significant role.
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Dear RG community,
I have been studying the impact of the political, economic and financial risk indices on stock market returns, so I need monthly data (or quarterly or annual) from ICRG Database political, financial, and economic risk ratings from 1984 to 2020 for all countries?
Table 3B: Political Risk Points by Component, 1984-2020
Table 4B: Financial Risk Points by Component, 1984-2020
Table 5B: Economic Risk Points by Component, 1984-2020
Unfortunately, me or my organization do not have access to the (ICRG) database, so I would greatly appreciate your help in obtaining this data, if you can.
Just in case of you may need, my e-mail is ademboyukaslan@gmail.com
Thank you in advance.
Best regards,
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I hope to figure out any access to same data.
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I am looking for literature on the current thinking in FDI
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The best source of infomation on FDI is UNCTAD and it's World Investment Report, available here - https://unctad.org/topic/investment/world-investment-report. Besides, UNCTAD database is an ultimate source of raw data for FDI research in terms of flows, stock, regions and so on - https://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx?sCS_ChosenLang=en. FDI data contains "Balance of Payment" folder.
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What are the best policies to encourage partnership between the public and private sectors in the field of investment, and how can these policies be profitable for all parties?
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You are most welcome dear Othmane Touat . Wish you the best always.
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This discussion will focus on research that is related to FDI. It will primarily be a discussion and a sharing platform of Resources and Knowledge for the research on FDI. It is with collaborating that we can improve upon the quality of the research on FDI. I will be sharing my resources here so that the scholarship can benefit from it and a lot of time and effort that is put into searching for resources and knowledge about the research is saved here.
For The Sake of Research
  • Bilateral FDI flows of the World Economies.
The source of the data is UNCTAD.
  • Journal of Finance in SCOPUS.
Ranking and metrics of Journals of Finance in SCOPUS
  • Country Wise Bilateral FDI Datasets
| 2001-12 |
|INFLOWS & OUTFLOWS|
|INSTOCK & OUTSTOCK|
Source UNCTAD
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Syed Azher Mehdi Thank you very much i suggest also this Data base it is very useful for FDI and Multinational companies by sector , mother company and affiliates by countries and region ( bilateral and aggregate ) by International Trade Centre.
for Middle east data this portal is very useful
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I am looking for articles on an analysis of the impact of economic reforms on Foreign Direct Investment
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Might be an assistance!
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There are many studies which have shown a positive impact of Foreign direct investment on the economic growth of the host country, where some of the researchers have claimed that FDI puts a negative impact on the host country by creating environmental pollution. This has created many arguments.
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I want to know why absorbing FDI in some countries favors them more than others? for example why it contributed more to china or south Korea but not 4 Asian tiger? I think the answer isn't free market rules but what it could be? the government interference? the joint companies? the targeted FDI ?
is there any index to indicate to measurement of FDI benefits to GDP rate? and is there any thing for evaluation of its impact in different countries?
I am writing a research regarded to this question and I am looking for technics to evaluate why FDI had led to boost growth an in countries like Mexico the growth rate is relatively low?
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According to a report by the World Bank Group published in October 2017, foreign direct investment (FDI) is beneficial for developing economies, pumping up productivity and worker skills, encouraging technical development, generating better-paying employment and boosting local businesses.
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how can I measure the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic development of a country?
I want to know why some countries are benefitting from FDI and why some aren't?
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The standard model holds that FDI creates direct benefits such as new capital and jobs, which in turn boost government tax revenues and foreign exchange. ... But despite these anecdotes, there is clear evidence that FDI in a broad majority of cases is indeed beneficial to the recipient economy.
Disadvantages of FDI
Disappearance of cottage and small scale industries: ...
Contribution to the pollution: ...
Exchange crisis: ...
Cultural erosion: ...
Political corruption: ...
Inflation in the Economy: ...
Trade Deficit: ...
World Bank and lMF Aid
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Hello, dear researchers! I was wondering if someone can tell me where to find data for CO2 emissions, Foreign Direct Investments, Gross Domestic Product and Energy Consumption by industrial sectors? I want to do a study that will, among other things, have these variables (CO2 emissions, FDI, GDP and EC) in the regression model, but by industrial sectors. For now I have found the data only for FDI on the official web page of National bank of my country, but only for 10 years, and I wasn't lucky in finding the data for CO2 emissions, GDP and EC.
I hope that someone will help me with this. I would be very thankful.
Greetings,
Aleksandra
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Dear Aleksandra.
Kindly check on WDI.
But for sectoral data, you can Google on request from UNCTAD. You can tell follow up with mails.
Regards
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I have FDI data series of more than 40 years. But the series contains negative values of 5 different years. Since, I am using FDI as independent variable and necessary to transform those values in log form. What are the methods that I can transform negative data set in to log form?
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Hello Nabaraj,
Assuming that transforming or re-expressing your scores makes sense in the context of your analysis:
If the zero point of your measure is arbitrary (as is the case in temperature quantified as degrees Fahrenheit), then you could first add a constant (of value MIN + 1 or larger, where MIN is the lowest observed score in the data set), then apply the log transform. Similar examples would include scales such as z-scores, where negative numbers simply indicate scores below the mean, or Likert-type response scales, where the so-called neutral category was scored as zero, and scores to the left were negative, while scores to the right were positive.
Good luck with your work.
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Inflow of FDI will increase or decrease such kind of countries?
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can refer to
1. COVID-19 and the global contraction in FDI by By Adnan Seric and Jostein Hauge
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As Mr. Stereńczak pointed out, the result would be a complex number. In a general case, assuming x>0, log(-x)=log(x)+i*pi. In the context of the provided article, the estimation requires transformation of the variables in order to ensure that all the log-transformed variables are positive.
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For my undergrad dissertation, I am looking to qualitatively explain the determinants of FDI in Pakistan and identify the barriers restricting it. I therefore need a selection of key theories from which I can frame my report in order to effectively answer the question. Please comment any key theories/papers that you believe will be helpful. TIA
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Dear Oliver,
I think you should look into the main theories which explain the cause of foreign direct investment. Some of the best-known theories which come to my mind include:
- Heckscher-Ohlin model of trade (where Mundell provides implications for foreign direct investment determinants);
- Ricardian model of trade (where Kojima provides implications for foreign direct investment determinants);
- Theories of internalisation (where you should check the works of Rugman and Buckley and Casson);
- Product Life Cycle theory by Vernon, which provides relevant determinants for more technologically intensive products;
- Eclectic OLI paradigm of Dunning, which integrates much of previously mentioned theories;
- and many others.
Faeth (2009) provides a nice and thorough overview of the theories with implications for foreign direct investment determinants.
P. J. Buckley, M. Casson, The Future of the Multinational Enterprise, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 1976. str. 33.
J. H. Dunning, "Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the MNE: A Search for an Eclectic Approach", in: The International Allocation of Economic Activity: Proceedings of a Nobel Symposium held at Stockholm, (Eds. Bertil Ohlin, Per-Ove Hesselborn, Per Magnus Wijkman), Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 1977, str. 395-418.
I. Faeth, "Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment - A Tale of Nine Theoretical Models", Journal of Economic Surveys, vol. 23, no. 1, 2009, p. 165.
K. Kojima, "International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment: Substitutes or Complements", Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, vol. 16, no. 1, 1975, p. 7.
R. A. Mundell, "International Trade and Factor Mobility", The American Economic Review, vol. 47, no. 3, 1957, pp. 321-335.
A. M. Rugman, "Internalization is still a general theory of foreign direct investment", Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 121, no. 3, 1985, p. 570.
R. Vernon, "International trade and international investment in the product cycle", Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 80, no. 2, 1966, pp. 290-207.
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To answer to this question, data from 43 Sub-Sahara African countries was collected for 2017. Correlation and regression were performed to find the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and foreign direct investment inflows (FDI) in selected countries.
The results show that FDI did not impact significantly GDP for 2017.
The estimated regression coefficient of FDI on GDP is 13.394. This coefficient is not statistically significant. The p-value of the coefficient is 0.119, R-squared: 0.0581, Adjusted R-squared: 0.03512. The results are not surprising because the correlation between GDP and FDI, is weak, and the relationship can be ignored. The test of Pearson's product-moment correlation fails to reject the null hypothesis of the no existence of a significant linear relationship between FDI and GDP.
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I highly recommend the opinion provided by Artur Braun .
Regards
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The importance of mediator variable analysis relies on providing a better understanding of the mechanism by which a cause (independent variable) has an effect on a result (dependent variable).Mediation explains how an independent variable (X) affects a dependent variable (Y) through one or more interacting variable(s) or mediator variable(s) (M) and the direction of this effect (Özdil & Kutlu, 2019).
To analyze the mediating effects of house hold consumption (HHC) in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and foreign direct investment inflows (FDI) in 28 low and low-income African countries, data related to GDP, FDI and HHC was collected for 2017 period. Using Bootstrap method, the result shows a statically significant direct effect of FDI on GDP (path C) 13.989. However, when controlling for mediator variable (HHC), the direct effect of FDI and on GDP is reduced, and becomes not statically significant (path c') 2.064. The indirect effects become statically significant 11.925 suggesting mediation effect of HHC in the relationship between GDP and FDI. Therefore, low and low-income African countries should stimulate an increase in foreign direct investment to boost their gross domestic product.
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Well done answer Dr. Mutasem, I do agree with you..
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Many studies have analyzed the way foreign direct investment inflows (FDI) affect gross domestic product (GDP). However, little is known about the indirect effects produced by FDI on GDP in Sub-Sahara Africa.To analyze indirect effects produced by FDI on GDP, I would like to ask an interested researcher to join me on this project as co-researcher.
Interested researcher can joint me.
Best.
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Paul: Yes, the inflow of investment from foreign sources will indirectly have a positive effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
When a foreign company builds a factory or warehouse or call center in your country, then it creates jobs and also requires suppliers and second level jobs.
There may even be thrid and fourth level jobs affected.
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There are many debates on the impact of foreign direct investment inflows on gross domestic product in host country. However, little is known about the indirect effects of foreign direct investment inflows on gross domestic product. The result of the analysis confirms the existence of direct effect ignoring how the effected was generated through some other variables.This may be due to the methods that are generally used in the research while analyzing the relationship between foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic product. Some of the methods used are multiple regression models (Abbas, Akbar, Nasir, Aman & Naseem, 2011), correlation and regression model (Nadeem, Naveed, Zeeshan & Sonia, 2013), cointegration analysis (Nosheen 2013), simple regression (Tamilselvan, & Manikandan, 2015), generalized least squares estimator (Khan, Shiraz, Mehboob & Farhan 2014). They concluded on the positive effect of foreign direct investment inflows on gross domestic product without considering the possible indirect effect.Not analyzing the existence of indirect effect that foreign direct investment may have on gross domestic product through a third variable may lead to a biased conclusion. One variable may have effect on the other variable trough a third variable, without this there may be no direct effect.
By applying causal steps procedures recommended by Baron and Kenny (1986), I analyzed the relationship between foreign direct investment inflows (FDI) and gross domestic product (GDP) in low and low middle income countries. The result of the analysis shows that there is a complete mediation of FDI through house hold consumption, a partial mediation of FDI through female labor participation, a partial mediation of FDI through dependency age youth, and partial mediation of FDI through female unemployment rate.
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Dear Mr. Goran, thanks you for your new ideas.Exploring indirect effect of FDI on GDP through the job creation and trade is what I m doing now in my dissertation. I m working on Sub- Sahara Afrian countries, and the result are in line with your comment. There a partial mediation Partial mediation for female unemployment rate,exports, imports, female employment in industry, and services.
Best
Antoine
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How do you measure a research question in economics I am writing on Chinese Foreign Direct Investment?
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Not sure what you mean by this. Can you clarify your question please?
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COVID-16 has impacted businesses across the borders for MNCs. Many projects are under hold and new/just started projects are under review by parent companies. What would you think that COVID-19 would really increase or decrease the FDI in your country.
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May increase or decrease, it depends on economic condition and reforms, policy on FDI, taxes and monetary regulations of different countries.
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The Data is for Academic Research
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Thanks
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The negative sign of outflows means the disinvestments by domestic investors in foreign economies, so actually it is inflows because domestic investors are pulling money from abroad to local economy, in contrast, the negative sign of inflows means the foreign investors are pulling money from the local economy to their home abroad, so it is actually outflows. IMF uses this method which is known as "BPM6" to report capital flows. Bear in mind that the outflows of FDI, FPI and other investments are reported as an assets and the inflows of FDI, FPI and other investments are reported as liabilities. With that being said, how could we calculate the net capital inflows and outflows? For more clarification I have added an attachment of Argentina's capital flows for the year 2000, Argentina had positive FDI and FPI outflows in that year for quarter 1, but other investment outflows were negative, so that means that other investment outflows are actually inflows because of the investments repatriated home by domestic investors. In the same period, in terms of inflows, Argentina had positive FDI and FPI inflows, but the other investments inflows were negative, so the other investments inflows are actually outflows. Therefore, in order to calculate net capital inflows we add the absolute value of the other investment outflows to the positive values of FDI and FPI inflows(|-other investments outflows|+FDI inflows+FPI inflows). The same thing for net capital outflows, we add the absolute value of negative other investment inflows to the positive values of FDI and FPI outflows (|-other investments inflows|+FDI outflows+FPI outflows).
Am I right???
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I think IMF BPM6 is more in line with definition of asset and liability in accounting. An inflow should be a liability to the host country From the perspective of creditor/investor who is entitled to a return while outflow of investment is an asset.
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What kind of analysis of economic and other data provides better knowledge for investing in securities listed on the stock exchange?
Which analysis, ie fundamental or technical analysis, provides better knowledge for investing in securities listed on the stock exchange?
Thanks to which analysis, ie fundamental and technical analysis, investors achieve the best results in investing, the highest returns on investments in securities listed on the stock exchange?
Which investment strategies are the most effective? Are the most effective investment strategies based on conducting fundamental or technical analysis and maybe on a specific combination of both types of analysis?
Please reply
Best wishes
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It depends on what type of investors you are. For long-term, you need to know the fundamentals while the short-term traders look at the technical analysis patterns. These patterns reveal what is happening in the company currently. Fundamentals are behind the curve in most investment decision. We need some current indicators and the volume and price are more sensitive to B/S and P/L.
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The Investment Redistributive Incentive Model (IRIM).
Tourism holds the hopes of many in creating job opportunities for the masses of the unemployed globally. The poor growth of economies has failed to address the problems of unemployment, poverty and inequality. For growth to be impactful, foreign direct investment is considered one of the sources of the required impetuses. It is possible to incentivize both foreign (direct) and local investments. This paper, which was prepared using secondary sources of information, argues that it is possible to introduce incentives linked to investments in what is posited as the Investment Redistributive Incentive Model (IRIM). The IRIM rewards companies that support local ownership and control of enterprises through an incentive system en route to total liberation/local control of enterprises in whole geographic areas as the ultimate goal. The IRIM uses investment incentives such as tax cuts, breaks or relief as redistributive instruments to effect change through the reconfiguration of the management and ownership structures of companies. IRIM could be applied in any company, large or small, for equity and social justice. Foreign investors could also be linked to educational institutions in relation to facilitating the supply of skilled workers. Redistributive formulas become imperative to avert the various forms of societal dissonance because current trajectories are not sustainable where only a few get rich while the majority remain poor in a world trapped in a capitalistic and narcissistic modus operandi.
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I think the topic of investment and inequality is very interesting and relevant. It is also interesting to consider the relationship between investment, economic growth and economic inequality at national and regional level.
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- models used to assess the determinants of FDI (Panel data will be used)
- I want to see its impact on economic growth on a single economy
- furthermore, I want to see its effect on income inequality
therefore, I need
- econometric models
- the dominant theories
- empirical research that Pro- FDI and against FDI
- debating issues in FDI
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You will find all of your answers by reading the literature .. and there is no better place than Scopus https://www.scopus.com/
through which you can find the top authors who wrote in this topic to be cited and included in your bibliography list.
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Control of Corruption, Foreign Direct Investment Political Stability, Government Effectiveness,Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Exchange Rate, Population, Population Growth, Trade Openness, Infrastructure, Inflation, Voice and Accountability, Market. Please I need help classifying the level of measurement for these variables.
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SCALE is quantitative obtained through score or scale score, i.e. (1,2,3,4,5). They can be subjected to basic mathematical operations. With multiple variables, i.e. independent and dependent variables, they can be used to run regression modeling to verify linear relationship, etc.
ORDINAL is ranking data type, i.e. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. this data is used for finding order of rank. the category of interest (rank that you desired) is called success (s). the probability of success is: P = (s = 1) / (n + 2) and the probability of failure is Q = 1 - P. The test statics may be accomplished by the DeMoivre-Laplace theorem:
Z = (s - np) / sqrt(npq)
NOMINAL data is used for identification. This type of data cannot be subjected to basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. However, it can be analyzed using discrete distribution like that used in ordinal data. (Yes | No) is an example of nominal data.
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I’m working with a panel data about Foreign Direct Investments using FDI flows as endogenous and, among others, FDI stock in the previous year as one of the explanatory variables. If we use the lagged endogenous as an explanatory variable we would have a dynamic panel data model and we should use a convenient estimator (say Arellano Bond, for example). However, in my case, I'm not using as exogenous the lagged endogenous (flow [yt-1-yt-2]), but the lagged stock of FDI (yt-1). Should this case be considered as a dynamic model too? Should it be estimated using Arellano&Bond or similar to avoid the inconsistency and Is there any specific alternative for this type of specification?
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Yes, this too is a dynamic model and applying Arellano-Bond (or the related GMM-type estimators) would be perfectly adequate.
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I am trying to examine the effect of Inflation threshold on economic growth. Where Real GDP growth rate is use as proxy for economic growth. The vector of explanatory variables includes: net Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in GDP, active population growth rate, trade openness, Growth rate of government expenditure, Human capital index and Financial Development
(broad money represented by the M3 monetary aggregate to nominal GDP). In this regard despite it is not a necessary condition; but thought fit to test for unit roots. Thus, I discovered that dependent variable is I(0) and all the independent variables are I(1). My question is; should I go head with the ARDL approach?
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Yes, you can have a mixture of I(1) and I(0) variables in the ARDL model. Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (J. App. Econometrics, 2001), who originated the ARDL technique, state this to be an advantage of the approach. Let the variables be z, partitioned into y and some x’s. Then one of many possibilities is for y to be I(0) and all the x’s to be I(1), which is the case mentioned by the question poser, Mr. Koroma. In fact, in a detailed blog entry, Dave Giles presents a 2-variable example where y might be I(0) according to the ADF test. https://davegiles.blogspot.com/2013/06/ardl-models-part-ii-bounds-tests.html
But what kind of ARDL results might one get if y is truly I(0) and all x’s are truly I(1)? My take is that the results are not likely to be very useful.
I now construct two models to illustrate some possibilities (but with no necessary economic rationale!). Let “d” be the difference operator, let “*” be the multiplication symbol, and assume a 3-variable model for simplicity. I.i.d. mean 0 errors are u and v. Variables x1 and x2 are random walks and not cointegrated. There could be relationships among the three variables that maintain the stationarity of y. Possibility 1:
y(t) = a1*dx1(t) + a2*dx2(t) + v(t).
Here, the level of y (GDP growth rate for Mr. Koroma) is related to the changes in or growth rates of x1 and x2. Is there an economic model that suggests that, say, the GDP growth rate is related to CHANGES in the growth rates of population and govt. expenditure, as apparently suggested for Mr. Koroma’s variables? If so, why not just estimate that model, where all variables are stationary? But if ARDL is applied, the corresponding ARDL equation is
dy(t) = -y(t-1) + a1*dx1(t) + a2*dx2(t) + v(t).
The ARDL t and F tests will likely both be significant because of the error correction coefficient on y(t-1); this just measures the tendency of y to return to its mean (0 here, for simplicity). The equation correctly shows no long-run relationship of y to x1 or x2 (whose coefficients on their lagged values are implicitly 0 in the equation). That is, x1 and x2 wander around as random walks, but y stays near 0. (I am assuming the model is dynamically stable.)
Now suppose x1 and x2 are cointegrated, giving possibility 2:
x1 = b*x2 + u(t). (x1 and x2 are again random walks.)
And suppose (for some strange reason) y is related to the lagged cointegration errors, u(t-1):
y(t) = a*u(t-1) + v(t) = a*x1(t-1) – a*b*x2(t-1) + v(t).
In a 3-variable version of Mr. Koroma’s case, the model says that, say, the population and government spending growth rates tend to stick together in an equilibrium (cointegration) relationship (this seems plausible), but temporary deviations from the equilibrium cause temporary fluctuations in the GDP growth rate. Is there a theory that suggests this possibility?? Anyway, now the ARDL equation is:
dy(t) = -y(t) + a*x1(t-1) – a*b*x2(t-1) + v(t).
This shows that ARDL estimation will likely give significant nonzero coefficients for lagged x1 and x2, but the coefficients do not lead to what we would call cointegration vectors (when divided by the negative of the error correction coefficient, the coefficients become cointegration coefficients in the pure (1) case). In the present model they do not represent a long-run relationship between y and the x’s in the sense meant by cointegration. Instead, each coefficient shows the response of y to the stationary cointegration errors when decomposed into separate x1 and x2 movements: e.g., x1’s coefficient is the effect on dy of changing x1 holding x2 constant, which is identically the effect of a change in u, the cointegration error.
Thus, in both my examples, the ARDL results reflect relationships among stationary fluctuations, not involving the overall movements in the righthand I(1) variables themselves.
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I need the Data for Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment for all countries during the period of 1980 to 2018.
I anyone can assist please reply
Thanks
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National Bureau of Statistics of China- Free Access
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Hi there,
My dependent variable is log(exports) and my independent variable is log(aid per capita). I have an interaction term between log(aid) and Foreign direct Investment inflows (net inflows, % GDP). I am unsure of interpretation of a marginal effects plot for a fixed effects model with FDI held at below average (-30%), average (5%) and above average (40%).
command:
xtreg lnexports c.lnaid##c.fdi gds ps lngdppercapita lnpop
I have attached the results I get.
Would I be correct in saying that a 1% increase in aid leads to a 0.12% fall in exports, holding FDI constant at 5%???
I would really appreciate any assistance. Thank you!
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I'd recommend to be aware of implying causality. Therefore, an increase in aid and fall in exports go simultaneously in your case (if I'm not wrong). In that case the preferred interpretation would be, an increase in aid of 1% corresponds to average fall in exports of. 78% while FDI holding constant.
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After submitting this paper to a journal, I have received feedback that it is not possible to make a contribution to this literature with analysis at such a macro level and I should look at firm-level data or case studies to do the analysis. This cant be correct can it?
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Its a two way process whereby on one hand you may analyze entrepreneurship at macro-level to evolve policy formation and on the other hand you may undertake evaluation of entrepreneurship at micro-level to determine its impact or feedback to the policy. This purely depends on your research question at hand and the scope of your research project.
I did some stuff looking at entrepreneurship from a macro-level ( ) and the at micro-level blended with macro-level (
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
)
You can also look at GEM model to understand the linkages between macro-level and micro-level analysis of entrepreneurship (https://www.gemconsortium.org)
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Green-field and brown-field investments are two different types of foreign direct investment. Green-field investments occur when a parent company or government begins a new venture by constructing new facilities in a country outside of where the company is headquartered. Brown-field investments occur when an entity purchases an existing facility to begin new production.
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Most of the time Greenfield works better.
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I would like to test the relationship and impact of FIIs investment of particular company on company's equity price and also want to know the impact of FIIs investment on Stock Index. Pls suggest me, what are the statistical tools  good for conduct? I am using 10 years data.
Thank you,
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You can refer the above paper too @munji shanmukharao
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Foreign Direct Investment and organized crime, corruption and soon
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Insider trading perhaps?
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Most foreign direct investment is undertaken by firms and multinational corporations, who hope to benefit from some of these advantages:
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Dear Prof. Ramrattan, Prof. Chaubey and Prof. Neubert,
Thank you for sharing your valuable opinions on this discussion!
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Looking for researches about Foreign Direct Investments in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates
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Hello Il Can collaborate. The comparison with small Islandia without natural ressources toi je attractives for FDI. Send me a mail laurence_buzenot2@yahoo.fr
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I am currently undertaking an analysis of the determinants of FDI over 19 countries over 17 years. I am doing a fixed effects model and I have conducted this research without any issue. As an extension I am also attempting to conduct a dynaimc panel analysis using GMM in stata to see the effects of lagged FDI values.
I have used the paper 'Using Arellano – Bond Dynamic Panel GMM Estimators in Stata' to coduct my analysis.
file:///H:/Downloads/Elitz-usingArellanoBondGMMEstimators%20(2).pdf
My equation is as follows
xtabond2 lnFDI L.lnFDI GDPG lnOPEN lnLAB NRATE lnEDU CTAX INFLATION lnINFRA lnINSTI lnLABINSTI EU, gmm (lnFDI GDPG, lag (2 2)) iv (lnOPEN lnLAB NRATE lnEDU CTAX INFLATION lnINFRA lnINSTI lnLABINSTI EU)
FDI- foreign direct investment
GDPG - growth in GDP
OPEN- trade openess (imports+exports)
LAB- Unit labour cost
NRATE- interest rate
EDU- education level
CTAX-corporate tax rate
INFLATION
INFRA- infrustruture
INSTI -institutional quality
LABINSTI - Labour institution quality
However, doing this a recieve a Sargan test with p-value of 0.000 and when i run with robust errors I recieve a p-value of 1.000 both of which indicate that I have overidentified my instruments. I am unsure of the cause of this and I apologise as I admit I have a low undertanding of GMM and IV regressions. I have 19 groups over 17 years and 236 observations. I also have 61 instruments.
Could someone give me some advice as to how to proceed ? I would like use the GMM model to model the effect of FDI.
Again, I apologise for my lack of knoweldge on this topic.
Thanks.
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Normaly we use it either for the GMM or IV sections in Xtabond2 according to the number of variables. For example if you have only 2 endogenous variables in GMM section, no need to use this command as it distorts the results.
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I am doing a research on the determinants of foreign direct investment in the electricity sector. As electricity sector/service industry serves the domestic market, the category of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is Marketing Seeking. The determinants of marketing seeking FDI are economic growth & its potential growth, domestic market structure and income per capita. However, I like to add infrastructure situation (road connectivity) as part of the determinant as electricity on-grid connects through road and geographical distance as another determinant which incur cost to investors, hence motive its choice of investment. Please add your comments.
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Let me give from the Indian perspective. There is a huge Demand-Supply gap, so a Sector that should attract Capital. However, the capacity to price power at cost plus is limited, and there was no stability in Government policies. Hence the FDI in the sector which came in initially got stuck and fresh funding came to a grinding halt.
Now FDI is coming only in Solar, where the producer put the power generated into the grid at predetermined prices.
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We're doing an undergrad thesis on whether or not FDIs can boost development in Asian countries. We're comparing two groups of four countries, Asian tigers(where Japan is used instead of Taiwain due to difficulty in acquiring right data for regressions later on for Taiwan) and a group of LDC/MDC which consist of Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, and Thailand. The plan is to collect data on FDI inflows and examine whether FDI can explain GDP, GDP/c, HDI, and GDP-growth. We're gonna use Solow growth model but are thinking about adding atleast another theory that considers capital inflows and growth in the aforementioned variables. Do you have any suggestions on what growth theory would be adequate for our purpose?
Thank you in advance.
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Foreign Direct Investments bring stable capital inflows, technological know-how, transfer of technology, highly-paying jobs, entrepreneurial and workplace skills, new export opportunities and a panoply of managerial skills and  innovation. This means that the aim of FDI is to generate high returns, and as such, maximize the wealth requires for a healthy business environment in the country where investment is expected.
So for your question on "FDI and Development". It's a big YES, FDI can boost development
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what are the measures of Capital Market Efficiency? and, is a relationship between Capital Market Efficiency and foreign direct investment ?
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There is really no test for market efficiency in all its forms. To know what is efficient one must know what is the true price. For this you need a model of risk return. Therefore, any test of market efficiency or of a pricing model is in fact a JOINT test and you will never know if the pricing model is wrong or the market is not efficient. Of course, for the weak from it is enough to prove that no strategy involving past price and volume history leads to a profitable strategy. This has long been established and it is thus useless to investigate again. For the semi-strong it is clear that to establish CARs you need some pricing model and thus my above comment about a JOINT test. For the strong form, well we should not even try as it is clear that insiders have information which leads to profit. If that were not true we will not have laws against insider trading and we would not see that many white collar law suits and convictions on the same. So, testing market efficiency as trying to establish a true pricing model are more of a fools errand. What counts is clearly behavior which is by far not that imposed to pricing models or even a martingale process. Since behavior was not yet convincingly introduced into the theory of finance the best we can do is to empirically try to understand it. So, yes, finding all kind of causes, effects and implications between stock markets and FDI is very possible but....it would not be related to market efficiency but rather to exploiting market inefficiencies (or things that we think are inefficiencies because we cannot explain them with our theories...)
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Dear everyone.
I am questioning myself about whether FDI in real estate influence real estate prices in 30 Chinese regions from 2000 to 2016 or not. Other variables include, food, rentals and construction material price index, wages, gdp, Foreign direct Investment in Real Estate, foreign funds in Real estate entreprise, the number of tourists, the population, the interest rate and the exchange rate RMB/USD.
Do you think I use GMM, ARDL or another model and if I should use error correction models?
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Charles, GMM mixed models are frequently used for time and regional controls in real estate models. However, given the number of autoregressive variables in your model (GDP, wages, population, etc.) you will need some sort of autoregressive control. Some GMM models do permit an AR1 control in the model (e.g. SAS). Or you could look only at the year to year delta of the macro variables and then use a mixed model GMM with region and year as random effects.
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Which is the better measure of strategic asset endowment of a country- count of total patents application filed or count of total patents granted? Studies, especially on location determinants of FDI use count of total patent applications filed. Any rationale for the choice?
Thanks
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Does anybody knows where to find bilateral foreign direct investment statistics(2014-2016)? UNCTAD and OECD provide statistics untill 2013-2014.
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You can look at the UNCTAD. Additionally, Statista has some statistics too on the topic
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How would you define "a sustainable investor"? Is there any publication which deals with this question? What makes an investor sustainable? I am curious about your feedback!
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The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C. The term was first used in 1989 by English economist John Williamson.[2]
  1. Fiscal policy discipline, with avoidance of large fiscal deficits relative to GDP;
  2. Redirection of public spending from subsidies ("especially indiscriminate subsidies") toward broad-based provision of key pro-growth, pro-poor services like primary education, primary health care and infrastructure investment;
  3. Tax reform, broadening the tax base and adopting moderate marginal tax rates;
  4. Interest rates that are market determined and positive (but moderate) in real terms;
  5. Competitive exchange rates;
  6. Trade liberalization: liberalization of imports, with particular emphasis on elimination of quantitative restrictions (licensing, etc.); any trade protection to be provided by low and relatively uniform tariffs;
  7. Liberalization of inward foreign direct investment;
  8. Privatization of state enterprises;
  9. Deregulation: abolition of regulations that impede market entry or restrict competition, except for those justified on safety, environmental and consumer protection grounds, and prudential oversight of financial institutions;
  10. Legal security for property rights.
  11. Source: Wikipedia
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All Bretton Woods institutions need a profound reform of economic thought; the prolongation of the capitalist planned economy will lead to ever greater failure of markets and the state. The attached presentation contains some important points for reforming economic policy.
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Dear RG members
China already touches peak of International trade and becoming the world largest trading country. What is the real strategy behind One belt and one Road "OBOR". What are the short and long term benefits to host economies ??
Please share your ideas and thinking.
Thank you
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Its a wonderful project! Other countries must look into it and find ways of taking viable lessons
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Now drafting a paper on the application of proportionality principle in International Investmen Arbitration, with special references to OXY v Ecuador. Research has shown until this moment, a wide acceptance on this issue. And this is my query: Isn´t there a discordant voice in mainstream academic publishing on the issue?
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Had written an article on Proportionality in context of FET four years back, attached, if it interests you. 
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Dear fellows,
I intend to find out determinants of FDI at country and sectoral level. What could be the most relevant theories of FDI. There are several theories which explain the behaviour of multinationals and FDI like Dunnings' OLI, Product Cycle Theory, Transaction Cost Theory etc.
Thank you
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Just a comment:
Theories of multinational enterprises explain only part of the determinants of FDI, mostly the push (firm-level) factors. In other words, they are usually stronger on business strategy than on host country environment. The latter if it appreas in the hteory, is usually treated from the point of view of business opportunities (e.g. John Dunning's L), less from the point if view of regulatory environment, and even less from the point of view of the value of investment promotion. I have not yet seen a study that would provide a full and systematic overview of the interaction between four most important aspects of FDI determinants (especially not combined with MNE theories): (1) Host-country framework conditions for FDI, such as rules on entry and operations, standards of treatment, stability etc. (2) Business opportunities in host countries for potential investors, depending on their motivation (natural resources, markets, skills) (the "L") (3) The general policy environment of the host country (a kind of "Doing Business" but adapted to international firms) (4) Investment promotion by both home and host countries. Let me stress again these questions are much broader than our standard question of why MNEs exist and what kind of competitive advantages or disadvantages they have. Standard theories of MNEs do not always tell us where do they invest and why there.
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I wish to determine the main sub-events on a traces. However, They are usually overlapped and some simple method like finding local maximum is easily defaulted by a small noise added on a main pulse. I think maybe I should get the envelop first and then find the main sub-events orderly. Do you have better idea about how to do it automatically and efficiently?
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You might apply some filtering (eg. Median - or low-pass) prior searching for local maximums. Depending on the amount of noise present the filter might do the trick.
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Not for all corporates, just those listed in Korea Stock Exchange.
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Try Trading Economics they might have something
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Is Initial Public offering (IPOs) are underpriced and underperformed in the long run in the developed economy like USA, UK, Japan?
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Hi Iqbal !
IPOs are underpriced to the extent of 15-16% in the US markets according to result from several studies. There are many theories explaining the reasons for IPO underpricing - the most commonly accepted ones are 1) 'information asymmetry between issuers, investment bankers & investors'  ; 2) profit opportunity for investment bankers 3) issuer reputation. The following paper links may throw more light on the reasons of IPO underpricing. Although IPO underpricing is a worldwide phenomenon, studies based on IPO underpricing are generally market specific & generalisations across countries is not easy.
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Dear all,
I am working on a paper related to Government policy changes and its impact on FDI inflows in India. When I look at inflows of FDI data after 1990, the trend is very normal from 1990 to 2005 but after that is has increased very sharp. I did not find any solid reason for this change. Is there any FDI limit change? or Other major policy change? or Any Definition change in FDI/
Please update if you know anything related to it or you can suggest some papers also so that I can find something from that. 
Thanking You,
Anurag Anand
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May be FDI limit change, but that has been continuously changing since 1991. You need to look at the sectoral changes in FDI policy. I think definition change was much later. Perhaps consolidation of reforms by then might have resulted in sharp increase in FDI.
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Any lead paper on sub-national institutional heterogeneity in India and its impact on outward FDI?
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Thanks a lot. Shall go through!
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Where can find information about Foreign Direct Investment in Agricultural sector in the World?. I need data, statistics, report about this topic to study the impacts of foreign direct investment in agricultural sector in the next years. 
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Dear Adem:
You can find some free information here:
and here:
Additionally, interesting (non-free) FDI information by sector is also available at:
Best regards...
Demian.
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I am building up the database for one of my research projects wherein I need to look at the internationalization path of the companies from the time of first foreign market entry till the current year, particularly looking at the mode of entry, time gap between subsequent entries and foreign markets covered over the period of time.
I need help on the following query-  In the year 2000, a company makes its first foreign market entry in US via setting up a Wholly owned subsidiary (WOS). This transaction of setting up WOS in US is recorded in my datasheet as the company's first venture into foreign market. Now subsequently in the year 2003, the same company wins the contract in the US market. This contract may be executed by the headquarters (or the parent company) based in India or the WOS in US.
So I want to know whether this subsequent stint in US as winning of contract should be recorded as subsequent internationalization? Would the answer be different in the following two cases-
1. The execution of contract is overseen by the parent company in home market (India in my case).
2. The contract is being executed by the WOS established in US in the year 2000.
Thanks
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Internationalization is a new dimension to manage risk.
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Today's US$ rate is 97.9 rupees, whereas it was 113 a few months ago...<br /><br />
I have found the following reasons:<br /><br />
1. the forex reserves of the country have improved from USD 7.59 billion as on February 7, 2014 to USD 9.37 billion as on March 7, 2014, Dar said. <br />
2. Sentiments have shifted due to positive IMF staff reviews, expectations of significant aid and investment inflows in 2014, and interventions by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) through the forward/swap market,” Sayem Ali said, an economist. <br />
3. The expected receipt of $550 million from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), along with the launch of Eurobonds amounting to $500 million likely next month, has also led to positivity in the foreign exchange market. <br />
4. The trade with Afghanistan will be in dollars from 17th of this month which means Pakistan will receive up to $2 billion per year through this source, Atif Ahmed said, an inter-bank dealer <br />
5. According to the State Bank of Pakistan, the country received foreign direct investment (FDI) of USD 523 million in the first seven months of 2013-14 and USD 106.9 million in January alone. <br />
6. Inter-bank dealers said the daily market turnover (selling to banks) went beyond $400 million against average earlier inflows of about $300m
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I'm investigating the determinants of foreign direct investment to least developed countries in sub-Sahara African countries and so searching for the operational definitions of the above words as considered in prior studies.
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You might be interested by this paper providing 8 governance principles for natural resource management:
Lockwood et al. 2010. Society and Natural Resources 23: 986-1001.
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I am planning to work on a paper where I would need country wise break up of Outward FDI from India. RBI has firm level data starting from 2007, whereas UNCTAD gives country wise data for 2010 to 2012 only. Is there any single source- paid or unpaid?
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You can get the data from UNCTAD STAT for  both inflow and outflow of capital relating to all countries for a lengthy period from the following website.
With Best Wishes
Dr.L.Krishna Veni
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Emerging economies have poor infrastructure and low saving rates. They need investment in physical capital to improve their performance. Foreign savings should flow into developing countries filling this gap. Private and public moneys diverge in several instruments. They vary between equity coming from firms or lending from international institutions. Could you help me to scrutinize literature on this matter?
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Dear Victor Peirone
Greetings,
Please see the attached file about your topic may be helpful for you.
Best Regards
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US Dollar
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I am trying to find out the factors influencing fdi inflows
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Dear Jyoti,
I do not know much about the Indian case, but ... what about the same procedures than for other countries?
Some recent papers that may be helpful to you
Hope to have been helpful
Fernando
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Hi there! Im struggling writing a Chapter about Chinese aid and investment in West Africa, because up-to-date information appear to be a little bit scarce. So, where I can find information about this matter? Thanks in advance.
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Kindly visit and sign in with http://china.aiddata.org/
You will get the complete aid data of China in the entire Globe (including West Africa).
Regards
Bikram
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Is it possible/reasonable to relate aggregate indicator against sectors indicator? Sectoral employment and aggregate FDI, Sectoral output and agg FDI?
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It depends on the kind of data you are dealing with. If time series are involved, than Joao Paulo's answer is correct. If you are instead dealing with cross sectional data (particularly if they refer to different countries, regions, and so on), you should be aware of possible indirect causal links. FDI, in other words, might be regarded as a proxy of the country/region attractiveness, which, in its turn, depends on a number of factors. Therefore, we should be very careful about inferences on the direct effects of FDI.
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Perhaps, one of the strongest arguments for emerging Nations to transit to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is that it will open the flood gate for inflow of Foreign Direct investments (FDI) into such countries. It would appear however that the flow of FDI to any country depends on many complex factors other than mere adoption of IFRS
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Dear Okaro,
Your question sounds like it is looking for a simple answer where IFRS has impacted FDI in a particular country but you rightly say that it is complex matter. So most of the evidence too, is complex with hardly any single country studies.
Most of the research on IFRS and FDI use large samples i.e. multi country surveys and for the flow to happen conditions are included. Examples of conditions include inflows by countries with developing, as opposed to developed, economies and countries with strong enforcement and regulatory implementation. Papers on this subject have distinguished between FDI and portfolio investments. For equity investments, an investment that carries less than 10% of the voting power in the investee is conventionally regarded as a portfolio investment, while one that gives 10% or more is regarded as FDI. The distinction between the two categories is potentially significant in assessing the effects of financial reporting. Examples of such research papers (Sorry they are not single country based) include:
1. Lawrence A. Gordon, Martin P. Loeba, and Wenjie Wu, "The impact of IFRS adoption on foreign direct investment" Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, vol 31, 2012.
sample of 124 countries-1996-2009
2. Louis, H. and Urcan, O. (2012). ‘The Effect of IFRS on Foreign Direct Investment:
Evidence from Cross-Border Acquisitions’. Paper presented at Singapore
Management University in Dec 2012.www.fox.temple.edu/cms/wp-
content/uploads/2012 –
Sample of 20 Countries
3. Gresilova, I. (2013). Chicken Or Egg? The Relationship Between IFRS Adoption And FDI. A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of MA in Financial Economics. Kyiv School of Economics.
135 countries during years 2003-2011
4. Amiram, D. (2012). ‘Financial information globalization and foreign investment
decisions’, Journal of International Accounting Research, vol 11 57-81.
Sample of 104 countries
5. Efobi,U., Iyoha, F. and Mukoro, D. (2014), IFRS Adoption and Foreign Investment in Africa: Institutions also Matter. Working paper available at SSRN.-
Sample of 42 Countries in Africa.
6. Huerta, E. and Zaidi, S. (2014). ‘IFRS Adoption and Enforcement as Antecedents of Economic Growth. ’ International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting
ISSN 2162-3082 2014, Vol. 4, No. 1 .
Sample of 172 countries
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And, on the contrary, same for the negative impact (less privatization results in less Greenfield FDI)? If possible linked to the CEEC area.
Thanks in advance, ZV
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In 2000, with Gábor Hunya we came to the same conclusion as Péter Ákos Bod: the method of privatization matters for FDI flows. We found that the relationship between the two was asymmetrical in the 1990s: privatization was an important channel for FDI at that time but FDI was not a major form of privatization. See:    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236970476_Privatization_and_FDI_in_Central_and_Eastern_Europe
Since then, large post-privatization FDI flows were observed in some of the frontrunner countries in transition. You can still ask if that would have been possible without the initial push of privatization. I would think probably not; however counter-factuals are tricky to test.
All the best
Kálmán Kalotay 
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Kindly aswer considering the Locational Choice Model
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In general, there is broad literature with theoretical and empirical insights on FDI determinants. You get a good overview in Dunning´s "Economic Analysis and Multinational Enterprise" and Caves Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis. An excellent empirical overview of FDI determinants is found in BA Blonigen (2005). P Nunnenkamp et al. (2012) have a study on what drives outward FDI from India. See links below. In general, a common econometric approach to analyse FDI determinants is to employ a logit regression model. Note that there is several different logit models and you should carefully consider which is  relevant model approach in your specific case.
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Recently, I've read about the approche of CSV which have put forward by Porter and Kramer. This is effectively different to the CSR ( Corporate Social Responsibility), because the former one could help companies find a connection between the difficulty of company and the societal problem and then create Shared Value for both stakeholders as demonstrated in the articles.
So, what do you think about applying CSV on internationalization strategy in the case of foreign direct investment (generated by the foreign comanies), notably the case of reverse investment : Outward Foreign Direct Investment from the developing economy to the developed one, with taking into account the various actors (investor, invested firm, society of host country, etc.). All illustrative cases  are appreciated!
Ps: the FDI includes generally 3 forms : the Greenfield project; the Joint-ventures (JVs) and the Mergers & Acquisitions (M&As).
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I wonder whether there are real differences between "creating shared value", the "business case for sustainability", and the "business case for CSR". Knowing that from a conceptual and even philosphical perspective corporate sustainability, CSR, and CSV are differently defined and take different starting points, the consequences from a business point of view are very similar.
CSV has gained that much interest by practitioners because of integrating business and societal success/progress, i.e. taking an integrative business case perspective - and offering a new and nice wording for it (see critique by Crane and colleagues published in California Management Review, link below).
But this integration has been highligthed by both academics and practitioners for at least two decades (see examples below) - so, what's new here? The idea of developed/developing country relationships has been discussed by Stuart Hart from a corporate sustainability perspective. Not so much from a FDI perspective - so this might be a really new field for research: CS/CSR/CSV in a FDI context.
The Business Case for Sustainability: Schaltegger, S. & Burritt, R. (2005): Corporate Sustainability, in: Folmer, H. & Tietenberg, T. (Eds.): International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 2005/2006. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 185–222.
The Business Case for CSR: Carroll, A. & Shabana, K. (2010): The business case for corporate social responsibility: a review of concepts, research and practice, International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 12, No. 1, 85–105. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00275.x/abstract)
Green and Social Business Case: Hart, S. (2011): Taking the Green Leap to the Base of the Pyramid, in: London, T. & Hart, S. L. (Eds.): Next Generation Business Strategies for the Base of the Pyramid: New Approaches for Building Mutual Value. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 79–102.
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Foreign direct investment in infrastructure projects India has been hit badly by the land acquisition delays
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No, in project of public utilities government starts work before payment of land to farmers.  Government willingness,  corruption, etc. are prime reasons for delay in infrastructure projects in India.    
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FDI statistics according to ISIC ( international standards for industrial classification) 
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Attractors are probably what comes closest to an "equilibrium" for a dynamical system. While the trajectory of the system may vary, its stability may still be captured through an attractor classification. It would be interesting to note certain attractor properties in connection to FDI, and the set of assumptions need to allow for such a scrutiny.
So far aware of one paper that uses the term "strange attractor" in connection to FDI figuratively. And not in its strictly chaos definition(s).
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Hello!
Do you have in mind the Working Paper No. 04-06,
The Chaotic Attractor of Foreign Direct Investment - Why China? A Panel Data Analysis, Frank S.T. Hsiao and Mei-chu W. Hsiao, May 2004,
am I right?
There is also a study entitled:
The CEEC as FDI Attractors - A Menace to the EU Periphery? Galego, Aurora; Vieira, Carlos; Vieira, Isabel, 2004.
and
Competitiveness Strategy in Developing Countries
A Manual for Policy Analysis, by Ganeshan Wignaraja, 2002 – 320 pages, Series: Routledge Studies in Development Economics.
In The Chaotic Attractor of Foreign Direct Investment - Why China? A Panel Data Analysis, China is considered a "strange attractor". In fact, there are two categories of "attractors": (1) major FDI destinations such as China, USA, the "big four" in the EU etc. as well as (2) FDI determinants as "attractors".
International organizations such as UNCTAD, World Bank and IMF consider
FDI attractors=variables as follows: natural resource intensity, size and growth potential of the host market, labour cost, human capital, economic stability, trade openness, income level, corporate tax rates, the quality of institutions, rate of return on FDI, "round tripping" etc.
Dynamical systems are moving from an equilibrium point to another, along with the evolution of own "attractors", new technologies, new competitors, that is why both categories of "attractors" (destinations and determinants) are changing.
Please consult also the UNCTAD statistics:
I think it is important to map out FDI flows to different major FDI hosts from a double perspective: that of competitors for FDI and that of FDI determinants and their evolution in time.
Best,
Monica
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(Focus on the Australian Agri sector) Looking for sources of empirical or secondary data or attempting to ID Chinese firms that might be willing to go on the record with views on this subject. Refer to attachment for examples of types of companies that have done deals in Australia. Obviously confidential, anonymous, ethically signed off etc. Trying to develop incremental gain in knowledge in an area of controversy in Australia.
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John,
I could not access your attachment.  Also, what ownership structures are these companies adopting in Australia and how large are they?  I have an interest in Chinese investments in global agriculture -- China is currently the largest purchaser of farm land in the world, for example, but we have little understanding of medium or long term repercussions of their management styles and investment strategies.  I have testified on my research before the US Senate on the purchase of Smithfield Foods by Shuanghui (see first link below), which may be useful for you to understand Chinese investments in US agriculture.  But, Chinese companies' behaviors have varied widely in other (especially third world) countries. A lot depends on existing regulations in these countries and other factors affecting competition and oversight.
A recent book of mine, "Subsidies to Chinese Industry: State Capitalism, Business Strategy and Trade Policy" (Oxford University Press) provides some reasons for the international expansion of Chinese State-owned Enterprises.  More information on the book is on my profile page (see second link below).
Usha 
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China's global economic activities account for 12% of global GDP, yet the Chinese currency is used only in about 2 - 3% of global trade volumes. Currently, the US dollars, Euro and Yen still dominates the international trade scenes.
-What are the implications of the "internationalization" of RMB?
-How would the US dollar and Euro be affected?
-What challenges are/will be faced by China if RMB is internationalized?
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