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Foraging - Science topic

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Publications related to Foraging (10,000)
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Article
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Colonization of terrestrial environments by filamentous fungi relies on their ability to form networks that can forage for and connect resource patches. Despite the importance of these networks, ecologists rarely consider network features as functional traits because their measurement and interpretation are conceptually and methodologically difficu...
Article
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Marine mixotrophic protists that use both heterotrophic and phototrophic metabolisms may impact the carbon cycle in unexpected ways. A recently characterized mixotroph can craft three-dimensional mucilage feeding structures that trap nutrient-rich plankton prey and contribute to the sinking of carbon from the surface ocean.
Article
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Background Agroforestry is an integrated land-use system that plays a great role in the conservation of landscape biodiversity. The study aimed to assess the composition and diversity of avian species along with different habitat types of agroforestry in Kibet Town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Four habitat types of agroforestry system which are hom...
Article
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High numbers of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) end up as bycatch in gillnets every year. Acoustic alarms (pingers) have been demonstrated to be an efficient mitigation tool to prevent bycatch of this species; however, little is known about the behavioral reactions of wild porpoises to pingers. This knowledge is important for optimizing the de...
Article
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Prey can ease the burden of exploitation by attracting a third party that interferes with their predators. Such is the case for plant-ant or aphid-ant mutualisms, where the victim supplies food to the ants, while the ants attack or drive away the offenders. Since ants are adaptive foragers, defense services can be altered by alternative food source...
Article
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Climate change and urbanization are two of the most important current global change drivers. However, most studies have focused on these issues in isolation, limiting our ability to predict the impacts of the two in tandem. During hot conditions, many birds reduce foraging activity to minimise heat gain, which can result in costly trade-offs, affec...
Thesis
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The Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus) is the largest seabird breeding in the North Atlantic Ocean. Their breeding colonies stretch across a broad geographical range, and colonies near the southern extent of their breeding range have recently exhibited poor productivity. Gannets are opportunistic, generalist foragers and consume a wide range of prey...
Article
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Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and four-channel red, green, blue, and near-infrared (RGBI) remote sensed imageries allow an accurate quantification and contiguous measurement of vegetation characteristics and forest structures. This information facilitates the generation of habitat structure variables for forest species distribution modelling....
Article
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In human-wildlife conflicts, it is crucial to develop accurate protocols for the reliable verification of the causative species and its relationship with potential damage claims. One of such conflicts is that occurring between apiarists and bee-eaters. In this work, we aim to assess the utility of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) as an efficient m...
Article
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Several populations of odontocete cetaceans, including at least 19 species, have modified their behavior and adapted to foraging in association with trawlers. We review information on odontocete interactions with different types of trawlers across 13 Food and Agriculture Organization fishing areas around the world. We also review knowledge gaps, th...
Article
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Recently, salp swarm algorithm (SSA) has emerged as a new population-based meta-heuristic technique in the area of optimization. It is mainly inspired from the navigating and foraging behaviour of salp swarms. The aforementioned algorithm weakness is stagnation in local optima and low convergence rate. To overcome these drawbacks, we proposed a new...
Article
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Climate impacts affect marine ecosystems worldwide with island nations such as New Zealand being extremely vulnerable because of their socio-economic and cultural dependence on the marine and costal environment. Cetaceans are ideal indicator species of ecosystem change and ocean health given their extended life span and cosmopolitan distribution, b...
Article
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The availability of shelter in karst areas affects the richness, abundance, and assemblage composition of bat species and may play an important role in movement dynamics, activity patterns, and foraging behavior. Our work in the midwestern region in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, showed a high richness of the bat fauna, given the a...
Chapter
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Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) are those tribal groups whose subsistence is still reliant on foraging for foodstuff and who practice primitive means of agriculture and usually have zero or negative population growth rate or declining population. Socioeconomically, PVTGs live in impoverished conditions and are also vulnerable to ill h...
Article
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Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are key structural lipids and their dietary intake is essential for brain development of virtually all vertebrates. The importance of n-3 LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in clinical and laboratory studies, but little is known about how differences in the availability of n-3 LC-PUFA in natur...
Article
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Throughout Central America, the coyote (Canis latrans) is considered an invasive mesopredator inhabiting disturbed habitats. However, current knowledge of coyote spatiotemporal behaviour is limited throughout Central America. This study aimed to report preliminary field observations of movements, habitat use, and activity patterns of a collared mal...
Article
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Despite that evolutionary and swarm intelligence algorithms have achieved considerable success on multi-objective optimization problems, they face huge challenges when dealing with many-objective optimization problems (MaOPs). There is an urgent call for effective evolutionary and swarm intelligence algorithms for MaOPs. Inspired by the satisfactor...
Article
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The experiment was conducted to investigate the potential effects associated with dietary guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation and different stocking densities on behavioral patterns and welfare indicators of broiler chickens. In total, 364 Arbor-Acres one-day-old mixed-sex broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments of 2 × 2 fac...
Article
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Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules state that endotherms should be larger and have shorter appendages in cooler climates. However, the drivers of these rules are not clear. Both rules could be explained by adaptation for improved thermoregulation, including plastic responses to temperature in early life. Non-thermal explanations are also plausible as cli...
Article
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The sustainability of life is greatly enhanced by honeybees. For sexual reproduction, as well as the development of many agricultural products, honeybees' pollination services are essential. The ability of bees to contribute to the sustainable development aim highlights the interdependence between bees, people, and the environment. In the last ten...
Article
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This paper proposes a new intelligent algorithm named improved transient search optimization algorithm (ITSOA) integrated with multiobjective optimization for determining the optimal configuration of an unbalanced distribution network. The conventional transient search optimization algorithm (TSOA) is improved with opposition learning and nonlinear...
Article
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Capsule: Compared to their rural counterparts, urban Northern Goshawks Accipiter gentilis potentially maximize their energy delivery to the nest by exploiting heavier prey species close to their maximum carrying capacity. Aims: We aimed to assess prey use of a raptor species with distinct reversed sexual size dimorphism from a perspective of physi...
Article
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1. The residence, home range, and habitat use of juvenile (42.0–63.5 cm midline curved carapace length, CCL), subadult (68.6–84.6 cm CCL), and adult (81.9–104.2 cm CCL) green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry in Ningaloo Marine Park, north-western Australia. Eighty-one turtles ranging in size from 42 to 104...
Article
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Environmental enrichment provides mental stimulation and minimizes abnormal behaviors in captive animals. In captive chimpanzees, individual animals may vary in the ways in which they benefit from enrichment or use enrichment devices, so investigating nuances in enrichment use may improve the welfare of captive chimpanzees. In the current study, th...
Article
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Anthropogenic light pollution is a novel environmental disruption that affects the movement, foraging and mating behaviour of nocturnal animals. Most of these effects are sublethal, and their net impact on reproductive fitness and population persistence is often extrapolated from behavioural data. Without dedicated tracking of wild individuals, how...
Preprint
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Context: Wildlife surveys are limited by the capacity to collect data over the spatial extent of a population, which is challenging and costly for species of large geographic distribution in remote regions. Multi-level habitat selection models can limit the surveying extent and become tools for conservation management by identifying key areas and h...
Article
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Although it is widely acknowledged that animal personality plays a key role in ecology, current debate focuses on the exact role of personality in mediating life-history trade-offs. Crucial for our understanding is the relationship between personality and resource acquisition, which is poorly understood, especially during early stages of developmen...
Article
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Nectar is a complex biochemical substance secreted with particular rhythm by flower nectaries. Nectar is the base of a mutualism in which pollinators consume nectar, as food source, and are involuntarily responsible for the transport of pollen and pollination. The dynamics and temporal patterns of nectar secretion are still not fully understood as...
Article
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We examined the abiotic factors and co-specific competition for food resources that regulate the foraging activity of Oxaea flavescens bees on Styrax camporum flowers. Foraging records were gathered during 20 min. periods at the beginning of each hour between 05:00h and 18:00h during three nonconsecutive days. Pearson correlation and linear regress...
Article
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Identifying biological processes that structure natural communities has long interested ecologists. Community structure may be determined by various processes, including differential responses of species to environmental characteristics, regional-level spatial influences such as dispersal, or stochasticity generated from ecological drift. Few studi...
Article
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Amphibians and reptiles use caves in different lithologies and biomes. However, the ecological reasons for such behavior have so far not been investigated in a broad scale. We surveyed 945 Brazilian caves in three biomes (Caatinga, Cerrado, and the Amazon), from which 269 had frogs and reptiles. We classified species of amphibians (34) and reptiles...
Article
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Species are often exposed to novel thermal regimes as a result of anthropogenic activities. Understanding the extent to which populations are locally adapted to the thermal regime may allow us to better predict the response of organisms to novel thermal conditions. We collected virile crayfish, Faxonius virilis, from eight populations along a latit...
Article
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Due to the rising cost of fuel, increased demand for energy, and the stresses of environmental issues, dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED), which is the most precise mode for actual dispatching conditions, has been a significant study topic in current years. In this article, the higher dimensional, deeply correlated, non-convex, and non-linea...
Preprint
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Forests are increasingly becoming fragmented and declining due to natural causes and human-induced activities. The latter creates an imbalance which put the survival of vulnerable species such as those of avifauna at risk. Honeyeaters are group of birds common in Fiji, with certain species strictly confined to specific habitats. This study is an at...
Preprint
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Balancing multiple competing and conflicting objectives is an essential task for any artificial intelligence tasked with satisfying human values or preferences. Conflict arises both from misalignment between individuals with competing values, but also between conflicting value systems held by a single human. Starting with principle of loss-aversion...
Article
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Ants use chemical, visual, magnetic and/or solar cues during foraging activity. Orientation is important, since foragers need to return to the nest. In this study, we analyze the maze performance of the Dinoponera quadriceps using chemical and visual cues to study spatial orientation. We used a white maze with seventeen chambers and we allowed the...
Article
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Ibises (order: Pelecaniformes, family: Threskiornithidae) are probe‐foraging birds that use ‘remote‐touch’ to locate prey items hidden in opaque substrates. This sensory capability allows them to locate their prey using high‐frequency vibrations in the substrate in the absence of other sensory cues. Remote‐touch is facilitated by a specialised bill...
Conference Paper
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Information is found in various forms like Misinformation, Disinformation, Impartial Information, legit and complete information. Content is a derived form of the information created by the content writer for conveying the information. Considering the growing volume of content, it is a tough task to decide on useful and irrelevant content. To deal...
Article
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Phenological diversity in food resources prolongs foraging opportunities for consumers and buffers them against environmental disturbances. Such diversity is particularly important in forage fish such as Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), which are foundational to coastal food webs and fisheries. While the importance of phenological diversity is we...
Article
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Migratory birds need to stop along their route to rest and feed at so called stopover sites. “Bolle di Magadino” is a protected wetland located near lake Maggiore (CH), an internationally recognized nesting and stop-over site for birds. The waters of Lake Maggiore are important resources for multiple usages, and are artificially regulated through a...
Article
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Pulsed signal trains comprising clicks, buzzes, and burst-pulses play important roles in the life activities of odontocetes, but they have not been distinguished in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Underwater vocalizations of this species were recorded from 27 September to 2 October 2019 in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Pulsed signal trains were...
Article
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Species occurring in sympatry and relying on similar and limited resources may partition resource use to avoid overlap and interspecific competition. Aotearoa, New Zealand hosts an extraor- dinarily rich marine megafauna, including 50% of the world’s cetacean species. In this study, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as ecological tracers...
Article
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Environmental variability poses a range of challenges to foraging animals trying to meet their energetic needs. Where food patches are unpredictable but shareable, animals can use social information to locate patches more efficiently or reliably. However, resource unpredictability can be heterogeneous and complex. The behavioural strategies animals...
Article
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It is increasingly recognised that intraspecific variation in traits, such as morphology, behaviour, or diet is both ubiquitous and ecologically important. While many species of predators and herbivores are known to display high levels of between-individual diet variation, there is a lack of studies on pollinators. It is important to fill in this g...
Article
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In recent decades, the amount of marine debris has increased in our oceans. As wildlife interactions with debris increase, so does the number of entangled animals, impairing normal behavior and potentially affecting the survival of these individuals. The current study summarizes data on two phocid species, harbor (Phoca vitulina) and gray seals (Ha...
Conference Paper
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Molluscs are capable of foraging on a variety of food sources, which is, in most taxa, enabled by the radula, one important autapomorphy of this phylum. The radula can consist of a thin, chitinous membrane with rows of embedded teeth, which vary in shape, mechanical, and chemical properties between taxa. Since the teeth serve as actual interfaces b...
Article
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Many animals have flexible morphological traits that allow them to succeed in differing circumstances with differing diets available to them. For brachyuran crabs, claw height and gut size are diet-specific and largely reflect foraging strategies, while abdomen width reflects relative levels of fecundity. However, the link between claw size and die...
Article
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The interaction between infant feeding and maternal lactational physiology influences female inter-birth intervals and mediates maternal reproductive trade-offs. We investigated variation in feeding development in 72 immature wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and made inferences about matern...
Article
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Root branching and mycorrhizal symbioses are two major mechanisms for soil resource acquisition by trees. Understanding the relationship between these two mechanisms and their responses to varied environmental conditions is crucial for predicting the responses of foraging strategies of roots to environmental changes. This study was conducted in 11...
Article
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Forest soils are shaped by various processes, like runoff, erosion, sedimentation and bioturbation. A better understanding of the interactions between abiotic and biotic soil-forming processes, including wild boar (Sus scrofa) rooting (i.e., subsurface foraging), enhances adequate management of forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that intense soil s...
Article
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Context: Collisions between birds and aircraft (bird strikes) are a serious threat to aviation safety and these negative human–wildlife interactions are predicted to increase. As the wider spatial use of landscapes by birds can affect aviation safety (e.g. location of foraging and roosting sites), there is a clear need to implement effective manage...
Article
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Root foraging enables plants to obtain more soil nutrients in a constantly changing nutrient environment. Little is known about the adaptation mechanism of adventitious roots of plants dominated by asexual reproduction (such as tea plants) to soil potassium heterogeneity. We investigated root foraging strategies for K by two tea plants (low-K toler...
Article
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In this study, to improve the algorithmic performance of standard grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) that mimics the foraging characterizations of grasshoppers as in swarms, four modified versions of which are proposed to solve large-scale real-size complex both truss and frame type steel structures. All proposed GOA encoded are supplied reci...
Article
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The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor CHD1 (chromodomain-helicase-DNA binding protein 1) is involved in both the de novo assembly and the remodeling of chromatin. Recently, we discovered a crucial role of CHD1 in the incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 in the fly brain illustrated by widespread transcriptional upregulation and shorten...
Article
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Habitat loss due to increasing anthropogenic disturbance is the major driver for bird population declines across the globe. Within the Eastern Ghats of India, shrubland bird communities are threatened by shrinking of suitable habitats due to increased anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. The development of an effective habitat management s...
Article
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Pollination services are a frequently overlooked component of urban ecosystems. As cities look to become more sustainable and incorporate more urban green spaces, these pollinator services are coming to the forefront, and educating the public about the habitat and foraging needs of urban pollinators is becoming more important. Increasingly popular...
Article
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Play behavior is a significant trait of immature nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) that plays an important role in sensory, locomotor, socio-cognitive, and developmental processes. It has been suggested that the function of play is to practice and improve motor skills related to foraging, avoiding predators, attracting mates, raising offspring...
Article
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Mammalian carnivores with generalist feeding behaviour should trace and exploit new and predictable food resources quicker and more easily than more specialised species. On the other hand, if the new food resource is spatially and temporally predictable, interference or exploitation competition should arise among members of the carnivore guild, wit...
Article
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Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are currently expanding across the global ocean due to climate change, leading to a compression of usable habitat for several marine species. Mercury stable isotope compositions provide a spatially and temporally integrated view of marine predator foraging habitat and its variability with environmental conditions. Here,...
Article
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Animals often halt foraging in the presence of predator cues, an ecological phenomenon known as the foraging/predator avoidance tradeoff. Although some have proposed that anxiety may exist in animals exposed to predator cues, few studies have examined whether such interactions lead to anxiety-like behavior in animals other than laboratory rodents a...