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If yes, i need a reference.
I am proposing to introduce steam driven cookstoves instead of LPG cookers to overcome the community suffering current issue of LPG in my country. It is planning to operate a cluster of stoves in urbanized area through centrally located biomass fired steam boiler. I have quite manageable knowledge, skills and experiences in thermal engineering such as steam generation, distribution, boiler operation etc. But lack of in steam operated domestic stoves/cockers. I would appreciate, if any expert can help me either to design or purchase such product or contact of such dealers.
Burnt bricks are used so that the building remains intact in case of a fire; burnt bricks don't burn.
I'm not talking about the fire statistics
More precisely, it is talking about people's behavior with the building and the behaviors that are formed in it.
Looking forward to receiving your comments
Fire ignition is a unique result process of many sort of different fires, but according to the conventional definition of fire triangle simplifying fire as the presence of three elements only (fuel, heat & oxygen), then chemical reaction was added at some stage, as a fourth element, even it’s a process of the existing three elements, it is not a true element on its own. However the remaining issues that need to be questioned are:
- How much of each element can cause fire ignition …?
- How could this be estimated or measured …?
- Would electric fires i.e. have the same amounts of each elements like any other inflammable substance’s fires …?
- Why (low humidity) or (dryness) is not part of fire elements …? Since high humidity can cause high temperature but wouldn’t necessarily ignite fire…!
- Why (high pressure) is not among fire element’s list…?
The world-leading maritime insurance company Allianz reported 178 vessels were lost due to fire/explosion between Jan - Dec in 2021, generalising that is one every second day. Fires at sea are increasing by almost 10% year on year. I hope to estimate the dollar value of these costs to propose research in maritime firefighting technology.
Battery explosion or burning of the electric bus was a new type of fire for the vehicles. How to put out this type of fire if there is any passenger in the vehicle?
In khyber pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in last month about 280 forest there occurred fire. Some people says it's naturally due to very high day temperatures but other says it's man made. What is the researcher thinking about this it's naturally or artificially?
I am an upcoming researcher and this is going to be my first research. My research involve that why all countries preferably India are extensively building up a swarm of drones in every field like agriculture, fire fighting, surveillance , etc.
Please suggest me that whether this topic is valid or not and how to approach towards it .
I want to calculate the required PSVs for a plant with several distillation column, vessels and reactors, connected together. But before that I need to estimate relief load of each one of them under different scenarios like power failure or fire.
I need a reliable standard or reference for relief load calculation.
Is it possible to calculate with following given data? outlet temperature and pressure of steam, capacity of boiler, Diameter of pipeline.
A colleague is interested in the problem of mega-fires. If there are scientific papers for the United States, Australia or France, there is little research for South America. In France, a mega fire can be identified from 1,000 ha, in the United States or Australia from 10,000 ha.
Are there any studies in South America (e.g. Chile)?
Are there objective criteria for defining a mega fire?
Hi everyone !
I'm working as an intern in fire safety engineering , and i have a question regarding something that i've read. It was in a previous fire safety study (for a steel column fire stability ) and it was said : "preliminary calculations ensured that a generalized fire would generate maximum thermal stresses around the column".
I don't really understand the meaning and don't know if that is possible to do ?
And if it is, how can we do that ?
Thank you !
I try to model RC slab Strengthening with High Performance Concrete under Fire using abaqus.the epoxy resin was used as bond between the two concrete layer. When define d the epoxy resin that used as cohesive material in heat transfer model an error occurs 850 element missing its materials properties. So which model is used for modeling epoxy in heat transfer model?
I am looking for up-to-date publications about the performance of Canadair aircraft in reducing fire front intensity and in particular the value of intensity in kW/m. The few references I know are very dated. Can anyone help me?
What is the impact of large fire emissions on satellite and in-situ (ARGO floats) Chl a measurements?
How accurate are satellite observations of surface ocean Chl a during large fire events (close and at increasing distance to the fire emission source)?
Is there a consensus on correction to be applied in that regard?
This is the flue gas composition from the Ammonia fired furnace which I have modeled in Aspen Plus. Does anyone have any idea about NOx emissions? Is this emission amount of emission accepted by the EPA?
I am developing a code to analysis concrete structures in Fire condition and I know the effect of high temperature on the behavior of concrete. But I don't know the implementation.
Do you know any algorithm to describe that how I can implement the temperature dependent constitutive law for concrete in FEM?
I'm doing research study among the fire Brigade, police personals, and municipal Corporation workers.
What word I can use to describe the above population..
I am able to attend two conferences/events with a focus on gas chromatography in 2022. Do you have a recommendation? Preferably in the US, and in the field of chemistry, safety, environment, fire or forensics.
Hi all, I was wondering why people bin the EPSP slope to construct a firing probability curve in both field and single-cell recordings. I assume it is a way to avoid any contamination by the action potential but I feel like I'm falling short on how to explain the mechanism here. Any thoughts and references are welcome.
Coordinates,AOD, Angstrom parameter or smth.
For our bachelor's thesis in ECE, we are creating a fire alarm monitoring system using ANFIS similar to the links below:
We have been stuck with our data and unable to train it with ANFIS because we have no clue as to how the fire chance was determined. Does anyone know how the Chances of True Fire (%) is computed?
Any help is deeply appreciated.
We are working on a piping sprinkle fire supression system for an %100 electrical bus.Currently we are using C02(g) for physical suppression with 50 bar but we can not obtain the measurment in barometer. First do you have an advice for this problem ? Second is there any other suppression option for this type of vehicle ?
I need ASTM E-119-(19 or 18 or 20) Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.
Kindly if any one have these codes in pdf file kindly share with me.
very thankful to you.
Describe the working principle of an ioT based smart fire detection system with automatic water sprinkler
I am encountering some problems while chasing after the convergence of my model.
I am using Ansys APDL in order to model the creep in steel under high temperatures.
I already did all the code, but I cannot find the issue.
All the geometry is very simple, just a cantilever beam under tension stresses.
The material model is composed by the multilinear elastic model, multilinear isotropic hardening model, creep model (time hardening P+S) and thermal strains.
The solution is divided in three stages:
- applying the uniform temperature;
- applying the force;
- enabling the creep effect by turing the rate on.
Even though, there is no convergence, and the log file keeps showing this:
"Material property EX of material 1 of element 2 is evaluated at a temperature of -14571.8048, which is below the supplied temperature range. Temperature range checking terminates."
Due to the excessive amount of errors and warnings, the program terminates. I've already looked in lots of discussions and could not find any situation similar to mine.
Here is what my solution steps looks like:
DK,1, , , ,0,UX,UY,UZ,ROTX,ROTY,ROTZ,
Anyhow, I've attached the .txt file (sorry for the portuguese comments, they help me to go through the problem).
If someone could give me a help, I'd be very grateful!
I am trying to build a model and simulate vegetation change using the fire polygons from the past 36 years. However, the main problem that I am having is to move the randomly selected different fires within the study area. I need to get the high severe fire within a fire boundary and be able to move it randomly and rotate it in the landscape.
I would appreciate any guidance to solve this issue.
Do you know any relation between tensile strength of concrete and temperature?
I want to calculate the tensile strength of concrete at high temperature by having tensile (or compressive) strength at room temperature.
Please help, I am a graduating student doing my bachelor's thesis and our research includes using ANFIS to minimize false alarms in fire detection. We are using temperature, smoke, and carbon monoxide sensors to detect fire. In real time, the values from these sensors will be the input to ANFIS and if fire is detected, output will be visual (flashing LED) and audio (buzzer) alarms. We are going to use python for training (unfortunately, we don't have MATLAB) and the ANFIS controller will be deployed to a Raspberry Pi 4. What IDE do you recommend? Do you know any libraries or sources that can help? Also, can this setup detect cooking or smoking as false alarm?
We are making a liposomal cream in our lab . We are mixing around 30% ethanol, liposomes, water among other substances where we are subjecting it to 200 bar. I understand that ethanol/water mixture (20% ethanol) has an average flash point of 22 degree Celsius.
1. Would this pose as a hazard in a lab setting?
Which pressure sensors are most suitable to measure combustion instability in rocket motor firing tests?
Now I'm dealing with ANSYS V12 about R.C beams under thermal effects (under standard fire curves) .
My question . I defined variable stress strain curves for both concrete and steel reinforcement and also the other properties then the model was solved but the results are less than the experimental results where the deflection in model is about 38mm while the experimental one is 180mm also the temperature on the beam surface in ANSYS is 50 degree centigrade while in the experimental one is 900 degree centigrade ,,, any help please?
I want to analysis a beam under fire condition by developing a code based on finite element method (FEM). I have some problem with calculation of axial force in the beam due to temperature change. Do you know a good source which has explained the algorithm in detail?
can i use firing pulse generator for the battery inverter
Can we combine fire pumps for High Velocity Water Spray system, hydrant system and Sprinkler system.?
I Want to design water base fire protection system for Substation & Oil type transformer having oil about 25000 ltr. Substation is having fire pump with diesel driven pump requirement. Wanted to understand correct approach for design of fire fighting system.
Selection criteria of fire pump flow rate, head for above application while combining.
Selection criteria Fire Water tank capacity for all application.
A 3d model of a four-layer composite is developed to predict the temperature levels of each layer during fire/elevated temperature conditions. Due to the larger thermal expansion coefficients, a coupled temp-displacement analysis was used with Nlgeom to incorporate the geometrical changes that occurred during the fire.
However, my results do not include the effect of modified geometry. Have anyone else encountered such an issue? If anyone could advise me, that would be really helpful.
Dear community :
iam working on forest fire risk of emission where we used static variables of interest In GIS (slope ,climate,vegetation,fire intensity) fire frequency is included in the model .
how to use Monte Carlo simulation in arcgis or any software to validate the Model .(if its the right way to validate it )
Actually i want to know the specific items which are emitted from the firing thing/from the burning thing.
Hello, I am modeling rc slab subject to fire on its tension side in the first step, and i have to apply load after fire on it as a second step, the question is how to apply this load knowing that there is no possibility to define static step after heat transfer step ?
what are the ways to improve the fire resistance of the carbon steel cellular beams and make it equivalent to the fire resistance property of austenitic steel
I am looking for a simple empirical fire model that includes the general principles. A fire is controlled by the presence of fuel, supply air and heat from the flame causing pyrolysis for solid fuel and evaporation for liquid fuel, see figure.
As a consequence, a fire (size or growth) may be controlled by limiting air supply, removing fuel or cooling. I found several papers on numerical analysis of pyrolysis for specific fuels including detailed chemistry, but I am interested in a more empirical approach that is applicable in a more general way.
Please I am designing a study that investigates the linkage between certain health outcomes and wildfire-driven air pollution. Is there a simple way we can derive these air pollutants from fire ignition points?
Thank you for your invaluable suggestions.
For example, I know that FWI has been adapted for Mediterranean forests (DOI: 10.1007/s11069-014-1397-8). Do you know similar studies for Arctic regions?
"THIS IS AN ABSOLUTELY SCIENTIFIC QUESTION"
Firefighting drones in buildings have been developed for some years on their own, that is, without the military's "fabulous and generous budgets" for killer drones.
Machines that can actually save lives instead of taking lives.
The Chinese company EHang Holdings Limited, has been developing manned drone vehicles. One of its new products is the EHang 216F (Firefighting Model) designed to fight fires in big cities.
Tell us your scientific opinion on use of manned drones for firefighting?
PLEASE ANSWER IN ENGLISH ONLY.
VERY IMPORTANT: Participate only if you are original, be yourself give your opinion, do not put links or texts from "Genio Google" or things found out there on the web! No one has any interest in stupid web answers, if that's the case, please be so kind as to ignore this debate!
I model high strength concrete slab under fire using abaqus. Spalling has important effect on the fire resistance of HSC. The question is how can model the spalling the concrete in abaqus?
Is there a table or database of codes for fire causes similar to Classification of Diseases (ICD) by WHO? Including the type of establishment involved in a fire incident
Dear All, I'm working on my thesis with AVL FIRE. I have modelled a SI engine combustion chamber and simulated only compression and expansion strokes. I have got the results. The work per cycle is matching exactly with the actual engine.
But how to calculate the loses related to heat loss to the engine walls, volumetric losses, and charge exchange loop from the simulation results.
I have attached the 2d results here in Excel sheet
Can anyone please help me with this. Thanks in advance...
How to get hourly fire count data from MODIS for the region 25-27 N (Latitude) and 78-80 E (Longitude).
There are many forces that drive the entrepreneurial trend in today’s economy. Some entrepreneurs have faced many challenges and setbacks that have prevented them from succeeding in their new ventures. Despite the major drawbacks, what’s still feeding the entrepreneurial fire.
I am writing a study paper on a topic E-cars crash and accidents, especially when they start to burn and how those crashes are handled. Any researches in English or German will be helpful.
I am trying to decide how to calculate the probability of fire starting in the room and what is the probability of fire spreading to other equipments in the room. Is there any data I can refer to for probability of fire with regards to occupancy/equipment type ?. There is a table in PD 7974-7 Annex B which gives an over all probability of fire starting in various types of occupancy, but when assessing each room individually I am not able to find any data. Any other suggestions are welcome.
x = Probability of fire starting
a= Probability of fire spereading to other equipment
b= Probability of fire spreading to all room area
c= probability of fire spreading to outside the room
(My research is about development of FR intumescent coating by addition of additives, my goal is to have a more thermal resistive sample than the controlled sample without neglecting the time(aim: lesser average temp or better "temperature vs time" relationship( negatively related)). I performed a horizontal burner fire test for 8 different samples, recording the temperatures in 1 hour per minute from each samples.What statistical tool/method do I use the data gathered( time vs temp) to conculde that sample a is better than the controlled sample? I am not quite sure to use correlation and not knowledgeable enough to other tests thank you.
Ayurveda, TM of India, advises to avoid Curd intake in diseases that have Kapha dosha predominance like Diabetes, Respiratory problems; in diseases arising out of Raktha dusti (Blood tissue vitiation) like Skin diseases and also in conditions where the digestive fire (Agni) is weak like during Night time. Regarding this Curd advisory, Ayurveda has very clear fundamental concepts and the findings of which have also been noticed in clinical practice as well.
Here I want to know are there any other Traditional system of medicine which has similar or any other observation about Curd intake?
There is a probability analysis defined in the PPR 140 which takes in to accounts the fire design for tunnel and calculations the probability of fatality per year. Fatality rate can be taken from the current road statistics of the country in which you are designing the road. But i want to know from your experience what other risk analysis you can do when designing tunnels for fatality rate from fire.
'New' materials in houses or boats contain nitrogen-containing compounds that are converted to
cyanide in cases of fire, thus causing cyanide poisoning in exposed persons. However, diagnosis is difficult.
I'm trying to programmatically calculate the Burned Area Index (BAI) for photos that include the following 6 bands: Blue, Green, Red, NIR, RedEdge and Thermal.
After researching a bit, I noticed that, when it comes for fire remote sensing, the NBR index is more popular and preferred.
However, I cannot calculate the NBR, as it requires the SWIR band, which I do not have.
My questions are:
1) Why nobody talks about Burned Area Index ? I haven't found a single programmatic example that calculates it. I've also didn't find many studies that talk about it or any examples of people calculating it with a software. Most people go with the NBR for some reason. Is there something I'm missing?
2) Is there any other index (or a combination) that could be used to remote sense fire, other than BAI or NBR (which I cannot calculate) ? For example, could the NDVI provide a fairly accurate indication of burned scars on an area?
I am looking forward to have some expert opinions about mechanical methods for sample preparation on TEM grids (single hole or mesh). Ultramicrotome and simple scotch type technique are mostly used to isolate the atomic layers from bulk crystals on TEM grids. But I am looking forward to have better mechanical techniques to prepare 30 to 50 nm long flaks (0.30x0.30 mm roughly) .
Please fire me with your ideas and suggestion !
Comparison of OPEX, CAPEX , efficiency , which type of gas is beneficial , Heat recuperation , possibility of process air contamination with direct gas heater ?
In fiber photometry experiments we see a decrease in our 405 nm signal during increases in GCaMP (465 nm) signal. Additionally, we have been trying to do photometry simultaneously with optogenetic stimulation in a nucleus which sends glutamatergic projections to the nucleus in which we are doing fiber photometry recording. When we deliver stimulation, we notice that there is a decrease in our 405 nm signal. The fluorescent reporter we are using in these experiments is not a calcium indicator however. Does anyone know what causes these drops in 405 nm signal? Could it have something to do with pH changes during neuronal firing? Is it some sort of interference between channels? Any help is much appreciated.
The material must withstand the heat of a fire for four hours and remain impermeable
Maybe the question is a bit general but what I need to do is:
- Model a steel structure with beam elements;
- Add contacts elements to prevent compenetration for beam elemnts due to large deflections expected;
- Add a temperature-time curve to some elements wich simulate the fire;
- Use a nonlinear analyses (in terms of material and geometry nonlinearities) to find collapse timestep of the building during the fire.
Has anyone any experience about fire modeling with COMSOL multi-physics? The software can simulate jet flames and combustion; however, as far as I have checked the literature, very few surveys can be found about fire and COMSOL.
Any idea or help in this regard will be highly appreciated .
I am trying to plot active fire data taken from NASA FIRMS for a period of 10 years. It is taking to much time to plot using the conventional excel sheet. Is there any tool to simplify the process likely QGIS or other. Kindly help me with this
I am interested in understanding the relationship between fire and the diversity of species in the seed bank. So, I have an experiment paired with six plots, where soil samples were collected in 20 subplots (i.e. 10 before and 10 samples after the fire).
I have the data for the subplots, but I am using the total plot data, because the calculated values for the samples would be very small. So, I have six observations before and six observations after fire (i.e. 12 observations in total).
I believe that my comparisons must be pairwise, that is, I need to compare the before and after each respective plot and not the plots in general.
For this I performed a model for each order of diversity:
result_ric<- glmer (q0 ~ treatment + (1 | treatment / plot), data = ric, family = poisson)
q0 = is the species richness
treatment = are the two factors I am evaluating (before and after the fire)
plots = are my plots with samples before and after the fire
As I want to directly see the effect of fire on species richness, I put it as a fixed effect q0 depending on the treatment. As a random effect, I used the treatment nested in the plot, but I'm not sure if the model is well structured.
A problem that arises is when I will run the models for q1 and q2. Note that here I have two continuous variables, so I am using Gaussian as a distribution family. In this specific case, I end up not being able to run the model with the treatment nested in the parcel. Then the following error message appears: Error: number of levels of each grouping factor must be <number of observations (problems: treatment: parcel). I do not understand why this error appears, as I have no more random factors than observations. In fact, the variable 'plot' has the same number (12).
One thing that happens is that when I run the model without nesting the treatment to the plot (putting only the plot as a random effect), the model run, but no p value is reported.
I have no experience with mixed models, can someone help me with this problem?
Forest fire is major concern all over the globe but in Hill states of Uttrakhand in India it is repetitive as annually and becoming uncontrollable over the years with rising temperature. Though in recent years we have advanced in technology for fire forecasting, fire danger rating system, monitoring mechanism and fire fighting equipment but on grounds it seems very less applicable or not reached. The old practice of community manged fire control system in uttarakhnad hills collapsed due to migration of local folks and also shortage of field forest staff. Why its not under control? Is our planning and execution is failed during these crucial months of Feb 15 to June 15 which is the main time of forest fire ? Are we ill prepared or lack of awareness? Is locals deliberately engaged in fire not only for after rain good grass cover but also to scare wild animals which now there main enemy? Is blaming chir forest is only the reason or need to think beyond it? This year till now 1300 ha. forest is gutted in fire in 60% districts of Uttarakhnad and more is expected with losses of cores of rupees besides losses ecological diversity. Please suggest possible options by government can form the "state forest fire control policy " which not adequately represented in forest policy as well as disaster management policy.
Fire in verious ecosystems is common during the summer season by the m9anagement strategy including the indices to know about the possibility of fire incidents.
Currently I am working with my students on a topic of early detection of forest fires using a network of wireless sensors. I have a problem that I have to solve by artificial intelligence. I have a system ( node) based on a microprocessor with 7 sensors (Temperature, Humidity, CO, CO2, PM2.5 particle detector, wind speed and wind direction) The objective is to determine using these values a percentage of the existence of fires. To do this, I started by learning my system. We put a fire and measure the 7 values while there is a fire or there is not. I want to ask if you can offer me a track, method or algorithm for the supervision of forest fires to calculate a percentage that the fire would take place. Because I am a little confused by all the methods of artificial intelligence: deep learning or other? what functions used? how many hidden layers?
Is there a group of crucial and important UAV's parameters/features regardless of kind of mission (search missing people, disaster, evacuation, emergency deliveries, monitoring, fight a fire, training, saving trapped people, contamination, flying rescue cushion)? Or maybe every kind of mission has their own crucial parameters/features?
Globally, studies about fire incidents in buildings reveal catalogue of weaknesses and inconsistencies concerning poor fire safety decision-making. For example, the Abbco Tower inferno in Sharjah United Arab Emirates in 2020, Grenfell Tower fire in London 2017 and many other disastrous fire incidents in buildings have one thing in common; “building occupants were constantly ordered to ‘stay-put’ in their apartments during the inferno”. In many cases, the decision to ‘stay-put’ led to disastrous fatalities. Findings from the UK government Grenfell Tower inquiry (2019) stated that “… more lives could have been saved had the ‘stay-put’ decision by London Fire Brigade was abandoned as soon as it became apparent that the fire was spreading rapidly and uncontrollably”. Similarly, some fire safety experts believe that directive to occupants to ‘stay-put’ is a mere guidance (not a regulation) that can be best described as “a futile strategy that leads to fatality particularly in high-rise buildings. Conversely, some literature argue that Fire and Rescue Services make dynamic decisions under conditions of stress, panic and uncertainty, therefore combined approach that involves ‘stay put’ and other fire evacuation strategies are required to minimise building fire casualties. Yet, there is little research about the effectiveness of Fire and Rescue Services’ ‘stay-put’ strategy in high-rise buildings. Therefore, the simple research question: Is ‘Stay-Put’ Directive by Fire and Rescue Services a Misjudgement or Magnificent strategy?
I am working on the rehabilitation of a fire-damaged structure.
Should I consider the Column below Soil structurally deficient.
visually it doesn't look like fire affected the column below grade.
Should I retrofit whole member or just the section above plinth beam.
as Slab on Grade is a 6" the Plain Concrete Slab which is difficult to chissel/excavate.
I want to plot spatial variation of monthly averaged total fire counts for my region of interest. I am using MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Minute L2 Swath 1 km data which is in hdf format and I have seen the scientific datasets of HDF files using hdftool command. But, there is no such scientific datasets called' 'fire count'. So, my question is how can I compute the fire count from this data using MATLAB? Any suggestion? Thanks.
I'm giving one sample hdf file below if it helps.
i am working on max phase preparation......i am a newly joined PhD scholar. I wanted to make MAX phase of Ti3AlC2 , in most of the literature they are using the metal powder of Ti and Al for the same.But on the container of these metals its mentioned that CATCHES FIRE SPONTANEOUSLY IF EXPOSED TO AIR.....also no such precaution for the same has been mentioned by the author of most of articles....can anyone tell me about this?? Thanks in advance