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# Fluvial Geomorphology - Science topic

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My study area is extremely large (multiple valleys) and precipitation is close to zero. Streams are often dry, but runoff almost solely comes from glacier melt and is heterogenous throughout the valleys. I have extracted stream boundaries for hundreds of basins using a machine learning algorithm and I can get channel geometry such as width/depth/cross sectional area (at any point along the stream), wetted perimeter etc. Is there any way I can get approximate velocity, discharge, etc at bankfull using stream geometry and a corresponding DEM? Maybe using slope and geometry?
The Manning's n approach has been around for quite a while and may suit your needs quite well. Having said that, simply bear in mind that the approach assumes that all flow is 1-dimensional. In other words, this numeric model assumes that the water in the channel essentially flows in a straight line. Perhaps you are familiar with the old phase 'all models are wrong, some are useful'. Point being, just remember that the output you get is an approximation. In the off chance you have some measured discharge values in your study area, this can help quite a bit to calibrate the roughness values you end up using.
The HEC-RAS 1-D model relies on the Manning's equation for its calculations. If you crank up the roughness values, this will result in slower velocities and higher water surface elevations. Conversely, if you lower the roughness values, this results in higher velocities and lower depths.
As for the value of Manning's n that you use, I'll admit that these references might not be the most appropriate or useful for you particular application. Having said that, it doesn't mean that you can't learn something from these references either. So yes, they are 'oldies' but they are also 'goodies' and they can help to you start to better understand some appropriate Manning's n values.
Limerinos, 1970. Determinination of the Manning Coefficient From Measured Bed Roughness in Natural Channels
Arcement & Schnieder, 1989. Guide for Selecting Manning's Roughness Coefficients for Natural Channels and Flood Plains
Verified Roughness Characteristics of Natural Channels
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Are there any iPad pro apps for GIS mapping and analysis? Thanks
Dear Jens Kleb Antônio Carlos Pereira dos Santos Junior Omid Vakili , for precision monitoring I use an emlid reach rs2+ GNSS antenna and its app is well supported by apple so this doesn't worry me. My basic idea is to use the iPad as if it were a topographic map on which to digitize with the pen in the field or in the laboratory the various shapes obviously geo-referenced and using as a base map a topographic map in ecw format, export in shape format and load everything into my beloved QGis, but taking full advantage of the potential of the apple pencil. Is this possible? I must also admit that I am a big fan of global mapper. Regards
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Hydrologist, agricultural scientist, Geographer
How to calculate Kinetic energy using monthy cummulative rainfall data
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I want to map these river geoforms with as little subjectivity as possible. I have a high resolution DEM generated by drone data.
Harald G. Dill Thanks for the answer
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I intend to draw soil profiles in my research illustrating the amount of sand, silt and clay from each layer. Pedology; Fluvial Geomorphology.
rockware software
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I need to analyze the movement of a river's curves and predict its behavior in the future.
Thanks!
I mentioned Rivermorph software, but if you are not aware of David Rosgen and his works at www.wildlandhydrology.com it would probably be worth looking into. Probably since a couple of decades ago, Rivermorph and Rosgen have been collaborating. Most of the Rosgen approach relies on and uses field data collection. If you are only using remote sensing, obtaining LIDAR coverage would help. If water is clear enough, green LIDAR can help with channel depth estimates, as the LIDAR pulses are absorbed by water. Probably obtaining the past aerial photos will help greatly. I have seen examples of presentations which combined the aerial photos to help display how the meanders changed with time.
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SL gradient index = (change in elevation/change in length of river)*L(river length), how can we calculate the L values?
The length of river (L) can be defined in two ways; 1) straight line from river head to mid of two point of measurement or 2) the slope of the length of river from head river to mod of two point of measurement.
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I have a case of a bend river with groynes. Is IRIC capable to do refinement?. I am working with NAYS2DH and FASTMECH modules.
I also work with openFOAM (other topics), but i am not sure that such capabilities could give me a confort in time and ease of deal with river hydrodynamics and sediment transport. OpenFOAM does not have so far modules purely dedicated to this field.
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Hello
According to Harel et al (2019), a drainage reversal is represented by obtuse angle of a river junction. Does anyone know about an algorithm that can detect them?
Best Regards,
Lester
Harel, E., Goren, L., Shelef, E. and Ginat, H., 2019, Drainage reversal toward cliffs induced by lateral lithological differences: Geology, v. 47.
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I would like to know the fast and easiest way to differentiate aeolian and fluvial silt by looking at the samples itself.
- Aeolian silt and sand grains have frosted surfaces due to the the abrasion that they suffered when impacted to each other's.
- Aeolian silt might be better sorted than fluvial silts, while fluvial silts tend to be mixed with fine sand and clays and often have organic matter content.
-In a fluvial system, silts and finer sediments are related to flooding plains, so when the river level grows up and cover the plains around the river, after the energy decreases, the silts, clays and organic matter particles deposit on the flooding plain. Silts also occur in abandoned channels in meandering river systems.
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I need to map out the elements in the river in detail (wood, stones, gravel benches, sedimentary fractions ...). In previous mapping, I used river photography combined with river sketches, which I then processed in ArcGis Pro to the final map. But this method only worked for a narrow stream (2-3 m) because the camera was able to take a stream across its entire width. Now I map a much larger stream (12m) and mapping by photo is much harder and inaccurate here.
How do you map streams and rivers? Which methods do you use for that? Do you have any proven tips?
Have a nice day.
The problem is the scale of work
his idea is to map very small areas in both length and width.
one-. An aerial photo at a very large scale would be optimal.
two-. Other solutions to make polygons with GPS traking.
3-. With a drone they could make very detailed photographs that serve to work with stereo pairs in 3D.
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Please, i'm looking for a copy of a Book : "Principles of Alluvial Fan Morphology ( Dan Bowman )", can you help me to find it ??
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I am interested to know the geomorphology of the chattisgarh region. specifically the places: Kanger, Dantewara, and Bastar. If anyone has something related, I'd welcome the help.
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Please tell me  about factors , characteristic and parameters that I can use in Geomorphological  coceptual modeling for bridges.
Dear Esmaeil
There are several factors to check before construction of a bridge on a channel. Hydraulic parameters such as stream power can be considered one of the most important. Additionally there are few more factors such as channel pattern, sediment load, channel breaks (Knicks), woods etc. should be considered.
Hope this helps.
Cheers.
Sumit Das
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Post Doctoral research is increasingly in demand as it attracts more knowledgeable and competent scholars either who are left unemployed or aspirant of farther research. Therefore, there's tough competition among them. In such condition, one has to rightly highlight his talent, skills and best research works to be succeeded in the competition. Please forward your ideas and views here. Thanks in advance!
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I need your help in finding literature on the evolution of a river bar in the tide-dominated delta. Also, I want to know about the methodology which I can follow to know about the evolution/formation of a river bar.
Supriti
Maybe, this book can help you, "FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY" Ro Charlton.
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My current project is to assess the hydrological, geological and geometric characteristics of Tigris River reach within the city of Tikrit-Iraq, to qualify this reach for tourist attractions, river transport and flood prevention.
If there are similar studies, please provide me copies of these.
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I am studying facies sequence of Tertiary rock in Bengal basin.
Dear colleague:
There is a wide range of marks and traces in the field of inorganic and organic sedimentology which have some implications on the paleobathymetry of sedimentary strata. The same holds true for the floral and faunal remains in paleontology. There are much more publications, items and species of assistance to address this issue than room available in this Q&A process on Researchgate.
I wish you much success
H.G.Dill
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I am thinking to install a microseismic monitoring system in Uttrakhand Himalayan region.The rock mainly consists of slate and rock is layered too but stress level is low.Will Microseismic monitoring system work in such geological area having low stress  and poverburden thickness is of 14m at an elevation of about 1000m?
I don't know, because I only have used in porphyry copper rocks, like Greenstone and Andesite.
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Drainage basin characteristics are very important for occurrence and intensity of gully erosion. Size of the basin is influencing the surface runoff, whereas larger basins can produce increased runoff in regard to smaller ones. Since basin shape directly impacts the size of peak discharge and its arrival time at the basin outlet I would like to know which basin shape is optimal for gully erosion occurrence, and why ?
Sorry i sent  before my answer in spanish, now  this is a english version
My particular criterion, must be analyzed firstly rocky substratum, regardless of the watersheds size , develop of the gully erosion is in correspondence with the resistance made by the soil, another aspect the slope of the river channel that influences the speed of the stream and consequently increase the erosive load, all in correpondencia with the climatological factor
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I'm working on a project to improve predictability of the migration of silica in iron ore process. I will design a model to improve this predictability.
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River morphology, Hydrology, Sediment load,Geomorphic process
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given that the maximum depth of water is 77 m and the lake area around 18 ha. The bed rock is sandstone rock. The average rainfall over the catchment is about 250 mm/year during winter months only.
I think it depends on what type and length of other hydrometeorological data that you have for the area. In general, a common approach would be to establish a water balance for the lake.
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In a braided loop, if B1 is the width of the right channel, B2 is the width of left channel and W is the width of braided bar. Suppose during the flood season, the braided bar is submerged  then Can I take aspect ratio as B1+W+B2/(average depth)?
Please do suggest me reference too.
The bankfull depth measurement for this is the mean depth at bankfull, not thalweg depth.  As I suggested, normal bankfull indicators may be compromized in braided systems.  Anastomosed braided systems may be handled slightly different.  You may find some added advice at www.wildlandhydrology.com from Dr. David Rosgen on how to measure under these circumstances.
The width is going to be high relative to depth in braided streams, and as comparison, a gully typically has low width to depth ratio.
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I  need paper upon sequence stratigraphy of offshore indus basin, can anyone help?
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I am trying to estimate discharge for ungauged river basin and I have two or three measured discharge data and daily suspended sediment concentration of the river for past six months.
Normally, daily sediment concentration doesn't maintain a good correlation with daily discharge. The scatter is too much to derive a relationship even if we have records of both. However, in a glacial environment, as in your project, the sediment concentration is expected to bear a better relationship with discharge, as more discharge straightaway means more erosion. Still, your discharge data points are too few for prediction purpose. How about bringing in temperature and rainfall data (from satellite sources) also into the picture?
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Specifically focused on damage created by ohv use.
Unfortunately I have only the winter months to compile data.
Thanks!
Sarah, I'm not sure I understand what you want to do. If the water is frozen then it does not carry sediment (if it were, it would need to be over 30 m thick and then we'd call it a glacier). So what is loading the creek with sediment? Wind? Or offroad vehicles being driven on the banks?
Anyway, if you have water underneath a frozen lake then you can use a SediMeter to monitor sediment accumulation. In fact, my very first prototype field test was made under the ice of a lake in Sweden, and detected the accumulation of the so called winter fur, the organic matter that settles under the winter ice but gets resuspended at Spring.
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I am currently planning my undergraduate thesis, and I'm finding it difficult to think of a topic.
Dear Mr. Papa,
as you want to use the answer as a basis for a selection of geoscientific disciplines for your thesis I would like to look at this issue from the point of view of a teacher and trainer.
Geomorphology is a discipline closely linked to department of physical geography. It deals with the formation of landforms (see e.g. Global Geomorphology by Summerfield). The scale may be different from landforms created by fluvial process to geomorphological settings closely related to geodynamic processes. Geomorphologists try to elaborate landform types and generations. There dating techniques are mainly covering the Quaternary only such as radiocarbon dating, OSL or some cosmogenic dating methods. There are zones overlapping with sedimentology which covers as to the age range the entire time span from the Recent to the Precambrian when the first sediments formed. Sedimentology forms without any doubt part of geology sensu lato. It deals with the classification, formation and origin of sedimentary rocks. With this in mind it is one of the columns in the tripartite subdivision magmatic petrology, metamorphic petrology and sedimentary petrology (= sedimentology). Chemical, physical and mineralogical processes and techniques play a much wider part than in geomorphology. I studied both disciplines sedimentology and physical geography. It is a bit like "outcrop" and "subcrop" or "surface" and "substance".
You will find a lot of textbooks on physical geography, sedimentary petrology, magmatic/igneous petrology and metamorphic petrology written by the leading experts who normally state in the preface what their disciplines are like. There are "frontier areas" like those treating pyroclastic deposits which result from a combination of effusive and sedimentary processes and therefore handled by two different disciplines.
I hope my general briefing provided you with an overview and assists you in taking a decision.
Good luck
Harald G. Dill
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Dear reserachers,
in order to calculate the areal efficiency exist some graphical methods that usually correlate mobility ratio and water cut depending on the  pattern in waterflooding. However, I haven't found a plot for an inverse 5 spot pattern, would it be correct to use the same plot as for a normal 5 spot pattern?
Any additional information related to the methods for computing areal efficiency are very welcome. Thank you in advance!
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I currently read studies about hydraulic River Geometry. In the context of Erosion Rates in Alluval Channels, the term Control Point was mentioned.
The wording is, "...alluvial channels may erode their beds through time if their downstream control point lowers."
Does it have to do something with the base level?
Base level is the lowest point a river section can flow to, such as lake or ocean level but sometimes mention of base level term is informally used as a term to discuss some major shift downstream in channel that activates channel degradation, as the channel control point(s) has(have) changed.  Control points generally refer to a grade control, but also the term is sometimes the term control is used to describe the controlling feature specific to a location at a certain flow value or water level elevation. With time and flow rate, the vertical channel control of degradation may be a root, exposed sill, log, shoal or bedrock, and in locations where discharges during floods must squeeze through a constrained geologic pinch point, lateral controls may contribute to rate and extent of channel degradation.
In response to the quote and my exposure and work in gully systems, it is easy to become very aware of the changes in control as gully nickpoint(s) episodically move headward in response to change, with channels actively extending, degrading, expanding and other areas downstream aggrading or accumulating sediments.  But is not unusual to find natural or anthropogenic encouraged circumstances where an aggraded section has accumulated too much or sediment loading is reduced and headcutting and degradation results in deep valley gullies which abandon the recent floodplain.
So there are certain permanent geologic control features and also less permanent to temporary control features that affect and control channel grade and substrate erosion.  There may be times that permanent controls are buried by sediments or other times when certain vertical controls of erosion depth are ineffectual when discussing a certain stream flood elevation, as another feature is actually the control.
However, this is my field based understanding, reasoning and have not researched or published relative to the subject.  But in informal discussions, when someone discusses baselevel changes due to activities like channel mining or dredging, I know they are not discussing shifts in ocean or lake base level, but the altering of the local in-channel controls that can cause localized changes similar to what one my expect of a base level shift.  So there needs to be some leeway as these terms are similar in intent, but not always applied the same way.
But take the Niagara Falls as an example, for contributing streams, that substantive feature is probably more of a base level control than the ocean.  So perhaps there will be some further responses that may help more properly define the terms, where they apply and how they should be used.  Obviously, local changes in channel controls can produce changes like headcutting and channel expansion that appear similar to base level shifts, even if the ocean base level is perhaps rising.  So to some degree, a generic use of the term "base level" may be justified, rather than sticking with just changes in the ocean, as one can find instances where ocean level shift are not responsible for or in sync with shifts far upstream or in headwaters.
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we need to design a pipe which will carry the storm coming from all three watersheds ,
suppose this situation ,
if time of concentration associated to the last watershed ( closest to the pipe ) is the greatest of three ,
should we still consider and add the time of travel for storms of  other two watersheds in calculation of peak discharge for pipe 3 ??
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Hi, I am working on bridge-scour phenomena under different hydraulic conditions. The main goal is to propose a practical way for estimating the temporal-evolution of local-scour depth under complex scenarios. Is there anyone interested in share pier-scour data? (steady, quasi-steady, unsteady or natural data will be much appreciated).
There are numerous works for the development of a scour hole around a cylinder under steady flows, e.g Roulund et al(2005). As for unsteady flows, William's field data are really valuable.
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I am looking for riverbed depth profiles of the downstream tract of major rivers. I am interested in the last few 100s km from the coast where river process interact with marine processes and backwater effects.
I have already found data for the Mekong, Mississippi and Yangtze rivers. Could you recommend where I can find data for other rivers?
If the Po river can be of your interest you can try to caontact:
1) Agenzia Interregionale per il fiume Po: (= interregional Agency for the Po River – Technical Services)
( here you can find the sections of the riverbed)
or :
AIPO :
E-mail :
ufficio-fe@agenziapo.it (City of Ferrara)
ufficio-ro@agenziapo.it (City of Rovigo)
2)  ISMAR - Bologna (Italian National Council for  Researches: marine geology laboratory):
here you can find literature concerning your subjects.
(for example:
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Questionnaire is carried out in order to develop my master thesis: The impact of user-defined parameters on DEM accuracy. By using feedbacks from the users who works with DEMs the conclusion about users perception of the importance of user-defined parameters in digital terrain modelling will be performed.
Thanks in advance to all !
PDF, Thanks to all. Regards
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I am studying the fluvial geomorphologic evolution of river basins impacted by glacial isostatic rebound, and would like to collaborate with interested international parties (preferably at the M.S. level or above). Currently, I am drafting a proposal for international recognition that could result in the onset of a multidisciplinary project studying fluvial geomorphology in formerly glaciated basins. Must have interest in attempting to secure INQUA recognition. Contact me for more information. Thank you.
Hello, You could contact Mr. Andronache Ion. He has a PhD in geomorphology and fractal analysis. He could take a great part of this project. You could leave a private message on RG.
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I am working on the facies analysis of Dupi Tila sediments in Bangladesh.
Dear Dr. Ul-Islam:
According to my experience which I gathered mainly during my stay in the Chittagong Hill Tracks, the Bhuban Fm. is arenaceous to argillaceous. It is representative of a prograding deltaic depositional environment replacing near-shore marine deposits. Minor transgressive events are marked by foram tests. The younger Boka Bil Fm. shows stronger reworking. Being of the same siliciclastic type it is, however, finer-grained than the underlying strata. The marine foraminiferous microfossils are rare and brackish conditions may be invoked. Desiccation cracks are indicative of phases of emersion. In combination with the paleontological inventory these estuarine deposits encompass supratidal facies elements which more landward are replaced by fluvial deposits.
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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Western margin of India is rifting actively since the detachment from Seychelles. Is there any quantitave account of the component of recent active rifting process? This includes the direction and amount of rifting.
Shantamoy:
You may kindly have a look at this link for insights and contact Dr Christopher Scotese (at RG) for information:
Best
Syed
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The picture attached is an iron hydroxide found in sediment deposits with fluviolacastrine origin.
I am searching a way to prove the age of some sediment strata which presumably are upper Miocene or Pliocene( C 14 is not working). This strata are reach of  Flora fossils, but so far can not determine the age only by them. They aslo are reach of iron oxides, that is why if we can date the oxide, than we can date the flora and the strata as well.
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From sub-pixel correlation of optical imagery the migration of sand dunes in river bed can be analyzed. How does this analysis enable me to suggest a suitable site for the construction of a bridge?
I think, it is important to read this file
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I would like to discuss with anyone who has studied and surveyed water mills and their interactions with the river beds, or I would have some suggestions of publications to read or download from the network. It would also be nice to be able to exchange research experiences gained in the different countries of origin. Thank you.
Don,
1894 book with penstock waterwheels if you have not found it yet. PDF with text smaller and still retains good images.
JAG
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I intend to leave turbidity sensors over the winter in proglacial stream to be able to capture whole ablation season, however I encountered the problem that all sensors I have seen have minimum operating temperature as high as 0°C (I need around -30°C), or at least manuals say so. Do you have any experience with that? Thank You!
hi Jakub,
visit lindorm.com you may acquire the best equipment to detect turbidity so long the water is not completely frozen
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I want to measure bank geometry change in submerse zone during fluvial erosion at the bank toe but I cannot use distance sensor (laser eye)
because clear water in the initial stage changes to turbidity water during fluvial erosion.
Moreover, I planed to use ultrasonic sensor to measure bank geometry but the measurement instruments need to be installed outside the flume.
In this case it means the the acoustic cannot pass plexiglass for measured bank geometry changes.
Have you checked the SediMeter? see lindorm.com
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I'm seeking some guidance as I develop my PhD dissertation. I had planned on using a geomorphological mapping approach (remote sensing, terrain modeling, and field mapping) to map landforms and processes operating at different spatial scales to understand the spatial distribution (pattern) and interaction of landforms at different stages of placer development (placer diamonds). I'm interested in addressing this issue from the watershed scale since much work has been done at the reach scale with the physics-based approach.  I need to narrow down my focus and address specific scientific questions and am seeking advice.
Anicet,
Thank you for your suggestions and for the paper that you attached.  I read it with great interest and see that it may be useful in defining a direction forward for my work.  The paper you shared was also very interesting considering that my work has been focused on placer deposits in West Africa (including Guinea and Cote d'Ivoire). I appreciate your help and guidance.
Pete Chirico
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I'm studying a stratigraphic section where clastic sediments are up to 400 meters thick. I have recognized three depositional environments being alluvial fan, fluvial, and marine. In the upper parts of the stratigraphic column where fluvial system turns into marine I was wondering if I've missed to record delta where these two systems intersect. The lithology in the upper part consists of an alternation of large cross-bedded conglomerate and sandy bioclastic limestone which clearly shows the sea-level fluctuation for a fair amount of time before marine conditions dominated. Did I miss recording Deltaic environments or fluvial deposits were transported to the sea with some sort of channels?
As I said in my previous note, the climate was likely hot and dry and only seasonal flow occurred. Additionally, you most probably are looking at the fanglomerates which were deposited in the alluvial fan(s) in a coastal setting. Resultantly, you may not see typical deltaic sedimentation (delta plain, estuarine etc.) which would be transitional between terrestrial and marine environments.
Nevertheless, you are seeing interbedded fanglomerates and carbonates in the upper part of your section. That likely resulted due to base level rise and resultant transgression. And if your overlying section is only fanglomerates, then within the fanglomerate-carbonate zone lies the maximum flooding surface.
To answer your query, I would say yes; no typical transitional facies development.
Take care.
Saif
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Key words: Flash flood - Gully and Rill -Land Use - Vegetation covers - Topography.
How can i combine all in one model? And how can i quantify these factors?
Dear Amr Saleem, The end of my post missed so trying to proceed:
Hydrological cycle in all water bodies (including groundwaters) is very important factor,  not only flash floods caused in abundant precipitation. Evaporation drived by temperature dynamics  and other factors is also valuable too. Note that exact parameters had to be taken into account  depend on certain location. Very important point is a scale. Drivers of short-term (seasonal) dynamics usually differ from annual, decimal trends  as well as dymamic character itself. human impact including land use is most unpredictable factor. Remotely sensed (satellite) data help in estimation of most referred factors (direct or ondirect) for model verification. This is suggested in accordance to our experience. Honestly speaking, the models you suggest are really complicated   I suddenly found the reference I was giong to share: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270769761_Spatially_explicit_estimation_of_soil-water_resources_by_coupling_of_an_eco-hydrological_model_with_remote_sensing_data_in_the_Weihe_River_Basin_of_China
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Suspended sediment loads are basis for various fluvial dynamics. Suspended sediment sampling is so important to develop linkages for fluviogeomorphic processes in particular and earth surface processes in general. But, for a researcher the real challenge is to adopt the right sampling methods for a complex drainage system with multiple thread channel along with its various tributaries.
Thank you very much for scholarly discussion on this particular issue! Please!!
An interesting question, Pankaj.
This is an abbreviated and edited extract from a draft Review paper that our project team have written in draft form, and which will be published later this year once edits are complete.
Introduction to the issues and problems
Suspended sediment loads (SSL) are derived from the product of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and flow rate or discharge, Q . Although apparently simple, calculation of fluvial sediment fluxes is fraught with difficulty, and the process is often referred to as ‘estimation’. Suspended sediment flux estimates need to maximise accuracy (proximity to the actual value) and precision (high repeatability).
At the simplest level, it requires the determination of both river discharge, Q, and - this is the key - spatially and temporally representative suspended sediment concentrations. Thus, the instantaneous suspended sediment load, SSL (in kg s-1 for the units below), is given by:
SSL = Q x SSC
Where Q = water discharge (m3 s-1) and SSC is the instantaneous suspended sediment concentration in g l-1 (i.e. kg m-3).
Sediment fluxes over a given time period require integration of this simple equation over time.
However, problems include the following:
1. The many non-linearities in the sediment transport system, especially in the relation between water discharge and suspended sediment concentration which are often power functions.
2. Temporal variability of river flows, and the variable SSC for a given flow.  Sediment rating curves show that SSC can vary by 2-3 orders of magnitude for a given flow (e.g. classic papers by Walling and Webb e.g. 1981 et seq. This is quite different from a stage-discharge rating equation where, in the absence of channel geometry changes at the gauging station, a given stage is always associated with the same discharge (notwithstanding rising and falling limb water surface slope differences as the flood wave passes.
3. Much suspended sediment transport occurs during a very limited time. For example, Walling et al. (1992) found, for the River Exe at Thorverton in SW England for 1978-1980, that 50% of the suspended sediment load occurred in just 1% of the time, and 90% of total suspended sediment load took place in 5% of the time. It is crucial, therefore, to sample or monitor in these key periods.
4. There is typically huge scatter in river discharge vs suspended sediment concentration relations which has to be addressed to produce the sediment rating curve), which is often best defined by log-linear relationships between discharge and suspended sediment concentration.
5. Hysteresis effects further complicate estimation.  Different suspended sediment concentrations are often obtained for a given flow (at storm event and seasonal timescales: section.
6. Cross-sectional SSC variations which may complicate single-point (e.g. channel-edge) sampling or monitoring etc.
7. Changing sediment particle size distribution effects, during and between storm events and seasons, which can degrade simple relationships between turbidity and SSC.
A key issue, therefore, is to ensure that sampling/monitoring is quasicontinuous. Walling and Webb’s (1981) pioneering study demonstrated this by using a resampling approach on data from the R. Creedy in Devon.  They first computed ‘true’ suspended sediment loads from a master high-resolution dataset collected at 60-minute intervals, and then compared these values with those obtained from restricting the analyses to successively coarser time resolutions (e.g. daily, weekly, 2-weekly), to mimic a low-resolution field investigation.  Such studies demonstrate the very large load errors that arise with coarse sampling (e.g. Walling, 1981, 1985 et seq).

Several methods have been evaluated rigorously by Walling and Webb (1981; 1985), and further examinations of the statistical methodologies involved have been published by Ferguson (1987) and Clarke (1990). Phillips et al (1999) evaluated 22 suspended sediment load estimation equations for northern England catchments.
The problems continue to tax, and some examinations include: Webb et al. (1997) for British rivers; Philips et al. (1999) for the UK showing that errors are magnified in larger catchments; Horowitz (2003) on sediment rating curves for US and European rivers who recommends that sampling is done on a hydrological, rather than a calendar, basis to minimise errors; Crowder et al’s (2007) study of suspended sediment load–discharge relationships for US Midwest basins; and the work of Brown et al (2010) who used multiple load estimation approaches for basins in the UK, Germany and The Netherlands. As Moatar and Meybeck (2005, p. 430) argue, some of these issues also apply to nutrient load estimation: ‘concentration data are still commonly the limiting factor on the quality of river flux estimates’ .
High-resolution monitoring method: interpolation approaches
The most effective and accurate method to derive total suspended sediment loads is often field intensive.  It involves automated high-resolution, quasicontinuous sampling or monitoring, at a sampling interval which is short enough to ensure that SSC or flow does not change significantly i.e. where it is ‘safe’ to interpolate Q and SSC between sample values.  This interval is often set between 10 and 30 minutes (commonly 15 minutes) in small to medium scale catchments where flows and suspended sediment fluxes can change quickly (e.g. < 1000 km2 in drainage basin area).
Example high-resolution studies in the UK include D.E. Walling's pioneering work (many great papers!); Lawler et al. (1996; 2006) and Old et al. (2003; 2005), and examples for large glacial rivers in Iceland (Lawler, 2003). The monitoring period should also be sufficiently long to be representative of longer-term sediment transport conditions, and include a range of hydrological and meteorological events, especially storm sequences when most sediment transport occurs.
A few useful references are listed here (many of these are on Research Gate or Google Scholar) to get started, and many of these papers discuss field instrumentation options and details too, as part of the methodology section of the papers:
Horowitz, AJ, Kent A. Elrick and James J. Smith. 2001. ‘Estimating suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in large river basins: methodological considerations as applied to the NASQAN programme.’ Hydrological Processes, 15, pp.1107–1132.  DOI: 10.1002/hyp.206.
Lawler, DM, Petts, GE, Foster, IDL and Harper, S. 2006. Turbidity dynamics and hysteresis patterns during spring storm events in an urban headwater system: the Upper Tame, West Midlands, UK, Science of the Total Environment, 360, 109-126
Old, G.H., Lawler, D.M. and Snorrason, A. 2005. Flow and sediment dynamics of a glacial outburst flood from the Skaftá system in southern Iceland, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30, 1441-1460.
WALLING, D. E., OWENS, P. N., WATERFALL, B. D., LEEKS, G. J. L. & WASS, P. D. 2000. The particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment in the Humber and Tweed catchments, UK. Science of the Total Environment, 251-252, 205-222.
WALLING, D. E., RUSSELL, M. A., HODGKINSON, R. A. & ZHANG, Y. 2002. Establishing sediment budgets for two small lowland agricultural catchments in the UK. Catena, 47, 323-353.
WALLING, D. E., RUSSELL, M. A. & WEBB, B. W. 2001. Controls on the nutrient content of suspended sediment transported by British rivers. Science of the Total Environment, 266, 113-123.
WALLING, D. E. & WEBB, B. W. 1981a. The reliability of suspended sediment load data ( River Creedy, UK). Erosion and sediment transport measurement. Proc. Florence symposium, June 1981, (International Association of Hydrological Sciences, IAHS-AISH Publication 133), 177-194.
A search on Google Scholar will reveal a great many useful papers too.
I hope this helps, as a start!
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I would like to get age constraints on the deposition of fluvial sediments in a river deposit in the Kenya Rift. Age estimates are Mid to Late Pleistocene. The sources are mostly basaltic, trachytic and phonolitic lava flows. Quarz content is fairly low, so I'm guessing OSL won't be the method of choice. Any ideas?
I would suggest post-IR IRSL K-feldspar dating: worked fine for the Middle to Late Pleistocene Rhine in The Netherlands.
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I looked up Google's satellite imagery and realized that a number of units with significant different are visible in the images. I want to know how this distribution pattern have been created.
I also suggest you look up desert pavements, which closely resemble your first picture. As someone mentioned before, the clasts in that picture are quite angular, suggesting minimal transport by water. I suggest that the lack of fine sediment is due to aeolian deflation, whereas in the second picture you have an ephemeral stream (someone mentioned wadi already) that periodically sees water flow. Two different processes at work: two different sedimentological signatures.
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I am working on the tropical rivers of Western Ghat. I found some clear cut indication of stream capturing from river network pattern. I want to know that whether there could be any framework to do numerical experiments to confirm about the process of river capturing.
Dear Mr. Daniel. It was really very helpful. Thank you.
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I'm a bit confused about the type locality of the oligochaet Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. In his paper, Claperede (1862) says (in French) : "Dans le lit de la Seime près Villette , canton de Genève." which means something like this: "In the littoral of the Seime near Villette, canton Genève". In present days canton Genève is in the southwestern part of lake Geneva (Lac Leman), Switserland. However the village Villette is in the Northeastern part of Lake Geneva near Lausanne, but this is in canton Vaud. There is no such river as Seime, just Rhône and l'Arve near Geneve. So I was wondering: is there a river Seime somewhere? is Seime an old name for Rhône? is Villette a village near Geneve or is Seime not a river or ? So if anybody could tell me the typelocality as written by Claparede in 1862 (see also attachment), please give me a hint.
Geographisch-statistisches Handlexikon der Schweiz für ...
Markus Lutz - 1822
Seime, die, ein Bach, welcher un, sern Gu in, K. Gens entsvringt, in der Gemeinde Chouler einiges Sumvsland bil, det, in seühern Zeiten eine Strecke weit die ...
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How can we get information by any such type of analysis
THANKS A LOT DR KENNETH
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I am preparing a spatio-temporal analysis on the lateral channel shifting of an alluvial meandering Hungarian river. I don't want to try to draw the thalweg manually because I'd prefer more precision for this purpose.
I have vectorized the river banks from aerial photographs from several time periods and I've already calculated the centerlines of the channels for each period.
Unfortunately, I have NO 3D bathymetric data.
I was trying to use the River Channel Morphology Model (link) by V. Merwade which is theoretically able to calculate thalweg based on only the sinousity and the banklines but I had many problems with using it in several ArcGIS versions as well.
Does anyone know any applicable GIS methods for determining the thalweg of a river channel?
Thanks for your suggestion but I don't think it is the right method. I don't have a high resolution DSM like LIDAR from the area and the freely available DEMs (i.e. SRTM) is not able to represent the river channels so I cannot derive the correct and precise thalweg.
What do you think?
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I am trying to find out geomorphic elements that can be considered really important and require the area to be considered as a national park.
The study area is Arauca in Colombia, there is fluvial geomorphology and aeolian geomorphology.
I think may be there are some geophorms related with specific ecosystems, or groundwater.
The budget is low, so I only have some aerial photographs, and bibliography.
If someone have any ideas about literature, or methodologies I would appreciated.
Thanks
Diana Lozano
Dear Diana,
Many geomorphological and landscape features are incorporated into conservation planning protocols as they serve as surrogates for evolutionary and ecological processes that are difficult or even impossible to delimit otherwise. This ties in with what Danilo Russo has mentioned with regards to corridors and connectivity. I am most familiar with the South African literature, so I provide some examples below. I realise this might not answer your questions exactly, but hopefully it will help you identify which geomorphological features are of importance.
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Drainage basin is a place of work for fluvial geomorphologists not only as a geomorphic unit but gets attracted by many researcher also due to its interdisciplinary nature. Therefore, the delineation and mapping of it is the foremost work of further researches. The shortfall of narratives on methodology to delineate and mapping a drainage basin/catchment preludes the scientific society to make a common consensus or standardisation of this vital task of map making in broader perspectives. Please put forward your views & comments...
A drainage basin refers to the whole drainage area of a river up to its confluence e.g. the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin. When we say catchment area, it generally means the drainage area up to a certain point on the river, say a discharge observation site e.g. catchment area of Brahmaputra river up to Pandu. Watershed generally refers to the ridge line i.e. drainage divide of the basin, but is also used interchangeably with drainage basin. Thus, drainage basin and watershed can be said to be synonymous, but catchment has a different connotation.
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In Multi points facies modeling, is it possible to consider Sand as reservoir body and shale as channels in real fluvial systems.
If I consider the body as shale and channels as sand, I will lose the most reservoir property that I know it is 90% sand from the geological literature?
Thank you Pedro for your valuable response.
Actually, it is a Fluvial Sandstone oil reservoir in ME region and has more than 300 production wells in a region of 12 km width and 38 Km length. The producers are distributed everywhere with minimum distance of 500 m.
I know from geological reports that sand ratio is more than 95%. I did modeling it in MPS considering sand (reservoir), shaly sand (levee), and shale (non-reservoir). That way is different from the conventional way of body is shale.
I have incorporated the spatial posterior distribution of Sand only as trend model. So it is MPS with trend, but not the geometrical trend. I found that sand channels have better continuity than MPS alone.
I have used later SGSIM for proprety modeling given the MPS Facies model.
I believe my idea is correct as I obtained fast production history for its life.
That's my workflow that I have done and want to get feed back about.
Best,
Watheq
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How it is determined the exact spot of the birth of a river? Often there is a tendency to regard as the birth of a river to remote sources of its mouth, especially when in high places. But,  are considered hydrological criteria? And anthropic?
Many thanks ahead of any help.
Dear Manuel,
I would expect the origin of a river to be the province of geomorphology - fluvial geomorphology, that is. What you are calling a river probably originates in a myriad of small channels. These may carry water permanently or intermitently, and will quite frequently originate  in a clearly defined "channel head". A channel head is the uppermost limit of concentrated surface water flow and sediment transport between two clearly defined boundaries. The channel head is a permanent geomorphic feature in the landscape, not necessarily coinciding with the commencement of channelized flow at a given moment, since this may vary with rain, etc. - therefore, It may carry water or the just present evidence of previous sediment transport.  It is important to distinguish true fluvial channels from mere rills which are smaller, impermanent geomorphic features that disapear further downslope. Otherwise, discriminating between all your first (order) channels to designate one as THE river source may be a somewhat arbitrary process - R. Horton (1957) used the longest one. Unfortunatly, finding the origin of your stream will most likely involve walking up the stream up to its channel heads. I suggest taking photographs and show them to a geomorphologist for confirmation. Take heart, trekking is fun!
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How does the geomorphology effect the River hydrodynamic regime during flash floods?
Dear Alban, geomorphology may affect river´s hydrodynamic regime, not only during the flash floods, which are rapid responses to a high intensity rainstorm, but also after the flash flood, since there could happen several modifications in the landscape, due to a flash flood. These modifications may include bank erosion, river and flood plain siltation, etc. These geomorphological modifications may, in the long term cause influence in the river´s hydrodynamic regime.
Best wishes,
Maria do Carmo
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I am planning to write an article on the topic "Comminution age technique and its application in the sediment records to reconstruct the fluvial activity in response to climate variability". Since I am unable to access the required materials online, I need favor on this. Can any one elaborate something on this?
Thanks
Dear Mr. Bhattarai,
comminution depends upon the setting (climatologically and geomorphologically driven) and the mineral undergoing comminution. So far we know only the most widespread process in the study area and nothing else. These are too many unknown parameters to solve the equation. You should give full particulars in this sense to obtain  reasonable answers.
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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What should be the minimum/ideal reach length for SI calculation of any sample basin? Rosgen (1996) suggested taking 20 to 40 time of bankfull width of the study reach; this may be too short to examine planform characteristics such as sinuosity.
We can find the huge variation between reach scales SI as suggested by Rosgen and long reach scale SI calculation.
Then, what should be followed for better result?
Please go and see the series of publications on the subject by H. Piegay and Albert, or eventually the book H. Piegay co-wrote with M. Kondolf:
Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology edited by G. Mathias Kondolf, Hervé Piégay.
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Is it possible for x to be too small (stream cross-sections too close together) when applying a kinematic routing model?
I think if the x-sections used are very close to each other, the representation of the river under study will be accurate but the routing model will be very slow when run. so, when you are working or doing research on a specific channel, you should calibrate the reach you're studying and see the most suitable distance between x-sections that can give acceptable results. sometimes, the over-accuracy is not useful. it is only too expensive.
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The readily available DEM such as Bhuvan DEM, ASTER DEM have been used for different purposes. But,I haven't got any literature where the detail methodology of bank angle measurement from DEM is given. I need to calculate river bank angles at different reaches of river.If some one helps me out I will be very grateful. Thank you!
In my opinion DEM are in general a good complementary data source to field measurements (especially if the study site is not easily accessible) for any kind of 3D-surface investigation. But as Valentin mentioned before, in your case surface changes can be strong and fast. Hence appropriate DEM for your application need to fulfill certain requirements. High resolution DEM, e.g. derived from highly coherent TanDEM-X SAR data and the technique of SAR-Interferometry might be suitable for your purpose. If you subtract two of such DEM you can show the change of the river bank angles during the time span of the two acquisitions. The minimum time span of two TanDEM-X-DEM is 11 days. Unfortunately TanDEM-X-DEM need to be processed from not freely available SAR data. Therefore commercial data and expertise in SAR processing are needed.
Nonetheless you can try to calculate the angles from an already provided DEM (such as ASTER). This might be done with GIS software like ArcGIS or Q-GIS, where algorithms for surface slope calculation are already implemented.
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Reg soil evolve due to accumulation of fine sediment on alluvial surfaces.
I indicated the horizons in the following Reg soil. Are they true?
Hello,
Soil names depends on the recognition of diagnostic features and properties, one of the most important is  the recognition of the structure of the horizon. In this kind of "young soil" it is important to see the difference between your parent material (C horizon) and the first signs of pedogenetic structuration and colour change (cambic horizon or Bw). Your A horizon seems also to be very weak and thin and reduce to 1 to 2 cm.
Anyway your soil is either a Fluvic Skeletic Cambisol if you can diagnose a Cambic horizon (Fluvic  because developped from alluvial deposit; skeletic because the amount of carse element seens to be high)
or a Skeletic Fluvisol in the WRB soil classification if a real cambic horizon is not find.
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Most of the known successions interpreted as tide-dominated deltas (e.g. Lajas, Tilje Fms.) have recently been reclassified as fluvial-dominated, tide-influenced because of the recognition of typical fluvial-derived features, such as forward-accreting, coarsening-upward mouth-bar deposits, crevasse-mouth-bar deposits, signs of seasonal variations of the fluvial discharge, etc.
Following this trend, it is arguable that the sand-rich successions that are commonly interpreted as tide-dominated deltas might be more fluvial that what was originally thought  and that ancient tide-dominated delta successions have not been described yet. Does anybody know ancient deltaic successions that are convincingly and extensively tide-dominated? Why?
Thanks in advance to anyone that will contribute to this discussion.
Dear Mr. Gugliotta,
the question is, "how ancient" the reference examples should be.There are some classical tide-dominated deltas which date back into the recent past of the geological history such as the Ganges-Brahmaputra , Kiang-Langat ., the Fly River, Yolu and Colorado systems.  There are good publications about the Gironde system, including some sequence stratigraphic approaches. Diessel (1993) also gave an overview of this environment as to the deposition of coal.
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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I need to draw some diagrams to show horizontal and vertical distribution of flow velocity. I will be grateful if some one suggests for it! Thank you!!
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I want to know the approximate age of any gully, i.e. the initial time of its formation. Likewise, as if I want to calculate the beginning of the erosion of any area.
Dear Dr. Pawar,
I do not see any approach in your opinion which would allow us to carry out absolute age dating. The methods mentioned in my answer are proven on a global basis and I used them successfully by myself. You have to single out the technique most applicable to the substrate and the interval within which the geomorphological-sedimentological processes leading to the landforms took place. Please consult my list of publications and you will find some papers as well as the literature cited in the reference list of the pertinent papers.
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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I want to describe the process of accumulation of organic material in oxbow environments (cut off meander channels).
Which term is the correct one?
It seems you are looking for an English version of the German term "Verlandung", what is something that does not exist to my knowledge and you may have to describe the process as mentioned by Jan Peeters. Nevertheless the term "alluvial bog" (Verlandungsmoor) might be helpful.
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The absorption and scattering properties I am referring to are the inherent optical properties (i.e. absorption and scattering coefficients).  My research involves sediment transport and re-suspension of sediments in the Mississippi Sound and its effects on the optical properties within the water column.  Thanks in advance for your responses.
Dear Stephan,
I don't know much about research on this in the Mississippi Sound, but a brief search brought the following up that I assume you may be familiar with, because they involve some of your neighbors within Stennis:
- A study titled "Biogeo-Optics: Backscattering Cross Sections for Suspended Mineral and Organic Matter in the Coastal and Near-Coastal Ocean" by Stavn et al. (2004), posted here:
- A presentation by Ladner et al. (2014) at the 2014 SPIE 9111 Ocean Sensing and Monitoring VI conference found here:  http://www7333.nrlssc.navy.mil/outgoing/spie2014/SPIE_Presentation_201405_Ladner.pptx
I found two versions of a more complete "proceedings" text of this presentation:
and
Note that the presentation refers to (among other things) in situ data by Lee (Univ. of Massachusetts) and Ondrusek (NOAA), so you should search for their past work as well for valuable datasets.
I hope these will help getting you started.
Best regards,
Angelos
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Lateral migration of meanders in arid climate is a potential threat to bridge scour. In a preliminary assessment of channel stability in a humid subtropical climate, it is possible to consider meandering alluvial rivers less dangerous to the bridges structures.
Dear Oscar,
the reasons for lateral migration of meanders are certainly manifold. One simple answer to your question is that the river banks of meanders are stabilized by vegetation and the stabilization by plants is certainly more effective under humid subtropical climate conditions than in areas with dry climate. For further information see, e.g.:
Sean J. Bennett and Andrew Simon (2013): Riparian Vegetation and Fluvial Geomorphology (Wiley).
Cheers!
Elmar
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I'm interested in studying river flows related to rainfall-runoff events. The river channel that I'm focused on has straight flow types at upstream and braided types at downstream. I place 2 water level gauges, 1 is at the boundary of straight flow type before it braided and 1 is at the braided reach downstream. I do this in order to try to build a flow routing in the river reach between station gauge 1 and 2. Is this treatment possible? Or can anyone give suggestions as to how to develop a hydraulic model for this condition?
Baina, if I understand properly, you want to get discharge data from a real river. So, I am curious about how you measure the flow at the braided reach. Do you measure the water level in each channel? It is not an easy task as the channels are frequently moving and changing in number when a change in discharge occurs. In my opinion it would be easier to place the gauges in known not braided and relatively steady sections. If it is not possible and you need to measure in a braided section, you would need to gauge all the channels simultaneously, which is quite complex! For instance, you can find some ideas and references in the following publications:
Ashmore, P., & Sauks, E. (2006). Prediction of discharge from water surface width in a braided river with implications for at‐a‐station hydraulic geometry. Water Resources Research, 42(3).
Smith, L. C., Isacks, B. L., Bloom, A. L., & Murray, A. B. (1996). Estimation of discharge from three braided rivers using synthetic aperture radar satellite imagery: Potential application to ungaged basins. Water Resources Research, 32(7), 2021-2034
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I am looking for river course data (must be GIS vector) in the world. This kind of data could be generated from global dem such as srtm3, but, in terms of global data, it is quite difficult for individual to prepare it.
Hi Inoue:
Perhaps you can use Natural Earth products [1] or WaterBase [2]
Kind regards
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I am currently pursuing my PhD studies in streambank erosion monitoring studies. However, this kind of study is still lacking in Malaysia. There's no devices installed by our authority to monitor streambank erosion especially with heavy storms in Malaysia. I am currently using conventional erosion pins to monitor streambank erosion. I would like to compare the manual method with PEEP sensors as it is more accurate and provide automated instruments for continuous bank erosion measurement.
Thank you
The PEEP can use to monitor the real-time change of beachface ?
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Tectonic evolution of the river basin is important because if you observed the Himalayan rivers having catchment upto Higher Himalaya, those earlier contributed sediments to tthe Siwalik basin. But  at present same river are cutting across the Siwalik range.
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Dear all,
I am trying to develop a simple (preferably 1-D) model of particle deposition in turbulent open channel flow,
from a continuous point source / plane. The aim is to predict the transport distance until deposition occurrs.
Important assumptions are that the channel bed is uniform, rough and fully absorbing in terms of suspended particles,
that there is no re-entrainment of deposited particles, and that suspended particle concentrations are small enough to not alter
bed topology and flow characteristics.
So far I have only been able to find models that consider (re-)entrainment of particles from the channel bed, include bed load transport
or incorporate the morphological changes over time.
Would it be more sensible to start altering equations of unsuitable models to my needs, or to continue looking for apt literature?
For the latter, could you be as kind as to point out some relevant literature (e.g. developed models, conceptual/discretized equations)?
Alex
HEC-RAS can be used for sediment transport and water quality. Is simple and you can model your case with it.
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I work in Svalbard. Proglacial rivers are shallow (usually up to ca. 50 cm), the expected discharge may reach up to 5 m3/second during extreme conditions, with summer averages of 0.5-1 m3/second. The flow is rather turbulent, sediment transfer is high, including rocks up to 10 cm in diameter. No stable ground is to be found at the sites, only gravel, occasionally washed out during higher water levels. Any additional abilities of such equipment (e.g. autosampling etc.) would be great, but I guess I'm asking too much.
If you have not heard of anything suitable for my needs, maybe you have some ideas how to organize manual discharge measurements so they will not become pain in the back very soon? I need to measure discharge in 3-4 streams, at least every 5-10 days, together 15 km of trekking. Again - what kind of equipment can you recommend?
I would appreciate any tips from more experienced colleagues.
Jakub
A StreamPro would be great in some respects - it is quick to deploy, it gives rich data. But it really works best in deeper water - you might not get good results in shallow, braided flows. Plus it's quite bulky to transport on foot. But the attached document might help answer some questions.
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