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Food Safety - Science topic

Food Safety are activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
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I would like to test a biological method of screening vegetables/fruits for the presence of pesticide residue. Since a biological agent is used, the extraction solvent should be non-toxic.
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QuEChERS sample preparation
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Can anyone help me to write review article on harmonization topic ..special reference to India.....means giving outline ..which topic should be covered under this head..please help me..i think this topic should be address.
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@, samar..thank alot..i will try to use your given outline in preparation of my manuscript.
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What are the challenges and update s regarding harmonization among food safety rules in india and worldwide.
Kindly suggest articles and reviews.
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Food can be packaged in can made of tinplate (tin-coated steel); however, tin (Sn) contain lead (Pb) that could migrate to food and safety issues could raised
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The United Nations sustainable development goals include eradication of hunger. To feed 10 billion persons 2050, we need to get the trade-offs right between sustainability, food security, food safety, and make better use of food already produced. In Indian Context...where we have to feed more than 1.3 Billion people with shrinking natural resources is already been a herculean task...then do we withstand with stringent food safety reulations/norms....
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I agree with Dipon Sarkar's comment. The question sounds as if it were black or white (food safety or food security), but in fact they are intertwined and when aiming at contributing towards one, we should always consider the other one.
In fact, the UN definition of food security includes the food safety component: that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
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I'd like to give my students attending the environmental health and food safety practical activities the opportunity to get familiar with a simple method of measuring pesticide residues in foodstuff. Preferably, the price should not exceed 2000 US Dollars. High accuracy would be desirable but not an absolute requirement.
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Food safety and security issues such as food contamination can be occurred due to disastrous situations including natural disasters, pandemic situations, war, shipwrecks, etc. What are the best precautions to address these food safety issues to fulfill the dietary requirements of the affected community?
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Kindly check the following link, it provides an overview of packaged food safety after a natural or man-made disaster by examining jurisdictional best practices and literature on food packaging and food microbiological sciences.
Also, check the following link:
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My project is on the production of a novel beer using non-traditional yeasts. At later stages, we are considering large scale production and commercialization.
The issue is, some of the yeast species that I am working on are not present in the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) list of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), or in the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list of FDA. Although, there are articles and/or patents on their use for beer/wine production and they are present in IDF/EFFCA inventory of microbial food cultures.
The sources I found are a little confusing as I am not very familiar with this process.
My main question is, is having a QPS or GRAS status necessary for a species for their use in commercial production?
For a deeper understanding, my further questions are:
  • Is it the same for filtered beer, even if the microorganism will not be in the final product?
  • If we apply for QPS/GRAS, how long the process takes? - From my understanding, EFSA is updating their evaluation every 6 months, and their list every 3 years. Therefore, if I apply for a new species, the earliest possible approval would be in their next list?
  • Should we apply for QPS/GRAS for a new strain of a QPS/GRAS species if we want to commercialize?
  • If the new species belong to the same genus, would it help with the process? (For example, Lindnera jadinii is on the list, would it make it easier for Lindnera saturnus?)
  • Is the absence of toxic/harmful effects on the human, animal, environment is sufficient for this status, or are clinical studies required?
  • Would Anamorph/Teleomorph names of the same species in the list make any difference?
Thank you very much for all your help in advance.
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Thank you inj advanced.
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Yes
Coronavirus & food Q&As - World Health Organization
Food Safety - WHO | World Health Organization
www.who.int › Health topics
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Initially the GMO crops were developed to help farmers prevent crop loss through more resistance to insect damage, tolerance to herbicides and resistance to plant viruses. But, there are many cases of negative effects, and high risks. From your perspective and experience what would be those risks of using GMOs in the agriculture.
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The genetic engineering process has raised many concerns, largely because it involves mutations in hundreds or thousands of locations throughout the plant’s DNA
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Currently, in order to identify insect eggs in stored or processed products (such as contaminated flour or wafer samples), staining was performed based on the method mentioned in the below article.
Microscopic images of possible identified cases were taken with a magnification of 10*20 X, as follows.
Please guide us about the accuracy of detected eggs from other residues (flour) as well as the type of species (beetles) related to them?
Can this method be also used for the detection of larvae and pupa?
And
In general, what is the fastest way to detect and identify each stages of beetle life cycle (egg, larvae and pupa) in stored or processed products?
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What are the incidents of contamination of food and water caused by different natural toxins within the past 5-years?
I found some incent in about a decade ago. But I want the once that happened in the last 5 years. Kindly share helpful links and information.
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Nice reply by dear sir Kamal M.Alsaad
I am agreed with him
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We all are thinking for climate change, sea-level rise, Global warming, poverty etc. big issues. But, at the same time, we also triggering those issues by our unsustainable food consumption practices.
Every year, we are generating about 1.3 billion tons of food waste. This food waste accounting in greenhouse gas emissions (about 4.4 gigatons of GHGs ,annually) and environmental degradation. Developing and developed, both countries are wasting about 40% foods.
If we don't waste our foods, it will be enough to feed others 3 billion people annually. We have to be aware of proper consumption of our foods and proper management practices of food wastes globally.
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My colleagues discussed the topic well above, but I want to discuss it from another point of view: There are those who abuse the concept of "protecting the environment" so they sell you, for example, a phone for a large amount and does not give you the charger with the phone box, claiming that it preserves the environment even though it took a large amount from you and you will have to buy the charger So you will have two cans to throw in the trash.
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What is your perception? Could it be a good thing for food producers? Is there a positive point of the pandemic that can be rescued as favorable? what things can be corrected so as not to fall into the same problems that occurred during the quarantine. Your opinion will help us to understand the different realities in different countries.
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Although the income losses and local supply chain disruptions associated with the pandemic undoubtedly has led to an increase in food insecurity in many developing countries, global food consumption is largely unaffected due to the inelastic demand of most agricultural commodities and the short duration of the shock. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10640-020-00473-6
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Now-a-days, food safety is a major concern to the consumers. The consumers are interested to buy safe food to enjoy a healthy life. However, in the recent years, the concept of organic food is introduced. It is well known that for the production of organic food all type of chemicals are strictly prohibited. Therefore, it is a little bit difficult to produce organic food. Could you please clarify that what are the major differences of safe food and organic food? Do you agree that the consumption of safe food is enough to ensure a sound and healthy life?
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Fully agree with dr. Salman Ajlan 🌹
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Usually, it is very difficult to ensure safe and hygienic street food for the people of developing countries. I would like to get some innovative ideas for resolving food safety related issues to ensure safe street food
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Street foods are governed by the customs and traditions of the people and the food pattern prevailing in the country, and it is difficult to implement any global health system that has internationally approved standards
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. As of 12 May 2020, more than 4.17 million cases have been reported across 187 countries and territories, resulting in more than 286,000 deaths. More than 1.45 million people have recovered.
Food safety is used as a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Food security, as defined by the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security, means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
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Hai Sir.
Shortage of Safety foods is high during COVID 19. But i have a suggestion and impact for safe food.
Establishment of organic nutrigarden in terrace or home surroundings to produce organic vegetables and fruits. For example we have established terrace garden in 5 farmer house with supply of inputs during November 2019 by support of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Indian Council Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Farmers had maintained garden properly to harvest plenty of vegetables and also had grow lime tree, guava, amla tree in house surroundings. Impact - Farmer said this garden gave safety and security organic nutritious vegetables and fruits periodically to fulfill my family needs, increase immunity food and avoid to go purchase of vegetables in outside and maintaining social distance during COVID 19. To promote nutrigarden for safe vegetables and fruits.
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There are claims that 1/5 of all wild fish caught is used for production of fishmeal and fish oil. Most of this is used for fish farming. Most of the fish used to make fishmeal and fish oil is claimed to be suited for human consumption. What is the effect of this fishing on local food security? Does this kind of production effect your local fisheries?
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The impact of filter feeders on water quality can be seen in the Great Lakes following the invasion of Zebra and Quagga mussels. The water is way clearer. The whole ecosystem was disrupted because, originally, it did not have the benthic filter feeders. So, the mussels have made significant changes. But their action demonstrates what happens when you remove the filtering capacity from a system.
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Hello everyone,
I am searching for legislation regarding the legal limits of furosine in milk but I have found so far only information regarding Italy. Are you aware of other EU and not EU countries setting maximum levels in milk or other commodities?
Thanks a lot!
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@ Sonia Colicchia, nice question.
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Centers for Disease control and prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have announced food safety alert regarding the outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections linked to onions in various states in America.
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The recent outbreak if Salmonella Newport was first reported on Jul 10, with just a handful of cases in three states. The 212 cases include 31 hospitalizations, but no deaths have been reported. The newly affected states include Arizona, Florida, Idaho, Maine, North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Virginia.
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In biopreservation, bacteriocins play an important role in extending shelf-life of food. Nisin recognised as GRAS and approved by FDA. Is there any other LABs or others naturally occurring antimicrobials approved by any standard food safety authority , if yes! then what are those and please mention the permissible limit.
Thanks.
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COVID-19 may have positive or negative impacts on food safety and processing flow. So that may be very fine to have such a comparison of a specific period of the year 2019 and 2020.
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Dear Sayed,
you posted a very important question. I live in Italy and, as my contact with food involves me only as a user, I noticed that COVID-19 had a massive impact on restaurants. Delivery business is now highly increased, and although actual restaurants experienced a major setback during lockdown, they are now back to normal activity, even though they have to respect social distance between tables and more stringent regulations about food processing. Me and my family eat exclusively at home, and we consume only self-cooked food, because we are very active in safety against pandemic.
Good luck with your work,
Best,
Dave
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In Food Safety Control, it is usually determined to suppliers to send pesticides screening of the raw material. When it is identified a pesticides, how do you evaluate this CoA (which references?) and how do you treat this nonconformity with your supplier?
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a) How do you treat/evaluate nonconformities related to pesticides found in raw materials?
Lucas, if you know who sent the raw material to your company, it is just open the non conformity to supply! If you do not know, you will have to make a traceability of your product.
b) When it is identified a pesticides, how do you evaluate this CoA (which references?)
You can use the Client regulatione established in the contract with your company our your country law.
c) and how do you treat this nonconformity with your supplier?
you have two ways to solve: 1) dilution with a law complying raw material untill you attend the limits or 2) give the ram material back to the supply.
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Many countries are recording patients who are infected with the novel virus which has rendered advance economies comatose. A large percentage of food in such developed countries and even the developing ones come from overseas eg China. How will this impact on food safety and security? Are there possible ways of mitigating these effects?
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Thanks James for the webinar link. Inasmuch as the impact is global, i believe the effect on developing economies would be huge.
1. lack of storage and logistics is going to lead to huge losses of perishable goods, Farmers are going to lose, food is going to be scarce and expensive after this pandemic
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Hi,
Under 9 CFR 430, establishments in Alternative 2b and 3 are required to sample food contact surfaces for Listeria monocytogenes or an indicator organism.
Source:
As part of this testing, are establishments expected to identify all possible food contact surfaces for sampling? I wonder how do you interpret the above rule.
Warm regards,
Chris
@foodsafety #foodsafety
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Implementation of environmental monitoring for Listeria monocytogenes should be based on risk assessment. There is no one program that fits for all. Looking for Listeria monocytogenes is of particular importance in the wet processing environment, which is conducive to Listeria growth. The monitoring program must look for the niches and harborage sites where there is a potential contamination of Listeria monocytogenes, this is not to be overlooked where RTE foods are exposed to the environment prior to to packaging and the packages foods are not subjected to a kill step. It is recommended to test product contact surfaces (for Listeria spp.) and occasionally testing finished product (for L. monocytogenes). This guidance might be helpful:
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I'm doing a study by using honey as my main treatment substance. The problem with honey is, honey collected from different sources have different physicochemical characteristic and its ingredient is also different. Does each honey sources need to undergo separate toxicity test? Human have consume honey for thousand of years and we can relatively say it is safe especially after rigorous standard food post-harvesting processes. 
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I obtained useful information from your reply on this RG question,
Regards for all
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Is EO suitable only to provide global food production monitoring or it can help also to farmers in developing countries? Is the resolution of current EO limitation? Where EO could help to farmers? What could be killing applications? Are this climatic analysis or some other analysis? This and more other questions we are trying to answer in EO4Agri projects http://www.eo4agri.eu/ . See our gap analysis report https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336022413_EO4AGRI_D22-Initial-Workshop-User-Requirements-and-Gap-Analysis-in-Different-Sectors-Report-v10 and try to help us identify additional possibilities or comment our conclusion. During the project we already discussed our ideas with African community during Nairobi INSPIRE Hack https://www.plan4all.eu/2019/04/team-1-progress-report-i/
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Dear Maged,
thanks for this answer. We will try discuss questions of EO for food security on next GEO meeting in Canberra.
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I am doing a research on the title of "Demand for Food Safety attributes for Vegetables" using a discrete choice experiment and conditional logit regression in SAS.
one objective of my study is to identify factors affecting the demand for food safety attributes and these factors are socio-demographic factors. my question is how can I analyse data through SAS (which Proc or code)?
I want to analyse the interaction effects of socio-demographic factors on demand!
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Hi!
I had a little experience in analysing interaction effect using XLSTAT. May be it can help you.
In XLSTAT, you can run a Two- way ANOVA using the food safety attributes (separately) as the dépendent variables (ie. quantitative variables) and each of your socio-demographic factor as the independent variable (qualitative variable).
I think with this you should be able to get your interaction effects.
Regards!
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What are the common food safety challenges in prevailing food products in the market of developing countries?
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Dear Paroma Arefin.
I am afraid that for our developing countries, critical challenges are included in every single step of the production chain.
For example, It is so difficult to control the presence of highly toxic pesticide residues, dangerous microorganisms, antibiotics or heavy metals in our raw food materials. During processing, the implementation of microbiological controls in a GMP or HACCP program are basically beyond the question because of insufficient or inadequate plant conditions and infrastructure, safe water, staff training, modern technologies for quality assurance, packaging operations and standard sanitizing procedures, just to mention a few reasons.
From the market point of view and because of the relatively limited purchasing power of our consumers, people tend to give more importance to the price of the final products than to its quality and safety, so pressure on producers to improve their product, processes and complementary operations in terms and for the sake of safety is rather low and weak.
Climatological conditions such as high temperatures and humidity all year round do not help either and they rather contribute to the propagation of dangerous bacteria, fungi and animal pests into the different steps of the agroindustrial chains.
In addition to all the reasons above mentioned, I am absolutely convinced that more education on food safety for the civil population might be the clue to success in food safety assurance, and that precisely turns out to be the toughest challenge for our developing countries, not only on the production side but especially on the consumer's side mainly constituted by our impoverished civil populations.
I hope this analysis helps.
Best regards from Costa Rica.
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  1. How will the yeast contaminated product affect a consumer’s health?
  2. What might be the cause of yeast growth on chocolate?
  3. What can we do to prevent high yeast counts in chocolate products?
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Sorbic acid and their salts can also be used as preventive for Z. rouxii
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Searching for some online training in Food Safety from rudiments to the advanced level
Any ideas, guys?
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most of the times courses are free to enroll however they charge a fee for certificate
Coursera
edX
Udemy etc
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We are taking up a work on milk from peri-urban areas of Guwahati city. Although there are some literature on detection of M. bovis in milk samples, I am interested on application of molecular based techniques as well as other rapid methods. How far is it possible to detect M. bovis in milk by PCR? Other than PCR, is there any sensitive and specific rapid test for detection of M. bovis in milk samples?I shall be very happy to have the answers for food safety. 
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We are taking up a work on milk from peri-urban areas of Guwahati city. Although there are some literature on detection of M. bovisin milk samples, I am interested on application of molecular based techniques as well as other rapid methods. How far is it possible to detect M. bovis in milk by PCR? Other than PCR, is there any sensitive and specific rapid test for detection of M. bovisin milk samples?I shall be very happy to have the answers for food safety. 
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I need to know for the presence of food safety precautions and the toxicity found in ginger, turmeric and lemongrass.
I'm dealing with this risky bacteria.
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The most dangerous bacteria are the bacteria of the colon, or the so-called bacteria of poogeolone poisoning or E. coli, which remain in food in case of failure to follow the safety procedures and sanitary conditions to be present in food as well as cleaner materials and food preparation
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Dear Sir/Madam
I am a BSc Veterinary Medicine graduate, Cairo University, Egypt. I have a Microbiology&Toxicology MSc Food Safety, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
During my MSc, I did my thesis on the microbial ecology and the impact of growth history on stress robustness of Listeria monocytogenes. On pursuing my postgraduate training, I joined the Euroleague of Life Sciences ELLS summer school on '' Pathogens, Parasites and Their Hosts; Ecology, Molecular Interactions and Evolution'' provided by Hohenheim University, Germany.
May I ask whether I can join the research project as a PhD student?. Please, find my attached resume
Thank you
Kind regards,
Eslam Saleh
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Yes you can. Better add some of your published articles (if you have) that will increase your chance of hunting a PhD project. Good luck!
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Food safety and security, both are very important factor for consumer as well as producer.At the present, food safety is the popular term world wide.
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Even though the two terms intuitively sound as if they should mean the same, in fact, "Food security" suggests the adequacy of food to society, the equitable distribution, confirmed supply, fair access, sustained sources, etc. A "secure supply" of food.
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I am examining the safety of a food production site. I find a lot of non-detects, which is a good thing in terms of food safety, but handling the zeros in the data is an issue. Certainly, I can't covert 0 CFU/ml to log value. Also adding a constant i.e Log(0+1) will change the entire meaning of the obtained results. I wish to statistically analyze the data; now since no statistical software accepts string/text data, I have to give a value for the log CFU/ml of the non-detects. Does anyone have a suggestion?
I was considering to modify the counts from 0 to 0.00001 which will in turn give a value of 0 log CFU/ml, however here too the CFU/ml value would be altered from the raw data. Any thoughts?
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There are two ways for solving of this problem, 1. Ignoring of the less than results and statistically analysis the positive count results only and reporting of the less than as a percentage of negative to positive count. 2. Converting the less than results to a value, and this depends on the sensitivity or detection limit of the method (i.e. if the detection limit is 1 cfu/ml as in liquid or 10 cfu/g in solids or more), the number would be one of three options; zero, detection limit, or the average between them.
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The issue of food waste (FW) in the global context has an in-depth meaning for sustainability. FW is not an exotic topic anymore, nurtured by the scientific community only. It has economic, social and environmental impacts. It has become a wide topic for debates. FW is met throughout all the food supply chain (FSC). At the end of this chain, at the consumption stage, are the households and the restaurants. FW is social misbehaviour. In Europe, FS is the second largest FW producer, with 20% of total production - approx. 25.5 million tonnes, annually. Presently, In Romania, where the research is carried out, there are no studies attesting the existence of FW in the FS, especially in the restaurants.
Presently, In Romania, where the research is carried out, there are no studies attesting the existence of FW in the FS, especially in the restaurants. The only available data is based on approximations.
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Many times, we cannot persuade others (stubborn, selfentred) to accept any idea, no matter, how brilliant idea is!
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Unlike other non-food innovations, food materials remain the same ,coming from nature / agriculture, so what thought can one hold about new generation with nature's produce ? Do we mean innovating new proteins, so far the same amino acids structure any protein since centuries.The idea even of introducing new generation in foods sounds unhealthy. So far food safety, food hygiene, food processing or now food security have did come with new approaches / ideas/innovations but adding new generation in foods does not make any sound /good sense to me. What is basic definition of food ? Once we make it clear then automatically we may disagree to adding new generation into the basic definition.
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I hold reservations on the statement of Fatima Faiq. Nature always works towards harmony and balance. Its way leads towards produce which is required as well as rectified in plants, foods, agricultural products etc.which,therefore, cannot be harmful. Natural toxic or poisonous plants are well known to living things on earth and all these have their benefits and uses on earth.Even if we humans are trying to change genes for commercial purposes, the processes of natural growth of plants applies rectifying mechanisms to align with nature habitat. So, whatever noval foods science plan, the basic human food components will remain the same. I stand on my point.
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I want to evaluate willingness to pay for food safety of vegetables in Malaysia.
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This is big project not only Malaysia but also for over the world starting from green houses which must be designed to be without insecticides but with natural materials to be sprayed to defend insects and pests .Natural defense against pests now are made from safe bacteria such as Bacillus thuringenesis and others. Transport of vegetables to the place of consumers should be protected against pollution sources. ....etc.
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Currently, I am working on aquatic toxicology, particularly heavy metals. Therefore I want to know the latest maximum permissible limits of these heavy metals  (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in food fish. The limits which I have are very old (FAO/WHO 1983/1989).
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what is the WHO/FAO permissible limit for Ni and Zn?
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The in vitro analysis of extracts and essential oils of some plants had a good result against pathogenic bacteria and can participate to extend the shelf life of food products, but some problems have been encountered in the in vivo testing about the performant methods that can be used to insert these substances into feedings especially in meat products.
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For example, it should be used directly in meat? or with an emulsion? or should be inserted into the package film...?
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I’m trying to create LB growth medium (1% Tryptone, 0.5% Yeast Extract, 0.5% NaCl and 0.3% agar) with different water activity using PEG200.
Any suggestions on what concentration of PEG200 will create water activity of 0.95 and 0.97.
Also, has anyone measured water activity of LB?
Thank you.
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You'll need to use Raoults Law to predict the effect of solutes on water activity depression. The Aw calculation needs to include all solutes (I see that you have 0.5% salt, which will have some effect. Have used Propylene Glycol in food systems and managed to get down to 0.8 without too much problem.
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Dear Colleagues,
We can observe an increasing trend in food stores where consumers would like (somewhere they already can) to bring their own reusable containers to the store to buy food items in the way to reduce waste.
Although there is no legal obstacle that would prevent food business operators to sell food to the consumer in the way I described above, there is to my professional opinion an increased risk for cross-contamination if unconfessed consumer would for example use the same container to buy raw foods such as fish and meat during the first shopping visit and for some other perishable food items which can be directly consumed during the second shopping visit. Especially if the cleaning procedure in-between is not sufficient.
Of course an important aspect in this context would be informing and educating the consumer which containers are appropriate and how to proceed if such a system is set-up in a food store.
Another hygienic consideration which has to be done is cross-contamination of the working surface at the food store from the reusable container brought by the consumer to buy food. There are some solutions to prevent this like the one in Germany: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnYtO6TStCI
And there is also the question about LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of different reusable containers in comparison to the conventional single use materials widely used not, which I am not going to address here.
I would be very interested in your experiences, thoughts, hesitations, consideration, fears etc. about hygienic aspect of such an approach regarding the prevention of foodborne illness.
I found some papaers and documents related to this issues. But if you think there is some paper, guideline, recommendation which would be worth to consider please feel free to share it here.
Best regards, Andrej
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Dear Andrej,
I think there is a run toward removing plastics where we may forget or not fully consider all other aspects like this important pointed that you have raised here. I think the rules and regulations start to flourish. I came across this in Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) :
" businesses are directed to only use packaging material which is “fit for its intended use”, and is unlikely to cause contamination before or during the packaging process.
and this
Businesses must manage the risk of cross-contamination up to the point of sale. Under the Food Act 2014, food businesses were given greater flexibility to manage food safety risks.
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For example the large carpenter bees can visit Calotropis or other wild bees visit Peganum. I would like to understand how the bee deal with these plants and is the nectar of these plants contain the same toxic contents of the whole plant? 
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Thanks a lot for this great clarification, although I left Saudi Arabia 3 years ago and the questions was to figure out how larger carpenter bees is adapted to get nectar from Calotropis procera. The stems of the plans also were used by bees for nesting. I may try to find this work again when I will be back to Egypt after my research visit to Hungary.
Thanks again Christopher and I wish for you all the best.
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I want to make some testing kit-like formalin for fruits, vegetables, fish, milk etc or carbide for fruits etc.
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Formaldehyde may be detected using the following reagents:
1. Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride + acidic hexacyanoferrete (III) (pink or purple color, color intensity is proportional to formaldehyde amount).
2. Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride +acidic Potassium hexacyanoferrete(III)(pink or purple color, color intensity is proportional to formaldehyde amount).
3. Almost same as previous, addition is impregnation of Silica gel.
4. 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone (MBTH) + acidic Iron (III) Chloride (Blue). [Note: highly acidic condition; pH <1.0; UV-vis 630nm]
5. Chromotropic acid (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) (chromotropic acid in 75% sulfuric acid reacts with formaldehyde; peaking at 580nm wavelength).
6. Chromotropic acid + Bisulfite solution.
7. Chromotropic acid + 1% Sodium bisulfite solution.
8. J-acid (6-amino-1-napthol-3-sulphonic acid; 7-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic Acid; CAS No. 87-02-5; Sigma: 08800 FLUKA) (University of Cambridge; PhD Thesis: A new J-acid method for the detection of formaldehyde; http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.599295) .
9. Phenyl J-acid.
10. Mixture of dichlorosulfitomercurate (II) complex and acid bleached parasoaniline hydrochloride.
11. Formaldehyde + Mixture of dichlorosulfitomercurate (II) complex and acid bleached parasoaniline hydrochloride. (Schiff’s test?!)
12. 5,5-dimethyl 1,3-cyclohexanedione (Dimedone, Methone) (Sigma 38490 FLUKA).
13. 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole (along with 1% ferricyanide and 10% sodium hydroxide; deep blue colour in presence of formaldehyde) Sawicki and Hauser (1960).
14. 2-Hydroxycarbazole Reagent: Yellowish to Dark Blue colour
15. Nash/Hantzsch Reagent (2M ammonium acetate, 0.05M acetic acid, 0.02M acetylacetone): gives yellow colour; can be measured using spectrophotometer at 412nm
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I am a bit confused with pesticide half life. As far as I know, it is used for environmental purposes.however, if a pesticide is systematic then the biological process would deal with it during the waiting period but if a pesticide is by conract, dose it have the same waiting period or do we relay on the washing step to remove the residues fron the surface of fruits and vegetables.
If we relay on the weather conditions to degrade pesticides from the surface, do they have then similar time as Half-Life.
Do low, moderate and high half-lives presist in the environment somehow related to the safety of plants in fields, produced for humman consumption or as animal feeds.
Best regards
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It is more to do with persistence of pesticides residues in soil or related environment where they are intended to be used...
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Doing research about consumer confidence on food safety
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Yes, a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire can help you with this type of study. The attached paper can help you.
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Consequent to some food-borne incidents in recent years, there have been significant increase in public health concern and decrease in consumer confidence. Despite significant advances in detection tools, regulations, monitoring and consumer education on food safety, reports of food borne illness outbreaks continue to increase. Within the supply chain which is increasingly becoming more complex in the globalized market, adulteration (unintentional or intentional) is the key food safety issue. Increase in imports of food/processed food items due to cost concerns, availability and consumer demand for diverse food products also provide chances for food contamination/adulteration. Regulatory bodies are comforting with major food safety issues including changes in our food production and supply, environmental changes leading to food contamination, new and emerging bacteria, toxins, and antibiotic resistance and consumer preferences and habits leading to increase in imported foods. At this juncture, what should be the effective strategies to address the emerging challenges to provide safe, healthy, nutritious and sustainable produced food to the world's population?
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I agree with dear Dr Debra Sharon Ferdinand-James
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I would like to know if there is any possibility to apply the capillary colum CP Sil 88 for food safety analysis?
I realise that it is a CG column for FAME analysis but I would like to investigate if someone knows hat it is possible to apply it for pesticides, contaminants, histamine, or in the food safety field
Thanks in advance
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Thank you so much
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We all see innovation in almost every field, almost every year/month/day.
We have better laws and protection. Food safety, property rights regulated, human rights, international criminal justice and so on...
But, morally, how do you think we as humankind are?
Are we better than in the past?
Do we respect others?
Do we try to understand others needs?
Do we stop doing what could - anyhow - prejudice others, just because it could? Even if it can certainly prejudice us?
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We are always in the sorcerer's apprenticeship ; the human learning curve is slower and lower than the technical one; only ethical learning processes can close this gap. Modern knowledge and classical wisdom have to be brought together, especially in education, economics and medicine. Quantitative knowledge transfer (the learning assembly line) alone is not sufficient to cope with the challenge of moral behavior; the educated personality must be put back into the focus of learning. In any case, the ethics is now in our hands, it is a matter of value preferences.
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I am involved in an Agaricus project in China and am working to develop good food safety practices there. Great need for advice and training materials.
Chris
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Dear Chris,
maybe for you should be interesting to know how food safety is managed in Europe.
Food safety is really a big concern for the European Community in which the policy involves various actions to ensure a high level of protection of human health. The most important aim for EC is that its citizens have the right to know how the food is produced, packaged, labelled and sold.
European Community has created for this the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) which provides scientific advice & communicates on existing & emerging risks associated with the food chain to provide the basis for European laws, rules and policymaking.
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Biosecurity, I feel, is a strategic and integrated approach that needed a regulatory frame-work and policy to analyze and manage risks associated with food safety, plant and animal health and environment. How to frame that?
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Hallo,
The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge.
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Treatment that can extend the strawberry shelf life up to 10 days
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Pre treat with Bavistin 2percent solution and keep in CA store with 2%o2
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When we eat our food we eat a lot of endophyes and lot other microbes along with our food. but when it comes to GM Food (which contains another piece of DNA in it) many eyebrows are raised. I m not promoting GM technology but my question is that GM technology can’t be merely overlooked. Present day trials are somewhere failing in biosafety requirements. We need to prepare bio-safe GM crops as better alternative to food loaded with chemical fertilizers and pesticides. We are 7.6 Billion already..... food and its safety both are much needed.
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I think it's mainly due to the perception of the consumer due to bad policital decisions and marketing tales. Don't forget there is also a religious factor in play for a lot of people.
Now politicians find themselves cornered between comitting political suicide or trying to tell the consumer the truth. They always chose the first option.
I fear that without real political debate, famine will be the only motivator to go towards GM. Sience needs to be ready to implement GM crops/organisms when a green light is being given.
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I have been researching Japan's high dependency on food imports. Japan imports 60% of his foodstuffs which has become an issue of concern among Japanese citizens and for the Japanese government. In this context, the low food self-sufficiency rate of 40% has been discussed as a problem, in particular in the context of the expansion of free trade negotiations Japan has been involved in. I have been asked several times by students whether a low food self-sufficiency rate is really a problem, or if it is portrayed as a problem in order to promote domestic foodstuffs more strongly? Can anybody recommend materials in which the significance of a high food self-sufficiency is not a given but is more critically discussed? Thanks!
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Dear Stephanie,
Sorry it is a while ago since you posted the question and I am certain that by now you are doing other things. However if it is still relevant then have a look at Pacific Island countries such as Kiribati or Tuvalu, which virtually import everything including most of their food. Here it becomes very clear that the problem then starts, if the country has little to earn foreign exchange with which it can pay for the imports. When one looks at the shops in Tarawa, the capital atoll of Kiribati, then there is mainly very cheap food available in form of canned stuff, instant noodles etc, which then leads to enormous health challenges of the people.... Hardly any vegetables or fruits, hardly any what we would call quality food. Of course the issue goes much deeper than the trade balance, it is mainly the result of poverty; people surely would love to eat more healthy food, if they could afford it. This micro-economic aspect is surely very different from the situation you experienced in Japan..... 
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  • What are evolutionary aspects of food safety standards adopted in different countries or there are any universal norms being followed ? 
  • What kind of practicalities being faced by both researchers as well as practitioners in food safety-related technologies ?  
  • What are the possible research and development issues involved? 
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Thanks for very good replies:
Lewis you have rightly mentioned, our biodiversity such as land varieties for rice, millets have proved useful because of inherent character of biofortification.
thanks Shaista for sharing real life example and value of ethnic foods.
Barbara has also listed very important points linked to food safety.
Vaibhvi has tried to touch few points which are really beyond the residue and contaminants
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could you please help me find a review paper or several method for pesticide residue analysis from volatile oil such as (orange oil, chamomile oil, marjoram oil, jasmine oil, onion oil and basil oil using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.
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pass the volatile oil on the bed of florosil, elute with hexane , followed by acetone, methanol. Esimate the pesticide residues by concentrating the elutants from the column and injecting to GC with Ec detector for chlorinated pesticides, GC with FID detector for phosphorous conaining pesticides. Qualitative detection can be done by spotting on  a TLC plate with standard pesticides and spraying with chromogenic reagent.
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Someone has information on fermentation with abnormal development of volatile acids in the rehydration of stockfish?
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Nice
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I wish to send strains of Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni from Japan to the United States, and I am wondering if US customers require an import permit.
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Yes, you will need permits. Probably from both CDC and USDA/APHIS as these organisms are human and livestock pathogens. 
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Dear Saifeldin,
Please see the concept of toxicology written by Dr. Omkar
Krishna
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We welcome and would be most appreciative if you could share with us from your own experience and knowledge how this fascinating emerging tool is or will be used.
*Crowdsourcing is defined as taking a job that is traditionally performed in an organization by employees and outsourcing it to a crowd of undefined network of people (non-employees) in the form of an open call. For example, food companies or regulators may ask customers to tweet or to share their posts regarding potential food safety issues.
If no:
- Can you briefly explain why not?
- Can you envision where and how it could be applied for food quality and/or safety
- Do you have an estimation on the time and/or tools required for implementation?
If yes:
- What type of crowdsourcing practices do you use?  
- Why do you use crowdsourcing? 
- Are there any specific benefits?
- Are there any specific drawbacks?
- Can you describe specific example (s)?
- Can you estimate the typical time or the duration?
 Any additional points to share?
Thank you!
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The credibility of scientists - like that of politicians - has dropped in the perception of the general public dramatically in the last years.
So yes, it would be nice to have the judgements of real experts, but I do not believe that their opinions will be accepted by those who we would like to convince. They will rather read (and believe) blogs on the internet than well documented articles in respected journals or magazines. They can always find some "expert" that writes or says something that appeals to them. To complicate things even further, scientists often disagree on the risks of certain food items or environmental issues.
What solutions do we see for that enormous and apparently growing problem?
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Dear all, I want to know the latest rules and regulations related with Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) implementation for food safety.
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Dear Pranab
I am not sure whether you are referring to regulations on HACCP in your country, however, HACCP system is not implemented the same across the world. There are differences in the American system, the EU system and the Codex alimentarius guidelines. The differences are in the decision trees and methodologies used using the different methods may result in different outcomes and to whether a particular step is a CCP or not.
Please google these HACCP systems
Mphane Molefe
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Im going to use the haemocytometer method to count fungal spores from copra. Is there a standard set by FAO or other regulatory bodies for fungal count in foodstuffs or oilseeds like copra?
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It is depends on the regulations of each country and organizations. ..
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I seek methods to eliminate the natural flora (fungi and bacteria) of coconut meat for inoculation. 
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I would suggest non-thermal treatment of coconut meat. This would likely ensure to retain the nutritional quality of coconut meat.
1. High pressure processing (cold pasteurization)
2. Pulse light treatment (High intensity UV)
3. Nano/micro filtration
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Food safety is a concern for many consumers and adulteration of food of animal origin becomes a widespread practice in countries lacking food control authorities.
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I apologize for my insistence, but in such circumstances the techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective...
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EU regulation no 2074/2005 gave the maximum level of TVB for fish in 3 categories as 25, 30 and 35 mgN/100 g.
I need to know what are the basic to set this level. Is that only organoleptic rejection level or any other parameter involved it?    
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I agree completely with Peter Howgate words. Perhaps he is the main living expert on TVBN in fish. But it is not a problem of authority and/or expertise. TVBN depends on a number of factors very difficult to handle in practice:
(i) On the methodology utilized (distillation methods yield in general higher values than diffusion methods, but it does not means that distillation methods give similar values).
(ii) Each fish specie has an "initial" TVBN (it is not zero). However, this initial TVBN° could change with the season (spawning influence) and capture method.
(iii) On the type of fish. White lean fish (like cod) and lean flat fish show the lowest TVBN°, fatty fish like sardines and tuna have higher initial values, and elasmobranch like rays and sharks usually have the highest.
(iv) In general each fish specie, during a given season (and for a capture method) has a TVBN dynamics. During a initial phase after capture TVBN° remains more or less constant, but after certain point (depending on the fish specie, but also on storage temperature and fish handling) star to increase exponentially.
(v) In theory regulatory limits provide for an allowance te decide between "spoiled" and "non spoiled" fresh fish (only fresh fish!). After the limits the regulator has assumed that the fish is spoiled and unfit for consumption as such in the EC.
(vi) In the very old literature it was the justification that after certain level of TVBN (say 50 mg) started (even in white lean fish) the production of non-volatile amines (like putrescin and cadaverin) that could be considered toxic. But I have not seen recent confirmation on that; and there is a long discussion about this, because without this justification the limits are based on quality reasons and not on safety reasons.
I do not think this is a type of regulation that will change any soon. TVBN assay it is relatively easy and inexpensive to perform, all fish technologists know about it (at a certain time it was said that you could not consider a fish technologist without publishing a TVBN paper at international level - I did). I think that all serious fish technologists know about the problems with TVBN, but a method to suit regulators in the EU has not been found yet.
My best advice is that you have to search and know about your fish TVBN dynamics and TVBN° to identify conditions and seasons for your fish to be exported to the EU.     
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I am planning to do a research to evaluate food safety knowledge, attitude and practices of food handling handling personnel and microbial assessment in  a small factory with less than 20 people; which means the population N is 14. Is it justifiable to conduct in-depth interviews on such a number?I need this information as a guide to conducting microbial sampling and analysis and to identify whether there will a necessity for training the food handlers particularly on GMPs.
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yes my dear...you can do that, this samples are enough for small project, but I hope to cheek end products for these sample for comparison with yours results.    
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we analyzed milk samples of same batch and packed at same date and same time (both samples in original packaging and sealed)
but the results obtained are not understandable
one sample has High TPC and Coliform whereas the other has lowTota Plate Count and negative coliform.
there is no testing error and no cross contamination.
can any one explain the factors
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Microbiology is not chemistry, therefore you can not expect "uniform" results when sampling raw foods. In the case of raw milk, particularly if it is not filtered and homogeneous (by industrial treatment or by integral sample preparation) results could differ. In particular fat content may change counts drastically, and fat tends to go at the top of your container. In addition depending on the hygiene of the industrial container (or machinery) from where you got the samples, there could be pieces of biofilm from the container or equipment walls. We do not know the containers or equipment from where you got the samples, and how actually you took and prepared them; but wild differences seems to point to the lack of uniformity of the milk and/ or the presence of biofilm particles (e.g. lack of hygiene).       
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How do we expect the current trend of climate change to impact on food safety?
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I think another factor that has not been discussed yet is an indirect impact.  Crop failures/yield reductions will lead to crop price rises.  This will make affected crops more attractive targets for adulteration.  We have already observed these practices e.g. with spices being adulterated with nut derivatives leading to food safety issues. 
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In the European Union, under the plant protection products regulation (2009-1107) the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carries out the risk assessment and the Commission approves the active ingredient.
Recently, EFSA found glyphosate safe as an active ingredient, while International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared glyphosate a “probable human carcinogen”.
EFSA refers to the active ingredient, disregarding the issue of the co-formulants raised in the article 27 of the plant protection products regulation, while IARC refers to the formulation (active ingredient plus co-formulants). Hereby, I do not want to highlight other methodological differences of the two Agencies, e.g. how the studies for assessment were selected, but only the approach: active ingredient or formulation.
In the attachment a document where the issue has been raised some years ago and now someone has ignored the issue.
Based on this case and/or similar cases, the main question is the following:
How is the risk assessment procedure for the plant protection products in your countries/institutes, and what is your opinion?
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For the sake of the discussion, I have added the recent regulation on glyphosate in which is also stated: “Member States shall ensure that plant protection products containing glyphosate do not contain the co-formulant POE-tallowamine (CAS No 61791-26-2)”.
Best regards,
Roberto
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Vegetables and fruits are consumed daily by man as delicacies or food substances necessary for a healthy living. These, probably because of their mode of production or handling could be contaminated with human or other animals' faeces/discharges, which may contain parasites and their infective stages. Can these contaminated fruits and vegetables be said to be infested or infected by these parasites or their stages?  
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One would definitely not use the words infested or infected in this context. That would be wrong. As others have said, contaminated would be correct. 
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 In microbiology and chemically what is the proper usage amount? 
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China has banned benzoyl peroxide, calcium peroxide as a food additive
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The high resistance of the pest to chemicals is a huge challenge for small scale farmers and an environmental and food safety concern for the general public due to high pesticide application per growing season of tomato. 
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Crop protectionists in Nigeria (where there was an outbreak recently) recommend application of pesticides late in the evening.
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I have not found any substantiating evidence in the European Food Safety Authority web nor in the WWW. Maybe it is a scaremongering marketing tactic to boost sales of micronutrient complexes (instead of chelates) but the fact remains that rumour is widespread in mediterranean Spain. Any news or comments?
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Will we see on the Ciec in September in Coimbra?
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I have ready many articles about association of Vibrio vulnificus, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with sea foods like oyster. I just wanted to know why this shell fish groups are favorable for these groups of microorganisms. Thank you
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In addition to what Erick Josué Navarro Barrón said, vibrio species also typically prefer 2-3% NaCl (seawater is 2-4% salt) for optimal growth.
It also may interest you to note the link between surface water temperature and outbreak of V. parahaemolyticus. An increase in mean water temperature in the Gulf of Alaska was associated with more illness. This species produces thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), a toxin which exhibits heat-induced conformations. An increase in temperature of the water (possibly due to global warming) can cause conformation transition of the hemolysin, which makes the species more virulent. 
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certificate, vials.
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