Questions related to Film
I'm trying to make a highly absorptive (visible absorption) substrate.
I want to know the flattest way to make VACNT's, and so if I grow the substrate with CVD, how uniform can I get the film to be?
Also: Will other methods be able to get a flatter substrate? what are alternatives to get a visible regime absorber that's really flat? And, if you know a company that could do this process, that'd be wonderful.
I have exposed the Gaff Chromic film and then scanned it, now in MATLAB, I have to write a code to convert it to dose and then obtain the calibration curve of the film.
How to create a system of digital, universal tagging of various kinds of works, texts, photos, publications, graphics, videos, etc. made by artificial intelligence and not by humans?
How to create a system of digital, universal labelling of different types of works, texts, texts, photos, publications, graphics, videos, innovations, patents, etc. performed by artificial intelligence and not by humans, i.e. works whose legal, ethical, moral, business, security qualification .... etc. should be different for what is the product of artificial intelligence?
Two days earlier, in an earlier post, I started a discussion on the question of the necessity of improving the security of the development of artificial intelligence technology and asked the following questions: how should the system of institutional control of the development of advanced artificial intelligence models and algorithms be structured, so that this development does not get out of control and lead to negative consequences that are currently difficult to foresee? Should the development of artificial intelligence be subject to control? And if so, who should exercise this control? How should an institutional system for controlling the development of artificial intelligence applications be built? Why are the creators of leading technology companies developing ICT, Internet technologies, Industry 4.0, including those developing artificial intelligence technologies, etc. now calling for the development of this technology to be periodically, deliberately slowed down, so that the development of artificial intelligence technology is fully under control and does not get out of hand? On the other hand, while continuing my reflections on the indispensability of improving the security of the development of artificial intelligence technology, analysing the potential risks of the dynamic and uncontrolled development of this technology, I hereby propose to continue my deliberations on this issue and invite you to participate in a discussion aimed at identifying the key determinants of building an institutional control system for the development of artificial intelligence, including the development of advanced models composed of algorithms similar or more advanced to the ChatGPT 4.0 system developed by the OpenAI company and available on the Internet. It is necessary to normatively regulate a number of issues related to artificial intelligence, both the issue of developing advanced models composed of algorithms that form artificial intelligence systems; posting these technological solutions in open access on the Internet; enabling these systems to carry out the process of self-improvement through automated learning of new content, knowledge, information, abilities, etc.; building an institutional system of control over the development of artificial intelligence technology and current and future applications of this technology in various fields of activity of people, companies, enterprises, institutions, etc. operating in different sectors of the economy. Recently, realistic-looking photos of well-known, highly recognisable people, including politicians, presidents of states in unusual situations, which were created by artificial intelligence, have appeared on the Internet on online social media sites. What has already appeared on the Internet as a kind of 'free creativity' of artificial intelligence, creativity both in terms of the creation of 'fictitious facts' in descriptions of events that never happened, in descriptions created as an answer to a question posed for the ChatGPT system, and in terms of photographs of 'fictitious events', already indicates the potentially enormous scale of disinformation currently developing on the Internet, and this is thanks to the artificial intelligence systems whose products of 'free creativity' find their way onto the Internet. With the help of artificial intelligence, in addition to texts containing descriptions of 'fictitious facts', photographs depicting 'fictitious events', it is also possible to create films depicting 'fictitious events' in cinematic terms. All of these creations of 'free creation' by artificial intelligence can be posted on social media and, in the formula of viral marketing, can spread rapidly on the Internet and can thus be a source of serious disinformation realised potentially on a large scale. Dangerous opportunities have therefore arisen for the use of technology to generate disinformation about, for example, a competitor company, enterprise, institution, organisation or individual. Within the framework of building an institutional control system for the development of artificial intelligence technology, it is necessary to take into account the issue of creating a digital, universal marking system for the various types of works, texts, photos, publications, graphics, films, innovations, patents, etc. performed by artificial intelligence and not by humans, i.e. works whose legal, ethical, moral, business, security qualification ..., should be different for what is the product of artificial intelligence. It is therefore necessary to create a system of digital, universal labelling of the various types of works, texts, photos, publications, graphics, videos, etc., made by artificial intelligence and not by humans. The only issue for discussion is therefore how this should be done.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of scientists and researchers:
How to create a system for the digital, universal marking of different types of works, texts, photos, publications, graphics, videos, innovations, patents, etc. made by artificial intelligence and not by humans, i.e. works whose legal, ethical, moral, business, security qualification .... etc. should be different for what is the product of artificial intelligence?
How to create a system of digital, universal labelling of different types of works, texts, photos, publications, graphics, videos, etc. made by artificial intelligence and not by humans?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
I need a solid (non-porous) nitrocellulose film, and I am trying to prepare it by solution-casting. I dissolve nitrocellulose in acetone, dimethylformamide or their mixture, pour the solution onto glass and let the solvent evaporate. Unfortunately, the resulting film is non-uniform. Is there any trick that can help me to obtain a uniform film? A specific solvent suitable for such procedure?
When the solvent evaporates, it occurs slowly (the glass petri dish is closed), because fast solvent evaporation even increases the heterogeniety of the resulting film.
Now that Carestream/Kodak Biomax MR film is no longer available, I am looking for a replacement film for 14C-mouse brain autoradiography that optimizes spatial resolution. There are a host of analog films commercially available but scant information about the technical characteristics of these films, even from manufacturers. If any one is using an alternate film they are happy with, it would be much appreciated if you could make a recommendation. Thank you.
I am using Terahertz time domain system to measure the thickness of a thin film on a substrate. I am able to calculate the thickness of substrate(~100um) alone. But what signs should I see for if there is a thin film ( ~100nm) on this substrate. I am not willing to do the fft ! Can time domain signal alone determines the thickness of film. The resolution is 33fs.
I have ZnO nanoparticle powder and I want to make a film of ZnO on FTO. Suggest me any binder that I can use for spin coating of ZnO on FTO. After top electrode deposition I want to study the I-V characteristics of ZnO film.
I already use 2%Glycerin as Plasticizers but all of my expandable films are broken by using 0.1 N HCl (pH=1.2) media.
I am preparing a sustained-release capsule
I have taken the % of Absorbance (FTIR data) of PVDF film. The following formula is used to calculate the fraction of Beta phase
fbeta= Abeta/(1.3Aalpha+Abeta) (ref: RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 20089–20094)
Where, as per literature Aalpha and Abeta are the IR absorbance at 762 and 840 cm-1. Here I don't know , how to calculate Aalpha and Abeta from my FTIR data.
help me to solve it.
I am trying to fabricate a homogeneous polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) thin film by spin coating. However, my spin-coated film is opaque and porous in the middle with many defects, and there are also some areas not covered by the film on the edge of the Si wafer.
I dissolved 12wt.% PVDF-TrFE powder into DMF. The solution was shaken in a mixer overnight until getting a transparent and homogeneous solution. Then, the solution was dropped on a clean Si wafer and spin-coated at 3000r/m for 60s.
Does anyone know how to get a transparent and homogeneous PVDF-TrFE film?
I have a some doubt,recently I am working on fabrication of PDMS-based composites. My question is when I mix MXene and SrTiO3 like particles with PDMS and make a cast film. During the EDS analysis I am unble to get MXene and SrTiO3 elemental composition. But XRD pattern shows MXene and SrTiO3 characteristic peaks. I can also differentiate the colour change.
If any one well aware of these please try to clarify. It will be great help for the resereachers. Thank you in advance.
I am writing a thesis on a specific subgenre of film in relation to feminism and was wondering what methods are best to adapt when doing an in-depth analysis of the selected films. What would be the right method(s) in order to perform a well-rounded analysis (textual, visual, narrative) on multiple aspects of the films selected?
Hello, how do I make the solution for film to go into the holes of microneedle mould thoroughly? In my case, I believe the mould was made from silicone. I have read that centrifuge were mostly used. May I know what type of centrifuge were used? or is there any other way to fit in the mould (the size of a petri dish) into a regular centrifuge machine?
Imagine a perfect single crystal of stainless steel, no grain boundaries, no inclusions, perfect homogeneous chromium distribution. Now we passivate this crystal and form a homogeneous passive film without any depletions in it. Will this passive film break due to halide ions if we apply an increasing potential?
Could anyone provide any suggestions or pdf to calculate absorption coefficient of thin film without using film thickness?
Thanks in advance
I am researching in the field of gas separation membranes because of subject matter funding. I have to use a micron wet film applicator for manual coating. I applied the membrane fluid on my support membrane, but the result was always unsatisfactory because the fluidity of the cast membrane fluid was very high, and the coated wet film was not homogeneous when observed by the naked eye. I would like to ask if there are any specific tips when applying the wet film. Also, I am fixing the support film on a flat glass plate by tape.
I am a master student in photocatalyst. I have synthesized Cu2O powder, and I want to measure its band gap. the UV-Vis devise I use can measure the sample as liquid or film. I tried to prepare a film, but it did not work. please, anyone can help me for solving this problem.
I used to try Ab1 dilution 1:1000 TNT-5% skim milk because it was my first time to detect PIGR, I got nothing but empty film even I used to applied an advance ECL. 2nd, I used to make dilution Ab1 1:500 TNT-5% BSA, and I got nothing too.. till I tried dilution 1: 100 and still nothing there film. I got fast green detection and there is a band I expected as PIGR.. as well I do succeed in DMBT1 detection using 1:100 Ab with TNT-5% BSA. but it doesnt work on PIGR detection. Any suggestions please?
We are developing rGO/Nanocellulose based electrode for supercapacitor application using DI water as solvent. We are conducting CV and GCD analysis in 3-electrode cell using 1M H2SO4 electrolyte. We observed that after soaking in electrolyte, the electrode film eventually peels off.
Please provide a solution to avoid the film peeling and remaining stable in an aqueous electrolyte during CV and GCD analysis. Your suggestions are very much appreciated.
Could you please assist me with my question? Any peer-reviewed paper or thesis reference should be sufficient.
We want to have a thin (~10 nm) conductive coating of carbon (graphite) on Si samples. While a C sputtering target is available in market, manufacturers don't spcify its (i.e., C) deposition rate and quality of the film (specially conductivity) after deposition via sputtering.
Does anyone have any experience on C sputtering? Could you kindly enlight on that matter?
Hi everyone! I recently conducted a research study investigating the impact of virtual reality (VR) on learning and memory of difficult knowledge. The results I obtained from administering the PANAS questionnaire revealed some interesting findings. Specifically, participants reported experiencing more positive emotions when exposed to VR compared to a regular film. However, there were no notable differences between the groups in terms of negative emotions measured by the PANAS. It's worth noting that the negative emotions reported were generally lower than the positive emotions. This raises the question: could there be a Neuroscientific explanation behind these findings?
Which combination of polyol and isocyanate can be used to synthesize a stretchable (at least 100%) polyurethane sheet/film?
I have tried monomeric and polymeric MDI along with Castor oil as well as PPG 2000/4000 but results are not promising? Should I prepare a prepolymer? If yes, what would be a proper formula?
When I am trying to make PVDF film, after heating it seems to cracked and the white thick cast occured instead of glassy thin film. I am using 1gm pvdf with 8 ml DMF and 2 ml Acetone. And the molecular weight of the pvdf pellet is approximately 71000. The image of obtained film is attached here
I have prepared thin films from semi refined carrageenan with hydrophilic cross linkers. But smooth peel off has been the issue for a long time.
I am measuring mucoadhesion strength (stickiness) of buccal film using a texture analyzer ( (TA.XT. plus, Stable Micro Systems Ltd., UK ). but my result is not reproducible. any one can help me?
I am writing my dissertation for female representation of Hollywood female-led films. And I am going to choose one film as my main case study. I would like to analyse the images and character's line to illustrate how gender stereotypes have been both challenged and reinforced in the film. However, I am struggling to choose a methodology for my dissertation. I have read some articles, but I am still confused about which one shall I choose. May I please have some suggestions? Thank you!
Is this comparison can give more information regarding the preferred orientation of low-dimensional perovskite film? Layered 2D Perovskite thin film shows repetitive PXRD peak partner.
Hi, What is the crystal structure of a Titanium-Tungsten film? Titanium by itself is hexagonal close-packed (HCP) while Tungsten is body-centered cubic (BCC).
my other question, why is TiW is a better barrier while Ti is not? does this have to do with the packing/density of the atoms?
I prepared my samples using PLA/Graphene through solution casting to form film cast by varying from 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 % of GP and then characterization on thermal properties using the DSC technique with a heating rate of 20 ºC/min (-20 to 200 ºC) under Nitrogen flow rate 60ml/min. After testing, the second heating scan did not observe melting temperature (Tm) for PLA/GP added GP less than 30%. However, They exhibited the melting temperature for neat PLA and PLA/GP film at 30% loading. Did anyone know or suggest why the melting temperature of these samples did not exhibit on DSC second heating scan? Thank.
I'm working with primary mouse osteoblasts obtained through calvarial prep and both my coworker and I are having issues with a strange contamination that neither of us have seen before (she's been working in this lab for almost 20 years).
The media looks slightly cloudy almost like there is a film inside it but if you swirl it it kind of disperses. Under the microscope there are no recognizable bacteria or yeast, it just looks like a lot of cellular debris. Unfortunately I don't have a picture of it but next time I have a well that's contaminated I'll post a picture as well. I've tried to cover every base and we cannot figure out what is causing it. Here are some details:
- So far only mouse osteoblasts seem to be affected; we work with human osteoblasts less frequently but in the same incubator
- My coworker and I use different incubators, different media, FBS, and penn/strep (same company, different bottles), different mice
- Only one or two wells in the 6 well plate or chamber slides will be contaminated, despite all wells being in the same plate, getting the exact same media, in the same hood, etc.
- We recently had our tissue culture hood checked and it passed inspection, afterwards I did a really deep cleaning of the hood and both incubators but the issue continues even though we got rid of all contaminated cells prior to this cleaning
I welcome any ideas because I'm getting desperate.
I have synthesized SnO2 (tin oxide) powder that needs to be dissolved in m-cresol solvent in order to spin coat the solution to a 1cm x 1cm glass substrate to produce a desired thickness of 1 micrometer or less. I need your help in determining the required concentration of SnO2 + m-cresol solvent to ensure full coverage on the glass substrate and desired thickness. Please let me know your thoughts! Is there a specific formula that connects thickness of film and how much powder/solvent to add?
Any help would be greatly appreciated!!
Hello! My name is Julia and I am an undergrad student in the US looking to collaborate with anyone who may be interested. I study Business Analytics & Film, and am interested in the integration of businesses/brands across foreign cultures, themed entertainment, media, film, AI/machine learning, Disney, sociology/psychology/gender studies or anything related.
Please reach out firstname.lastname@example.org if you may be interested! I look forward to hearing from you and learning.
1. I am currently using a 532nm laser and NA = 0.6 objective lens for laser focusing, (the spot size of the laser outlet is 2mm, then expand the beam 4 times, and finally through several mirrors into the objective lens) according to the formula d = 1.22 * λ / NA = 1.08um, but in fact the spot size in the camera is much larger than this value, should be more than 10um, this is why. 2. When I use the bias film to attenuate the laser, the spot size at the focal plane will become smaller, but according to the previous formula, the smallest spot should be and the light intensity of no light, but now adjust the light intensity but change the spot size is why, this condition can become very low spot but the light intensity is also very weak, this is why. This is also the case when a neutral density filter is used instead of a skewed film. 3. The final laser is shown on the camera as a circle, not a circle, which is why
Very thin metallic film (few nm) is generally transparent for longer wavelength. Is it true?
What is the relation between skin depth, transmittance and thickness of metal thin film ?
while deposition if we increase the substrate temperature from room temp to 1000 degree Celsius, what will be effect on thickness?
For ultra-thin films, how to determine the crystal structure? If it's a ferroelectric film, how do you determine its ferroelectric property? It would be better if it was a cheaper and simpler method.
The magnitude of the adsorption capacity (qe) from the literature varies in many folds i.e, from 0.01 to thousands. How to define a newly synthesized material to be a good or bad adsorbent based on the value of qe obtained from experimental data?
As i read many paper of biofilm all where mention that by taking optical density we can say that either week biofilm or strong biofilm but if we see the film on the microtiter plate how we can take the optical density? kindly tell me the stage where i can take optical density.
Hi friends, these days I am performing electropolymerization to form membrane film on ITO electrode. Everything looks normal, while when the procedure was completed, I found it difficult to remove my polymer film from ITO electrode. Anyone has a good idea?
(I tried to disattach the film by soaking in pure water, but it doesn't work.)
Thanks in advance.
Assuming that the lanthanum is distributed evenly throughout the depth of the film.
I need to coat a thin film of commercially available BaTiO3 nano particles on a substrate with a good adhesive property! Need to use this film as a piezo film to generate power!
Please suggest any solvent or polymer to make this possible?
What is the easiest way to measure the thickness and refractive index of a film? Note that the available devices are spectrophotometers, Michelson interferometers, and Abbe refractometers.
I was using a 3 magnetron equipment, but now I am using an equipment that has both e-beam and sputtering in the same chamber. E-beam works perfectly but I am having troubles with the sputtering, I tried nickel and aluminum targets separately and they work (the plasma looks stable) but whenever I take out the substrates, they have absolutely no film in them!!!
I tried like 10 times now making variations in the gas flow (from 15 to 40) and watts(from 20 to 200), and it's not working... The target is getting wasted but the material is not going to my substrate.
Do you have any advise?
I am desperate!
I need to passivation on the nickel film to create a polymer structure, but in acid this is not possible, the film goes away instantly. How can passivation be achieved other than acid?
Hi, do you know any literature or article, that analyse any kind of unorthodox ADR, revoicing? Extreme example is when there's woman on screen but we hear male voice. Subtle use of this could be actor doing some kind of extreme action but his voice is calm. Or something similar. Thanks a lot!
While depositing TiO2 in a RF magnetron sputtering systems, there seems to be uneven deposition of material. Obviously, variation of film thickness along the substrate is expected along the distance to the target. However, these are very localized anomalies, with clear borders, that seem to appear near the borders of the glass substrates.
This does not happen while depositing, for example, silver. I've flipped the targets between the two avaliable sputtering guns, and the uneven patches always appear on the side of the TiO2 target, so I'm assuming the problem is in the target. The 'wear ring' on the target looks uniform, however this problem only started to happen recently, so it would't be noticeable. There is also still plenty of material on the target.
Is it plausible that electrically charged TiO2 sputtered material is deflected by the magnetron magnetic field, instead of pursuing a random trajectory, covering the typical solid angle? Has someone faced this same problem? Suggestions?
After spin coating, there will be a whitish or foggy perovskite film observed. in both one-step and two-step cases, it is happening. I cant get mirror like films.
perovskite : triple cation perovskite
rpm: one step: 5000 RPM for 30 sec (anti-solvent 180uL Ethyl acetate at 8th sec)
two step : 1000 RPM for 10 sec and 6000 RPM for 25 sec(anti-solvent 180uL Ethyl acetate at 15th sec in second step)
annealing : 100C for 10 mins
I am growing PtTe2 films using direct tellurization of Pt films in CVD system. The Raman spectra of the film is matching well with literature. But the EDAX and XPS results are not coming good. How can I accurately know that which phase of Pt/Te is forming or is there any extra Te that is sticking on surface of the film.
I run the process without vacuum filter and vacuum dryer. But could not extract the film. Can anyone help me or show me other way to formulate the film electrode
Which metal film will be better for use in optical thin film setup to enhance light absorption in MoS2?
(Cu, Au, Ag, Al)?
I have a polymer film. I want to do the CV, GCD and EIS studies using a three electrode system. KOH is the electrolyte, Pt wire as the counter and calomel as the reference electrodes.
I am currently working on optimization of TiNi thin film deposition using magnetron sputtering. I was able to obtain a free standing film using a single target with the following parameters.
Ar flow: 15SCCM
Pressure: 0.5 mbar
Stand off distance: 100mm
While co-sputtering, I used 150W for two targets keeping other parameters same but I was not able to obtain a free standing film. The film curled up and broke. It will be really helpful if someone can explain me the changes that will happen to the plasma while co-sputtering.
I have the following queries
1. Which is suitable for determining the polymer blend miscibility-viscometric or solid blended film?
2. which method is superior? Will they provide the same results? Which is the preferred method?
3. Does two method can give contradictory results?
As we know that RF power have demonstrate its great advantage on film properties with magnetron sputter. But, this technique had been applied only to planar targets.
Known advantages of rotary cylindrical target compared to planar targets,so it's attractive to expand the use of RF power to rotary cylindrical target . But I haven't seen any equipment combinations like that, neither any research literatures on that. I want to know why? what will happen if i deposit thin films (such as ITO film) with RF power rotaty cylindrical target?
Actually I am looking for any app used by film-editors on the narrative stage , as to visualize narrative, rhythm and pace structure. Structural diagram apps used by film-editors. Or other apps that could be used by film editors even if they are not yet into it.
After annealing of copper oxide, the crystal quality is improved however the light current of IV reduces as compared to the as-deposited sample. What may be the reason for reducing the light current of the copper oxide film after annealing????
I am depositing thin films of Co using RF sputtering (magnetron) system. The deposition pressure is 7 x 10-3 mbar and RF power is 80 W at 20 sccm Argon flow. Earlier I was getting a sheet resistance around 400 ohms for a 4 nm thin film but now after almost 1 month, the 4 nm film resistance is coming around 1k ohm and there is no FMR signal is coming. I have changed the gas cylinder and tried to check the the possible things to look for.
Now I want to work on power and deposition pressure. Can anyone please help me how these parameters effect the film quality and magnetic behavior of Cobalt.
- Which criteria should be considered in order to distribute the copper thickness homogeneously (uniformly) while copper plating is done by electrolysis?
- We want to coat the copper film as uniformly thick as possible on a flat metal bar. What should we pay attention to?
- What is your suggestion for a book/article about this?