Questions related to Food Science and Technology
I tried to work with 1-octanol in order to avoid bubble formation during the whole digestion process. However, it did not work since during digestion with sodium hydroxide there was a huge bubble formation and the food sample gets trapped in the upper walls of Erlenmeyer flask. What antifoaming agent do you recommend?
Thank you very much in advance.
I am trying to design an agricultural and horticultural calendar for Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts of Assam, India. What are the steps that I should begin with?
Other people in my lab have used NormFinder but I'm trying to find other options which are user friendly as well
Dear Sir/Madam, My name is Salsa Meidika from Food Science and Technology Sebelas Maret University Indonesia. I am writting a paper about application clove oil in edible coating. But I still confuse which it better to make edible coating from guar gum or alginate-chitosan? I would like to thank you in advance. Yours sincerely, Salsa Meidika
If I were to receive an import of a new fruit species in the country and, upon arrival, the whole lot was diseased, what steps do I take to diagnose and solve the problem? Is there a general procedure or scheme followed for post-harvest management to identify the cause of the unknown disease?
I'll be conducting my thesis in Japan soon and I want to know what is the best method to personally bring viable microorganisms (specifically Lactobacillus spp.) in-flight.
Milk-loving people, let’s discuss this video! I'm for sustainable agriculture and I agree that Remilk is revolutionary but there were points in this video that got me thinking:
1. “Milk is not healthy” is a broad presumption. Sure, there have been researches that were for and against consuming milk. But I consider milk as a healthy food since it contains proper amounts of dietary fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals needed by the body. It is a reason why dietary guidelines (such as issued by the United States Department of Agriculture) recommends consuming three daily servings of low-fat/non-fat milk, yogurt, or cheese.
2. Alright, milk may be bad for consumers who can’t tolerate lactose. But how about in fermented milk products? During fermentation, microorganisms utilize lactose and produce lactic acid. I can think a lot about how lactic acid production is important in fermented milk products.
3. Milk has cholesterol but a cup of whole milk only contains 0.01% of cholesterol. How much more in low-fat or non-fat milk? Also, milk consumption increases HDL (high-density lipoproteins) cholesterol which transports excess cholesterol from the bloodstream to the liver for bile production. Bile serves as an emulsifier in the digestion of dietary lipids.
4. Indeed, milk is predominantly comprised of saturated fats. However, these saturated fats can be converted to unsaturated fats by microorganisms (e.g. lactic acid bacteria) during fermentation.
5. I can agree that milk is not entirely sustainable in the sense that the dairy industry greatly contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to other agricultural practices. But we can’t ignore that there has been a significant reduction in GHG emissions throughout the years primarily by changes in breeding, nutrition, and management practices.
6. I honestly don’t know what to feel about animal abuse in the dairy industry. Does continually breeding dairy animals and leaving them in a lifelong cycle of reproduction and lactation might be considered animal abuse? (In my mind, it's a sad yes.)
7. Let’s say that the microbes have the same machinery as the cow’s mammary epithelial cells in producing milk, is it certain that they will have the same physicochemical composition, property, and functionality?
8. What are the external nutrient sources of the microbes? Is it the same nutrients found in the cow’s blood?
9. It is contradicting that they want to produce milk from microbes with the same chemical composition as cow’s milk but with no lactose?
This video discussed valid points that can be considered problems in the dairy industry. As long as this microbially-produced milk does not sacrifice the wonders of milk; Remilk, why not?
Deepwater rice cultivars found in various regions around the world have their own differences. Please mention how the deepwater rice cultivars of North-Eastern India varies from that of Southeast Asian Countries. Also, suggest any references.
I am looking for literature on stock cubes/bouillons' industrial methods of production especially in regards to stability and overall quality.
When i start doing literature i observed that most of the authors used pre-trained CNN models for the identification and classification of plant leaf diseases. Why none of the authors concentrated to designed customised CNN model for this problem? is there any particular reason?
How much raw materials are required for producing 1 kg of final products for each of the following?
1. Orange jam 2. Orange Jelly 3. Orange Marmalade 4. Tomato sauce 5. green Chilli Sauce 6. Tomato puree 7. Ginger paste 8. Canned pineapple
In the protocol for the extraction of anthocyanins from plant material, the first step is the sample preparation. The sample is prepared by converting the plant material into a powdered form after mixing it with liquid nitrogen. Is it necessary to mix the plant material with liquid nitrogen or can we proceed without liquid nitrogen to convert plant material into powdered form?
FTIR technology is considered the most advance for the detection of adulterants in milk. Is there any mathematical relation that can describe the relationship between the amount of adulterants in milk using the absorbance from the FTIR? Please suggest any research articles that describe this or related areas.
I want a sample preparation method for lowry & biuret method for protein quantification from curd, cheese, paneer that I prepared from ground nut milk. Kjeldahl apparatus is not present in working conditions, so is it possible to quantify protein content by biuret/folin-lowry method?
Pineapple juice contains not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, etc.. I wonder if by determining the degrees Brix of a sample of pineapple juice, i will obtain only the sucrose content of the sample, or if i will obtain the content of all the mono and disacharides of the sample.
Thanks in advance for your answers
I am working on lecithin and want to convert it into solid powder by spray drying but problem is that lecithin is sticky in nature. When I am performing spray drying particle get stuck on the wall of spray dryer. I want lecithin material in powder form so I can store it for long time without affecting the particle size and powder can be easily suspended in water. So can anyone tell me what material can be added to lecithin to convert these sticky material to nonstick powder form.
At both very high and very low water activities, lipid oxidation rates are high compared to the rate at intermediate water activities. What can explain this trend?
I would like inquire on the process of extraction of protein contents from the green pea by means of decantation. What I know is that a decantation is a separation process in which leaching and washing occurs with end result being protein isolate. It takes in milled pea powder, mixes it with water to form a solution, and then processes it to get separate nutrients. Specifically, I would like to inquire about which chemicals and the amount of those chemicals added in this pea solution that can effectively extract the protein content from a pea in the decanter.
Can someone tell me how to increase the shelf life of pickles to 6 months to 1 year..?
Below are details
- Should not have artificial preservatives
- Packaging should be glass bottles
- Quality of the product should not deteriorate (Taste and authenticity should remain same)
- Cannot use Retort because it is deteriorating the taste of the product.
Does it have something to do with its ketone group or a different property? Please explain.
We are analysing the traditional ways of cheese-pressing in the Basque Country. There are many materials about cheese and cheese-making, but, unfortunately, we have not found anything about pressing processes. It would be very interesting for us to know more about pressing strategies around the world.
Once I found out that nitrogen gas removed my anthocyanin more than its solvent (ethanol)
I am looking for an efficient way to dry rice seed after surface disinfection and inoculation with fungal spores. Literatures mentioned that they did air dry, but this did not seem to be insufficient to me. it might take hours to dry 3 ml of suspension that i am going to use. The limitations are the samples should not be exposed to high temperature which might inactivate fungal spores and blowers that would cause spreading of fungal spores after drying. Does anyone have a good idea?
As you know, in Malaysia we do have a lot of honey from Bee and Trigona Bee (Kelulut). So, in what aspect, it will determine that the honey contain is 100% pure without any substance in it?
Any analytical instrument that I can use to determine it such as HPLC, TGA, GC-MS, FID, Zetasizer, AAS, UVVIS, etc?
Some say in order to determine the real "honey", you need to bring it to your home and see your wife reaction.
The material (besides clay) needs to be non-reactive/stable, and preferably synthetic. Thank you very much in advance! Your suggestion is very much appreciated!
Dear colleagues, could you please help me with some references toward the the literature related to alternative food systems. In particular I am interested into the information systems used/designed/developed for the alt food sys and their participants information behaviour. Also non academic links to related content is welcome.
I have been freeze-drying Vancomycin for some studies. But since the last three batches, the number of vials breaking during lyophilization are too much!
I haven't changed the material vendor, nor the cycle parameters. Even the lyophilizer is the same. Can anyone please help me out?
I'm performing TBA assay to measure the degree of lipid oxidation of raw pork, using the steam distillation method with Kjeldahl distiller.
I collected 50 ml of distillate, and it didn't react with my TBA solution so didn't develop the reddish-pink color which can be absorbed at 530 nm.
The distillate should contain some amount of malondialdehyde, but I think my distillate contains only pure water without malondialdehyde.
If the heating temperature is high, distillate is collected very quickly, but it seems to contain only water. So I tried to decrease the heating temperature, then the distillate was just not collected at all.
Please help me, find anything wrong in my procedure...Here's my procedure.
10 g of pork + 97.5ml DW + 2.5ml 4N HCl ==> Blending, homogenizing
Put it into Kjeldahl flask+distiller
The collected distillate is reacted with 0.02 M TBA reagent dissolved in 90% acetic acid in 100'C for 40 min
The absorbance is measured at 530 nm
Cheese making is similar in most of the places of the world. Indeed, it is an acidification process of the milk. However, depending on the cheese variety or geographic location some small (and not small) differences appear in the manufacturing. We are interested in the pressing processes used in the manufacturing of the different varieties of cheese. Which are the usual pressures used to get out the whey from the curd before the curing?
The Haloumi is the traditional Cyprus cheese made from the cow or sheep milk. What is the normal average yield of halloumi cheese?
Will it be possible to slightly improve the yield by addition of calcium chloride in the pasteurized cow milk? How much yield improvement can be achieved if so?
I tried to determine the protein concentration of protein isolates at 280nm but i was not getting any reasonable results despite the various dilutions. Is there any other method or procedures i can use without using any reagent? Thank you.
Recently, the isolation of protein from protein-rich plants using various isolation methods has increased tremendously to meet the protein requirement of people, enhance the utilization of such plants and sometimes as functional food ingredients.
However, the protein contents of protein isolates obtained via various methods such as micellization and isoelectric precipitation from the same sample are expected to be closed with micellized protein isolate probably having the highest protein content. What could then possibly caused a significant difference between the protein contents of micellized and isoelectric precipitated protein isolates of a sample with micellized protein isolate having lower protein content?
I'm wondering if its possible to use Tween 20/80 as a carrier/solubilizer to dissolve a hydrophobic substance. So far, I tried heating either Tween to around 70C, and it manage to dissolve my hydrophobic substances. But when I remove it from the heat plate, it starts to turn into like white solid like ghee, which I guess happens because of the decrease in temperature to the cloud point?
I'm trying to understand the differences in both Tween. I read somewhere that tween 20 is better to emulsify small amounts of lighter oils; whereas Tween 80 to emulsify larger amounts of heavier oil.
Then I check the HLB value (wikipedia) in which:
12 to 15: detergent
12 to 16: O/W (oil in water) emulsifier
16 to 20: solubiliser or hydrotrope
Tween 20 (16.7) seems like a better choice as it can act as a solubiliser or O/W emulsifier compare to Tween 80. But then other sources said tween 80 is better to emulsify larger amount of heavier oil?Which sounds like its better to solubilised my hydrophobic substances.
Erm. Do correct me if I'm wrong.
Resistant starch (RS) is recognized as the third category of dietary fiber by AACC.
For labeling purposes it is still added under dietary fiber.
For commercial purposes, starch is being modified enzymatically and other ways to increase the RS content, so that it can be used in product development.
What is the difference between a modified starch and resistant starch? or is it that currently RS is being categorized under modified starches?
Kindly give your inputs on this!
I'm currently working on smoothies (which contain key ingredients like fruit juice and milk).
Can anybody suggest how to increase the shelf life of the product to 4 months which has to be stored at ambient temperature? (Suggest technologies other than Retort processing, UHT and HPP).
I used two concentrations of glucose 0-1 mg/ml and 0-25 mg ml. The problem is that the higher concentrations are similar in color and the lower concentrations a clear difference can be noticed. This situation has led me to believe that may DNS method may be used on very low glucose concentrations. However, I am not sure and I am really in need of your expert opinions.
Preparation of DNS: Mix 30 g of sodium potassium tartarate with 1 g DNSA and 1.6 g of NaOH. Make the solution up to 100 ml with distilled water.
Preparation of glucose standard: 10g anhydrous glucose is dissolved in distilled water and then raised the volume to 100 ml with distilled water. 1 mg/ml was prepared by taking 1 ml from the original stock solution and adding it to 99 ml ddH2O.
I have samples of food waste, consist of rice and chicken meat waste, . I want to digest the samples to analysis crud protein. Also, I ash some samples before I digest to analyize Ca and P. For cude protein samples,the problems are the samples can not digest completely in spite of I use one tablet, H2O2 and H2so4. the temperture for first hour is 220 C and for the second hour is 410 C.The samples become milky color and still like this even I keep them in digester for 4 to 5 hours. Also, after I ash some samples to Ca and P analysis. The samples are still black color after I have digested for 10 hours in spit of it should be less than 30 minutes
I am looking for a technique through which I will be able to cool chocolate as quickly as possible and at the same time, blooming will be avoided. What do you suppose are the best method and cooling temperature?
I have a project making "cold brew" coffee. The ground coffee need to steep into water for 20 - 24h, so this is the good condition for the microorganisms grow. I decided to pasteurize the coffee after that but I worried that the temperature will blow away all the flavor and the coffee will turn into odorless... What I need to do in this case? I glad to see any comments of RGers.
Thanks and Regards
I’m planning to investigate about the co-processing of food additive, especially hydrocolloids. I would like to contact someone who has worked on the subject, in order to exchange some ideas.
I have prepared A research proposal about the reuse of marine by-products as Ingredients of Functional Food. But I have no funding to start my project. Can anyone recommend a funding organization to support my research or interesting in collaborative with me to do it? I have done pre-experiments and got good results. If anyone interesting in this filed, can contact me.
While extracting protease from the B. subtilis containing media, what is the best way to remove protease for Food applications? While adding ammonium sulphate precipitation, the result will be suitable for applications in food or not? Any methods to carry our protease assay?
For the evaluation of Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, I found a method described by Wettasinghe and Shahidi, 2000. The following is the proceedure:
Dilutions (0.4 ml) of millet extract were added to 0.6 ml H2O2 (40mM) and volume made to 2.0 ml with 45 mM Sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) was incubated at 300C for 40 min. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalent after measuring the absorbance at 230nm (Wettasinghe and Shahidi, 2000).
Can anyone please clarify me why we are using 45mM Sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to prepare the reaction mixture?
Wettasinghe M, Shahidi F (2000) Scavenging of reactive oxygen species and DPPH free radicals by extracts of borage and evening primrose. Food Chem 70:17–26.
My institution is considering purchase of new equipment that will replace our old Varian SpectrAA 800. We are considering continuum source AAS from Analityk Jena, polarized zeeman F-AAS from Hitachi and microwave plasma from Agilent. I'm looking for pros and cons of this solutions from users of this equipment.
I am PhD student from Algeria . I work on wheat gluten and now I am looking for internship to analyse it , I need this appartus :
Fluorescence spectrophotometer for surface hydrophobicity ,
Scanning electron microscope SEM for Microstructure
DHR 3 rheometer for rheogical behavior
TA XT plus texture analyser for gel strength and Micro-extension
diffractometer : X ray Diffraction
Could someone help me to find this apparatus ? minimum three .
I need to measure the fatty acids of linseed oil and I have a procedure to measure fatty acids of beef. Do you think I can apply the same protocol for both samples?
I would like to seperate oil from baked product with cloroform and petroleum ether (1:1, v/v ) fractions. I am not sure how can i apply it. Could you explain? How many volume i should add this solution on my sample. For example i weighted 2 g sample in a falcon tube and then add to cloroform-petroleum eter (30ml solution) and shake it then seperate it from falcon tube. Is ıt right ?
And after i obtain defatted extract, doing antioxidant activity analyse is giving true score?
I always get a lower K content during proficiency testing. Method: AAS .
Dry Ashing: 500 degrees Celsius
Food: Milk (liquid), Cream and Mustard Sauce
I also have a problem with Na analysis, I tend to get higher results if i use 500 degrees during dry ashing. But if i use 450 degree my results for K increases while Na decreases
To quantify the melanoidins with respect to the molecular size domains in thin and thick juice , how can I obtain melanoidin standards to use in chromatography? How correct could it be to use pullulans? Is that possible to synthesize a defined melanoidin?
I want to add alpha-tocopherol to chitosan film forming solution to prepare chitosan film with alpha-tocopherol. First I added tween 80 as an emulsifier to chitosan film-forming solution(2%) at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 percent of alpha-tocopherol that then was added to chitosan film forming solution at different concentrations of 0.1, 0.125, 0.15 and 0.2 percent of the solution. Then, it was homogenized with ultra turax at 13000 and 27000 rpm and dried in petri dishes at oven( 30 D. of celsius). Unfortunately, all prepared films showed greasy surface and non-uniform structure. Can any researcher help me how can I prepare a better film with uniform structure?
I am looking for possible off-notes (aroma and flavours) that can be due to carbonation of drinks. I am studying which off-notes can appear due to carbonation or can be attribute to the CO2 in carbonated drink. Any case-study is welcome.
I am using immersion heater and it has specs(3kw 418v)and it does have thermostat which can be controled temperature from 30 to 110 degree.
I am using this heater to typical drum (200 ltrs steel drum), the drum containes waste cooking oil (solid state). As you can see the dirty drawing( sorry about my hand drawing), most of oil melted but some of oil is still in solid state.
I calculated that the oil should have completely melt in 3hours at 15degree (atmospheric pressure) but even after 7 hours, still in same state like the hand drawing.I set the temperature of heater @ 80degree, thus the heater turned off at 75~76degree( its what the manufacturer says) automatically.
Does anyone can let me know the solution of even the reason for this..
Please let me know sirs..
During chitin hydrolysis, non-crystalline glucosamine also obtained whether is it due to caramelisation. If anyone worked on that please give me some references
Omega 3 portion of fish oil is of importance for maintenance of vitality and protection of body organs esp. CVS and CNS with aging process. So my question is would omega 3 component of fish oil is better to be taken alone or with the other type of omega fractions of fish oil to gain the most nutritional and protective benefit?
As matter of fact, I've been working to produce Doogh (Drink of Iranian dairy products) which it probably could produce from whey instead of yoghurt.
Disruption of cell microstructure affects the quality of fruits and vegetables. So how does this microstructural changes occur with change in parameters such as temperature, moisture content during drying?