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is calcium necessary for the activation of alpha amylase emzymes? does it increase the efficiency of alpha amylase?
Food process
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The enzymatic activity of the amylase being increased in significant proportions and prolonged for several weeks when the amylase and the calcium salt are present at defined relative concentrations. While the activation of this enzyme depends mainly on the temperature and pH of the reaction medium.
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is there any commercialized cold plasma based method for processing foods(like nuts) to eliminate toxic compounds?
by commercialized I mean a role to role or any type of system that can process a very large amount of nuts
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EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD AGAINST AFLATOXINS IN NUTS
Researchers have tested various methods to prevent the development of mycotoxins. The application of the yeast Pichia anomala to prevent their development in nuts and maize crops is currently being studied. This method is non-toxic and could even be used in organic farming.
Tests have been carried out in a pistachio plantation in California (USA). The experts sprayed some trees with the yeast Pichia anomala and others without. The results were enlightening, as the sprayed trees inhibited the frequency of occurrence of Aspergillus flavus on pistachio nuts by 97%, compared to the unsprayed trees.
It has also been shown to be effective on harvested and stored nuts. Furthermore, the use of the yeast is confirmed to be very versatile, as it has also proven effective in protecting other crops against at least six species of microorganisms that could alter characteristics such as taste, texture, yield and food safety, including the pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is considered responsible for grey mould in grapes.
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I would like to inquire on how to model the energy produced in an Anaerobic Digestor if it is fed with food waste resulting from Protein Extraction plants and other food processing plants? What should I be looking for in the waste stream in terms of chemical composition? What formulae could be used?
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Dear Jack Rizvi ,
Hope you are doing great. I have been studying on the anaerobic digestion process and bio-digester for a couple of years; The most detailed model to estimate the amount of biogas is the ADM1 model without a shadow of a doubt, but if you do not need the exact amount of the produced biogas you won't need this model since it is quite complicated and requires detailed information that might not be found much easily. Besides the ADM1 model, the most accurate results would be obtained by conducting an experiment and measuring the amount of the produced biogas, afterwards you could measure the calorific value of the biogas yield.
Raegards
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In recent years, agricultural experts on our planet say that we lose 24 billion tonnes of soil each year due to soil contamination. It is believed that in the last 100 years we have lost 1/3 of the top layer of arable soil worldwide. As much as 52% of the land used for agriculture on our planet is severely affected by soil degradation. As a result of soil degradation, it is assumed that as many as 1.5 billion people in the world will feel it in the form of poorer access to food and will be forced to eat a low-quality diet. We observe a large increase in food prices in the 21st century, both for agricultural products such as cereals, coffee, cocoa, tea, etc. and highly processed food sold in retail stores. Are we threatened with a deficit of food and water for the so-called south of the planet and the increasingly acute social problems associated with crises of hunger, migration of people from countries with arid soil and food shortages to the richer northern countries with food surpluses? Or maybe we will produce food in bio-factories in the form of cloned meat parts? What do you think?
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It’s very crucial issue that needs the macro-policies of government, the global determination, and even the strict actions.
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  • Anyone ever scaled up from Brabender twin screw extruder to a Buhler one?
  • What are the scaling constants to consider?
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About several parameters that may possibly influence extrusion of ceramic pastes, you may check answers to another question at this forum ̶ «What are the most important parameters controlling the extrusion of pastes?»: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_the_most_important_parameters_controlling_the_extrusion_of_pastes
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There are a basic guideline for hard and sharp physical contaminant in food processing under FDA control where if it is <7mm, it is considered harmless but 7mm-25mm it is considered adulterated. Paper remaining are identified as a potential hazard in food packaging manufacturing yet the control not applicable as it is rather a soft material but in a significant size, could potentially cause choking. Any insights on this?
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I think @Chinaza Godswill Awuchi has captured it well.
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I am helping a local home industry for developing frozen fries from their local farm. I want to know what is the optimum blanching and pre-frying temperature and time for processing. Please also keep in mind that this is home industry and have limitation for high temperature. also if anyone have a manual book, journal or procedure for frozen fries processing it will be very helpful.
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I'm now developing a salted and pickled mustard leaves which would be better with yellow appearanc. But heating and acid treatment just make the leaves tuned into a dull-green color (it might be the color of pheophytin ). Could any one give me some guidance about how to remove chlorophyll derivatives in pickle leaves?
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For determining the amount of chlorophyll in leaves, we usually use some kind of alcohol to delute it. Mostly 10% ethyl alcohol. Maybe an alcoholic washing can help you. And in addition alcohol strengthen the cell walls, preservinging the leaves' firmness.
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Which technique would be best suited to determine the composition of organic or bio-based slurry from the food processing plant. The waste could be in dry form or slurry form which techniques would be best to use in either case.?
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Electroporation (reversible and irreversible) is widely used in different applications of food processing such as pasteurization, extraction, freezing , dehydration, bio-active compounds recovery and so on. Which type of electroporation is used in different food processing applications.
Regards
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How much raw materials are required for producing 1 kg of final products for each of the following?
1. Orange jam 2. Orange Jelly 3. Orange Marmalade 4. Tomato sauce 5. green Chilli Sauce 6. Tomato puree 7. Ginger paste 8. Canned pineapple
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Hi there sadhan
search the product you wish and it will give you its composition.
good luck
isaac
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Based on whiteness, nutrition quality, & low water content in dry product. The dryed chips will be milled into flour.
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I think sun drying is best for reducing the cyanide levels in the chips
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Hello,
Can someone tell me how to increase the shelf life of pickles to 6 months to 1 year..?
Below are details
- Should not have artificial preservatives
- Packaging should be glass bottles
- Quality of the product should not deteriorate (Taste and authenticity should remain same)
- Cannot use Retort because it is deteriorating the taste of the product.
Thanks,
Balasubrahmanyam
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The Indian pickle already contains salts, sugar, oil and spices as basic ingredients. These ingredients act as preservatives itself, there is no need for the extra preservatives. Salts and sugar works on the principle of osmotic pressure on microbial cell wall result in disruption and spices acts as antimicrobial agents. The oil layer creates anaerobic conditions in pickles by reducing oxygen supply which may inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the shelf life of the pickles can be enhanced via refrigeration in airtight glass/plastic jar.
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my thesis title is "utilization of smartphone applications in teaching food processing"..i still can't figure out if this is qualitative or quantitative..anyone who can help me?
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Theoretical framework in a study is based on an existing theory or theories (e.g., a theory of planned behaviour). The conceptual framework, on the other hand, is something you can develop yourself based on this theory.
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Sea weed foods are processed and consumed in Japan ,considered to be vegan and healthy
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Dear Satish Narula,
Hello
I've never tried seaweed in fermented foods but it sounds a good idea.
Recently we worked on the development of a very nutritive sweet-and-sour food using shiitake mushroom and wakame sea weed (plus carrots and sesame seeds) and also one of our students developed an interesting pineapple marmelade with wakame seaweed.
Seaweeds like wakame and mushrooms like shiitake are not commonly eaten in Costa Rica and actually most people do not even know them. So we are now developing foods containing them but taking into account sensorial preferences of Costa Ricans. That has been a tough work.
Thank you for your interest.
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Best drying temperature for pasta.
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In a food processor, is there any relation between the rpm and the shear force induced on solid pieces or particles? Are there any good resources that tackle the issue of designing a food processor or modeling its behavior? Such as vortex effect, stresses on blade, fluid dynamics and optimal geometry.
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As a first approximation you may treat the problem as a rotational liquid rigid body motion taking a high viscosity value. There is such a mathematical model in Fluid Mechanics textbooks. You may look for such equivalent viscosity to work with (if any).
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Hi,
I made very thin, flat, crispy waffles and im wondering.,,,
how do you measure texture changes of the waffles using texture analyzer, like loss of crispiness or rubbery texture, followed by contact with humidified air?
It's been stored in moist atmosphere for three days, and I'd like to evaluate how much crispiness they lose... Any suggestion please?
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I would use the force (resistance) to break, or the force to shear, or one puncture test and measure one or more of these parameters. A Warner-Bratzler can tell you the resistance do shear, and the other may be measured in a texture analyser or similar equipment. You may also try to measure the crispness, the sound produced by the break in hands or in mouth, but I guess these sensory measurements may be difficult becasue the wafles are very thin.
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Which method of food processing would be best for retaining nutrition in belnderized food so that its shelf life increases?
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Dear Swagata
Blendering will bring air/oxygen into the solution and any micro-organisms present will be spread through the whole mixture.
Thus oxidation/rancidity and microbial growth are the main threats in my opinion. The measures to prevent or minimize those are essential.
Modified atmosphere is used in the food industry in some cases, but that will be not very practical/economical in household circumstances.
Thus starting with clean materials and working hygienically are the first steps. Pasteurization is sometimes an option, adding anti-oxidants or antibacterial substances may be unavoidable sometimes.
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Unlike other non-food innovations, food materials remain the same ,coming from nature / agriculture, so what thought can one hold about new generation with nature's produce ? Do we mean innovating new proteins, so far the same amino acids structure any protein since centuries.The idea even of introducing new generation in foods sounds unhealthy. So far food safety, food hygiene, food processing or now food security have did come with new approaches / ideas/innovations but adding new generation in foods does not make any sound /good sense to me. What is basic definition of food ? Once we make it clear then automatically we may disagree to adding new generation into the basic definition.
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I hold reservations on the statement of Fatima Faiq. Nature always works towards harmony and balance. Its way leads towards produce which is required as well as rectified in plants, foods, agricultural products etc.which,therefore, cannot be harmful. Natural toxic or poisonous plants are well known to living things on earth and all these have their benefits and uses on earth.Even if we humans are trying to change genes for commercial purposes, the processes of natural growth of plants applies rectifying mechanisms to align with nature habitat. So, whatever noval foods science plan, the basic human food components will remain the same. I stand on my point.
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We are going to develop a new animated video on the CE and this time the target is the food industry. Please share any reference or interested party.
Just as a reminder, this is the sort of video productions we made so far. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBnnERfX7nQPP3usECG2ve2vpczk__Zub
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Yes Dave, we are not trying to sell videos here! I am after a content-partner. A well established organization with wide knowledge in the industry, who is interested in helping out to create a dense text of 800-1,000 words for our video. To give you an example, this would have been a good partner for us to have https://circulareconomy.fooddrinkeurope.eu/ Does your company have this sort of comprehensive understanding of CE in food?
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I need to write a python code for in-line digital image analysis. Maybe connecting a raspberry pi environment. All ideas are welcome.
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Hi,
look at this python wrapper package for OpenCV https://pypi.org/project/opencv-python/
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I need a standart of 2-AP (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) for analisis in GC/MS. Anyone ever synthesized this compound?
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Hi guys,
I was wondering if smoking fresh garlic bulbs over a smoldering fire (just to give the smoky flavor to the garlic, outside skin turning black but inside cloves remaining raw) can be used as a preservation method to extent its shelf life.
Thank you
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Smoking causes deposition of some phenolics and flavonoids compounds generated in the thermal breakdown of woods which poses preservative properties.
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Hello Dear Researchers and Professors,
We want to make Khakhara having various fruit flavour. But now as we mix up the fruit powder with the flour it got burnt at the time of roasting and tastes very bad.
So solution is needed for this process, If any other technique or idea is there than please share.
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Thank You@ Marcus Ramdwar
Temperature goes up to 170 degree Celcius while roasting it.
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The price of aged Basmati rice (Often sold by the well known wholesalers like Daawat, Indiagate, Lalmahal etc) is quiet higher (3 to 4 times) than the freshly harvested rice in the Indian market, as natural ageing enhance and intensify its taste, aroma, and cooking characteristics.
So should we recommend farmers to keep a part of their produce, and sell it later for getting higher value ?
& what are the ways to store these grains for long term at farmer's place without their quality being deteriorated?
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Respected Dr Saab Manpreet Jaidka
I think we are well aware of these facts and figures,
& also knowing that rice-wheat cropping system is deep rooted extensively in a major geographical area of both Haryana and Punjab.
But my main concern was that, what our universities should recommend to the farmers regarding this, so that a considerable portion goes into the pockets of farmers, rather than some other stakeholders who just sit in their Air Conditioned premises whole day, stealing the shares of farmers.
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Lot of food items are wasted out of the amount produced in agriculture farm/ orchards to the amount consumed. Wastage may be during harvesting, food processing, transporting at various stages, spoilage etc.
In your opinion, what methods & techniques may be useful to reduce wastage of the food at various stages?
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Running a foodservice operation requires a lot of thinking. You have to order ingredients on time, balance your finances, and manage your staff amidst a world of other concerns. As important as it is to consider what food you’re making, it’s equally important to think about what happens to food that’s left uneaten. According to Feeding America, America produces an estimated 70 billion tons of food waste each year.
This is something your customers care about, as demonstrated by food waste statistics. A study by Unilever, revealed that 72% of U.S. diners said that they care about how food waste is handled. 47% are concerned enough that they would be willing to spend more money to eat at a place that actively tries to reduce its food waste production. This makes it all the more important to find ways of reducing food waste in America.
What is a Food Waste Audit?
The first step to reducing waste is to find out how much you’re wasting to begin with and what kind of waste your establishment is producing. The primary goal of a waste audit is to identify where your operation's waste comes from, so you can then find ways to reduce it.
How to Conduct a Food Waste Audit
There are two main factors to take into account as you track your food waste. You need to consider how much food is being wasted and how many people are coming through your restaurant. By gathering data for both of these variables, you can get a better sense of what your biggest source of waste is.
Food log system
Provide your staff with a simple sheet of paper where they can keep track of what's being thrown out, why it's being thrown out, and how much is wasted. As an alternative, there are waste tracking systems like LeanPath that use a specially designed scale with touch screen terminal and computer software to track how much food you're throwing out without the hassle of a pencil and paper.
Also, be sure to keep a second log system for post-consumer waste, or food customers pay for but don’t eat. This type of waste is much more difficult to control because, ultimately, if that toddler at table 3 doesn't want the broccoli his mom ordered for him, odds are good that you're going to get it back, untouched, when they leave. Still, it's well worth evaluating what is being thrown out and how much this amounts to. Gathering as much data as feasibly possible will only help you when it comes time to evaluate the results and make changes to how your operation handles food waste.
Traffic log system
Another common tool that many restaurants use is a daily log of how much traffic the restaurant received and what the weather was like. For example, a log may show that 280 guests were served on the Friday before Christmas and the weather was 50 degrees and sunny. While this data may not seem useful right away, it’s immensely helpful when it comes to planning for the following year’s customer volume. If chefs can get a baseline of how much traffic to expect, based on the previous year’s findings, they will have a better sense of how much food to order. As years go by, this data becomes more and more valuable because the trends become clearer. Many POS systems feature daily log capabilities, so it’s definitely something to look for when you choose a POS for your business.
Seek Food Waste Solutions
Once you know what’s being wasted, talk to your staff and try to think of ways to improve. What are the biggest contributors to food waste in your kitchen? Why are specific items thrown out? These are the questions that should be in the back of your mind as you look at the data.
An easy way to think about next steps is to break up your waste types into three categories:
Pre-consumer waste - food that doesn’t even leave the kitchen
Post-consumer waste - food that’s purchased by a customer, but not eaten
Disposables - things like paper goods, plastic utensils, and packaging
Next, consider the following options and determine which ways make the most sense to implement as solutions to each type of waste:
Ways to Reduce Pre-Consumer Food Waste
Pre-consumer waste is the area where you likely have the most opportunity for positive change because there are many factors within your control when it comes to ordering, storing, and prepping your ingredients as well as how you handle surplus ingredients.
Evaluate inventory - If you find that food sits around too long in storage, make sure you’re not ordering too much.
Maximize shelf life - If ingredients you need are going bad before you have a chance to use them, make sure perishables are being properly stored so that you’re not wasting ingredients before they are even cooked.
Find ways of repurposing ingredients - Try making day-old bread into croutons, or put leftover turkey meat into a soup. Similarly, an innovative chef will be able to transform excess ingredients into a daily special.
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Dear Fellow researcher -
I read in several journal that I found that in order to prevent the crystallization in the cane syrup during storage, there is a specific sugar profile that related with max sucrose content or min invert sugar within the syrup. Unfortunately the number or range in each article is different, there are the one that mentioned the sucrose content should be 40% max, and the invert sugar should be 10-15%.
Is there anyone that can give insight in regard with this subject?
FYI, the sucrose content in my cane syrup is 50-53%,
Best regards,
Tassa
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Dear Tassa,
I doubt that there is clear solution for your problem. In non-equlibrium experiments the results are often very much depending on small variations in the set-up. State diagramms imply that bthe result is independant of the way you take to go from start to end point. In reality this may be true if you have infinite time to wait for equilibrium and you do not move through areas off non reversible changes.
The following arcticle will not solve your problem, but may help anyway:
"Crystallization of the supersaturated sucrose solutions in the presence of fructose, glucose and corn syrup" http://folk.ntnu.no/skoge/prost/proceedings/ecce6_sep07/upload/4066
Best regards,
Harald
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We are trying to determine the physical characteristics of cooked idli.
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Tie Idli with a knot. Weigh it on weighing balance. Place a jar full of water on weighing balance. Tare the weight . Make idli float with help of knot (Insignificant volume ) . Measure the weight . by dividing these two weights you can get density of Idli very quickly
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I need to prepare juice from frozen fruits for pasteurization and plasma studies and its effect on nutritional attributes. I use juice extractor and then centrifuge the extract to have a clear juice. The problem is the value of juice electrical conductivity using my method (around 0.27 S/m) is much higher than what is reported in the literature ( 0.1 S/m). What extra step is required to reduce the electrical conductivity ?
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In some parts of Nigeria, the indigenous people reduce the cooking time of dry legumes (beans etc.) by adding certain leaves during cooking. What phytoconstituents could be responsible for this action, and through which mechanism?
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Dr. Romain Fouelefack, the local people add leaves of certain medicinal plants to make their dry beans soft in a shorter time as they can't afford pressure cookers.
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I am interested in grinding wheel technology for food grinding application. The targeted materials to be grind are spices, cereal grains, pulses and other similar stuff.
The grinding wheel should hold good for both dry and wet grinding.
The material for the grinding wheel should be food grade.
Please suggest what are the best material options available, along with their properties(and supporting reference literature).
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If your assumption that one stone material is best for all uniform food end-products (wet and dry spices, grains, pulses, hardness, fibrous, oil content, final particle size, coursing, etc.), you likely are on the wrong track. For example, even Neolithic Chinese used a diversity of stones. (See http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2603&context=smhpapers.) One time I started a millet mill and found even handling is different for each product before and after processing. Even moisture content and stored temperature affects the process. Consider researching sources and consulting suppliers of grinding stones. Here are just a few http://www.sharadenterprises.com/food-processing-machinery.html; https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/grinding-stone-for-food-processing-machinery_60561594294.html?spm=a2700.7724857.main07.15.7a7049accVqDsJ&s=p; andhttps://www.indiamart.com/djengineering-coimbatore/wet-grinder-stone.html.
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I need a clarification on how does the water activity functions for the dried products especially leaf products, and also I need to know whether the size and shape of the products play a major role in the water activity determination. Also I need to know whether the isotherm changes for different temperature and humidity conditions.
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For dried leafy vegetables, the aw depends upon type of drying (e.g. freeze-drying or tray-drying), and the humidity. We did lot of works on leafy vegetables drying, you can consult some of our papers (mint leaves, coriander leaves etc.). The aw should be below 0.15.
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What is the types of bioantioxidants? What is the stability bioantioxidants during food processing?
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Generally, natural antioxidants have a slight lower antioxidant capacity compared to the syntetic ones. However, they are expected to be more accepted by the consumer, and they can be recovered by a wide range of natural sources, even from food processing by-products (e.g. olive oil production, wine production, etc.), so there would be benefits from the food industry and the environment.
I believe this aspect should be fostered more by scientists to demonostrate the benefit of using natural antioxidants, for example polyphenols. Please check my publications and my review paper for further information.
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What is your idea on protein denaturation after microwave or radio frequency heating?
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Hello Macana..."The microwave radiation as such has no detrimental
effect on the protein quality". Proteins treated with ionizing radiation results in cleavage of large protein molecules into smaller ones. Some studies demonstrated both fragmentation and aggregation occurs.
In general, sulfur containing and aromatic acids are the most sensitive to irradiation (Oxidation of the sulfur of thiol (S–H) and disulfide (S–S) groups of amino acids). In aromatic and heterocyclic amino acids, hydroxylation of aromatic ring is the principal reaction.
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Dear Fellow Researcher
Anyone in here have experience in conduct GI analysis in cane juice, cane syrup and molasses? There are few article that mentioned the cane juice and syrup is a LOW GI, which is 43 and 55 due to the other nutrient content in the product such as PP and Fiber, but per today I can't find any structured journal or research that can back up this GI number.
It would be great if anyone can share me his/her knowledge on this subject. Thanks in advance!
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Hi Mohamed Morsy - thank you for the link, but yes these are the one that i have found and refer to before but I doubt the credibility of the information that being stated in these 2 article, as example they mentioned the coconut sugar as 35, while actually is not 35 (i have experience for 6.5 years working with coconut sugar). And in this article also not mentioned any scientific literature or scientific reference related with the source of this number. Thanks anyway!
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I like to document the elements present in my fruit sample. Came to know about this EDX spectroscopy and hope it will serve my purpose. My question is whether a single run itself will give a spectrum with all elements which are present in the sample? And how estimation of each elements is done?
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Purple sweet potato properties
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The study was to provide the theoretical basis for development and utilization of pigment from purple sweet potato.[Method] With purple sweet potato variety Chuanshanzi as the material,the basic physicochemical property of its pigment and the effects of pH value,temperature,light,oxidant and reductant and metal ions on the stability of pigment were studied.[Result] The pigment from purple sweet potato was easily soluble in water,methanol and ethanol,but insoluble in acetone,ethyl acetate,ether,and petroleum ether.When the pH value of aqueous solution of pigment from purple sweet potato was 1.0-3.0,the properties of the pigment was stable,bright red,and with the increase of pH value,the pigment colour became shallower,and its degradation index increased.When the temperature was 20-60 ℃,the properties of the pigment was stable,and when the temperature was over 60 ℃,the stability of the pigment was decreased rapidly.The effects of light on stability of pigment was little,after 8 d continuous irradiation,the preservation rate of pigment was 87%.The oxidative resistance and resistance of ascorbic acid reducing power was poor.Al3+ and Zn2+had an effect of protecting the color of pigment,and could improve the stability of the pigment,but Fe3+ had a destructive effect.[Conclusion] The pigment from purple sweet potato was a kind of water-soluble natural pigment,and its main composition was anthocyanin substances.
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Plasma treatment which is done in a vacuum chamber suffer many problems, therefor the advancement in technologies, researchers have come up with more developed technique such as atmospheric pressure plasma system(non-thermal plasma) which helped in reducing the cost, applicability and increased treatment speed in industries.
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See my research-publications and conferences on the use of cold plasma
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How to modify the recipe of the bread to make it keep good taste quality when frozen and then heat up again ? Is there any specific additives ?
Which kind of oven is the best ?
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Dear Paul,
Concerning recepie, you can add mono gliceryds of fatty acids which create complexes with amylose and slow down retrogradation. Some positive influence has SSL too. You can also add maltogenic amolose wich has positive impact on amylopectin and slows down steeling efficiently.
Talking about oven type - there is no one the best solution. Each type has some adwantages and disadwentages. Ewerything depends on what type of bread do you whant to produce and what is estimated production capacity. More importand are bakeing parameters.
If you whant to produce pre baked bread, one thing is the most important. It is freezing time. It is crucial to the product quality to go down with temperature to -10*C as fast as posible.
Best regards
Konrad Frączek
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The medicinal value of spices is as a result of their phytochemical content. Hence, there is need to evaluate the phytochemical constituent of the spices using the most suitable method.
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There will not be much difference, only volatile compounds will be effected. 
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Thermal and non-thermal food processing
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in addition to the aforementioned methods you can also use AOAC, herein attached, https://www.edgeanalytical.com/wp-content/uploads/Food_AOAC-989.05.pdf
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Hi,
I'm currently working on smoothies (which contain key ingredients like fruit juice and milk).
Can anybody suggest how to increase the shelf life of the product to 4 months which has to be stored at ambient temperature? (Suggest technologies other than Retort processing, UHT and HPP).
Thanks,
Balasubrahmanyam.
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Flash pasteurisation is an option that's commonly used. OR add lemon juice to aid in adjusting the pH (depending on the pH of the final product already)
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Hi,
I have samples of food waste,  consist of rice and chicken meat waste, . I want to digest the samples to analysis crud protein. Also, I ash some samples before I digest to analyize Ca and P. For cude protein samples,the problems are the samples can not digest completely in spite of I use one tablet, H2O2 and H2so4. the temperture for first hour is 220 C and for the second hour is 410 C.The samples become milky color and still like this even I keep them in digester for 4 to 5 hours. Also, after I ash some samples to Ca and P analysis. The samples  are still black color after I have digested for 10 hours in spit of it should be less than 30 minutes 
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ok, I will decrease the weight but may I know can determine the crude protein by NC Soil Analyzer. the mechine for determine nitrogen without digestion. Normally, it use for determine the nitrogin in the soil. Can I determine the nitrogin in tissue samples by this mechine? 
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Any information whether any starch like potato or tapioca, which is usually added to processed fish can hinder the detection of fish allergen? Is there any specific reaction between allergen with the starch?
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The coating of feed ingredients with either starch of fat helps minimize nutrient losses during processing of the product. Therefore, if you are unable to detect any substance in an analysis, then it could possibly be a factor.
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Has anyone experience in drying maize starch below 0,5% moisture content?
What could be the effect from RF 27,12 Mhz on the bounded water?
Thanks for your appreciated feedback!
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During drying only the unbound or free water is removed. We have used microrwave drying, but that could remove the free water. chemically bound water is not removed unless there is degradation of molecules.
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I am going to produce some solid chocolate and subsequently heat it up to 45 degrees of centigrade for some reason and solidify it again. Is it so necessary to temper the chocolate after production?
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It is altogether new information for me. i do not have expertise in this area, nut it is very interesting to know that  tampering is necessary to avoid fat ballon.
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I am looking for a technique through which I will be able to cool chocolate as quickly as possible and at the same time, blooming will be avoided. What do you suppose are the best method and cooling temperature?
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IQF, Blast Freezing, Liquid Nitrogen are the methods for quick cooling. But cost effectiveness is the question. I agree with Mr. Upadhayay
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I have a project making "cold brew" coffee. The ground coffee need to steep into water for 20 - 24h, so this is the good condition for the microorganisms grow. I decided to pasteurize the coffee after that but I worried that the temperature will blow away all the flavor and the coffee will turn into odorless... What I need to do in this case? I glad to see any comments of RGers.
Thanks and Regards
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Interesting points on pulsed electric field treatment for retaining the flavour for longer period.
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Helo fellow researchers.
I would please like to more on in-mouth shear rates during oral processing of foods for infants in the 3 age-ranges above (6-24 months). Please do advise if there is scientifically verified informaton, or documented in literature relating the rheology of infant foods. Most literature cites shear rates of 10-100/s for chewing and swallowing but inspite of individual differences and a host of other variables, we know that oral food processing in humans evolve and vary with age, even for the three infant age groups. 
I am working on visco-elastic modelling of infant foods with a view to optimize the flow properties, sensory and protein-energy density for better infant nutrition. I therfore think that more accurate, age-specific in-mouth shear rates become critical in that regard for the design of appropriate experiments.
Thanks
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Make in India and Digital India have been trademarks of the new government with a hope of revival and launch of the country as a hub of manufacturing with technology and basic digital infrastructure. Most of farmers still depend on old traditional methods of farming and irrigation. I would like to know the food processing industries under Make in India or Digital India programe. please share 
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Make In India by Patanjali
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Dear researchers,
I want to add alpha-tocopherol to chitosan film forming solution to prepare chitosan film with alpha-tocopherol. First I added tween 80 as an emulsifier to chitosan film-forming solution(2%) at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 percent of alpha-tocopherol that then was added to chitosan film forming solution at different concentrations of 0.1, 0.125, 0.15 and 0.2 percent of the solution. Then, it was homogenized with ultra turax at 13000 and 27000 rpm and dried in petri dishes at oven( 30 D. of celsius). Unfortunately, all prepared films showed greasy surface and non-uniform structure. Can any researcher help me how can I prepare a better film with uniform structure? 
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That's right but I think the surface is nonuniform because the emulsion becomes unstable at drying step.
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I am interested in conducting research with microwave assisted extractions (MAE).
I am using it to extract pigments from fruit waste.
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Am using microwave reflux the factor i considered were molar ratio,microwave power,temperature, particle size and irradiation time...
U can use DOE to screen out some of the factors and thereafter optimize...
I hope this might be useful
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As matter of fact, I've been working to produce Doogh (Drink of Iranian dairy products) which it probably could produce from whey instead of yoghurt.
Thanks.
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i am sorry, it was misunderstanding i thought that you may work with dough as i don't know what is Doogh mean??
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I couldn't find specific details about Iodine - Blue test used for determination of degree of gelatinisation of corn starch. Kindly give suggestions
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Depending on your need, there are also physical tests for gelatinization of starches, for example, based upon pasting curves, using viscosity readings at different temperatures. One is Germany's C.W Brabender Viscograph-E. It is frequently used in some sectors of the food industry. Another similar method, more compact, is the RVA, Rapid Visco-Analyzer, by Newport Scientific of Australia, a subsidiary of Perten of Sweden.
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While making instant cooked rice, it is desirable to have minimum rehydration time. so which are the factors those to be considered while cooking and drying the rice to make instant cooked rice.
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You need consider porosity of the rice as well. highly porous rice has higher rehydration capacity. 
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Hydrocolloids may reduce oil absorption but increase water contents. I am searching any other alternatives to reduce oil absorption with low water contents and also increase crispiness during deep fat frying .
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Frying temperature is a limiting factor in fat absorption in fried foods. The right temperature varies according to type of food, 160-180C . the lower temperture the more absorbed fat you get, the higher temperature the less oil absorption and the more crispiness you get but you at high risk of surface burning . So, try the one that fit tour products.  
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We experimented with the use of washing as a pre-drying treatment in the processing of fermented cocoa beans. We observed significant  improvements in the colour, storage and processing of the dried beans. However, we did not perform chemical analysis to determine whether there are major differences between washed and unwashed beans. There is virtually no formal literature related to the washing of cocoa beans during processing.
The opinion of other experts will be extremely helpful to us.
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Washing is a common step after fermentation in purpose to enhance the color, processing and others. however, it also could be use as the step to stop the fermentation process since it remove the pulp from the cocoa beans. Based on our experience in the field, washing is an effective method to stop the fermentation process so that it will not continued during drying process. If it is not washed, the fermentation process will continued during drying process resulted in the continuous chemical changes in cocoa bean. And yes, it will affect the composition of dried cocoa beans.  Depend on drying condition and the duration, it could give you positive result (advantage) or negative result (disadvantage).
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in US 
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It is nisin.
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the kinematic viscosity of tomato paste=?
If I know apparent viscosity.
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Hi Jasim Ahmed, Can you recommend some databases?
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Is it possible that coefficient of static friction for wood is lower than other metal surfaces (cast iron & Galvanized iron).
I have referred several research paper but couldnt find such example
Anybody have experienced such behaviour while determining physical properties of flat grains like maize?
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I think as the surface is wood it has got rough surface and it will offer more resistance to movement of test sample. So coefficient of friction will be more.
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currently glucose oxidase system is not recommended for egg white during desugarization. however, for egg albumen, bacterial and/or yeast fermentation is used to remove glucose.("Food Biochemistry and Food Processing ,simpson 2012)'. what's the problem with glucose oxidase for egg white?
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Yes, I understand. You ask why? I answered why and further provided a solution if using glucose oxidase to avoid the problem.
Basically, the by product of glucose oxidase is hydrogen peroxide which can contribute to the degradation of the egg protein molecules. Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 has oxidising and reducing properties depending on the conditions... This can aid in protein degradation. It is recommended to use a catalase or peroxidase to break down H2O2 into water.
Hope this makes sense =)
PS. Catalase was not mentioned in question.
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What are the factors responsible for whiteness of Maida (refined wheat flour)?
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wheat variety - bran color -  wheat hardness - milling method - length of roller milling - wheat tempering -  mill flow sheet - mill cleaning diagram - rollers position - extraction rate - and many more if I understand your question 
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Food processing- I am searching for a software that generates formulas/ ingredients for Flour cereal like food, the generation is based on the nutrition value, I have been given a software name "Alicom" but I can't find it, can anyone help please ? 
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Winfeed is the best one.
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Can you guide me for the procedure or method for making a powder of sohphlang?
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Firstly peel off the roots. Then cut the roots into very thin slices and dip in 1 % SMS/KMS  solution and dry under 50 to 55 degrees centigrade by spreding on tray/cabinet dryer until reduce the moisture content < 3%. Then gring them in to flour, seive by a seiver for required particle sizes and store them in an airtight container.
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We need this information for research about food processing.
We prefer methods for foods industry, as enzymatic methods or safe process wich destroy this kind of saponins.
Thank you
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you can perform hydrolysis of these saponins by boiling them with Lemon juice, it is a safe and non toxic method for food processing, you have to ensure the complete hydrolysis of saponins by simple TLC analysis, if the acidic taste in not accepted you can add sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the acidity of citric acid.
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Aflatoxin binders are used in the animal feeding as an additive and there are some information about the efficacy of the binders for the absorption of aflatoxin M in the milk. I would like to know is there any possibility to use these material in the food processing for example in the confectionery or cheese puff making.  
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I agree with Mr  Festus and also you should check the regulation regarding finished products for human consumption.
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What is the effect of rice cooking method and drying method on the rehydration and eating qualities of the rice?
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Go through the attachment, this may be helpful to you.
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besides 11S/7S ratios and method of tofu processing
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In the attached paper ["Effects of coagulation temperature on the texture and yield of soy paneer (tofu)"], it mentions that springiness is also associated with coagulation temperature.
Paragraphs from the paper (see yellow highlights):
1. " ...whereas springiness increases with coagulation temperature up to 850C, remains constant between 850C to 900C and then decreases with the increase in temperature. "
2. " Springiness is the rate and extent to which a deformed material returns to its original condition after the force is removed. Springiness depends on factors such as heat treatment, protein interaction, flexibility and degree of unfolding of protein** ". 
**from paper: "MICROSTRUCTURE OF SOYBEAN PROTEIN AGGREGATES AND ITS RELATION TO THE PHYSICAL AND TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF THE CURD"  [ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1978.tb09740.x/abstract ]
3. I like tofu, especially those fried tofu from my hometown (see attached pictures)
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I am working on Ficus fruit (Syconium). What is the optimum drying condition should I use to prevent the destruction of the bioactive compounds.
Thank you.
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According to ILO 1986, If the figs are small or have been partly dried on the tree, they can be dried whole without checking or blanching. If they are large, cut in half, check or
blanch and dry until they are soft and leathery but still slightly sticky
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I would like to get fat away from the edible mushrooms so may I learn your advice for this topic?
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I agree with what Mr. Geza said.
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Hi,
I'm highly interested in data on S. epidermidis cell number in ready to eat meat products. Can anybody provide me with that information?
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Hi 
Please can look in attach file 
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Is there any relation between type of nozzle used  and particle size, its distribution, bulk density (BD) of the spray dried material? How does feeding pressure and hot air temperature affect the BD of the material?
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1) Type of nozzle affect particle size depending of the droplet size the nozzle is producing, which is also affected by the feeding pressure.
2) Feeding pressure affects also: the higher is the pressure, smaller is the droplet and therefore smaller is the particle size of the dried material.
3) Air temperature affects because the drying time decreases as the temperature increases.
4) Bulk density is mainly determined by particle size that depends on the factors already mentioned; nozzle type, air pressure, air temperature, how concentrated is the departing solution... etc.
I hope this will help you. Best regards.
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Could someone suggests me some very interesting scientific papers about relationship between technological properties of durum wheat semolina and Glycemic index? And what variables influence glycemic index in pasta making processes?
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Food samples are preserved for microbiological analysis by operators for public health to understand an outbreak. There should be a standard operating procedure around this process of collecting, preserving, and maintaining the library for public health inspection, audits for system verification, and finally removal in the event of an outbreak.
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You should look up standard analysis  documents/ standard such as British Pharmacopoeia    https://www.pharmacopoeia.com/  , some older version is downloadable  
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ours is a food processing unit, in the process of fumigation , it is to be carried out in a closed environment, but there are  air passages in the roof.  pest is developed between the gaps of milling.   how to control pest developing in machinery, suggestions please
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Dear Manisha,
I think a thorough cleaning is the key factor to control pests in food processing machinery and the whole area. The pests will be attracted to the leftovers of the flours and grits in and around the machine. So if the facility can be thoroughly cleaned during the off periods, that would avoid development of pests. The other issue is using only grains that are free of infestation. 
The facility now need to undergo some dismantlement  for through cleaning and dis-infestation. Then the cleaning should be exercised regularly.  If the facility is too complex and is not easy for dismantlement, I think there might be some other methods that fits well.
If you may be interested in alternative ways of fumigation you may check this out: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/events/docs/0039/durables_timber_en.pdf
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  1. Least common subscald systems use water temperatures of 54 to 58°C (129–136°F) for 60 to 120 s or a slightly higher temperature of 60 to 63°C (140–145°F) for only 15 to 30 s. A soft scald, or semiscald uses the lowest water temperatures from 51 to 54°C (124–130°F) and the longest immersion times for 120 to 210 s, which results in optimum retention of the cuticle for yellowskinned marketed carcasses and parts (Pool et al., 1954; Heath and Thomas 1974; Suderman and Cunningham, 1980; McKee et al., 2008; Jeong et al., 2011). 
  2. In the first combination, commonly called soft scalding, carcasses are immersed in 50 to 53°C hot water for 120 s. In the second combination, commonly called hard scalding, carcasses are immersed in 59 to 64°C hot water for 45 to 90 s (Barbut, 2002; Sams and McKee, 2010).
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Soft scald: 53.35 ° C for 120 seconds; no damage to the cuticle, important in LA where pigment is required.
Hard Scalding: 62-64 ° C for 45 seconds, removing the pen is easier
Multistage scalding: In order to ensure food safety, is made from a dirty to a less dirty, in order to keep the bacterial load and increase performance low water. (Castañeda, 2009; Quintana et al, 2011 Avitecnia)
In industrial processes, is more or less standardized scalding from 3 to 3 ½ minutes at a temperature between 50 - 52 Celsius for yellow chicken (Cervantes, 2008)
Sorry for my english, but its clear to catch de general idea.
Best Regards
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I am currently researching on dry noodles from non-wheat ingredients, from sweet potato. I'm having a problem that the noodles turn to brown color. I've added CMC and eggs to improve their texture. What materials should I order additionally, so that the dried noodles product still has a color that is interesting?