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I am interested in innovations that can revolutionize waste management in cities, and I am trying to build a research question that is relevant and interesting. What type of knowledge gaps are there in developing sustainable framework that can enable smart waste management systems in cities? Is there appropriate valuation tools for waste management technology or innovation? Are there strong incentive structures that drive R&D?
Where can smart waste management solutions be used best? Recovery from E-waste or collection and separation of MSW?
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A growing number of cities around the globe are performing smart waste management solutions to create higher efficiency in terms of resources and costs associated with keeping their cities clean. “Smart bins” adopted by Nambucca Shire Council in Australia that led to great results is a best example of waste management. The “smart bin” give the information about the fill levels and ensures collection only when the bin is full. Less collection visits decrease congestion and traffic interruption which ultimately results in cleaner and safer streets. Traffic reduction due to fewer collection visits helps reduce carbon dioxide and other harmfull emissions. The “smart bins” are standardized so that they can be emptied with existing equipment.
The social benefits of smart bins besides their economic and environmental advantages are interesting as they help to Raise public awareness of utilizing renewable energy, improve street sanitation, encourage recycling, collect and analyze area-specific data on waste volumes for better planning,
Increase WiFi coverage with their function as a free public WiFi hotspot
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can anybody suggest best international standard text books on business valuation?
thanks in advance
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A few of my favorites:
1. Valuation. Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies by Koller, Goedhart and Wessels
2. Financial Theory and Corporate Policy by Copeland, Weston, and Shastri
3. Corporate Valuation by Bradford Cornell
4. Valuing a Business by Shannon P. Pratt
5. Understanding Business Valuation by Gary R. Trugman
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In a OLS regression model, to test APT, I realize that I need to find the risk premium for macro factors such as GDP, and exchange rates, etc by subtracting the returns on 3-Months Tbills from macro factor returns. But, should I find the risk premiums for the security specific factors such as returns on sales, return on inventory (for particular company) etc. as above mentioned by subtracting the returns on bonds? Because, as I see, APT is often used to predict the return on diversified portfolios, minimizing the micro factors and thus consider only systematic risks. However, I would like to construct APT on single equity and consider macro as well as micro factors. But, I don't realize, is it necessary to, for example, subtract return on 3-Months Tbill from the return on sales for corresponding time period? Because I am not sure does it make any sense, as micro factors are not "alternative" to the investigated equity, while macro factors are some kind of "alternative" to the given equity. Thanks a lot.
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the way i understand APT in this case is that 2 comparable securities must have a comparable price, otherwise arbitrage is possible.
APT for a single security should then be to find a comparable security, or to incorporate sufficient factors, in order to be able to compare the security against another security class, like a risk-free security. But i will simply call this devising an adequate pricing model for the security
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I am interested in post-acquisition performance indicator which could assist in evaluating an M&A deal of IT firm which develops software and applications. The company is private and not listed however I have financial information. Specifically for IT industry probably there are some measures to assess the target as a synergy potential and it might motivate sporting goods companies to acquire them? 
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Hi Olga,
As you know, to estimate cash flows, we need to forecast the numbers. We use multi-stage model for valuation. For the discount rate, we need to estimate the cost of equity using the beta of a similar company which is listed.
Further, we also can use a relative valuation once, we forecast earnings. 
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Who applied those ratios in other papers?
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The authors may have used ratios to bring the value of the variables to comparable figures. Moreover remember that P/E ratio is one of the models for valuation of businesses
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Financial evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Algae in Indian Scenario is part of my research. I am finding it difficult to structure the layout of financial structuring starting from Algae Cultivation to Biodiesel Production. I also want to add government incentives (if applicable). 
I will be very obliged if anybody can help me in this regard. If any study material which can be referred for the same then please share.
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Read Copenlad & Antikarov and also John Hull. They are excellent investment analysis bibliographies using innovative methods .
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i mean we can applying BSC as Strategy for the firms if we are drawing perspectives properly  and indicators for measuring and evaluation in the future.
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In theory and practice for implementation of the BSC  ,the following important elements must be taken sequentially:
1 .vision,
2.Relevant  Strategy (and relevant strategy map) to attain the designated vision,
3.goals,
4.polices and key sucess factors,
5.measures,and
6.performance evaluation.
So, obviously ,strategy is a vital part of the BSC and it is not an alternative for it., In fact,the precedings steps 3 to 6 are based upon the strategy. In effect, BSC cannot be applied insted of  strategy.
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I am conducting a research where i need to calculate z-scores and some other market ratio. I selected about 316 manufacturing firms listed at KSE for 15 years range from 1998 to 2013. I collected daily stock prices and took mean for a particular year observations. i also need to calculate average daily returns and stock volatility. However, there are number of companies having no activity or very few days activity (like 10 or 15 days) for a particular whole year. Including such year observation can provide biased results. How can i deal with this problem?
please suggest and recommend actions with references.
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Hi, removing some companies base on related economic parameters on a seasonal time period is suggested by me, and E-views or Spss for the analysis...
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I am searching for analyzing Bayesian modeling to business valuation, especially for companies outside the stock exchange, any suggestions?
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Some of the classic papers in accounting research discuss these methods in the context of valuation and auditing.
Scott (1973) in the Journal of Accounting Research is worth a look:
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I am looking for literature on the valuation of social-media firms, signs of a bubble within a sector, and anything on the valuation of tech companies in general. Seems to be very little on financial performance / valuation of social-media firms
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Competences, experiences, problem solving approaches of all kind of worker in organizations are now accepted as a competitive skill of the firm. But this valuable asset is not shown in the firm's balance sheet and not paid usually as it merits. If we can measure it first and then assign a value, intellectual capital can be really accepted as a valuable resource. So, how can we measure intellectual capital? And how can we assign a value?
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A possible way could be to measure the contribution of intellectual capital to company performance. In a not very recent publication (in the attachment) we tried to assign an index that measures the value of intellectual capital by taking into consideration: the most crucial elements to company business strategy and value creation process.
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For example AK Steel Holding had negative total shareholder equity in 2003 and 2012.
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It may be of interest to note that there's an additional consideration for Banks: they can become insolvent if losses on assets (loans) exceed "Tier 1 capital" which includes common stock and retained earnings. So not the same as shareholder equity, but both would be affected by losses, just that the consequences are more severe when capital adequacy rules are breached.
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Which financial ratios are representative to separate corporate distress stages?
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Hello Debasis, thx for the comment. Do you know some papers / researchers who did it with karge numbers of companies?