Science topic

Focus Groups - Science topic

A method of data collection and a qualitative research tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
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What are the future research hotspots of battery management? At present, I am engaged in the research of battery state estimation, and I want to expand the research content. I can see that some research groups focus on fault diagnosis, the research of battery internal short circuit, and some focus on the energy management of the whole vehicle. In addition, there are battery balance, thermal management and other directions.
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The main functions of BMS are charge/discharge control, cell/module balancing, monitoring, battery soc, and soh estimation, thermal management, and battery protection with safety limitations. Fortunately (for researchers !), there are still challenges that remained unsolved in BMS in all the aspects that I mentioned. But I think if you asked me about the future hotspot research area I would say charge control, especially with fast and super fast charging and the safety challenges that will come with this high-speed charging. and also I should mention that the cell balancing will be more challenging during fast charging and also thermal management! so as you can see all the functions will be affected by just increasing the C rate for charging!
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Many of the interview software packages, like Dragon Speak, will record and transcribe the interview and seem to work all right with a one-on-one interviews but seem to break down when there is a focus group with multiple speakers.
Does anyone have any suggestions on software that will work well with recording and transcribing a focus group?
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Thank you for sharing the question and valuable answers.
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I am finding it hard to categorise my current research study as there are 4 participants and I am using an arts-based method, so I can't decide which method it is?
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Should be in focus group
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Kind request to receive some templates on interviews, surveys, questionnaires for the fieldwork related to the Impact of land-use changes on soil erosion intensity?
We are planning to use standard methodologies for the assessment of Soil erosion on the field. In addition to that, we will use some photo materials (repeat photography), google maps, google earth...
We are looking for some good examples you implemented earlier for collecting data using interview techniques, questioners, working with Focus Groups.
It is not a problem to include interested parties to be with our team one of the authors, being interested to participate in the preparation of the interview techniques, questioners, working with Focus Groups (online ZOOM with us); including the analysis of the received inputs.
Looking forward to your reply,
Dr. Sc. Velibor SPALEVIC
1, Novaka Miloseva, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Mobile/Viber/WhatsApp: +382 67 201 222
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Dear Dev,
I am happy you are interested. As soon as we collect all the necessary materials, I will call you.
Velibor
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If a study has received ethical approval on the basis that it will employ indepth interviews and during the course of the implementation, we find that a focus group would be more practical given the homogeniety of the participants and the time constraints of waiting for each respondent to agree for an interview. Can the research team switch to conducting a focu group without gaining re-approval from the Ethics board again? I understand that it is ideal that re-approval be taken, but can some discretions be practised by the researchers to switch without involving ethics committee again, provided that the FGDs will be conductd follwing all ethical principles?
Thank you
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Agree with professors, ethical approval for focus groups instead of the previous proposal is required, especially in the public health field.
All the best,
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We have organised three focus groups with homogenous sample. Each group consisted of maximum 4-5 people (in total for three groups 13 people). After the third group, we consider to stop as we received overall the same results in all three groups.
Should we be concerned for the total number of participants or for the number of focus groups?
I mostly find references for the number of focus groups and the number of people within a group, but not for the total number.
To add here, that the participants were not an easily accessible population, this was the reason of small focus groups.
Thank you!
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It sounds like the key issue here is saturation, which is frequently used as a criterion for deciding on the sample size in qualitative research, including focus groups. In general, three would be a rather small sample size for focus group, but if your additional interviews are not producing any new data, then you have probably reached saturation.
One way you can think about whether a small sample size is adequate is to ask yourself about the range of different views in the overall range of people you are interested in (in sampling terms, your "population"). If there is not much difference across that population, then it will only take a small sample to show that general "consensus"
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Any research on such topic or ideas shared will be appreciated.
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I agree with Marion Todd and Annika Hamachers. Their comments are useful. In addition, David L Morgan lifted up good points about different ways to use narrative analysis. In narrative analysis, it is possible to focus on the content of narratives or on the form of narratives. In the latter, you can consider the different ways people are telling narraives.
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I am curious to hear from people who have done online focus groups. What worked best, and what didn't work as well?
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Since the COVID-19 era began, online interviews have been prominent, including focus group interviews. I have done multiple focus group interviews on online meeting platforms (e.g., Zoom and Tencent). It allows investigators to record their interviews, which can also easily be converted to develop transcripts!
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Hello there,
I am preparing focus groups with health professionals.
The content in general is not going to touch on any sensitive topics.
However, please state your opinion on how to react if someone reports that he/she was a target of bullying, harassments, or was verbally abused by line manager/supervisor/co-worker etc...
What can I should I do if something like that is reported?
Should I suggest contacting occupational psychologist? Talking to someone else from the supervision/management?
In general what guidance could I use to help those people who reveal content suggesting they have suffered at work and what is my role as a moderator for that?
Please share your experience and perhaps some examples from literature.
Many thanks in advance
Witold
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Use of New Testament and the Hippocratic medicine's ethic prescriptions.
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Hi everyone!
I'm looking for tips and tricks for efficient qualitative data coding in collaboration. We, two researchers, have data from about 8 focus groups and 3 interviews, 60-80 minutes each. We talked about what respondents do to make effective use of executive functions to solve a difficult problem or pursue a complex task. E.g.: what do you do to keep your focus when you’re studying a difficult topic for you thesis? Our goal is to make a list of 'all' possible strategies to use executive functions through coding, using Atlas.ti. So, we do have kind of a framework which consists of every executive function, but every EF can be considered as a category for which we do not have specific codes yet: these codes for ‘EF-strategies’ will emerge from the data. We aim to code in tandem or parallel. How to do this efficiently? I wonder for example: what if I'm a lumper and my partner is a splitter, while we work in the same project (Atlas.ti). We would then definitely use different codes. How can we manage this in an efficient manner? Any tips or literature are highly appreciated!
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Check out the Braun and Clarke 2006 and 2013 papers for suitable method of analysis. I suppose it depends if you intend to use TA (Thematic Analysis) or RTA (Reflexive Thematic Analysis). Also look at papers by Murray and Wilde (2010) for their use of IPA (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis). Hope this helps :). Good luck with your research, BW Ken.
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I selected 30 respondents for focus group interview. Now I wish to know reliability of the raters ( Respondents). Please suggest me qualitative and quantitative methods for testing reliability of respondents of focus group interview.
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First, qualitative research seldom concerns it self with reliability, which is primarily a quantitative criterion for data quality.
Second, I have extensive experience with focus groups and I do no have the slightest idea how you would establish the reliability of the individual participants. In particular, it its seldom the case that every participant gives a detailed answer to every question. Often, participants simply nod their approval as others put forth ideas that they share. So, if you don't have complete data on every participants for every question, the whole concept of reliability is dubious at best.
As an alternative to reliability, Lincoln and Guba (1985) suggest dependability, which you might consider in terms of the extent to which the discussions in each focus group tended to cover the same ideas.
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Dear colleagues,
I'm running an exploratory study at a hospital, involving different groups of staff that come in contact with a patient; such as surgeons, anaesthetists, junior doctors (interns and HMOs), nurses, ward receptionists, interpreters and patient service assistants. Each focus group will be homogeneous to the field/job title of the staff. Group sizes will be between 4-6 participants, with a degree of flexibility, and staff who are interested to participated and cannot attend a focus group due to schedule difficulties (e.g. surgeons), will be offered one on one interviews.
I understand an exploratory study will continue until saturation is reached. But I need some literature to point me towards potential sample sizes to aim for (required for the ethic application).
Should I aim for 1 group in each field. Or should I aim to balance the sample sizes between each field (eg medical, nursing, other hospital staff)?
The literature that I've read has been inconsistent, suggesting anywhere between 1-10 groups may be enough.
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Hello Zahra, I would suggest starting from handbooks in the field, for example the (a little old but precise) Handbook for focus group research by T.L. Greenbaum edited by Sage. Technically 4-5 members would be a minigroup, 6-8 a focus group. However you can certainly find sources with different opinions.
Anyway as others have said it depends on your research question/objective. You use focus group if you are looking for novel responses that would necessarily emerge from discussion, extreme opinions and polarization, discourse analysis, online modification of opinions and beliefs, mediation and agreement, group conformity... not to speak about observation of non-verbal behavior. Also focus groups would have phases and activities/tasks to encourage discussion, not only questions. What you can find with a properly-conducted focus group is radically different from what you can find with one-to-one interviews. The worst you can do is to consider focus groups as a series of interviews with a number of people who incidentally are in the same room.
So if you already feel that some of your groups could be replaced by one-to-one interviews, maybe it is better for you to employ interviews only from the beginning. Otherwise you may find yourself with data collected by using very different methods which could not be properly analyzed toghether. Hope this helps. Bye!
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I have planned to do a qualitative reaserch based on health belief model on betal chewing using focus groups. I have collected few data. In the ibnterpretationj how am I to analyse this. My plan was to get constructs of the theory as themes and find matching codes from the transcripts. Is that deductive apparoch or am I wrong?
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Hi Sameera, yes, from what you describe, you use a deductive approach to analyzing your data. From theory to data. Regarding this approach, I recommend you review texts on qualitative content analysis by Philipp Mayring, in which you can find out how from predefined categories you analyze your data. However, I also recommend adopting an abductive approach to analysis, which would allow you to go from theory to data and from data to theory, in a game of constant interpretation.
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Hi all,
Due to time constraints, My team had to shelve our plans to publish the protocol for systematic review and focus groups that are currently going on (current status: data analysis completed for review and data collection phase completed for the focus group ). Does any journal accept a protocol paper on on-going studies or studies that are on its last phase? If yes, which journals accepts it?
Domain : Health psycology & Occupational health and safety
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Yes, it is possible—albeit uncommon—to publish the protocol of an ongoing research study. That being said, you should always read the submission guidelines of the journal of interest. You could go through the following for insights.
BMJ Open. (2015, September 22). Introducing ‘How to write and publish a study protocol’ using BMJ’s new eLearning programme: Research to publication. https://blogs.bmj.com/bmjopen/2015/09/22/introducing-how-to-write-and-publish-a-study-protocol-using-bmjs-new-elearning-programme-research-to-publication/
Elsevier. (2017, September 7). Elsevier supports TOP guidelines in ongoing efforts to ensure research quality and transparency. Elsevier Connect. https://www.elsevier.com/connect/elsevier-supports-top-guidelines-in-ongoing-efforts-to-ensure-research-quality-and-transparency
MDPI. (2021). Study protocol: New article type accepted for submission. MDPI - Publisher of Open Access Journals. https://www.mdpi.com/about/announcements/2222
Good luck,
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I am looking for methods to analyze participants perception on future outcomes collected through a survey followed by qualitative data collected through focus groups. How do I combine data from these two sources and conduct a mixed methodology (Qualitative + Quantitative)? Is there any other better approach than the mixed methodology?
Thank you in advance for reading my inquiry.
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Dear all,
I am in the process of developing an energy behaviour maturity model for organisations in my PhD. So far, I have conducted expert interviews and focus groups on developing factors and maturity level descriptions (for 5 maturity levels against the factors). The structure of the findings so far is given below.
As the final step, I am going to develop the tool further as an assessment tool. Therefore, I am seeking ways of assigning weights for each main factor and sub-factor (Reason: The main factors/subfactors identified seem to have different impact levels for the energy behaviour maturity. Therefore, if I can assign weights that can be reflected in the results of the maturity assessments conduct using this model in the future)
Note: There are no subfactors for some of the main factors. Altogether, under the 3 Areas, 15 main factors and 5 subfactors are available. If required, the 3 areas can also be assigned with weights.
The structure of the current findings is as follows:
Area 1
  • Main factor 1.1
  • subfactor 1.1.1 ------------ Level 1 to Level 5 maturity descriptions against factors
Area 2
  • Main factor 2.1
  • subfactor 2.1.1 ------------ Level 1 to Level 5 maturity descriptions against factors
Area 3
  • Main factor 3.1
  • subfactor 3.1.1 ------------ Level 1 to Level 5 maturity descriptions against factors
I would be grateful if you could provide your thoughts on this matter.
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You may try with Fuzzy logic theory or multi-grade Fuzzy approach.
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Hi friends! Who knows taxi drivers? (traditional cab drivers, not Uber of Lyft). Our team is recruiting taxi drivers to participate in focus groups about technological changes in driving jobs and the future impact of autonomous vehicles on workforce. Whoever successfully particpated in the focus group can receive a $50 gift card. More information can be found at: <iframe src="https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2FWEAVENSF%2Fposts%2F180149620718317&show_text=true&width=500" width="500" height="737" style="border:none;overflow:hidden" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="true" allow="autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; picture-in-picture; web-share"></iframe>
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Good to Know, Good Luck.
Kind Regards
Qamar Ul Islam
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In the literature, why has attribute (or monetary attribute) non-attendance been over-researched, although important attributes have always been included in the labeled discrete choice experiments after conducting focus groups, observations, and discussions with the decision-makers? However, why don’t we also shift our attention to alternatives’ non-attendance, a paradigm shift, specifically in a labeled discrete choice experiment with more alternatives, assumedly eight to nine alternatives, including none-of-these alternative, and then check convergent validity of respondents’ preferences and WTP values?
I agree that if some respondents don’t attend (or ignore) some attributes (or even a monetary attribute) even after being very well pre-tested and eventually included in a choice card, then in a similar way, it is also logical that respondents may also ignore (or don’t attend) some competing alternatives, if their number is higher, as I said eight to nine or probably less attractive for some respondents! Please remember, I am not talking about comparing small (say 5 alternatives) and large choice cards (say 8-9 alternatives) using a labeled discrete choice experiment.
Thanks
Musharaf A. Talpur
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We can also assess convergent validity of preferences across small choice set - having 4-5 alternatives) - and large choice set - having 8-9 alternatives using labelled Discrete Choice Experiments. If convergent validity exists, then it's a good sign. If not, then a further step relates to excluding those large choice sets which have respondents' non-attendance of alternatives, and then rechecking convergent validity.
I hope this is now very clear with prospects for future research relating to state-of-the art Discrete Choice Experiments.
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I am working on my PhD research proposal, which is an exploratory design. Due to the insufficient existing study on the related issue, I plan to develop hypotheses and concepts through grounded theory (from both academic & non-academic resources, including magazines and articles from notable media) to serve as the guideline for the focus group. While the transcript of the focus group will then be analysed through thematic analysis to confirm the hypotheses built from the grounded theory.
Does this appear to be appropriate?
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I agree with several of the others that Grounded Theory alone should be adequate for your work. In addition, using a single focus groups is problematic, because you have no idea whether the things you hear are merely unique to that one group.
You might, however, consider a focus group among your previous participants as a form of "member checking" (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).
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I am designing a new project and want to use participatory methods with children. I want the children to consider the questions and ask them in focus groups with other children. I know of a number of research projects that have carried this out successfully with young people (11+) but I am wanting to carry this project out with children between the ages of 5-11 yrs. Can anyone recommend any research where this has been attempted and discussed?
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Hello, Katherine M Cartmell
I am sending you a link to an article we wrote about techniques for working with young children in a participatory way. The article is about working with children on issues related to family and kinship, but perhaps it can give you ideas for working on other issues.
The article is written in Spanish, but with Google you can surely translate it.
Sincerely, Maribel
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I have conducted one focus group and one interview where the same questions were asked. Could I analyse both data sets together using thematic analysis?
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Firstly, the purpose of conducting a focus group discussion is different than conducting an interview. The data collected in both these approaches for the same set of questions will be different.
You might use the same coding technique to analyze the data collected through focus groups and one-on-one interviews. However, the data from the focus groups will have perspectives/experiences of different participants as against just one participant in an interview. You might want to describe different aspects from focus groups about a specific group and an individual's story from an interview.
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Dear researchers
I hope that all is well with you
I am a PhD qualitative novice researcher
I have to interview, focus group, journal tools and demographics questionnaire (asking about gender, age, language level, motivation, anxiety)
My aim of having a focus group is to triangulate the findings with the interview.
I am intended to analyse my data by using thematic analyses for each individual and then classifying them based on different gender, age, motivation, and so on
As one of my research aims is to compare participants’ experiences with using data-driven learning in online classrooms, with different age, gender, motivation, and learners’ proficiency.
However, I am confused with some issues in collecting and analyse focus group data which are as the following:
What is the most suitable way of conducting and analyse the focus group?
Should I conduct a homogenous focus group ( same age, gender, motivation, learners proficiency)?
I am thinking about this but I am not sure that I will find the participants who all share the same characteristics
Or
Should I conduct a heterogeneous focus group ( different age, gender, motivation, learners’ proficiency)?
Regarding the analysis
I am thinking if I conduct a homogenous focus group, I will analyse each group separately and compare between them, however as I mentioned before I am not sure that I will be able to specify group sharing all same characteristics ( age, gender, motivation, learners’ proficiency),
On the other hand, If I conduct a heterogeneous focus group, I am confused about how can I analyse them regarding different participants’ characteristics
Also, I read about some arguments about analysis focus group data as individuals or as groups, but I am not sure how can I decide each one of them
Thanks in advance
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Three main ethical challenges are embedded in conducting focus group discussions. Those challenges are consent; confidentiality and anonymity; and risk of harm (Sim & Waterfield, 2019). Besides, the book suggested by David L Morgan, I would recommend that you go through the book by Cyr (2019).
Cyr, J. (2019). Focus groups for the social science researcher. Cambridge University Press.
Sim, J., & Waterfield, J. (2019). Focus group methodology: Some ethical challenges. Quality & Quantity, 53(6), 3003-3022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-019-00914-5
Good luck,
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Ok ,so here is another question about qualitative studies. In my dissertation IRB I included the following:
  1. Video recordings of mentor/intern meetings
  2. Virtual focus group meetings with mentors and interns
  3. Individual interviews after focus group meetings as necessary to address unanswered questions from above related to my research questions.
  4. Reflections from interns over the course of the study with specific prompts
My question is, if the interns and mentors do not want to do all the items listed above, is it okay to allow them to only participate in focus groups. If they don't want to do focus groups with other mentors/interns would it be okay to just have interviews with mentor/interns that work together (in pairs). I think some of the mentors are hesitant to participate with others (not sure why exactly other than possibly the comfort level). Do you think this strays too far even if it can help answer my research questions? Should I turn in an amended IRB? I know I will have to rewrite parts of my chapter 3 but I have heard/understand things like this happen in qualitative studies and sometimes you get a completely different set of data than you originally planned for because of what you learn/gain throughout the study. I love the idea of qualitative studies and learning from participants, but I struggle because sometimes I think too much in black/white pictures. I am a "rule follower" of sorts.
Thanks everyone!
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I just had to amend my report. My data collection method changed from face to face interviews to online self-report surveys due to covid. It doesn't take long to complete the amendment form and it's better to safeguard your research and marks by completing one. Oh and don't forget to reflect on the changes in your method section (^◡^ )
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although they are not identical, i donot catch the point. please explain to me.
best regards,
saw
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Focus group discussion (FGD)and focus group interview (FGI) are the same as a method of data collection in qualitative research. The discussion is centered on a particular topic or experiences while participants are more homogenous group of 5-12. Interviewing technique uses open- ended questions, or semi-structure questions with probe questions for clarification of points. The interview discussion are video/audio recorded with participants' permit and transcribed by research assistant within 24hours after the discussion to enable data analyses before next FGD/FGI. Discussion ends when data saturation is attained.
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Does anyone have suggestions on software that has been particularly helpful in transcribing and analyzing data recorded during focus groups? We have some money from a grant that can be used to purchase licenses. Any insight would be helpful. Thank you.
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Does anybody have experience using Raven Pro for the analysis of recorded literature?
Thank you,
Víctor
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Looking for an online focus group software that has mixed-method capabilities. So in addition to having video/audio capabilities for discussion, would like to be able to deploy questions to participants and have the data in an identifiable format after the focus group. Any suggestions?
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There are also applications like sli.do & Mentimeter.com that will allow you to collect data anonymously.
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I am looking for recommendations for good resources or guidelines for developing surveys specifically focused on targeting user's opinions or a needs-analysis in the context of engineering design of new technology?
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As we are all aware, we are moving away from direct person to person meetings towards online communications, conferences, etc.
Do you think there are some ethical considerations to be acknowledged when running focus groups online (video conferencing) contrary to more 'traditional' settings - meeting at one table etc.
Wonder if the two situations (contexts) differ in anyway in terms of running research and ethics...
Please share your opinions and ideas, any of them would be appreciated.
Many thanks
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Yes , consent for instance to record participants and share the content later should be discussed.
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I am thinking to build a mobile application that may help to increase the paper's citations of any author using different techniques such as:
  1. Author account (Publications, keys, etc.)
  2. Add suggested authors from your country (you can choose any country), your university, similar research interests, etc.
  3. create focus group (a group with similar research interests)
  4. Add your research keys (recommend them to your group)  
  5. you can share your work with others before they submit their papers (related to your work)
Could you please add more ideas that may help to improve this application?
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I would suggest to create an app that can be that handy to present reports on authentic journals and predatory journals with all relevant information. There could be categories as per quartiles, indexing, impact factors, APCs etc.
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I will be conducting a qualitative research into well-being and help-seeking behaviour in elite coaching and I'm trying to think of new/creative ways how to do this rather than just conducting interviews. For example, I was considering utilizing personal diaries. I'm open to interviews and focus groups as well, but would like to add a new dimension to it.
Could anyone recommend some alternative methods or interesting books/research papers to look at?
Thank you.
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Maybe a visual dimension...
I really think that visual data bring important and surprising information in research. You can ask participants to draw, to photograph or to make a video to illustrate their ideas about the topic of your research. You can then use the images in interviews (see visual elicitation).
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There are different ways of evaluating the effectiveness of a training program on health education; one being pre and post asssessment, qualitative evaluation via focus groups or a mixed method analysis?
Are there other means of evaluating the effectiveness?
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Another option would be to do an experimental design. Here is a helpful link for using experimental design to evaluate program effectiveness: https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/rural-toolkit/4/evaluation-design
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Do you list all questions you asked in the journal article or you just mention that you use focus group interview as a research method? Thank you very much!
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You should have a topic guide or discussion guide, which it sounds like you have. Your topic guide is a series of questions and prompts to help you facilitate discussion during your focus group. I would say you should very briefly describe the content of your questions (just a sentence or so) in the methods and then add the full topic guide as a supplementary or additional file. That way the reader can chose to read it or not. Sometimes knowing roughly what questions have been asked can help with the readers interpretation of the results.
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I have completed a study investigating the influence of feedback provided to junior doctors on their development of competence in performing a specific procedural skill in both workplace and simulation based assessment. Qualitative data was collected via surveys and a focus group. There were four themes that I found in my analysis of the data with one of the themes being feedback itself. I have been told that a theme cannot be the same as your topic under investigation so now am stuck trying to find another descriptor for 'feedback'. Any thoughts on a theme and the topic sharing the same name or on another word to describe feedback.
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If your basic research topic is "How does feedback on performance affect confidence and competence..." then I would aim for themes that indeed address the "how" part of your question. In particular, I would recommend against one-word themes, since that is not enough to tell you how one thing affects another. In addition, themes should help you "interpret" the data, and a one-word label is unlikely to accomplish that goal.
So, I agree with the suggestion from Mary C R Wilson that you try re-stating your themes as short sentences.
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Hello,
I am conducting a research degree and for my ethics I am required to provide an sample size for participants.
In one study I will look at the reliability of a screening tool(s) where two (potentially groups) of raters watch a performer conduct an action and give it a score.
I therefore need to work out how many raters I need and how many participants I need.
For example, it will be easier to get more participants rather than raters, so could I have say 100 participants and 2 raters, as this would give more data points than 10 raters and 10
participants?
However, the issue is…I do not know what screens I will be using as of yet, as these screens will be decided as part of the research (a focus group with experts). Therefore, I do not know if the scoring system on one screen might be 0-10, and on another screen it might be 0-3. I believe that this might affect any calculation?
Any advice on where to start would be great.
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Hello Alex,
Since you don't as yet even have a handle on what the final measure(s) will be, perhaps you should wait until your experts attain consensus, then, as Natacha Heutte 's reply suggests, try a quick pilot study. That will give you valuable information on how much of the score variation is a function of respondent, item, and rater, respectively. The general principle is, the more variance a source adds to the mix, the more levels of that source you'll need in your study. This is what can help you to determine the best possible allocation of your valuable resources and time to gather information to best address your research questions.
I recognize that deferring the sample size declaration may be a bit frustrating, but otherwise you're forced to: (a) possibly mis-estimate the appropriate sampling plan, resulting in either less precision or needless data collection; or (b) try to persuade the IRB that your resources limit you to X observations total, and just go with that.
Good luck with your work.
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What do you think, is it legit to campare focus groups that were conducted online with focus groups conducted "face-to-face"? Both online and face-to-face focus groups were held by same moderator using the same guidline (or a similar set of questions), all groups were transcribed vebatim and then categorized by means of a "narration analysis". Additional "field notes" for non-verbal sings were taken. However, I do have some concers, because face-to-face focus groups allowed more insights into non-verbal communication and interactions of participants, compared to online FGs. Thank you for your answers.
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thank you very much for your answers, this is indeed very helpful. Since we will focus on the content (and not "how it was said") , we will probably be able to compare the two....
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Running a new group for those diagnosed with both ADHD and ASD as adults. How can I evaluate the impact of the group and perhaps compare to the ASD only and ADHD only only groups?
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Your problem is that both ADHD and ASD are extremely broad diagnostic categories, so much so that your study is very likely to become a casualty of their width. I doubt that you would be able to generate both significant and interesting results. Simply, many with either or both diagnoses are extremely different from each other. The fundamental problem is that the diagnoses are too vague, the 'spectrums' too wide.
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Hi
I'm doing research to explore students perceptions on why they choose to or not to pursue a career in fluroscopy
Trying to find out external and internal factors. However i am not sure how to conduct the research, my approach is ground theory
I was going do questionaires first then focus group interviews
I hope you can give me some insight
Thank you
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I am agreeing with Md Nurul Amin and Rajan Ghosh . Including FGDs you could apply the photovoice method for the study. by this technique, participants are asked to express their points of view or represent their communities by photographing scenes that will highlight in your research themes. Thank you.
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Hello: Can you recommend any literature regarding discussion groups and focus groups held online? I am interested in the methodological and ethical aspects and the discussion of the limits and possibilities of these. Thank you very much.
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My colleagues and I have just published an article on this topic.
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In Qualitative research how many focus groups we can add? For example one focus group comprise of age 30 to 40 and 5 volunteer members, other group; age 40 to 50 and 5 members, last group; age 50 to 60 and 5 member. can we increase members in one group or it should be total 10 to 12 all collectively?
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Dr David L Morgan has written a lot about focus groups including two books, Basic and Advanced Focus Groups and Focus Groups as Qualitative Research - Qualitative Research Methods.
Perhaps if you make contact with him through ResearchGate, he would know the answer.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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I am currently working on my doctoral research proposal. I am attempting to further justify using interviews versus focus groups to conduct qualitative research about a topic that is sensitive in nature. I would appreciate any literature or experiences regarding this choice. Thank you kindly!
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Rajiv Kumar Gupta Have you ever conducted a focus group on sensitive topics? If not, then what is the basis for what you consider "obvious"?
I have done many focus groups on sensitive topics, and as I said earlier, the key element is for the participants to have shared shared experiences. Indeed the literature is full of studies using FGD for sexual behavior, stigma causing illnesses, etc. etc.
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For my Bachelor thesis, I am aiming to research how the quality of life is perceived by village residents as well as their unfulfilled needs in this living environment.
Hence, they all live in the same area, but to get a response that hopefully reflects the response of a village as a whole, I want all possible demographics covered by the attendees; increasing reliability of their shared answers.
Any advice on how to approach this best?
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Focus group interviews are interviews you conduct with a group of participants to collect a variety of information. ... Oftentimes with larger focus group interviews, some participants dominate the discussions while others fade into the background.
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Students/participants who always use measurement or numbers in understanding all phenomena may require more effort in convincing them about the importance and processes of qualitative research.
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Hi.
I use several methods. Here are some:
1. I expose them to research questions that cannot be answered adequately by using qualitative tools (e.g., What is the experience of...? What does the process entail? How do the participants understand phenomenon X?, etc.). I also have them find a qualitative tool (i.e., questionnaire) that they favor, and demonstrate the areas that it does not cover (i.e., the richness of the experience under investigation).
2. Early on, I expose them to the different paradigms and their logic (I have them experience social construction and subjective meanings via an exercise wherein I show identical stimuli to two students but construct their meaning differently).
3. Early on I teach them the hermeneutic circle, and have them experience the cyclic process of understanding and re-understanding. I also demonstrate in various how parts and whole give meaning to each other (e.g., how the word "positive" changes it's meaning in "Are you positive" and "O positive" and "positive symptoms" and five other examples).
4. I also let them ponder several quotations that challenge their views (e.g., Nietszsche, Rorty, Geertz). For instance: "When we aggregate people, treating diversity as error variance, in search of what is common to all, we often learn about what is true of no one in particular" (Josselson, 1995, p. 32 "imagining the real")
Good luck.
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My name is John Kirst and I am a doctoral learner at Grand Canyon University (GCU). I am humbly requesting your help in locating a home healthcare agency willing to be a part of a study.
My proposed study titled Home Healthcare Workers’ Utilization of Mobile Technology is at the proposal stage currently being reviewed. The healthcare organization who originally agreed to be a part of the study decided to not participate. In order to complete my study, I need to recruit another home healthcare organization.
The study is a qualitative case study consisting a survey, focus group and individual interviews. If approved by GCU and the home healthcare agency, the survey can either be manual or through Survey Monkey. The focus group and individual interviews can be completed either in person or through a video conference software such as Zoom. Although I am a novice researcher, I will work on minimizing the home healthcare companies time and people involvement.
If you have or know of a home healthcare agency willing to participate in the study, please let me know. I can be reached at jkirst1121@live.com or (903) 941-8612.
Thank you for reviewing my request and I hope to hear from you soon.
Sincerely,
John Kirst
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Nice Topic , Following
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What forums, websites or software have you used to conduct online focus groups for qualitative research?
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Good point Anna: that's why tools or sites like Zoom are becoming so powerful with online FGD, because you get what is missed on forums through observing them on video.
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Should I ALWAYS do a qualitative research (e.g. in-depth interviews, focus group and cetera) before conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)? Many thanks and kind regards.
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The most common reason for doing a qualitative study before a quantitative one is what is known as an "exploratory sequential" design, where the earlier study contributes to the measurement of some concept (qual --> QUANT).
If you already have a set of variables in hand, there is nothing about doing a qualitative study that will influence how the EFA turns out. So, you should do the EFA and interpret it on its merits, as many many researchers before you have done.
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In our qualitative research focus groups, the first 3 groups got through all 3 of the research design questions. The 4th group however only got to one of the 3 questions. Should we exclude the results from the 4th group because the information is incomplete?
If not how do we account for the discrepancy in the methods, results and discussion of our paper?
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If you are following a Grounded Theory approach, then your questions should definitely evolve according to what you learn in earlier interviews.
In general, if you become saturated in some areas while developing new questions in other areas, then it makes sense to change your questions away from the ones that are repetitive and towards the ones that need further exploration. Otherwise, you are just "wasting data."
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Since face to face is not an option, what virtual platform would you recommend using to conduct a focus group with students during this pandemic?
1. Zoom
2. Teams
3. Blackboard Collaborate
4. Other
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Hi Coleen Toronto - I asekd a similar question some time ago and David L Morgan was so kind to inform me about the discussion here. Here you find my question:
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I have quantitative data from phase 1 and 2 and qualitive focus groups as phase 3. I would like to consider few focus groups as control and other focus groups as study ones where I will introduce the quantitative findings from phase 1 and 2 to the study focus groups then check for their responses while leaving the control focus groups with normal discussion. Is that legitimate intervention?
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I am still bamboozled by his idea of intervention. I totally agree with @ stephen M Marson, FGD is used as a study tool.... I am yet to come to terms with control FGD. My question remains un answered. There's a component of bewilderment...
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I am involved in qualitative research and at the time working on the methodological background. My colleague, which was doing the interviews, brought to me they did some focus group interviews. Now I am looking at the numbers of focus group interviews (3 in total) my colleague did and two times only 2 people and 1 time only 3 people took part. My question is: can this be mentioned as a focus groud study ? Or is there any other kind of "interview - style" more compatible when it comes to describing the sample and method ?
In the literature it a group is mostly described as 3 + participants.
Kind regards
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I suggest you to review these studies. According to Johnson and Christensen (2004); 6-12 people; Langford et al. According to (2002) and Morgan (1997); 6-10 people; According to Krueger (2000); It is enough to interview 6-9 people. At the same time, it is appropriate to ask 6-8 people 12-20 questions in the homogeneous sample to be selected in qualitative research (Kuzel, 1992).
References.
* Johnson, B., & Christensen L. (2004). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
* Langford, B. E., Schoenfeld, G., & Izzo, G. (2002). Nominal grouping sessions etc. Focus groups. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 5 (1), 58-70.
* Kuzel, A. J. (1992). Sampling in qualitative inquiry. In B. F. Crabtrree, W. L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (pp. 33-45). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
* Krueger, R. (2000). A focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oakz, CA: Sage Publications.
* Morgan, D. L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research. Qualitative research methods series. 16. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage Publications.
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Due to the Corona virus I will be doing realtime focus groups with ageing disabled people instead of face-to-face focus groups. I am interested in people's experiences with conducting this type of online research. What are do''s and don'ts?
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I have been involved in quite a bit of research using online focus groups via videoconferencing. In general, the substantive content is the same as in face-to-face focus groups, but the interaction is not as active. In this regard, it helps to use smaller groups, and I would recommend a maximize size of 4. You might also explore doing "dyadic" interviews, where the two participants engage in a conversation rather than a group discussion.
Another other important factor is how familiar each participant is with using video on the internet. Although this issue may seem obvious, it appears as a real problem in almost every study I have read.
Here are two articles that cover the basics of video focus groups:
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Among the various methods of data collection in qualitative research, some are most frequently used like focus group. Frequently used methods of data collection in qualitative research.
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There are many methods for conducting qualitative research, and which are most popular depend on the discipline. The following talks about various methods.
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Due to the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, we've had to postpone several (physical) workshops we had planned in Europe. We're considering virtual workshops, but want to know what platforms we could use to host these workshops, which involve focus groups with visual materials and ranking exercises, in order to get as close to the "real thing" as possible.
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My colleague and I have had considerable success using Zoom video-conferencing software for focus groups. One of the key lessons we have learned about virtual focus groups is that you need to keep the size relatively small (I would recommend 4 people), so that the participants can keep track of the interaction.
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I have quantitative data from phase 1 and 2 and qualitive focus groups as phase 3. I would like to consider few focus groups as control and other focus groups as study ones where I will introduce the quantitative findings from phase 1 and 2 to the study focus groups then check for their responses while leaving the control focus groups with normal discussion. Is that legitimate intervention?
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Mutaseim Makki No, not within sociology or social science but there are disciplinary differences. For example, I see you are in pharmacology. So a study might have health literature intervention by providing subjects with written drug information. The control group don't get the information. The test group get the information sent 1 week before. Focus groups (FGs) are held with both groups. At the end of the fg, the control group are given a verbal summary of the information. This is not the same intervention as the test group recived, but you can receive interesting additional data. But this type of methodology wouldn't be my ideal choice -I'd do interviews or a questionnaire rather than a group discussion (fg).
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My PhD supervisor wants me to add a focus group to test the face validity of my research findings. The findings are from a quantitative study in a field of training for those working in organisations, and I am in the phase of writing the thesis.
After studying the literature, I decided not to do qualitative research because of my own worldview or ontology, which is post-positivist. Also, the literature in the field was mostly qualitative, anecdotal reports of personal experiences and that dominant approach had not been productive for developing the field. My decision was to do something different, and therefore quantitative.
Now, my supervisor wants me to do a focus group at the end, to organize a group, present my findings and see if they agree. Their reasoning is that this is what the department is familiar with and has come to expect over time.
My view is that a focus group at this stage and in this particular world is methodologically unsound, and that my research results would never lead to choosing such a method. What to do now?
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Adding to what others have said, qualitative research is focused primarily on understanding nuance of experience and context of complicated ideas. Your quantitative results could be supplemented, or put differently, re-contextualized into real world understandings by adding some qualitative data. More than one focus group is going to yield better substantiated claims and findings, but your supervisor is the final word.
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I am working on a mulitdisciplinary project focused on environmental behaviour and attitudes towards protected areas and we need literature about focus groups that would be accesible and clear for researchers of various backgrounds (sociology, social psychology, environmental economy). What would you recommend?
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I will shameless recommend my own book, Basic and Advanced Focus Groups, from Sage. Each chapter begins with a more basic (introductory) discussion of a key topic, which is followed by an optional presentation of more advanced issues.
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Hello everyone,
Currently, I am on the writing phase of this project, and I used children and their caregiver oral health perception questionnaire, but I didn't find enough resources in terms of studies that examined the quality of life in a large cohort, the majority of them were case studies on different treatment approaches.
Also, as part of the study, we made a structured interview (Focus Group) with adults who had finished their oral rehabilitation treatment and examined how the treatment change their quality of life.
Many Thanks,
Shkre Agkhre
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Thanks Asbjørn Jokstad for your answer and shared information with me.
Regards,
Shkre
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This is for my dissertation research.
I will be using semi- structured interviews with 10 participants (individual interviews) and a 7 participant focus group.
Starting this stage by early feb. 2020
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One of the more widely used ones would be nVIVO.
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Does anyone have experience with the feature "coding focus groups" in ATLAS.ti 8? I have data of focus groups to analyse (Grounded Theory) and I am wondering about what might be the advantages of this feature in the software. Is it about having direct links between quotes and speaker?
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Fortunately for you Meike, I would suggest you the same link
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I'm currently pulling together the Appendices for my thesis and I was unclear as to whether the transcript from the focus group should be included or not. I already have all the questions which were asked in a separate appendix named "Focus group questions" from the case study protocol. Also, I've removed the codes associated with the transcript so it just reads like a conversation. Should I leave the codes in the document as part of the transcript?
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It would be unusual to include a full transcript, instead, it would be more traditional to include a copy of the questions and the codebook (or equivalent) that you used. Also, as Muhammad Usman Amin Siddiqi notes, there could be ethical issues in including a full transcript -- especially if it would be possible to identify the participants through things they said.
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We are analyzing data from a qualitative research study in which we conducted focus groups. However, for one focus group, only one person showed up. We went ahead and did the focus group, but can we include this in our analysis? What factors do I need to consider about whether or not to include it?
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My student has the same dilemma - you can count it as an individual interview because it is not a focus group with one person. It could be classified as a key informant interview or an individual interview. What is key is the purpose of the interview and this needs to be explained in your methods/ethics discussion.
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I am currently doing a qualitative study with individual interviews (with stroke survivors) and focus groups (health professionals) to verify themes found in the individual interviews. My research questions are to identify the barriers and motivators that influence stroke survivors to make lifestyle modifications. The trouble is that I did not do the individual interviews and conducted the focus groups only.
I am having difficulty understanding the paradigms and my position in the research since I did take over someone else's project and they chose to look at their data inductively, therefore, that is what I did too. What I have figured out that it is a post positivist approach (correct me if I am wrong!), however, I read that post positivism only approaches data deductively... Can someone please help me identify what paradigm my research is and whether post-positivism research be inductive? Thank you!
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I agree with Lihong Zhou; I see your research as inductive, while a deductive approach and post-positivism would go together (as in quantitative research).
These links might help; if you are short of time, you could word search and look at inductive (first) and then post-positivism but I don't think they are not really linked by what you are doing:
see the middle of p.5:
I hope this helps.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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Hi all,
Have to run some focus groups across a very diverse (government, industry and academia) and sometimes contentious collaborative project.
The objective is to find out what each different stakeholder group really thinks about the collaboration and where they might 'fit in' after this pilot finishes.
For this reason I have planned to run them specific to each stakeholder group so they can provide candid feedback, but have now had a request for people from one stakeholder group to attend all focus groups.
My sense is this is a bad idea, but have not grounds for this opinion. Anyone able to point me to any research or practitioner observations on this, it would be really appreciated.
Malcolm
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I agree with David Morgan - stick with your original design. Go to the literature for a justification for having a FG in the first place if you think you need to justify the design. If there's one group that is insistent on attending, perhaps offer to have a 4th, mixed FG as a form of member checking after you've had the first three and done an initial analysis.
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I am planning to conduct a mixed methods study in which gender is a main variable. I want to do a focus group and because of the gender segregation the focus group with female students is not possible as they do not favor to have their answers recorded. My inquiry is that can I do a focus group to male students and administer an open-ended questionnaire to female students for the same objective and compare their answers where the same questions and themes will be asked? I have also another quantitative questionnaire for both male and female students. Thanks
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In qualitative research is correct. You can use as many as you deem necessary., like surveys, interviews, observation diaries, etc. In fact it would be very interesting to messure and compare the results of such research to see if they vary in any way. Good luck with your research professor.
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I trying to understand conflict in community policing, therefore I need the broader community perceptions and the views of the experts in community policing.
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I believe input from focus groups are important and could enrich your data. Just using focus groups to draft semi-structured questions for individuals might cause you to miss pertinent information. It might be best to use 1 focus group to better understand what you're working with, and then use the information to draft better questions for a semi-structured interview for additional focus groups and key-informant interviews (individuals). Almost like pilot-testing first and then fine-tuning.
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Hey everybody,
I'm going to be up front with this, I am not super confident when it comes to quantitative data analysis. The study I am working on uses a series of Likert-style questions to generate data (including a basic BFAS questionnaire) which I am using to highlight potential areas of interest before I conduct my primary analysis using qualitative data analysis. I have two focus groups (the first N=31 and the second n= 13) with two equally large control groups randomly selected from the remaining sample that did not qualify for the focus groups.
Anyway, that's more than you all probably needed to know - my issue is that I'm not sure what all information I need to put into my quantitative report, especially since that data is just basically a discussion starter for my Qual analysis. I've run (r) on the appropriate values, and computed (d) between the focus and control groups. Is there anything else you all would suggest I do?
Thanks in advance for the help. We English studies types don't do much in the way of quantitative studies.
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Ryan - that makes more sense. You seem to be hiding your light under a bushel. What you identify here sounds useful and interesting - and 'is what it is'. You may not have significance in some areas - but that's not a problem. To me, the correlation is actually one of the more important areas and might be your main point of originality. I would pursue it more than 'ancillary'. Back to your qualitative phase. You still have to move beyond the 'looking for specifics'. If what you would 'like' to see emerges naturally from the collected narrative/data - then all well and good - but don't give an impression to markers/reviewers that you have 'cherry-picked'.
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I am doing an Msc which focuses on an intervention supporting at risk adolescent females in their school environment. There are three phases to the research.
1. Quantitative - Likert style survey with all participants
2. Qualitative - Ketso mapping workshops with some of the participants
3. Focus groups with some of the participants
4. Focus groups with teachers and parents.
Each stage influences the next stage. ie the quantitative survey provides the backdrop for the qualitative phases. But is this also a transformative paradigm as it uses different methods to generate and capture their voice around an intervention which attempted to empower them.
Thanks
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Yes, I think your topic aligns well with the transformative paradigm. You can seek further guidance from Donna Mertens work on transformative paradigm. Mertens have extensively written about the use of emancipatory-transformative paradigm in mixed methods.
Mertens, D. M. (2007). Transformative paradigm: Mixed methods and social justice. Journal of mixed methods research, 1(3), 212-225.
Mertens, D. M. (2010). Transformative mixed methods research. Qualitative inquiry, 16(6), 469-474.
Mertens, D. M. (2012). Transformative mixed methods: Addressing inequities. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(6), 802-813.
Mertens, D. M. (2003). Mixed methods and the politics of human research: The transformative-emancipatory perspective. Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research, 135-164.
Mertens, D. M., Bledsoe, K. L., Sullivan, M., & Wilson, A. (2010). Utilization of mixed methods for transformative purposes. Handbook of mixed methods research, 193-214.
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What is the process of combining the information collected from various points i.e. focus groups / interviews to inform Delphi questions? Does anyone have a suitable reference. I did a quick search but couldn't find much.
Many thanks in advance.
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I don't think there is an concrete procedure for writing questions for qualitative interviews in general, or Delphi elicitations in particular. I would recommend getting some key informants or other experts to look over your questions before you send them out.
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For my thesis project i am doing research on sexual consent specifically within the Dutch context and different generations of men who have experiences with heterosexual sex. In my focus groups i would like to apply the items of the Sexual Consent Scale-(R) (SCS-R; Humphreys, 2004; Humphreys & Brousseau, in press; Humphreys & Herold, 2007), in an intergenerational dialogue on the meaning, definition and practice of consent. I am wondering if people have experience with using the SCS(-R) in focus groups and what are your experiences. Kindly, Rosa
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ps. I'll use some the SCS-R as inspiration but will not implement the questionnaire
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Can you use the same questions for interview, questionnaire, and focus group in a qualitative descriptive study?
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On the one hand, yes. However, on the other, why would you want to?
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I was wondering whether asking the participants of a focus group to agreeing on an outcome would be an interesting way to make them (intensively) discuss the scenarios (intensifying and mitigating arguments).
- Has this been done before? I have been looking for it but so far haven't found any source.
Would it be better to:
1. Survey the participants' decision on a particular scenario before its discussion.
2. Discussion with the other participants
3. Another survey to see whether decisions have changed?
Or should I just not do anything and let them discuss naturally each scenario?
Thank you in advance,
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There are any number of general discussions of stimulus materials in books on focus groups, but I doubt if you are going to find something as specific as what you are requesting.
You might look at Krueger's book on moderating in the focus group kit or my recent book, Basic and Advanced Focus groups.
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I want to understand how social media was accepted by an organisation regarding the "classical" TAM model (Davis, 1989) in qualitative way. I understood from the literature review that most studies used TAM were conducted in the quantitative paradigm.
However, because my sample size is small a quantitative approach is not an appropriate choice. Instead I have in mind to conduct focus groups with a topic guide related to the original TAM questions (Davis, 1989).
Literature:
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008
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Does anybody used the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) in a qualitative way (for instance focus group)?
Agreed many TAM related research are quantitative-based. But whether to use quantitative or qualitative research is depending on your research problem, research objective or conceptual framework. If you want to move from quantitative to qualitative due to inadequate sample size, then you might also need to reconsider / adjust your research problem, objective, conceptual framework etc. One avenue to do so is pickup one / some of the constructs e.g. perceived usefulness, perceived ease of us, attitude towards using etc. to investigate further why & how these constructs related to actual usage of social media by an organization. Alternatively, depending on your sample size of the respondents e.g. if you only have around 30-50 respondents, you can also consider mixed method's sequential explanatory study i.e. conduct a quantitative research first, then deep dive into certain significant / insignificant constructs via qualitative research to find out why or why not etc. - think this is also a form of knowledge contribution.
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Please can both focus groups and individual interviews be used in phenomenology study. I have conducted the individual interview and I want to follow-up with a focus group interview. I am I right.
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Certainly you can do this, all the most common practice in phenomenology is to conduct a small number of in-depth, individual interviews. Can you say more about the focus group might add to your research?
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Hello everyone,
I am doing my methods chapter (Qualitative - Social Sciences) and am facing a question.
1) In regards to stimulate a focus group discussion ( through vignettes):
How do I know whether I should vary the conditions (scenarios)? within or between each focus group so that you can provoke that variation? Or should I use the same condition and use an outcome measure question and then work backwards from those groups?
Quite confused right now.
Thank you all!
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Focus groups (and other qualitative methods" do not generally use outcome measures, due to both the subjective nature of the procedures and the small sample sizes. But if your question is how to assess the nature of the discussion in two different types of groups, here is my attempt to do that:
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Hi all!
I'm doing my MSc. dissertation on the social representations of pacifism within American society following an increase in nationalist policies.
I'm wondering are there any scales that you would recommend to measure attitudes towards pacifism? I'm starting off with focus groups but will utilise quantitative measures post data-collection/analysis.
Thanks in advance!
Cody
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Hello Cody,
Everything I looked at was very old. This is slightly more recent but still 1980:
Then I found this - 2002:
I don't know if these will be of much help; I hope you get further responses to assist your analysis of this important concept.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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I suggested the use of IPA to analyse my data when I get to the analysis stage of my research. My paper relates to 'parental active engagement in secondary school'. I have very little knowledge of IPA and would like to connect with someone or a group who can provide guidance with the data collection and analysis. I am currently working on my methodology and is making use of recommended resources (e.g. Smith, Larkin, Flowers etc) as seen in similar questions that were posed. I expect to start collecting data in April and will need some help formulating the questions for the semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews. I want to ensure the questions meet IPA guidelines. Any help or suggestions of sessions I could attend will be greatly appreciated.
Regards
Lorna
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My advice for you is to search here on ResearchGate on some discussions or publications related to qualitative research or phenomenological analysis or thematical analysis or questions about these matters such as interview conduct where you can find useful information and guidelines with even some PDFs added to the answers.
I did participate in some of the discussions and questions about interviews and qualitative analysis which you may find on my profile under answers and so easily track the whole conversation of others were they have given input as well.
This is easier then for me to find the conversations that I have participated in and paste the links here.
I hope this will be helpful for you
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Greetings,
I would like to know what is the relevant aggregation method regarding conducting Focus Group to select an alternative in Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The Focus Group includes Domain Experts and Academic Experts to address the problem of selecting the best alternative of available techniques. Normally, there are two fundamentally accepted aggregation methods within AHP, the Aggregation of Individual Judgments (AIJ) and the Aggregation of Individual Priorities (AIP). So, I would appreciate sharing knowledge about the relevant aggregation method and the justification for using this method. Additionally, is there any online software that could perform this aggregation automatically? Thank you.
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Thank you Prof Theo for your patience and I am grateful for your feedback.
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In the past decade, with the boom and expansion of Blockchain-based applications, governments and regulators are legislating new laws and regulations to take a control over the revolutionary technology. In some cases, these approvals are not in line with the ideas and interests of the Blockchain Activists, which results in the formation of a Game of Interests. Recently, after issuance of a statement by the National Bank of Iran, entitled “The Requirements and Standards of the Cryptocurrencies”, the Blockchain community has conducted a qualitative research, aimed at reducing the conflict between the interests of the state and the activists. The question arises here that which model does best fit this research? We aim to analyze the data gathered from the interviews and focus groups, using a standard framework. We call for methods and frameworks applied in the literature to find the best practice for qualitative coding process.
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Dear Arghya Ray , Thank you for offering such an innovative simple method. We have arranged interviews and sessions with Iran Blockchain Associations' professional members, some academics, and the top managers of the BT industry. We'll surely consider the method you mentioned, though in my opinion, if there were a pretested framework, we could ask more efficient open questions, and model the findings in a way that could be used in future studies. Because we aim to identify Conflict of Interests between the government and the BT community, their Limitations, Challenges and Opportunities for collaboration (in advancement of the technology), and offer Solutions for arising problems.
Appreciate
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I'm currently at the research method of my undergrad dissertation, my adviser is asking for the type of research instrument to go along the heuristic approach in research, and since my adviser insisted on having the researcher themselves (in this case it is only me) would be the participant, meaning there would not be a need to have a sampling of population to do interviews/questionnaires on. Since I am my own participant, the process would that in a heuristic approach, which is bases it on the researcher’s experience, exploration, and understanding of the topic.
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