Forage - Science topic
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Questions related to Forage
If we create an artificial environment to an animal, so that the feeds/grasses/silage/forage, concentrate, and water whatever we provide are totally parasites and their eggs or larvae free, then does the animal become endoparasite free forever in its life ? What will happen if it is kept in one experimental group, another animal in natural grazing condition and other one in stall fed condition?
In process of Forage Evaluation, we have to keep in mind percentage of bound protein and available crude protein (ACP). Because they allow us to know the quality of forage. The steps used to calculate the percentage of bound protein and available crude protein (ACP) are: 1. Find the percentage of the crude protein that is bound. Bound protein may be expressed as ADF-CP or Insoluble CP. Example: Crude Protein = 17.68% ADF-CP = 2.36% % bound = 2.36 ÷ 17.68 = 13.35% Because this value exceeds 12 percent, it indicates heating has occurred in the forage and available protein should be calculated and used. 2. Calculate percentage of ACP. Example: % ACP = [CP% x (100 – (% bound – 12%))] ÷ 100 % ACP = [17.68 x (100 – (13.35 - 12))] ÷ 100 = 17.44 Note: The ACP value in this case is lower than crude protein, 17.68, because the bound protein value is greater than 12 percent. If the forage analysis reports the bound protein as bound nitrogen (ADIN), the bound crude protein can be determined by multiplying by 6.25. Example: ADIN = 0.29% (dry basis) Bound crude protein is: 0.29 x 6.25 = 1.81% Some laboratories report percent ACP as crude protein minus bound protein. Technically, this is incorrect because it does not account for the normal amount of bound protein in the forage. #
Is there an official website or database where I can search the information about forage quality standard? Thank you for your help.
I am looking for some descrptions about the silica or SiO2 effects on ruminants through physiological mechanisms or its effect on Digestibilty DM . I think a lot about this .... is possible that SiO2 content in grasses with elevated level of FDN or ligninna will produce more rumia? and mastication ? I estimate SiO2 in forages by the content of unsoluble ash in ClH and I sow a lot of cattle with more rumia when feeds with rice straw or rice husks.
I read something about the effect of silica on the colonization of rice straw but I coudnt find more information aboutn this topic.
Thanks in advance if somebody helps me . I really apreciated it.
I am comparing the activity patterns of zebra and wildebeest in order to see which animal is more active, and which forages for longer over a 24-hour cycle using camera trap images. Since the population sizes differ vastly, comparing counts won't help, and I'm concerned about compounding errors associated with standardising the sample sizes. Another option I considered was comparing the proportion of images collected in which foraging behaviour was observed, with the proportion of images in which all activities other than foraging were observed. I am worried however, that given foraging is typically a "slow" behaviour relative to running and walking for instance, and the speed of these activities differ interspecifically, that it would be underrepresented and wouldn't allow for interspecific comparisons to be made.
Thank you so much,
We have a variety of Africa browse species for which we have forage nutrition data (NDF, ADF, mADF, ADL, CP, OM, ash). Boscia, Acacia, and Terminalia are just some of the species we've sampled.
We wish to estimate the energy and or digestibility of those samples, based on our nutritional data. Plenty of equations exist out there, however, such equations (e.g. Givens) are generally derived from grasses and not necessarily applicable to browse species.
If anyone knows of any browse specific equations or have any advice or ideas, it would be greatly appreciated.
I am gonna to apply these strains as 106 cfu/g FM. I will have to apply them in 5 kg fresh forage for each in alone and mixed (1:1).
lets suppose strain first is LAB1 and second is LAB2
Help me to get the exact ml solution respectively. Thank you
Why a consistent estimate of iNDF is important if defining forage quality and in modeling animal responses (ie voluntary feed intake) to forage digestibility?
I have at my disposal some production data (t dry matter ha-1) of wheat and alfalfa-crops under Mediterranean conditions.
I would like to estimate the energy output of the two crops but in the literature, I can only find data a little too dispersed in terms of MJ kg DM-1. I am just interested in the energetic output, I do not really care about the energetic input. While for the alfalfa the estimate includes the entire above-ground production, for the wheat I have both straw and grain data available.
Does anybody have suggestions on where to look? Meta-analysis or similar are more than welcome.
Moreover, I don't know if has anyone is familiar with "Feedpedia" which appears to be an INRA-led online project. https://www.feedipedia.org/
Thank you all
I'm wondering how the environmental conditions (parameters) affect the foraging activity and amount of foraged resources collected by the honeybees. It is know that bees are not flying while it is raining outside. But are there information about for example wind effect on foraging. It should be that strong wind limits the foraging activity. Maybe high ambient temperatures also has effect on activity. What about humidity and solar radiation? Does someone made experiments and investigated the climatic factors relation to the bee foraging activity?
We are doing a global review on traditional forage and fodder indicators used by pastoralists (herders, shepherds, farmers who their livelihood is basically dependent on livestock grazing on rangelands and grasslands, agro-pastoralists etc.). We have already read good papers but very few numbers. If you have any suggestion or recommendation regarding goods paper with this topic, we would be happy to consider that in our database.
I am visualising videos from our great tit-nestboxes (nests were recorded when the chicks were 9-10 days old, hatching date = 1) and I figured out that, sometimes, one of the parents remained inside the nestbox and foraged the chicks, while the other one brought the prey items to the nest (without accessing the nestbox). Due to a ringed bird in a couple, I could confirm that the bird inside the nestbox was the female (as expected). However, I need stronger evidence about it at this stage: does anyone have any paper to suggest about this specific behaviour when chicks are 9-10 days old? Something proved by using PIT tags and cameras, for example?
Thanks a lot in advance!
Can I determine the ADIN content by using the residues remaining in F57 bags after the NDF analysis in ANKOM instrument?
I am working on determining the starch, glucose, fructose and sucrose level in drought stress leaves of a forage grass for that I need the Papers in which the easy methods or assays are described about the above mentioned parameters. Thanks
We are using Giving Up Densities to determine the perceived risk in voles.
This is a forced choice setting, with 3 different foraging patches, each with their own risk level.
Some individuals started to forage in the "dangerous" patches and store it in the "safe" patches, bringing them above their initial food levels.
How do I account for this in the statistics?
We are going to report proportions (food remaining/food initially), so that values should range between 0 and 1, however the latest individual stored so much food that it pushes the value to 1.2.
My idea was to either force a cut-off at 1, or to subtract the additional food, i.e. turn the 1.2 into 0.8.
Neither option seems perfect.
Thanks in advance!
Authors show that pasture can have the same yield and efficiency of use under continuous or rotational stocking (G. Lemaire and M. Agnusdei: Leaf Tissue Turnover and Ef fi ciency of Herbage Utilization), but from what I understand this occurs since the stocking rate is high enough that the animal consumption is in balance with the rate of forage accumulation, otherwise there will be undergrazing, in which case the continuous grazing with low stocking is undesirable because it will cause sites of low forage utilization and as a consequence high senescence leading to reduction in forage utilization. With rotational grazing we have greater control over the uniformity of grazing. Is my understanding correct? Thank you.
Moringa is widespread locally and is currently considered a rich protein forage source for ruminants .
I am using a metabolic energy equation to determine daily matter intake in cattle and goats. Part of the equation is to work out the digestible energy content of forage in the savanna ecosystem that is consumed by cattle and goats. Also, could it be the same as total digestible nutrients (TDN)?
I need to know to estimate the water used in milk production in Israel. I'm just interested in the water of that part of the feed for dairy cows, that was produced domestically.
This sentence is unclear. (In general, aphids do not forage actively for a host plant, but respond to VOCs of the host)
I want to quantitatively measure floral resources within a circular buffer of 500 m in a heterogeneous landscape, so that the food resources can be compared among different landscapes. We have several years of field inspections and now know all potential flowering plants that the bee forages. We only want to sample the food resources, but not all flowering plants. It seems that the flowering plants are randomly and patchily distributed, most in field margins, or remnant green areas in the landscapes. We expect using abundance of plant in quadrat, transect (?) as a measure of floral resources. Is quadrat or transect OK for sampling those flowering plants? Any other sampling methods or suggestions? Where and how should we place those sampling units in the circle of 500 m, so that the data could be compared ?
Which one is better as forage ? brown midrib, green midrib or white midrib sorghum type ? Thanks, Teguh
Why forage fish species not increase their body size?
Due to the scarcity of water and lack of pastures in our country, so we used to feed the sheep an imported pelleted feed components (fine milled grains with some ground forage and non-forage fiber sources ). After a certain period of such feeding regime, we found out that the rumen of these animals has been morphologically modified in a strange manner (the rumen wall became very thin, the rumen papillae became very long and the coating layer of epithelial tissue became black in color. Although, the performance and health of the animals are not impaired.
What are the reason of these modifications and how could we ameliorate such changes? Although, rumen pH is not that bad (over 5.5 most of the time).
But we notice that rumination is disappeared.
I need some seed of forage amaranthus for my drought research.
but I can`t find seed anywhere.
could you please help me?
I have been getting problems following dry matter determination for grass samples as I obtained more than 95% DM content in fresh grass, which is very odd. The practice is to dry the sample before grinding and only then the dried sample is send for proximate analyses.
Based on FAO - Quality Assurance for Feed Analysis Laboratories (2011), samples need to be ground, but it does not mention whether we have to dry the moisture out first or not in case of wet samples.
Furthermore, dry matter test for silage is suggested to be done at 60 celcius for 24 hours.
I would like to know is this applicable to fresh grass (moisture more than 15%)? And if it's partially dried (DM >85%), do I need to dry it again before grinding? In addition to that, should I continue to dry wet samples first before proceeding to the DM test?
Anyone with experience in testing dry matter in grasses/forages/fodder, please help. Thank you very much.
I want to learn to your opinions about the possibilities of using microbial hay preservatives for conservation of forages.
We set up a pot experiment using soil from the field (location: experimental station, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany) to test the growth of Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) and Black medic (Medicago lupulina). After plant emergence the pictured larva was found in a few pots where it devoured most of the young plants. Does anyone know this species? The larva appeared to have hidden in the soil. Many thanks, Thomas
Hi All, I’m looking for an appropriate nitrogen to crude protein conversion factor for stems. Is anyone aware of research that has specifically determined this conversion factor for woody forage? I have seen studies similar to my research that have used the standard 6.25 conversion, but I was wondering if there was a determined value that was more specific to this vegetation type? I’ve come across conversions for grass, grains, fruits and leaves but nothing concerning stems. Any information would be greatly appreciated!
Commonly, those plants species whose leaves and soft shoots foraged by herbivore are called as browse species. But where do sedge and other annual herbs placed? Are they browse or graze species?
i wish to validate the CROPGRO-cowpea model using forage cowpea since i have collected yield and yield attributes data.
I am working on the alternative feed ingredients specifically forages. Can I get current protocols for the determination of the anti-nutrient factors?
I want to learn the effecs of the silage and hay on ruminal methane production. Furthermore, I want to learn the effects of these two forage sources on rumen parameters.
I am looking for a published data regarding the use of Corainder seeds in ruminant feed. Please share if someone has. Thanks.
I would like to identify/detect what organic substrates (e.g. leaf litter remnants, frass, death canopy foragers, dissolved OC, etc.) are being used by soil microorganisms in the process of soil heterotrophic respiration by comparing the isotopic signature of the soil gas flux (i.e. collected in a soil flux chamber) and that of a potential substrate candidate. Is this possible at all? Does this make sense at all? Are the isotopic signatures between substrates different enough to make this possible?
Thank you very much in advance for your replies!!
Because treated bio-solid amount appear to be a big problem, what is its effect on forages and fodder shrubs yield and on livestock (sheep and goat). Is their any references? Thanks.
Especially about the parameters that measure it is more desirable.
Does anyone have any reliable information available for feed performance, etc. between winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and soybeans in pigs, especially within a tropical setting? I am also looking for detailed nutritional information about winged beans, such as is available in this link for soybeans (tab: "nutritional tables"): http://feedipedia.org/node/42. Thanks in advance for your feedback!
Forage sorghum, silage corn and sorghum Sudan grass hybrids ?
Please comment and provide examples of how hunter gatherers feel, relate and think about the relationships they have with the animal world. Both to animals that they slay for meat and those that they identify in a metaphoric way and think about religiously and in a ritual or ceremonial capacity. Are there patterns and consistent themes cross-culturally with respect to these behaviors and cognitive dimensions.
I am planning to conduct an experiment on broiler chicken with organic acids first time. I do not know dose and method of application of organic acids. So, can any body help me in this regards ?
Is maize plant hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. If yes than those plants that grown in metal contaminated soils should be used as a forage ?
I need to see the carbon sink capability of pasture forages at different grazing management system. So, can any one has a clue how can I come up with the best analysis method at lab scale or calculate from other parameters?
Could be a problem its low dry matter content (less than 20%)?
I would like to have your opinion concerning "Forage Production" as an Ecosystem Services as defined by Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
I would define it as a supporting service since the Millennium define Ecosystem Services as "Benefits that Humans receive from the ecosystems". On the other hand, some authors includes forage among provisioning services.
Please, have a look to the attached picture from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment document and tell me your opinion.
Looking for nutritional values of foods eaten by wild pheasants
It may be very variable in natural or semi-natural habitat, but what about intensively managed agricultural landscape? For example, in northern Germany there is almost nothing else than oilseed rape in some areas. Would honeybees (try to) maintain an almost variate pollen diet or would they increase the proportion of OSR pollen? What about the relation quality/quantity? Thank you.
Some of my peers and I are conducting a study of the preference (or lack thereof) of experimental animals for feeding on larger or smaller food items in what is intended to be a test of Optimal Foraging Theory. As far as I know it has never been done with this species. We've whittled down our sample size to animals that are willing to eat our food items of choice (n=12), and we plan on doing 3 different variations of the experiment. Is this potentially publishable, or is the experiment too simplistic? Does anyone have any tips on how to make it more likely to be publishable?
In metabolic experiment for comparing the nutrient utilization and CH4 emission with different ratio of Gramineae and Leguminosa, whether it is necessary to add concentrated food and microelement for ensuring the same energy, protein and microelement supply in different treatments.
It is an ornamental, medicinal and forage plant.
I think this is an interesting finding. How can I explain it?
Many inoculates have been introduced to enhance silage quality. They are different in species and genera. Which lactic acid bacteria inoculates really work in Iran?
In order to estimate metabolisable energy (ME) requirements of lactating buffaloes, three isonitrogenous rations needs to be formulated, each one with 15% variation in ME. We have two concentrate mixtures with 20% CP, and 2.5 and 2.8 Mcal/kg of ME. Is it mandatory to maintain constant forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio in such studies within the same group, as it was observed difficult to meet desired individual animal requirements without altering F:C ratio.
When working with a dairy cow that is either approaching or at peak lactation, what other feeds should be incorporated into a total mixed ration to meet her energy needs? Also, what could be limiting her highest production level?
I working on the Investigation on the relationship among biological crusts, soil properties and forage quality of some plant species, and i want to know if we can cooperation in this field?
Eg: Linear regression etc.
I need to write a proposal on screening of S. lespedeza cultivars in Botswana. lespedeza is a forage legume mostly used by ruminants. It is known to contain anti-helmints qualities. So, before we use it with ruminants we would like to subject it to agronomic attributes here in Botswana. What would then follow would be the utilisation of this forage?
My interest is about tropical grasses, but there are few articles with this subject
We are trying to ensile square bales of legume hay for an animal feeding trial.
Can somebody tell me the characteristics of Jancao a forage crop that has its origins in China ?It is grass pasture that can be reproduced from cuttings and suckers.
Does anybody know of a good recipe for creating a neutral detergent solution for NDF analysis via reflux digestion (as by Van Soest).
I am using an individual based stochastic model to explore the impact of environmental changes on speciation. In this model individuals forage in two different habitats with a probability determined by the profitability of the habitat. Apart from the ecological and mating loci, I have a certain number of non-coding neutral loci that are used to follow genetic signatures of evolutionary divergence. The neutral loci act like microsatellites, with high maturation rates. My question is how to calculate Fst in Matlab? Are there any softwares that can be used in Matlab not in R?
Looking to build a policy case for local foraging in food-disenfranchised communities.
Related articles with implications for this question would be appreciated as well.
Looking to build a policy case for local foraging in food-disenfranchised communities.
I have seen Rickman et al. 2007 as well as Johnson et al. 1985, and I'm chasing down references within those. But other threads from other academic arenas would be greatly appreciated.
How can I calculate the metabolizable energy with the gross energy, the dry matter, the organic matter, the crude protein, the non-nitrogenous materials, the total ash, fat, ADF and NDF and their digestibility?
I am looking for potential research partners for establishing insect mass rearing(s) in order to produce food and feed.
Some relevant information:
I need a rapid method to determine cyanogenic compounds in methanol extract or dry matter in pods of Acacia farnesiana.
I need to lyophilize forage samples to analyze the profile of fatty acids, how long is the process? Is there an article listing the amount of time required to lyophilize with the type of sample? Does it depend on the equipment? Our arrives at approximately -50°C and to 40uHg.