Science topic

Food Processing and Engineering - Science topic

Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products.
Questions related to Food Processing and Engineering
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is there any commercialized cold plasma based method for processing foods(like nuts) to eliminate toxic compounds?
by commercialized I mean a role to role or any type of system that can process a very large amount of nuts
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EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD AGAINST AFLATOXINS IN NUTS
Researchers have tested various methods to prevent the development of mycotoxins. The application of the yeast Pichia anomala to prevent their development in nuts and maize crops is currently being studied. This method is non-toxic and could even be used in organic farming.
Tests have been carried out in a pistachio plantation in California (USA). The experts sprayed some trees with the yeast Pichia anomala and others without. The results were enlightening, as the sprayed trees inhibited the frequency of occurrence of Aspergillus flavus on pistachio nuts by 97%, compared to the unsprayed trees.
It has also been shown to be effective on harvested and stored nuts. Furthermore, the use of the yeast is confirmed to be very versatile, as it has also proven effective in protecting other crops against at least six species of microorganisms that could alter characteristics such as taste, texture, yield and food safety, including the pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is considered responsible for grey mould in grapes.
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  • Anyone ever scaled up from Brabender twin screw extruder to a Buhler one?
  • What are the scaling constants to consider?
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About several parameters that may possibly influence extrusion of ceramic pastes, you may check answers to another question at this forum ̶ «What are the most important parameters controlling the extrusion of pastes?»: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_the_most_important_parameters_controlling_the_extrusion_of_pastes
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I really need to understand the difference between shear rate and shear stress.
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I have seen in some articles regarding quantification of spectral data using spectra deconvolution. How can I deconvolute the spectral data using Origin or any specialized program? Can somebody please suggest any relevant reading or tutorial, etc. 
Thanks in advance. 
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Pallab Kumar Borah Deconvolution of a composite peak into its individual peaks plays an important role in the interpretation of many types of graphs including XRD, XPS, FTIR, and PL etc. In this video, I have discussed how to deconvolute simple combined peaks, composite peaks and how to correct missing data in a given peak with the help of deconvolution. In the case you want to further ask about it, please do comment on the specific video, I'll respond to it shortly. I have provided the practice filee (OriginLab) here. Thanks
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Do you have any information legislation about mycotoxin limitation acceptance in food for human and animals.
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I am looking for literature on stock cubes/bouillons' industrial methods of production especially in regards to stability and overall quality.
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1- Development of bouillon cubes from souari nut pulp: formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluations
2- Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.
3- Estimation of population iodine intake from iodized salt consumed through bouillon seasoning in Senegal
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I am looking for available databases for a standardized list of SOPs. More specifically, I am looking for a standardized SOP for anthocyanin extraction from deepwater rice. This SOP must be for industrial use.
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How much raw materials are required for producing 1 kg of final products for each of the following?
1. Orange jam 2. Orange Jelly 3. Orange Marmalade 4. Tomato sauce 5. green Chilli Sauce 6. Tomato puree 7. Ginger paste 8. Canned pineapple
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Hi there sadhan
search the product you wish and it will give you its composition.
good luck
isaac
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Can anyone help me how to increase the shelf life of suji (sooji). What are the factors affecting shelf life of suji?
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Rava get insect infestation fast .Insect is Tribolium ...we can see eggs...larvae...pupae and adults in Rava...if not properly stored..Any cannot have freezing technology.
Traders ...you get rid of that at your point. A machine I developed recently to crush eggs etc and remove adults..
Soon coming to market.
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I would like to know the exact cleaning and sanitizing procedure for a poultry processing plant. It is mentioned that a mild detergent can be used to clear the protein and fat traces from the work surfaces and equipment which will improve the efficiency of sanitizer used thereafter. Please advise.
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Hi good evening , The temperature of 82 degrees centigrade can be sterilized. How many minutes will it take? Please advise, thank you.
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I would like to know what the highest possible percentage of Protein content within a Green Pea that can be extracted by manufacturing grade equipment? I would appreciate any research paper that can explain this.
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For any solute extraction in a single stage solid-liquid maceration the extraction yield (extracted solute/total solute in solid) depend on solvent/solid ratio (R). The yield tends to one when R tends to infinite. That is, in a single stage solid-liquid maceration increasing R increase yield but the solute extract concentration decrease. At lower R (as example 1) extract concentration may reach saturation but the yield is poor. It is possible to increase yield and extract concentration simultaneously with counter-current multiple extraction stages. All of these concepts are detailed in the paper
Other alternative is a column with a fixed bed of solids with a continuous flow of solvent. In this last case the outlet extract at the beginning of process (when yield is poor) is concentrated (may be saturated), but its concentration decrease continuously with time and solvent consumption increase drastically (yield tends to 1 when time tends to infinite).
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Based on whiteness, nutrition quality, & low water content in dry product. The dryed chips will be milled into flour.
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I think sun drying is best for reducing the cyanide levels in the chips
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Hello,
Can someone tell me how to increase the shelf life of pickles to 6 months to 1 year..?
Below are details
- Should not have artificial preservatives
- Packaging should be glass bottles
- Quality of the product should not deteriorate (Taste and authenticity should remain same)
- Cannot use Retort because it is deteriorating the taste of the product.
Thanks,
Balasubrahmanyam
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The Indian pickle already contains salts, sugar, oil and spices as basic ingredients. These ingredients act as preservatives itself, there is no need for the extra preservatives. Salts and sugar works on the principle of osmotic pressure on microbial cell wall result in disruption and spices acts as antimicrobial agents. The oil layer creates anaerobic conditions in pickles by reducing oxygen supply which may inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the shelf life of the pickles can be enhanced via refrigeration in airtight glass/plastic jar.
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Best drying temperature for pasta.
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CFAD is a by-product of coconut oil refining. Normally it is having blackish colour in nature. So unable use it for industrial purposes due to the colour. I tried with acid activated bentonite powder and activated carbon but didn't get good result.
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try acidified bleaching earth
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Hi,
I made very thin, flat, crispy waffles and im wondering.,,,
how do you measure texture changes of the waffles using texture analyzer, like loss of crispiness or rubbery texture, followed by contact with humidified air?
It's been stored in moist atmosphere for three days, and I'd like to evaluate how much crispiness they lose... Any suggestion please?
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I would use the force (resistance) to break, or the force to shear, or one puncture test and measure one or more of these parameters. A Warner-Bratzler can tell you the resistance do shear, and the other may be measured in a texture analyser or similar equipment. You may also try to measure the crispness, the sound produced by the break in hands or in mouth, but I guess these sensory measurements may be difficult becasue the wafles are very thin.
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Hello Dear Researchers and Professors,
We want to make Khakhara having various fruit flavour. But now as we mix up the fruit powder with the flour it got burnt at the time of roasting and tastes very bad.
So solution is needed for this process, If any other technique or idea is there than please share.
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Thank You@ Marcus Ramdwar
Temperature goes up to 170 degree Celcius while roasting it.
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I will do a research about effect of drying temperature and layer thickness on water yam using randomized block design with 2 factors.
Drying temperature consists of 3 levels and layer thickness consists of 2 levels, so that there are 6 treatment combinations. Each combination is replicated 3 times. The drying will be done using one cabinet dryer.
I have read some literatures that explain blocking is applied on replication. But can I actually block the drying temperature treatment? Because I think blocking the temperature treatment will spend shorter time than blocking the replications.
I really appreciate your responds. Thank you.
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Blocking in experimental design is a technique used to remove variability caused by nuisance factors (factors that have some effect on the experiment but is of no interest to the researcher). Drying temperature and specimen thickness are key factors in your experiment. It is not advisable to use either of them as a blocking factor.
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What is your idea on protein denaturation after microwave or radio frequency heating?
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Hello Macana..."The microwave radiation as such has no detrimental
effect on the protein quality". Proteins treated with ionizing radiation results in cleavage of large protein molecules into smaller ones. Some studies demonstrated both fragmentation and aggregation occurs.
In general, sulfur containing and aromatic acids are the most sensitive to irradiation (Oxidation of the sulfur of thiol (S–H) and disulfide (S–S) groups of amino acids). In aromatic and heterocyclic amino acids, hydroxylation of aromatic ring is the principal reaction.
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After drying phase chage?
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It can go amorphous, if dried below critical moisture or Aw.
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How to modify the recipe of the bread to make it keep good taste quality when frozen and then heat up again ? Is there any specific additives ?
Which kind of oven is the best ?
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Dear Paul,
Concerning recepie, you can add mono gliceryds of fatty acids which create complexes with amylose and slow down retrogradation. Some positive influence has SSL too. You can also add maltogenic amolose wich has positive impact on amylopectin and slows down steeling efficiently.
Talking about oven type - there is no one the best solution. Each type has some adwantages and disadwentages. Ewerything depends on what type of bread do you whant to produce and what is estimated production capacity. More importand are bakeing parameters.
If you whant to produce pre baked bread, one thing is the most important. It is freezing time. It is crucial to the product quality to go down with temperature to -10*C as fast as posible.
Best regards
Konrad Frączek
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I want to make a process in order to improve natural juice conservation
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Dear William,
Please have a look at these useful PDF attachments.
Good luck
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A lot of anti crackers contains aluminum which can eliminate the Ca out of the body
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Osteoporosis results from lack of calcium especially in the bone. Anti crackers eliminates calcium because of its high aluminum content  
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I have extracted cranberry juice and obtained 3000 microSiemense/cm as my electrical conductivity. However, in the literature and in experience the conductivity is 1100 microSiemense/cm. Why this is happening? What are the variables affecting electrical conductivity in this case? Is there any step missing in my processing? I described my process below:
Juice extraction---> depectinization ---> Centrifuge ---> Filteration (micrometer)
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 dear researcher, please find the attach file about Variation in Electrical Conductivity of Selected Fruit Juices
may be help you in this field 
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Looking for recent microbiological studies on High Pressure Processing of foods
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Please en-light me that,Why sea food processing companies are not using gamma irradiation technology for preservation of fish in India while their using this techniques in other agricultural and allied sectors.
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there is a very novel technique called cold plasma processing which can be used to sterilize any food surface without affecting its colour or any other properties i think the file attached will help you  
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there is some materials which called self-regulating or self-controlling temperature materials and used in heating elements (some ceramics which called PTC). is that possible use these materials to make a complex body or wall constant temperature in the presence of water flow?
or do you know any way to apply constant temperature boundary condition on them? by the way body immersed in the fluid flow and I can't use phase changing.
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Dear Mohsen,
You can use Thermoelectric cooling chip for applying almost constant temperature boundary condition which obeys Peltier law; otherwise if it is macro-scale heat exchanger, and you want to apply constant temperature boundary condition on side, you can make kind of  shell and tube heat exchanger. There are lots of articles that you can easily go through.
Kindest regards,
Hamidreza Rastan
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How to cite codex standards at the end of an article?
For example "CODEX STAN. 247, 2005" General standard for fruit juices and nectars. (by APA standard)
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APA
Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2007). Codex alimentarius : cereals, pulses, legumes and vegetable proteins. Rome :World Health Organization : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
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agriculture,
biotechnology
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Dear Raja Murugan
Three common pre-treatment on rice husk are dilute sulfuric acid, dilute sodium hydroxide and heat treatment (autoclaving) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Among them, the best result in one study was obtained when the pretreatment of rice husk was carried out with 3% of NaOH solution.
Please find the attached files.
Regards,
Ramin
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today, im doing project about non thermal technology for milk pasteurization but i'm still confused how to make a system that use low voltages and small energy to get a smart system  
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Hi Ferry: the electric field in PEF technology usually involves 10-30 kV/cm. You need such high voltages to inactivate bacteria and enzymes in liquid and semisolid foodstuffs. The format of short pulses prevent the heating of the sample.
Here is a link to a recent paper on PEF for milk processing
Best regards
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I want to express ABTS in %. I have extracted 5g powder sample in 50 ml water then diluted 100 times. For an example-
ABTS (%)=100-[(O.D of sample/O.D. of control)*100]
Here, O.D of sample= 0.214, O.D. of control= 1.240
So, ABTS (%)= 78.709
                     =78.709*1000 (dilution)
                    =78709
Is it the percentage of ABTS?
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ABTS results can not be expressed in percentage. Instead, it can be expressed in mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g. First,  the calibration curve of ascorbic acid has to prepared and determine the ABTS value of sample. Please refre to the following reference:
Food Hydrocolloids 60 476–485 (2016), 
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As matter of fact, I've been working to produce Doogh (Drink of Iranian dairy products) which it probably could produce from whey instead of yoghurt.
Thanks.
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i am sorry, it was misunderstanding i thought that you may work with dough as i don't know what is Doogh mean??
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Send paper if available
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The above responses are excellent. Following is an additional thought. Dough used to bake bread is an extremely complex semi-solid. Heat and mass transfer must be defined as quasi heat and mass transfer. Dough is aerated, so that, heat and mass transfer across gas cells involves hot water vapor evaporating from one side of a cell and condensing on the opposite side. If bread is baked in a wet steam oven, overall moisture goes up, if in dry air oven, loaf moisture content goes down. Moisture gain and loss (enthalpy loss or gain of phase change) must enter the calculation, if applicable. There are also moisture gradients across the loaf. The reason this is mentioned is that review of work on baking dough into bread may be a fertile source of information for evaluation of heat transfer in semi solid food masses. I do not have literature I can cite. I have not been involved in this field in some years. However, a Google search should be of help.
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I would like to know the effects of storage on the expansion ratio of extruded snack while packed?
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Extruded puffed products are hygroscopic which increase their bulk density over prolonged storage under hostile conditions (open packs/high RH storage/packs with high WVTR). If packed in glass jars/met laminates filled with inert gas, the expansion ratio tend to remain almost same.
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i was measuring the internal temperature of melon during microwave  and oven drying and i noticed that the internal temperature increased withing the first 1 hr as it looses moisture after which it starts to decrease continuously as it continue to loose moisture
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the interpretation of your finding needs the mechanism of microwave heating.
in the early time microwave heat up water and temperature rise. while there is less moisture, MW cannot heat up as it did with higher moisture content.
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While making instant cooked rice, it is desirable to have minimum rehydration time. so which are the factors those to be considered while cooking and drying the rice to make instant cooked rice.
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You need consider porosity of the rice as well. highly porous rice has higher rehydration capacity. 
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Considering the effect of drying temperatures (60, 70, 80, 90 degrees) on the firmness of tomatoes, is it possible to have an increase in the firmness value from 60 to 80 degrees and a sudden decrease at 90 degrees? if yes, what is the reason behind this?
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There is a strong relationship between temperature and physical properties of tomato.
The case  mentioned is completely possible due to both glass transition temperature and bound water concept. Please try to explain your phenomenon in this way. 
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Hydrocolloids may reduce oil absorption but increase water contents. I am searching any other alternatives to reduce oil absorption with low water contents and also increase crispiness during deep fat frying .
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Frying temperature is a limiting factor in fat absorption in fried foods. The right temperature varies according to type of food, 160-180C . the lower temperture the more absorbed fat you get, the higher temperature the less oil absorption and the more crispiness you get but you at high risk of surface burning . So, try the one that fit tour products.  
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We experimented with the use of washing as a pre-drying treatment in the processing of fermented cocoa beans. We observed significant  improvements in the colour, storage and processing of the dried beans. However, we did not perform chemical analysis to determine whether there are major differences between washed and unwashed beans. There is virtually no formal literature related to the washing of cocoa beans during processing.
The opinion of other experts will be extremely helpful to us.
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Washing is a common step after fermentation in purpose to enhance the color, processing and others. however, it also could be use as the step to stop the fermentation process since it remove the pulp from the cocoa beans. Based on our experience in the field, washing is an effective method to stop the fermentation process so that it will not continued during drying process. If it is not washed, the fermentation process will continued during drying process resulted in the continuous chemical changes in cocoa bean. And yes, it will affect the composition of dried cocoa beans.  Depend on drying condition and the duration, it could give you positive result (advantage) or negative result (disadvantage).
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I want to know what are the regulatory guidelines and other legal procedures regarding the set of herbal extraction plant (for isolation of stevia gylcosides from stevia plant)? Currently, we have optimized an economic and robust extraction protocol at small scale, we want to execute the same at large scale, for this if any academician or industrialist is interested for collaboration he/she is more than welcome.
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Hello Subhash,
Stevia and its extract(s) have been approved as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) by FDA since 2008, in the US. You can see the article following the link below. You can see dozens of articles published on its medicinal profiles.
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How to pump the Ice slurry in Plate heat exchanger for cleaning purpose ?
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You can use a lobe or peristaltic pump but be careful that you do not blow out the seals from the heat-exchanger.  
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currently glucose oxidase system is not recommended for egg white during desugarization. however, for egg albumen, bacterial and/or yeast fermentation is used to remove glucose.("Food Biochemistry and Food Processing ,simpson 2012)'. what's the problem with glucose oxidase for egg white?
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Yes, I understand. You ask why? I answered why and further provided a solution if using glucose oxidase to avoid the problem.
Basically, the by product of glucose oxidase is hydrogen peroxide which can contribute to the degradation of the egg protein molecules. Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 has oxidising and reducing properties depending on the conditions... This can aid in protein degradation. It is recommended to use a catalase or peroxidase to break down H2O2 into water.
Hope this makes sense =)
PS. Catalase was not mentioned in question.
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What are the factors responsible for whiteness of Maida (refined wheat flour)?
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wheat variety - bran color -  wheat hardness - milling method - length of roller milling - wheat tempering -  mill flow sheet - mill cleaning diagram - rollers position - extraction rate - and many more if I understand your question 
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Can you guide me for the procedure or method for making a powder of sohphlang?
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Firstly peel off the roots. Then cut the roots into very thin slices and dip in 1 % SMS/KMS  solution and dry under 50 to 55 degrees centigrade by spreding on tray/cabinet dryer until reduce the moisture content < 3%. Then gring them in to flour, seive by a seiver for required particle sizes and store them in an airtight container.
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I'm trying to encapsulate a solution in pectin, but the capsules don't have an uniformed texture... Somebody can give me some idea to make it? 
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You need to make a solution of low methoxy pectin along with the solution you want to encapsulate. It needs to have about 20 % sugar.
When you add calcium ions (solution of calcium salt). The pectin will form a gel. The final mix needs to have about 500 ppm of calcium ions (this number can be less depending on the specific environment)
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I wanted to have ideas on the comparison of different waxes and lacs compounds studied. I appreciate if anyone can share me the resources. Thank you
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Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality, Second Edition
Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Robert Hagenmaier, Jinhe Bai
CRC Press, Aug 24, 2011
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I have sample of chicken meat powder from Europe. It's produced by using spray dry. From physical appearance: very fine powder, just like a common spray dried powder, it's not so free flow and some forms clumps. 
When I dilute it, the solution gives opaque color and contain insoluble particles ( I assumed that this must be the real / dried chicken meat)
Then, it's document listed the ingredients, which are mechanically separated chicken meat (99% min), antioxidant. That's all. 
When I read the documents, I'm so curious how the company made this product, using spray dry, but it seems like without any filler at all. 
Then, I have a project to make a chicken meat powder like this in lab scale spray dry. I used the chicken hydrolysate (TSS 6-7), did some size reduction by using colloid mill. The slurry wasn't centrifuged, because I want to keep the insoluble particles & also the fat. Last, I did the drying process. 
The result was soooo bad (as I expected before). Most of the powder tended to stick on drying chamber and I hardly could get the powder (very low in yield) 
My questions are:
1. Is it really possible to spray dry chicken meat extract without any filler? Just like the chicken meat powder I have, contains min 99% chicken meat? Any tips?
2. How do you usually calculate the meat content in your chicken meat powder? 
For example: I'm spray drying chicken meat slurry which consist of 50% chicken meat hydrolysate (TSS 10) + 30% maltodextrin + the rest is water. The chicken meat hydrolysate is made by using enzymatic hydrolysis. Let's say, I'm using 50% raw chicken meat + 50% water + enzyme.
Is it correct if I calculate it based on the total solid of chicken meat per 100 grams of chicken meat powder ?? 
3. I also tried to spray dry chicken meat powder with additional filler like maltodextrin & modified starch. After weeks or a months, the taste wasn't as good as it was fresh from spray drying. It became a bit rancid. What should I do to fix it? 
4. How do you produce your chicken powder? Is it has long shelf life?
Thank you for your help & suggestions. If you have good references, journals or any other thing related to it, please let me know. I really appreciate it. 
Last, please pardon my bad English. Thanks
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Ms Ardianto,
A number of suggestions and thoughts to your questions.  I'm not an expert in spraying but have done quite a fair amount work in this area in foods and pharmaceutical powders.
(1) I would start with understanding your process conditions.  In spray drying your control of inlet, outlet temperatures and air flow into the chamber are very important.  You might need to have a much higher than expected outlet temperature to ensure that you have enough heat to rapid drive off the moisture.  
(2) Anticaking agents:  there should be some that might work - but you may have to add more than you'd like to or are able  to add on your label.  Below are a few non-sillicates that you might consider. They could be used as an ingredient in the liquid phase prior to spray drying.
microcrystalline cellullose
tricalcium phosphate
magnesium carbonate
magnesium or calcium stearate
rice bran extract
yes - these have no or low water solubility as Harald explained.  All of them might add some potential "off flavors" to your powder.
(3) Calculating meat content - this is a mass balance exercise.  You need to know the dry solids content of your original material.  Assume every dry solid is considered part of the "meat" (even the enzyme hydrolyzed solids).  Most raw muscle tissue is around 70 to 80% moisture.  75% is a good starting point.
(4) Rancidity - yes I agree with Harald - the antioxidants are used to delay the onset of autooxidation (rancidity).  There are many options.  Some work better in some products than others.  Here's a few to consider:
(a) synthesized antioxidants
BHT/BHA (butylated hydroxy toluene/butylated hydroxy anisole)
TBHQ (tert-butyl hydroquinone)
Propylgallate
EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) - a chelator that makes metal ions (especially Fe2+, Cu2+) that catalyzed autooxidation unavailable for reaction.
(b) common food extracted antioxidants
mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols (Vitamin E)
ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
Rosmemary extracts and botanical blends (many available commercially).  You may need to use higher levels to have the same effectiveness as the earlier ones mentioned.
many polyphenolics from foods have some antioxidant properties but may not give you the desired shelf-life.  You'll need to talk to a supplier about what options work well with your food system.
Regulatory approvals are country specific - so be sure to talk to the supplier about your situation.
(5) Sticking to the walls - consider your pH of the slurry material.  Muscle protein has strong moisture binding properties.  If you are closer to the isoelectric point (pI) of the material, you might be able to drive off water more effectively.   At this pH proteins have minimal solubility and water binding ability (not zero, but their minimum)
Best of luck!
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I need research based justification on how fat content of milk decreases as age of the animal increases? by comparing with other milk compositions!
Thank you in Advance!
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The effect of age on milk fat content is less important compared with that on Solids Not Fat (SNF) content, which is more marked. Generally, age of a cow and its milk fat content are inversely related. Accordingly, as cows get older or as parity advances their milk fat content is reported to decrease by about 0.02 to 0.2% per lactation (based on various sources). This is reportedly caused by increasing lactation milk yield as parity advances and related increased incidence of udder infections.
For farther information get connected to the following links:
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There are many concerns about a food safety. Especially milk and juice products, most important contaminants are antibiotics, hormones, bacteria, blood...
Did anyone developed membrane technique or hold a patent for milk processing via membrane technology or filtration, without involving any chemical or thermal treatment and in same way to be effective in contaminant removing and poses antifouling effect?   If you are familiar with juice technology more, please share your insights also, since pesticides and other chemical used in fruit treatment and processing can contaminate juice, and I would like to know if there is any membrane developed to overcome these problems,
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Preventing of residues should be the first priority. End of pipe solutions, like filtration, are usually less efficient and more expensive.
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We want to add a natural preservative for reducing the pH to less than 4.2 before pasteurization. Can anyone help me with what preservatives we can use for the same application. Thank you.
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Dear sir, 
Your major threat in preserving coconut water will be from 2 things,
1. yeast fermentation- pH reduction might help but you do need a preservative that acts against yeast at lowered pH; look for sources of natural preservatives that act against yeast and moulds when pH lowered by using ascorbic acid. And make sure that the natural extracts that you use as preservative are not volatile. we don't want them to evaporate on pasteurization. 
2. Enzymatic browning: antioxidants will help esp. Ascorbate salts or the acid will solve this problem.
currently used preservatives for coconut are sulphites, benzoates and Nisin...
hope it helps 
Jagan Karthik S
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IS anyone familiar with encapsulation of materials in the food industry? I want to encapsulate a water soluble polyphenol with hydrogenated oil by simple hot-melt method. I am also required to determine the encapsulation efficiency. Evaluating the surface phenol and total phenol was the method i used. I tried washing the matrix with water and evaluating the conc. of surface phenol  but the oil seems to be contaminating the water fraction thereby exaggerating my results. I though water, being miscible with oil would work. Anybody to help? 
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I have used hot melt encapsulation to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles. Are you preparing water-in-oil emulsion? and why are you using hot melt encapsulation if you have no solid component which need to be melt.
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How can we 'Investigate the Competitiveness of Supply Chain practices in Perishable Food Processing Industries', And What are the Factors affecting the Competitiveness of Food Processing Industry like Dairy, Meat, Poultry, Bakery etc.
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Sincerely,
Rahul S Mor
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Search for the report 'Competitiveness of the European Food Industry; An economic and legal assessment' from Wijnands, Van der Meulen and Poppe, published by the European Commission in 2007.
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How they work as bi-layers for coating fruits?
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article link, which will provide free access  is valid  until January 10, 2016
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Is the ALOx (Alumina), which is coated to polyester layer in flexible retortable packaging instead of Aluminum layer?
Is it multi-layer itself? Can it coated to every type of film?
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Yes,,,currently...there are many commercialized retort pouch and food packaging using nano-AlOx for barrier. AlOx can replace traditional Alu-layer. The benefit is transparent layer while maintain the barrier properties.
At present, there are two main vacuum deposition processes used for the production of AlOx clear barrier coating. These are:
a. Reactive thermal evaporation of aluminium with oxygen.
b. Plasma assisted deposition.
You can surf from google, there are many based-film can be applied.
** this below article studied about  comparing the performace of traditional retort pouch and AlOx/PET for salmon. Wish you find the answer ^^
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My hemicellulose extraction step;
1) defatted rice bran
2) destarch by amylase (termamyl)
3) deprotein by NaOH at pH 11 
4) alkali treatment for hemicellulose extraction by 1.25 N of NaOH for 24 hr at room temp. Then the supernatant was adjust to pH 4.8. The resides was not recover. Then 3 volume of EtOH 95% add for precipitation hemicellulose.
5) 3% of extracted hemicellulose of 10 ml mix with endo-xyalanse from Neocallimastix 
Please recommend me, there is any step was wrong or not?
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Dear, Jaichakan!
First of all I suppose that you should't use 95% EtOH before the hydrolysis, because as you know all kind of enzymes are proteins, by this reason the hydrolysis does't happen, it is leads to denaturation of enzymes.
The second you have to be sure that your 3% of extract has the same pH value like in supernatant, otherwise the enzyme will not works properly!
The third aspect of enzymatic treatment is that you should ensure the optimal conditions for splitting of hemicellulose. In this respect you should provide an appropriate temperature for hydrolysis. You should take a look on the specification of your enzyme, I mean activity, incubation temperature, time, substrate pH etc.
My advice to you omit the precipitation of hemicellulose using by 95% EtOH, add directly enzyme to your substrate. After the hydrolysis do not forget inactivate the enzyme by heating.
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We ensilaged alfalfa at 23-25% dry matter in plastic bags. The plastic bags were bloated in first two days of ensilage. Can we have unspoiled ensilage after 60 days?
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Mr. Ali,
If you noted that after 2 days and took the action to correct, you probably won't have big problems... Let us know the results!!!
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I determined the humidity content of an acuous herbal extract with a thermobalance. The result was 88.76 %. this result means: 1) the extract had 88.76 grams of water per 100 grams of solution or 2) there was 88.76 grams of water per 100 ml of solution. I think the correct one is 1), but a colleague says it's 2). Please help.
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Yeah, you are right, the first answer is right, and i completely agree with Michael Päch and Mihai Ognean. Good luck 
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Could you give me a method in order to producing of a ""white"" dried mushroom powder "without" sodium bisulfite or other chemical materials?
mushrooms have very unstable colour, so during the drying process (eventually due to oxygen /hot air in tray drier) their colour immediately change to black. 
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In my opinion to prevent browning or darkening of mushroom slices you may soak them in 0.5% ascorbic acid( promptly after cutting )for a few minutes, then steam blanching the slices at 85-95 degrees Centigrade for one minute and finally vacuum or freeze drying to 5% final moisture content before grinding to powder.
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One day I learned about browning and how to dry fresh bamboo shoots. I was surprised by an idea to dry fresh bamboo in modified air. Is there any further information about modified atmosphere drying? Thank you in advance
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ohh i see. very few article about MAD, may it is more in heat pump drying system. Thank you for the information
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how to prevent sedimentation in fruit beverages when they are enriched with whey protein concentrate and isolate
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If this beverage is acid, say the pH of which is around 4.5 or below, you can use polysaccharide whose surface carry negative charge like pectin/ Soy Protein Polysaccharide and so on 
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Usually, major components are mainly responsible for the biological effects; however, there are some studies where whole mixture has a higher activity than the combination of the major isolated components, indicating that minor components are critical to the activity, probably by producing a synergistic effect (Burt S (2004) Int J Food Microbiol 94:223; Mastelic J, Politeo O, Jerkovic I, Radosevic N (2005) Chem Nat Compd 41:35).
I am interested in positive biological effect (e.g. growth promotion) of a plant extract. It could be feasible to replace the plant extract with one (or very few) components (synthetic), gathering the same statistically significant biological effects.
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In aromatic plants, essential oils and their isolated compounds showed individual as well as synergistic effects depending on the composition. In some cases whole essential oil was more active while in others isolated compounds were more active.
Considering that synthetic compounds may lead to side effects, plant-based extracts or pure compounds are more safe, environment and people-friendly.
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I am consistently running into issues with uneven final temperatures of a turkey breast product.  How large would you expect the stagnation region to be with a 40" wide belt and slot jets only below the product?
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This cannot be answered unless you put T recorders in each breast  and record the T-t history. Modeling would require breast size i.e. half thickness" x"  as time is a function of half thickness squared, steam flow rate, belt speed, # breasts across the 40" wide belt, initial turkey center breast temperature, and desired end-point e.g. 165°F, air/steam across the wig=dth od the belt. temperature profile   he Temp profile at the center follows a Loge profile where Ln[(Tsteam -T)/(Tsteam-Tinitial)] =(a/x^2) where a is the thermal diiffusivity of wet breast (can be found in most Food Engineering text books) , x is half thickness at the thickest portion of the breast, and T is the temperature at that slowest point as a function of t time. A big concern is that breast size is a great variable so a twice as thick breast will take 4 time longer to hit the desired kill temperature e.g. 165°F for Salmonellae.. You have a great Food Engineeringg faculty at NCS that should be able to help you on this problem 
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I have to maintain a room according to 1 LAKH classification. What all check/testing should i do on regular basis? And can I use exhaust fan in this room.
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I am pleased to agree with above said both respectives, but at the same time you must check the return air(air vent) pressure and final filter efficiency. Meanwhile you have to check the microbial count periodically by open plate method/air sampler method.
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Dear Friends, 
I am doing the work analysis of  Dithiocarbamate in rice by reference EU SRM method SnCl2/HCl hydrolysis method. I have some observation here
1). Dithiocarbamate determine as CS2 release after  acid hydrolysis.
2). DTCs are the group of some compound (Thiram, Ferbam,  Maneb, Mancozeb, Propineb, Ziram, Zineb, Metiram, Nabam.) 
3) All DTCs released CS2 after acid hydrolysis.
But some time I want to analysis DTCs But I have only Thiram, Maneb, Zineb and Mancozeb. than how Can analysed All DTCs?
Same if we wanna analysed only single DTC as Thiram than How Can determine thiram only from group of DTCs?
Please suggest your valuable comments.
Thanks & Regards,
Rakesh Kumar Sondhiya 
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You'd better find the  precipitation or color of CS2 by chemical reaction, then you can detect it.
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Traditionally agricultural/horticultural crops, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants and other plant products are dried in shade or Sun. Subsequently hot-air oven drying, solar drier drying, cross-flow drying, through-flow drying, vacuum shelf drying etc. techniques have been employed. Recently microwave drying, freeze drying, infrared or inert gas drying and combo drying techniques have also been used. What other methods are in practice and what are their advantages and disadvantages?  
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I agree with Jasim Ahmed and Agnieszka. Drying of agricultural produce depends on its market value. We have dried aloe vera cube under freeze dryer but the output is very less. Freeze drying maintain the quality of product but costly in operation. In my opinion shade drying with circulation of hot air below 45 degree Celsius temperature best suited for medicinal plants.
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Hello colleagues
Are there any studies on what drives diet changes in the case of urbanization? Meat and wheat (bread) are up in Dakar and Dar Es Salaam compared with rural areas, but what is the driver? Higher average income? Is the fact that bread is just bought from a shop (most of the time) and does not require any preparation (such as cooking) a factor? What is the situation outside of Africa, e.g. Thailand, India? Is there any reason to suspect that increasing urbanization rates in China (65% projected for China) will be accompanied by an increase of bread consumption?
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aflatoxin contaminated food reported as canceriogenic products,andthis but altof constrain in importa and export of agricultural food products.sperggilus fung is the main producer of this toxic proteins, however spergilus density incresed in contaminated un healthy ecological soil.is there any relation beteween the density of this micro organisms?as an example in groundnuts farms , what is the role of rizobactor in minimizing or preventing aflatoxin in these ecological areas ?
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could you give more details on itis interaction?
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I want to know polymers used with ZnO nano-particles in food packaging by electrospinning method for meat packaging 
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I know that PLLA has been used and it showed promising results.
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Are there any criteria within the powdered beverage industry for the water vapor permeability values for the packaging of dried powdered beverages, like milk powder?
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To be specific about milk solids, we need to retain the nutritive value of milk solids. Hence, the product must be stored at low temperature and packaged to minimize penetration of water vapor. A number of recommendations are used for storage purposes and one is that Non-fat dry milk should be packaged in materials no less protective than 50-100 weight Kraft paper bags with polyethylene liners. besides the Water vapor permeability should not exceed 0.35 gram per 100 square inches (645 cm2) at 100°F (38°C) and 90% relative humidity.
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I am especially interested in the influence of coating application techniques and drying. Looking forward to your comments!
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Hi Ida, I read your comment on the use of fiber in oil reduction during frying. I am currently working on the use of fibre to reduce oil uptake in a deep fried product. Please can I get a link to download the article of the work you previusly did? Thanks.
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The extraction methods for chromatographic analysis always involve the use of some solvents. But for analyses like NMR, IR or MS the solvents present in extract can interfere the main compounds and may give rise to some unwanted signals. How can we improve the extraction method to get rid of this problem?
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extraction as explained above after encapsulating targeted component 
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Am looking for article or journal specifically into the hospitality food and beverage supply chain management.
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Hello,
you can see what I wrote about the logistics of a hospital, but I do not speak of the food chain.
I hope to help you
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In an industrial grade sodium alginate what kind of impurities may be present?
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Due to the natural extraction process used to obtain alginate, there are many impurities that may potentially contaminate the product. These impurities include heavy metals, endotoxin, protiens, carbohygrates, and polyphenals contained in the kelp. When harvested alginate is used in food and drug industries small traces of theses impurities are acceptable, but when it comes to medicinal applications they must be removed. New methods of harvesting and purification have been developed to address the problem of contamination, and now pharmaceutical grade alginate is available from numerous chemical manufacturers.
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I have gone through many research papers where authors do have explained to theoretically calculate the surface temperature of fruits or vegetables for solar drying operation but couldn't get any credible source of information of how to experimentally determine the surface temperature during solar drying operation. 
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You can try with an IR thermometer. Is very simple and easy to use.
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I would like to know the effect of process parameters like moisture, temperature, screw speed etc on the antioxidant activity of extruded snack products.
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Dear Sajad,
We have a paper related to your question, please check this:
M. T. Masatcioglu, E. Yalcin, Mihwan Kim, Gi-Hyung Ryu, S. Celik, H. Koksel 2013. Physical and chemical properties of tomato, green tea and ginseng-supplemented corn extrudates produced by conventional extrusion and CO2 injection process. European Food Research and Technology, Vol.237, Number 5/November, p. 801-809.
I am also sending the paper at the attachment, I hope that it can help you,
Dr.Erkan Yalcin
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We are studying the influence of parboiling (rice) and blanching (cassava) on the physical properties of their respective flours.
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It depends on many factors.  Starch is paracrystaline.  So, lack of birefringence is an indicator of gelatination.  You could make a slurry and observe under polarized light.  Compare this to standard flour.  If only 20% or less granules exhibit the polarization cross, it is considered gelatinized.
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Can anyone indicate me new and emerging physical technologies to preserve fresh fruits or vegetables?
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Hello,
I wrote a papper comparing new and "old" technologies about that subject.. I hope it helps.
Regards.
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I made a product called legume milk-pumpkin juice which is a similar product as soy milk but using combination of jack bean, soy bean, and winged bean. The milk is also added with pumpkin juice to increase the vitamin A value. However, there is separation and sedimentation happening to the beverage when using kappa carrageenan alone as a stabilizer. 
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The pH of the hydrocolloids mixtures must be considered for maximum effect.
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Sterols are the minor but nutritionally important components in edible oils. They are lost during edible oil refining. However, I observed a slight increase in some of the sterols during olive oil bleaching.
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Dear Dilmi,
Your English is very good my friend! :)
Animal oil cholesterol content is much more than that in veg. oils, but as I told you before, we can find some in veg. oils too. (you can find more information in Bailey's book).
And according to that reference, there is an veg. oil I think it was Camelina oil (or sth like that) which is a high cholesterol content veg. oil!
Thank you for participating in my question,
Best wishes for new year,
Sara