Science topics: ChemistryFlow Chemistry
Science topic

Flow Chemistry - Science topic

In flow chemistry, a chemical reaction is run in a continuously flowing stream rather than in batch production. In other words, pumps move fluid into a tube, and where tubes join one another, the fluids contact one another. If these fluids are reactive, a reaction takes place. Flow chemistry is a well-established technique for use at a large scale when manufacturing large quantities of a given material. However, it is relatively new to use it in the laboratory environment.
Filters
All publications are displayed by default. Use this filter to view only publications with full-texts.
Publications related to Flow Chemistry (2,141)
Sorted by most recent
Article
Full-text available
As research into additives and intentionally introduced impurities in dielectric thin film for enhancing the resistive switching based random access memories (RRAM) continues to gain momentum, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of chemically presynthesised Ni nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a dielectric layer to the overall structure...
Article
Full-text available
For the discovery of new candidate molecules in the pharmaceutical industry, library synthesis is a critical step, in which library size, diversity, and time to synthesise are fundamental. In this work we propose stopped-flow synthesis as an intermediate alternative to traditional batch and flow chemistry approaches, suited for small molecule pharm...
Article
Full-text available
Microfluidic devices are widely used in microbiology, fine organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, etc. Most applications require rapid mixing of the fluids that pass through the microfluidic chip. Continuous-flow microreactors used in flow chemistry have a characteristic channel size that is small enough, compared to standard laboratory s...
Article
Full-text available
Microdispersion technology is an important part of the flow chemistry method in creating tiny bubbles or droplets for enhancing mass/heat transfer performance, in which the dispersed flow condition plays a central role. Currently, most microdispersion flow characterization works are conducted by manual analysis on microscopic images, suffering from...
Article
Full-text available
A flow chemistry process for the generation and use of acylketene precursors through extrusion of nitrogen gas is reported. Key to the development of a suitable continuous protocol is the balance of reaction concentration against pressure in the flow reactor. The resulting process enables access to intercepted acylketene scaffolds using volatile am...
Article
Full-text available
Metallaphotoredox catalysis is a powerful and versatile synthetic platform that enables cross-couplings under mild conditions without the need for noble metals. Its growing adoption in drug discovery has translated into an increased interest in sustainable and scalable reaction conditions. Here, we report a continuous-flow approach to metallaphotor...
Article
Full-text available
For this study, new dendrimers were prepared from poly(propylene imine) (PPI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers using an efficient acid-base reaction with various phenolic acids. The syntheses were also optimized in both microwave and microfluidic reactors. These ionic and hydrophilic dendrimers were fully characterized and showed excellent ant...
Article
Full-text available
Support structures of various materials are used to enhance the performance of catalytic process chemistry. Typically, fixed bed supports contain regular channels enabling high throughput because of the low pressure drop that accompanies high flow rates. However, many fixed bed supports have a low surface-area-to-volume ratio resulting in poor cont...
Article
Full-text available
A low-cost flow system was designed, manufactured, and tested to perform automated base-catalyzed transesterification of triacylglycerols to determine the fatty acid content in edible oils. In combination with traditional gas chromatographic analysis (GC-FID), this approach provides a semi-automated process that requires minimal manual intervention...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nucleoside phosphorylases have progressed from an enzymatic curiosity to a viable synthetic tool. However, despite the recent advances in nucleoside phosphorylase-catalyzed nucleoside synthesis, the widespread application of these enzymes in industrial processes is still lacking. We attribute this gap to three key challenges, which are outlined in...
Article
Full-text available
Inductive heating has developed into a powerful and rapid indirect heating technique used in various fields of chemistry, but also in medicine. Traditionally, inductive heating is used in industry, e.g., for heating large metallic objects including bending, bonding, and welding pipes. In addition, inductive heating has emerged as a partner for flow...
Article
Full-text available
The separation of colloidal nanocrystals from their original synthesis medium is an essential process step towards their application, however, the costs on a preparative scale are still a constraint. A new combination of approaches for the purification of hydrophobic Quantum Dots is presented, resulting in an efficient scalable process in regard to...
Article
Full-text available
We demonstrated that organometallic catalysts can be immobilized in a gas-phase packed bed reactor (PBR) by coating inorganic particles with a non-volatile polymer-catalyst solution. We validated the methodology through a case study on the ethanol coupling reaction (Guerbet reaction) catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex and on the hydrogenation...
Article
Full-text available
Single-atom catalysts (SACs) offer many advantages, such as atom economy and high chemoselectivity; however, their practical application in liquid-phase heterogeneous catalysis is hampered by the productivity bottleneck as well as catalyst leaching. Flow chemistry is a well-established method to increase the conversion rate of catalytic processes,...
Article
Full-text available
Flow chemistry is the most advanced branch of synthetic chemistry amenable to both automation and synthesis in space and also under harsh conditions. Flow chemistry is performed by mixing two or more liquid/gas reagents under heating or cooling or under pressure in a reactor producing a continuous flow. Flow chemistry is a relatively new and altern...
Article
Full-text available
Synthesis of hindered amines using the atom-efficient hydroaminomethylation (HAM) route remains a challenge. Here, we report a general and accelerated HAM in segmented flow, achieved via a cooperative effect between rhodium (Rh)/N-Xantphos and a co-catalyst (2-Fluoro-4-methylbenzoic acid) to increase the reactivity by 70 fold when compared to Rh/Xa...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of self‐optimizing flow reactors has been mostly limited to model reactions or known synthesis routes. In this work, a self‐optimizing flow photochemistry platform is used to develop an original synthesis of the bioactive fragment of Salbutamol and derivatives. The key photochemical steps for the construction of the aryl vicinyl...
Article
Full-text available
As the chemical industry continues to produce considerable quantities of waste chemicals1,2, it is essential to devise ‘circular chemistry’3–8 schemes to productively back-convert at least a portion of these unwanted materials into useful products. Despite substantial progress in the degradation of some classes of harmful chemicals⁹, work on ‘closi...
Article
Full-text available
Automation and microfluidic tools potentially enable efficient, fast, and focused reaction development of complex chemistries, while minimizing resource‐ and material consumption. The introduction of automation‐assisted workflows will contribute to the more sustainable development and scale‐up of new and improved catalytic technologies. Herein, we...
Article
Full-text available
Flow chemistry offers a solution for replacing batch methods in chemical preparation where intermediates or products may pose toxicity or instability hazards. Ozonolysis offers an ideal opportunity for flow chemistry solutions, but multiple barriers to entry exist for use of these methods, including equipment cost and performance optimization. To a...
Article
Full-text available
Microwave-assisted synthesis in combination with flow synthesis offers an interesting approach to develop faster and more sustainable procedures for the preparation of homogeneous nanomaterials. Recently, solid-state generators of microwaves appeared as a tool with improved control over power and frequency. Cerium oxide, despite its excellent catal...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous flow reactors are becoming increasingly utilized in the synthesis of organic compounds, yet the complexity of the chemical reactions and analytical methods remains limited. The development of a modular platform which uses rapid flow NMR and FTIR measurements, combined with chemometric modeling, is presented for efficient and timely analy...
Article
Full-text available
Electrochemistry provides a green and atom-efficient route to synthesize pharmaceutical and useful functional molecules, as it eliminates the need for the harsh chemical oxidants and reductants commonly used in traditional chemical reactions. To promote the implementation of electrochemical processes in the industry, there is a strong demand for th...
Article
Full-text available
This work elaborates the effect of dynamic irradiation on light‐driven molecular water oxidation to counteract catalyst deactivation. It highlights the importance of overall reaction engineering to overcome limiting factors in artificial photosynthesis reactions. Systematic investigation of a homogenous three component ruthenium‐based water oxidati...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the potential of hydrogen (H2) storage in liquid organic carriers to achieve carbon neutrality, the energy required for H 2 release and the cost of catalyst recycling have hindered its large‐scale adoption. In response, we report a photo flow reactor packed with rhodium (Rh)/titania (TiO2) photocatalyst for the continuous and selective acce...
Article
Full-text available
We report a lateral sodiation of alkyl(hetero)arenes using on‐demand generated hexane soluble (2‐ethylhexyl)sodium ( 1 ) in the presence of TMEDA. (2‐Ethylhexyl)sodium ( 1 ) is prepared via a sodium packed‐bed reactor and used for metalations at ambient temperature in batch as well as in continuous flow. The resulting benzylic sodium species are su...
Article
Full-text available
Five focused compound libraries (forty-nine compounds), based on prior studies in our laboratory were synthesized and screened for antibiotic and anti-fungal activity against S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, C. albicans and C. neoformans. Low levels of activity, at the initial screening concentration of 32 μg/mL, were...
Article
Full-text available
Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) have shown great potential in next-generation flexible displays, due to their superior electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. However, as with most nanomaterials, a limited production capacity and poor reproduction quality, based on the batch reaction, largely hinder their application. Here, we applied continuous-...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Flow chemistry is seen as a disruptive innovation that expands chemistry’s horizon and opens up new market possibilities. In addition to pharmaceutical applications, flow chemistry is expanding into organometallic chemistry, fine chemicals, polymers, peptides, nanomaterials, and energetic materials synthesis. In Chapter 2 of this report, we review...
Article
Full-text available
The continuous flow, enantioselective, organophotoredox catalytic asymmetric alkylation of aldehydes was studied, by using a homemade, custom designed photoreactor for reactions under cryogenic conditions. Going from microfluidic conditions up to a 10 mL mesofluidic reactor, an increase of productivity by almost 18000% compared to the batch reactio...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic deracemization processes, such as crystallization‐induced diastereomer transformations (CIDTs), offer the opportunity to combine racemization and resolution processes, to provide high yields of enantiomerically pure compounds. To date, few of these processes have incorporated photochemical racemization. By combining batch crystallization wi...
Article
Full-text available
Lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanocrystals (NCs) are considered an emerging class of advanced functional materials with numerous outstanding optoelectronic characteristics. Despite their success in the field, their precision synthesis and fundamental mechanistic studies remain a challenge. The vast colloidal synthesis and processing parameters of LH...
Article
Full-text available
Organoselenium compounds have been successfully applied in biological, medicinal and material sciences, as well as a powerful tool for modern organic synthesis, attracting the attention of the scientific community. This great success is mainly due to the breaking of paradigm demonstrated by innumerous works, that the selenium compounds were toxic a...
Article
Full-text available
Copper‐based catalysts have attracted enormous attention due to their high selectivity for C2+ products during the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (CO2RR). In particular, grain boundaries on the catalysts contribute to the generation of various Cu coordination environments, which have been found essential for C—C coupling. However, smooth‐surfaced...
Preprint
Full-text available
Microfluidic devices or microdevices refer to systems with a characteristic length in the micrometer range. Systems in this size allow handling small quantities of reagents and samples, with reduced residence time, better control of chemical species concentration, high heat and mass transfers, and high surface/volume ratio. These characteristics le...
Article
Full-text available
Although kinetic analysis has traditionally been conducted in a batch vessel, continuous-flow aided kinetic analysis continues to swell in popularity. This can be partly attributed to the favourable characteristics of flow reactors and the growth of flow chemistry in general. However, the development of innovative techniques in recent years to obta...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the groundbreaking advancements in the synthesis of inorganic lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanocrystals (NCs), stimulated from their intriguing size‐, composition‐, and morphology‐dependent optical and optoelectronic properties, their formation mechanism through the hot‐injection (HI) synthetic route is not well‐understood. In this work, fo...
Article
Full-text available
CsPbI3 Nanocrystals In article number 2108687, Milad Abolhasani and co‐workers feature a modular flow chemistry strategy for synthesis science studies of CsPbI3 nanocrystals (NCs). The reconfigurable flow reactors enable on‐demand selection of the NC synthetic route and provide in‐situ access to the optical properties of the in‐flow synthesized NCs...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-step organic syntheses of various drugs, active pharmaceutical ingredients, other pharmaceutically and agriculturally important compounds have already been reported using flow synthesis. Compared to batch, hazardous and reactive reagents can be handled safely in flow. This review discusses the pros and cons of flow chemistry in today’s scenar...
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, continuous flow synthesis has left a distinct mark on modern synthetic chemistry where it is now commonly used in academia and industry alike. Advantages of flow processing arise from reactor miniaturization, which in turn leads to improved heat and mass transfer, while reaction containment increases process safety and facil...
Article
Full-text available
Calorimetric data from chemical reactions such as reaction enthalpy, adiabatic temperature rise, and activation energy are essential for reaction safety and scale-up from laboratory investigations to reactor design and operation. Typically, these data are gained from batch calorimeters with sophisticated setups and elaborate measurement procedures....
Article
Full-text available
From the pharmaceutical industry’s point of view, photoredox catalysis has emerged as a powerful tool in the field of the synthesis of added-value compounds. With this method, it is possible to excite the catalyst by the action of light, allowing electron transfer processes to occur and, consequently, oxidation and reduction reactions. Thus, in ass...
Article
Full-text available
Formation of amide bonds is of immanent importance in organic and synthetic medicinal chemistry. Its presence in 'traditional' small molecule APIs, in linear or cyclic oligo- and polypeptidic actives, including pseudopeptides has led to the development of dedicated synthetic approaches for the formation of amide bonds starting from eventually suita...
Article
Full-text available
In the past, the use of mechanochemical methods in organic synthesis was reported as somewhat of a curiosity. However, perceptions have changed over the last two decades, and this technology is now being appreciated as a greener and more efficient synthetic method. The qualified “offer” of ball mills that make use of different set-ups, materials, a...
Thesis
Full-text available
The negative impact of crude oil on the environment has led to a necessary transition toward alternative, renewable, and sustainable resources. In this regard, lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a promising renewable and sustainable alternative to crude oil for the production of fine chemicals and fuels in a so-called biorefinery process. LCB is comp...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance is an ever-increasing global health risk that remains one of the World Health Organisations top priorities. Antimicrobial peptides, the host defence molecules of living organisms, are a rapidly developing class of molecules with promise for the treatment of drug resistant infections. We herein describe the first total synth...
Article
Full-text available
Isosorbide is one of the most interesting cellulosic-derived molecules with great potential to be implemented in wide range of products that shaping our daily life. This minireview describes the recent developments in the production of isosorbide from sorbitol in batch and continuous flow systems under hydrothermal conditions using solid acid catal...
Article
Full-text available
This work describes the total synthesis of jaspine B involving the highly diastereoselective Pd(II)-catalysed carbonylative cyclisation in the preparation of crucial intermediates. New conditions for this transformation were developed and involved the pBQ/LiCl as a reoxidation system and Fe(CO)5 as an in situ source of stoichiometric amount of carb...
Article
Full-text available
The use of flow reactors in biocatalysis has increased significantly in recent years. Chemists have begun to design flow systems that even allow new biocatalytic reactions to take place. This concept article will focus on the design of flow systems that have allowed enzymes to go beyond their limits in batch. The case is made for moving towards ful...
Article
Full-text available
Decagram scale synthesis of favipiravir was performed in 9 steps using diethyl malonate as cheap starting material.
Article
Full-text available
Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) doped with heteroatoms are highly promising for diverse applications ranging from bioimaging to environmental sensing. However, the ability for doping and functionalizing CQDs in a continuous, scalable, industry-relevant flow chemistry process, remains limited. Here we overcome this limitation by developing a...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous flow chemistry is an efficient, sustainable and green approach for chemical synthesis that surpasses some of the limitations of the traditional batch chemistry. Along with the multiple advantages of a flow reactor, it could be directly connected to the analytical techniques for on-line monitoring of a chemical reaction and ensure the qua...