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# Film - Science topic

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FFT image of AFM
Sincerely
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I have a design with low reflectance and transmission using Cr and SiO , but the packing density decides the performance and I am not able to achieve the required packing density . This I can confirm only through the spectral performance obtained as I do not have facility to confirm the film structure obtained.
Suggest the following paper:
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We are trying to find a supplier that can grow 200 nm stoichiometric LPCVD Si3N4 on quartz or fused silica substrates and so far no one agreed to do it. They say the film will peel off. What I do not understand is this, we got Si3N4 on oxidized silicon substrates before, so adhesion between Si3N4 and oxide was fine enough so that it can hold the stress on Si3N4 film, what makes the difference when the oxide is 500 micron thick instead of 3 micron oxidized silicon wafers? Does it bow? What is the problem? They say, they can grow silicon rich low stress, but then the waveguides that will be made out of this thin film layer will be absorptive.
Sir, have you just solved this problem yet? I am going to do the Si3N4 deposition on quartz recently.
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ITO was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering system and then annealed. After annealing, the sheet resistance of the film increased which I have related to decrease in oxygen deficiency. Since, after annealing, the crystallinity of film increases which ultimately decrease the defects, then why the NIR transmission decreases?
Dear Abhimanyu,
Increase or decrease of transmittance is entirely material dependent. When the surface of material is rough having irregular grain boundaries, then transmittance decreases.
In your case, after annealing the sheet resistance increases, means the crystallinity increases. More irregular grain boundaries may present on the surface (SEM required for this study). This in turn increases absorption lowering the transmittance (a+r+t=1). Also measure the thickness of the film.
Please verify if this theory is applicable to your material. If possible, share the sem images.
Thanks.
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I nee a polystyrene strip about 10*6*0.2 mm for Dynamic mechanical analysis(DMA). The PS film is prepared by cast PS/THF solution into mold, dried at room temperature and -0.6 air pressure in oven. However, the Tg by DMA is 60℃, much lower than 103℃ by DSC. Privately, I think the reason is residual THF in PS film.
However, high temperature will destroy the shape of sample, and low temperature can't remove solvent totally. Could someone give me some ideas or solutions to get a good PS film for DMA.
Dear Xiao Yuhan, you can assist and enhance drying by applying vacuum. Also may be changing THF by other highly volatile solvent will solve the problem of residual solvent. Melt casting between PTFE sheets also is an option to avoid completely the use of solvents. My Regards
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Experimental conditions:
Argon gas concentration.:70sccm
Working power:125W;175W;225W;275W
Working pressure:3E-03Torr
As the experimental working power increases, the resistivity decreases from the 10^6 to the 10^4 μΩ.cm.I did rapid thermal annealing at 200°C, 300°C, 400°C and 500°C in N2 environment for 1 minute. But it doesn't have a big effect on resistivity. So I'm not quite sure where exactly the problem is......
In addition to the answer by Dirk Luetzenkirchen-Hecht , what is your base pressure? There have been quite a number of discussions here on RG with problems regarding TiN fabrication and several people used setups in which the oxygen-containing residual gas levels were much too high.
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I am trying to deposit NiFe using RF magnetron sputtering. But the film deposited on the substrate has rainbow colors (deposition time 1 hr.) not the silver which should be. For small deposition duration, there is no significant deposition on the substrate. The deposition parameters are- Power- 200 W, High vacuum- order of 10^6 mbar. Working pressure- order of 10^-3 mbar.
The plasma forms looks pinkish near the surface of target and bluesish above. Please suggest what should I change/consider while depostion.
Thanks
Pinki
Well, for CF-sealed UHV systems they are removed by baking the system for two days or so. However, I assume your system is viton-sealed, right? Viton does not survive very high temperatures.
Additionally, some of the dirt will end up on either your target or your substrate, so you will still have contaminations. In my setup (with loadlock), I coat 3-5 dummy substrates before I even think about introducing an actual high-quality process wafer...
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I usually make perovskite film using spin coating on ITO substrate(Glass (2mm)/ITO (250nm)/Perovskite (300nm)). I want to analyze this film with TEM and I already know it generally make a TEM specimen with FIB to measure the cross-view.
Is there any method to measure the plan-view with TEM? If there is a way not to use FIB, I would appreciate it if you could tell me how to do it. The thickness of the substrate and perovskite layer can be adjusted or changed.
Hello,
A summary for FIB may be found here:
Planar lamellae can also be prepared using the classical methods.
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It has been brought to our attention that there is a manufacturing problem with different types of autoradiography films and the earliest date for shipping is in October. We are close to deadlines and this is too late for us. Does anyone have extra BioMax MR Films and is willing to sell them? Thanks
Thank you for your reply Katarina Ilic , I would so appreciate it if you let me know if you've found a distributor!
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Hi everyone,
i have a question related to the shelf life of mixed cation or pure MA or pure FA perovskite film. do you think it is possible to fabricate a thin film of mixed cation (MA-FA) or pure MA or pure FA based lead halide perovskite.
Hi Anubha,
The mixed cation perovskite films based-photovoltaics are pretty stable.
I hope it could help.
BW,
Ram
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Hello and hai to all my friends!!!
I want to discuss that the calculation of reflection and transmission for the coatings layer on a glass substrate is very important.
In the case of optical coatings, the effect of glass thickness is not considered for calculating the reflectance and transmission.
In the case of architectural window coatings, the calculations of film and the glass thickness are major for determining the reflection and transmission for the understanding of the color performance of the coating on the coating film side and glass side.
So here I am interested and in a need of help calculating the transmittance of thick glass panes with and without coating effect.
Kindly guide and inform a relevant material one for the proposed problems in the determination of optical constants for thick glass pane and thick glass pane having specific thickness with a coating layer stack with specific thickness?
Thanking you.
Dear Xuhua Wang,
Thanks for your kind reply to my query raised about calculating the reflectance and transmittance for a thicker glass substrate. i will work on the attached papers.
Thanking you
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I am getting some anomalous response on the ESR spectra.
Thank you for this interesting question. Under identical preparation conditions, the magnetization of film is depending on the average grain size and also on thickness of the film. Now, at constant thickness the magnetization is inversely related to grain size and, at constant grain size, the magnetization is directly related to the film thickness. The question here is whether this relationship is absolute. The answer is "No", as there are critical grain sizes for each thickness below which the above relation become reverse. In my opinion, this anomalous behavior may report only when one experimentally practiced on a wide range of particle size and film thickness. For that I recommend you to go through the results reported in [1] as it is in line with above explanations.
Best regards
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Hello Colleagues
For our project, we are looking for a layer that blocks visible light and allows infrared radiation to pass through.
We would like to use such a material in the form of a film (sticker) or paint.
Do you know of such material on the market?
Thank You for help.
BR
Bartosz
Finishing and Appearance Engineer.
Silicon is metallic reflecting for visible light and transparent for wavelengths above ~1100nm.
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The growth rate of PECVD thin films is typically calculated by dividing thickness (determined from ellipsometry) by deposition time. As the substrate temperature increases, the thickness-based growth rate decreases, which is reasoned out due to several deposition phenomena in the literature. Films can get dense at high temperatures (~400 C), leading to an apparent decrease in thickness and growth rate. The deposition could also be limited by the adsorption of film-forming species on the substrate, or material from the substrate could be lost due to film pyrolysis (producing volatile byproducts) at high temperatures.
An Arrhenius plot was used in the literature to determine apparent activation energy (usually negative kcal/mol, and defined as the sum of reaction activation energy and enthalpy of adsorption, Ea = Er + Had). A negative Ea implies a large absolute value for Had, which suggests the deposition is limited by adsorption.
Is it logical to use an Arrhenius plot to describe film deposition in terms of an adsorption-limited process when a densification process also exists?
I am agree with Vladislav Yu. Vasilyev.
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Greetings to all.
I want to simulate strain deformation caused in isotropic polymer membrane film due to water vapour absorption by film (shell type) resulting in swelling and eventually undergoing strain deformation in Abaqus .
But , I am not able to figure it out.
Any help/tips are appreciated.
Thank you.
There are some publications on moisture-mechanics developed in the computational mechanics community for wood.
Maybe references in 10.1016/j.culher.2015.09.008, 10.15376/biores.12.4.8920-8936 or 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2022.108514 are helpful for you.
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Hi All,
I am carrying out western blotting for the expression of CLASP2 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in response to a drug treatment. I use chemiluminescence and develop on film.
I am struggling to see CLASP2 (165 kDa) despite many troubleshooting attempts, such as:
- Trying different gel percentages (7.5 and 6% gel)
- Longer electrophoresis run to achieve maximum separation and using HSC-70 as control (which is always even)
- Trying NFDM and BSA for antibody dilution. (5% in TBS-T)
- Increased exposure time during developing film.
- The antibody has been purchased twice and there’s no result with either vial.
- Reagents have been prepared fresh.
Any troubleshooting suggestions would be most welcome as to why I cannot see CLASP2 expression. Additionally, CLASP2 is expressed in the studied cell line and I have no issue in visualising col1a1 with a higher kDa of 220 on a 7.5% gel.
Hello Pola,
Try to use a Lysate from Jurkat cells or other cells that you are sure that they express CLASP2. for the detection of the protein.
Try to use different Primary Ab dilutions to reach the optimal dilution.
If it doesn't work (some Ab's are not good in WB), try an antibody from another company that is surely works for western blotting. look at the references...
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I spin coated aqueous solution of PEDOT:PSS mixed with glycerol , DBSA and GOPS according to a previous paper from our group. substrate was ITO slides from sigma. The formed PEDOT:PSS layers tend to detach from the surface after just 1 round of electrochemistry experiments in PBS buffer. I want to do at least 2 rounds of experiments on each slide. What is happening here?
I know but...
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How do I test the coductivity of PEDOT:PSS?
I am using the direct deposition method to make a PEDOT:PSS film.
But the measured resistivity is very high and the conductivity is very small.
Why do these happen? Is there any operation to increase the conductivity?
The doping some solvents or copolymers into PEDOT:PSS can enhance the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS. Many references you could find from websites. The recent developments of different types of PEDOT:PSS formation could achieve very high conductivity. For low conductivity of PEDOT:PSS formation, you may not be able to measure using a four point probe technique. Hall effect measurements could be the best way to do so.
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Recently I have done ITO thin film deposition by magnetron dc sputtering. But we didnot get proper deposition.we did not get transparent film and the resistance in order of few kilo ohms.can you please suggest me how to deposit proper ITO caoating on glass substrate?
The deposited films in your picture seem to be quite thick. Thickness should not be a problem. Try to anneal them in a reducing gas like Nitrogen, or cracked ammonia, or even oxygen at temperatures less than 300 deg C. You will turn them into highly transparent films. I found cracked ammonia to be the best long ago. If you want to achieve insitu a good transparent, try to regulate the Ar to O2 ratio carefully.
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What is the effect of ionic strength on mapping by SEM-EDS? For example, if we assume that the ionic strength of the solution consisting of MnSO4 and water is fixed with NaNO3, if we produce a film from this solution, how will the results change when we map it? Also, do you know of any article that includes not only a chemical but also a physical interpretation of this? Can you share if any?
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I need a reference for the UV-Vis-IR absorption spectrum of a film of Prussian White.
please have a look at the Introduction part of:
It is stated there:
"It is interesting that PB with strong UV−vis absorption can be reduced to Prussian white(PW) with weak absorption in the wavelength range of 500−1000 nm.28"
From that text I assume that the reference 28 may show the Pussian White spectrum...
28) Grandjean, F.; Samain, L.; Long, G. J. Characterization and Utilization of Prussian Blue and Its Pigments. Dalton Trans. 2016, 45, 18018−18044.
This paper is listed as publication on RG, but unfortuntely not as full-text:
The DOI is:
DOI:10.1039/C6DT03351B
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Hello everyone,
I am trying to fabricate a homogeneous polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) thin film by spin coating. However, my spin-coated film is opaque and porous in the middle with many defects, and there are also some areas not covered by the film on the edge of the Si wafer.
I dissolved 12wt.% PVDF-TrFE powder into DMF. The solution was shaken in a mixer overnight until getting a transparent and homogeneous solution. Then, the solution was dropped on a clean Si wafer and spin-coated at 3000r/m for 60s.
Does anyone know how to get a transparent and homogeneous PVDF-TrFE film?
It is possible that precursor's incomplete defoaming. And the substrate must be very clean.
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In the process of electron beam evaporation of Nb2O5 film, the Nb2O5 particles at the spot of electron beam have melted, but the rate has been zero, even if the electron gun beam current has reached 100. Why?
Also, when I decided to stop the experiment and turn down the current, I found that the rate would increase and then slowly decrease to zero. This is very strange??
I hope someone can help me out. Thank you.
The electron gun voltage is 8.13, and the vacuum degree is 4*10^-4 Pa.
Thank you Aaron Windsor
When using other materials for electron beam evaporation, the crystal oscillator can detect the rate, but only the rate of Nb2O5 can not be detected. Nb2O5 electron beam evaporation has not been done before.
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Can anyone suggest whether carbon paper can be used as substrate material for supercapacitor. Can we use aluminium film also for supercapacitor?
Carbon paper is already being used for this purpose.
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While X-Ray reflectivity fitting from Globalfit software, intermediate layer of SiOx between the Silicon substrate and the film is showing higher roughness value than its thickness.
Yes its possible, its depends on your growth type and and precision of probing as as well!
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Please excuse what might be a dumb question. I'm casting films of vinyl ethylene carbonate and LiTFSi salts. Every paper I read has this done in a glove box. I understand the lithium salt is very hygroscopic but couldn't this excess moisture be removed during the polymerization process, drying the casted film in a vacuum oven? It would be much easier to cast the films on a lab bench.
Good day! Maybe following article will be helpful for you:
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Hi everyone,
I have a thin film of polymer (50 micrometers). I made it by myself without any instrument. Because of that, I need to be assured that it has a 50-micrometer thickness on the whole of its surface. Please could you advise me on how I can measure its thickness? Also, can I use an ellipsometer to measure the thickness of the whole surface? The dimension of the polymer film is (5cm*5cm).
Dear Keyvan Rasti, ellipsometry has a high accuracy in measuring film thickness. Please have a look at the following links and documents. My Regards
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Respectful greetings for all the reseachers. I'm currently working on carbon nitride film on FTO by electrophotic deposition technic using acetone and iodine supension. After variation of different parameters as time, voltage applied... The film are very mechanicaly unstable and scratched easily or completely loss during electrochemistry measurements. Please, how to obtain a stable thing film on FTO substrate? Does NiFoam could works better as substrate?
Thank you for you help.
Dear Robb, Thank you for your suggesgtions.
Thank you.
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Is it necessary to adjust pH while making a film, Does pH affect the film property?
Also, do we have to keep it at room temperature for 24 hours and how much temperature is suitable for drying?
Dear Lata Samant, the crosslinking reaction for acetal bridge formation is acid catalyzed, so it is abvious to maintain the pH in acidic range with a mineral acid catalysts such as H2SO4 and HCl. Please have a look at the following document and the references therein. My Regards
doi:10.1002/app.29263
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Length, inner diameter and film thickness : of the column ;
The temperature program for GC analysis ;
I suppose that this adduct or salt is not volatile enough for GC analysis.
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In case one have the used single crystal substrate and the film is removed by etching, now what kind of defects and impurities will be present at the substrate surface, and is the crystal planes of the substrate also affected by any kind of etching?
If yes how to confirm it experimentally?
OK
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if we make bioplastic and add all the ingredients and pour in to petri plate then how to takeout our product when its dry?
Try plastic petri dishes made of polystyrene
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Hi
I have performed UV-Vis characterization of one of my liquid samples and trying to evaluate the bandgap. I am stuck with calculation of absorption coefficient(alpha). There are many sources available for the calculation absorption coefficient in case of film based samples. But I couldn't find one for the case of liquid based samples. If any of have any information regarding the calculation of absorption coefficient for liquid samples then please let me know.
Thanks
SPrabhu
موضوع مهم جدا
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I have dissolved the PAN powder in solvent DMF with a high concentration. With the increase of the dissolution temperature from 20°C to 80°C, the PAN solution changed from clear to dark yellow. Then I added LiClO4 to the solution and prepared polymer electrolyte by spin-coating.
By Raman spectrum, the PAN film with different dissolved temperatures shows significant differences; I think that it is caused by cyclization. However, I don't know what bond the 2400cm-1 peak intensity enhancement represents. Can anyone help?
انا مهتمه بهذا الموضوع الحيوي
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How to make polyethylene algal TiO2 Film?
تتابع موضوعك
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Aluminum nitride is compound semiconductor, Can we coat 2nm of its film
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I'd like to have a metallic film with porouses inside by using dc sputtering method. In this way, what parameters of sputtering should be higher or lower ?
Lower Substrate temperatures (room temperatures to upto 100 degree Celcius) and Low sputter power gives thin films more porous thin films
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Hi, respected Scientists and Researchers , I'm reading an ariticle 'Self‐Powered Organic Photodetectors with High Detectivity for Near Infrared Light Detection Enabled by Dark Current Reduction'. The author gave an 'Film-depth-dependent absorption spectroscopy' (as shown in the figure below), and the author said that'D18 and Y6 are randomly distributed in the longitudinal range in the D18:Y6 film. However, D18/Y6 film possesses a vertical phase
separation with D18 enriched in the bottom'. ( The D18 film exhibits an absorption band at 410–620 nm, with a peak at 584 nm and a shoulder at 548 nm, while Y6 film possesses a
broad absorption in the range from 520 to 980 nm with a strong absorption peak at 840 nm）
now my question is how can I get that conclusion that the author gave us from the 'Film-depth-dependent absorption spectroscopy' ?
Thank you very much!

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Dear all,
We can apply the surface film condition along the thickness plane in the 3D plate. But if we make it as 2D plate we wont be apply the same along the thickness plane(XY plane).
Can we apply the surface film condition over a 2D face in Abaqus?. Is there any way by creating skin elements or any other method?
Hi Anoop Pillai,
Generally, if your model is 2D, you can only apply surface film condition on edges. If you need to apply the surface film condition on a surface, you have to use a 3D model. the elements could be Shell or Solid. In your particular modeling, you have to use a 3D model and solid elements, and there are no other ways. I recommend you to refer to the following links. It’ll be worth it.
Best regards.
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For my thesis I'm doing a mixed method analysis of the portrayal of AI in contemporary science fiction films. One of my methods will be a critical discourse analysis of 30 film scenes. I wonder how I can justify film samples, bearing in mind I want scenes where there is textual dialogue between a human and a robot or AI?
This project sounds wonderful. I hope you're enjoying working on it!
From my perspective, it is a good idea to write honestly about the challenges and realities of selecting films and why you did/didn't choose certain things, and it sounds like you have a good starting point for this already with your textual dialogue bit (though remember to define what you mean by textual dialogue). Some questions to reflect on: are they all from a specific country? Are they in different languages or one? Are they studio films, independent films, a mix? So you might say, for example, you are focusing on Anglophone studio films if you are, or a mix if you're not. Again remember to define, eg what is a studio film. Are they on streaming services or did you see at festivals, cinemas etc? You might be honest about what you've been exposed to/able to locate and recognise there will be more examples you've not come across or been able to see due to access challenges (not being available to watch or not subtitled in a language you speak, for example). Reflect on how you did actually identify them - did you ask around, or had you just seen these 30 films already? Did you Google search?
So basically, describe how you selected them and reflect critically on this process and you should be fine. It is likely to be a question that comes up in a viva if you're going to have one for this project so be prepared to chat about it too, and remember there isn't a 'right' way to select texts so reflecting on how/why you did what you did is key.
Best of luck with your project!
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UV visible spectroacopy
FTIR spectroscopy
Thermogravitimetry (TGA)
Prorammable furnace 2500 temp
Magnetic hot plate stirrer
Vibrating sample magnetometer
Electric properties like IV, capacitance, dielectric, ferrowelectric, ect.
Mechanical properties of thin film , powder, etc
HRSEM
AFM
HRTEM
Spin coater
Ball milling
Vaccum chamber
Atmosphere furnace
Annealing furnace
Vacuum coating unit
Incubator
Oven for lab
Film thickness measurements
Edax
Xrf
Xrd/ hrxrd/ gixrd/ gaxrd
Raman for powder, liquid, film
Energy Dispersive X Ray Analysis (EDX) – elemental analysis
X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) – accurate (bulk) determination of specified elements
ICP-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) –simultaneous semi quantitative determination of 70+ elements
Oxidative combustion / Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA).
Dear Dr.Mangrola,
We have a company in which we manufacture low-cost and yet very precise magnetic devices including vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with high quality and different options; Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), Magnetizer, Thermomagnetic Treatment (TMT), B-H Tracer, Four-point Probe, Hyperthermia System, Ferroelectric and Dielectric Testers, Teslameter, Anodizing/Electrodeposition power supplies, Spin coater, etc. Therefore, you may seek a purchase opportunity by contacting my email address: amirh.montazer@gmail.com. With regards.
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Hello,
I want to ask why my PEDOT:PSS can't form film, can I add something inside the PEDOT:PSS to help film formation?
موضوع مشوق جدا
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Hi everyone,
I'm trying to get the light wavelength of colored films The light source and camera are kept in a stable position, while the film was rotated at different angles. The light source is placed perpendicular to the film, and the camera has some knowing distances from the light point and the film.
Accordingly, when the blue color is formed, I measured the observation angles and then plug them into the Bragg equation:
mλ = d (sin θ incident- sin θ observation)
where m=1, since I work with the top layer, and d, is the distance between particles and I got it from SEM images. The issue here is the result is so different from the blue wavelength value range (450 to 495 nm).
My question is how to determine the incident and observation angles? Also, in my case is it ok to use the above equation, or the distances between the light point and observation must be considered?
thanks
Is your object a diffraction grating or a colored film such as a gel filter ?
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Method of preparation
the use of different coagulation bath compositions played a key role in the membrane
fabrication and affected the performance in membrane distillation.
also the type of solvent may be play importannt role in the praperd blend
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a) What happens when we suppress the dissolution reaction in anodizing process, will the coating thickness will get higher. There are findings claims that film thickness grows simultaneously when we suppress the dissolution reaction.
b) Could anyone explain the dissolution reaction in anodizing process.
Please don't copy paste the article from internet. I would be grateful if you could give a explanation in a short way according to your convenience.
Thank you.
I have reached a coating thickenss above 100micrometers during the experimentation. I read in publications where dissolution reactions stops and coating thickeness increases.
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I have been doing the Western blot recently using the x-ray films and developing them in the darkroom ( I used Licor Odyssey before for ECL) and I have been getting dirty results like in the picture.
I looked for some troubleshooting online but I could only find troubleshooting regarding the western blot itself and most of the time the darkness and dirtiness of the background occur only where the membrane is (thus making me think in that case it is the WB procedure itself that could be the problem). Still, in my case, the whole film that does not even cover the membrane is dirty, so I thought it could be the developer's problem. I made a new fresh one and it still happened. I also do not believe the x-ray film has been exposed to light before, as the same batch of film produces different levels of darkness and dirtiness. Basically, the first film that is developed is okay but then the later exposures I do become darker and worse.
I am new to this method and as there are many steps in it and many factors I was hoping I could get some answers or ideas here.
Hello Zehra,
Try the followings;
1) Prepare dust-free, clean blot apparatus, components of blotting sandwiches (sponges etc.) and 3M filters through-blotting buffer made freshly by yourself. Recover the solution through the filter for later uses.
2) Much lower the concentrations (500~2,000X dilution of pri. ab under a fixed incubation duration and sec ab concentration (i.e., 200X). This will save your time.
3) If it wouldn't work, select a film exposure time after determining the images of multiple films at different exposures.
Good luck.
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Hello everyone.
Can you please recommand a software (free if possible) for estimating the thin film thickness for optical spectra?
Hi Petru,
If you see thin film interference fringes (i.e. in transparent films) one can estimate by measuring frequency of two adjacent maxima (d=1/2n(\nu_1-\nu_2)) (see https://www.agilent.com/cs/library/applications/uv90.pdf), though you need to know the refractive index for this.
For full optical modelling using complex dielectric functions, multilayers there are some commercial tools mostly from ellipsometer manufacturers (i.e. Woollam CompletEase) some allow only analysing their own measurements, some allow for free modelling.
If it comes to truly free and unrestricted I'm only aware of a python package, which works well but isn't your straight forward GUI software and requires a bit of python programming skills: https://pypi.org/project/tmm/
The author of that packages also has a list of other similar software, maybe one of these will help you out: https://sjbyrnes.com/multilayer_film_optics_programs.html
Ciao Karsten
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What are different ways of transferring the flexible nanofiber film on the flexible polymer substrate effectively, such that good adhesion between film and substrate is established?
Hi
If your goal is a permanent connection, it is recommended to use crosslinker materials (depending on the type of substrate and fibers).
In the following article, you can find examples of the types of crosslinkers used.
My regards.
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Want to use PVDF as a flexible temperature sensor due to its excellent flexibility and pyroelectric properties. But at the same time, it is piezoelectric too.
When using as a temperature sensor this piezoelectric behavior may contribute in the output voltage when stretched. In order to avoid this, is there any specific force up to which we can stretch the film without piezoelectric characteristics coming into picture, and which will not affect the voltage value?
I think there are much easier ways to measure temperature than using PVDFs. As you know piezoelectric sensors have a strong dependency to temperature, but you will have to compensate somehow the generated charges linked to mechanical strains such as vibrations, deformation or elongation …
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What is reason for abnormal behavior of absorbance and transmittance at 300C.
Deepak Suthar Can you show us a spectrum?
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Actually I am looking for any app used by film-editors on the narrative stage , as to visualize narrative, rhythm and pace structure. Structural diagram apps used by film-editors. Or other apps that could be used by film editors even if they are not yet into it.
ناك العديد من الأدوات المتاحة للمساعدة في بناء القصة . Blake Snyder's Save the Cat.
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I have noticed in my recent project that when adding nanoparticles to a polymer solution there is increased non-uniformity following spincoating. Spincoating the same solution without nanoparticles using the same parameters produces a uniform film.
The striation that occurs is flower-like, with very thick "petals." This leads me to believe that it is related to a Marangoni instability.
Do you know why the addition of nanoparticles to the solution might lead to gradients in the flow? Have there been any well-documented countermeasures to this? I have seen a change in solvent or spin speed suggested, but am wondering if there are any other options that have come about.
When you adding NPs to polymer solution you changing energetic situation in system/ In during defind time you will be have termodynamic equllburim in systems. Because it the distribution of particles can changed. For more information:
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The fourth wall is a term that television borrowed from its first origin (theater) represented by the interface of the screen displaying the work. One scene on television is a theatrical clip within a group of scenes that confines the subject between four walls, the fourth of which is removed and replaced by the camera, which represents the viewing angle for the viewer and a difference can be recorded Between parties in the theater the distance and angle of view are constant between the audience and the message does not change, but while this distance is defined and new while the room was closed.
One of the most common ways to break the fourth wall is by speaking to the viewer, that is, an interpellative shot or in theater talk with the audience.
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Looking forward to make polymer-nanocomposite based fiber film for temperature sensing in the range 25 to 40 °C. Looking for such polymer which will be flexible, and can be electrospin easily.
Dear all, please have a look at the following review paper. My Regards
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I found the following statement in a book on page 581:
"If, in a particular timestep a converged result is obtained with a negative calculated film thickness, then the most negative film thickness is set to zero."
Dowson, D., Priest, M., Dalmaz, G., & Lubrecht, A. A. (Eds.). (2003). Tribological Research and Design for Engineering Systems: Proceedings of the 29th Leeds-Lyon Symposium. Elsevier.
What exactly happens when the film thickness is zero? Can anyone explain this to me? I will greatly appreciate it.
The significance of the film thickness less than 0 in this case is that it indicates that the contact is operating in the mixed EHL regime.
In the reference, the authors are discussing the solution for the lubricant load carrying capacity in an EHL contact simulation. The negative film thickness is occurring as the fluid film pressures alone are not sufficient to support the contact loads (in the preceding paragraph, the authors are discussing mixed EHL, with a load carrying capacity provided by the fluid film and direct asperity interactions).
If the fluid film thickness calculation at a node is less than 0, the authors suggest that the lubricant load carry capacity is neglected and the film thickness is set to 0, but the elastic deformation of the solid is retained for the given node. The elastic deformation of the solid at the node gives the solid-to-solid load carrying capacity to balance the loads applied to the contact in addition to the fluid film pressures at other nodes.
Work from Patir and Cheng and others has shown that the lubricant film load carrying capacity can be significant in the mixed regime of lubrication, but here they seem to be neglected for simplification.
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I can convert the magnetic moment of a system from emu/cc to the Bohr magneton.
In case of bulk material or thin films, we consider the molecular mass of the material.
I wonder how to calculate Bohr magneton for a bilayer film like LSMO/SRO.
In this case, which molecular mass need to be considered.
Can I add the molecular masses of individual layer and estimate the Bohr magneton by considering the saturation magnetization from MH loop.
The magnetization measurement is collaborative, so you need to know if the two layers are magnetic: in this case you must consider both contributions. Then you can use the magnetization saturation from MvsH curve.
To use densities in calculations you need to have information about the film thickness and the lattice parameters of the structures in each layer (using X-ray diffraction analysis).
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I am making a film out of starch ,polyvinyl alcohol and ammonium dihydrogenate phosphate using the solution casting method .After drying the film overnight at 60 C the color of the film isn't uniform as there are some white patches on certain areas.I am casting it on a metal tray after mixing it at 250 rpm for 2 hours at 95C. Is there any possible ways to avoid this issue?
To answer your question some additional information is needed, especially on how the blends have been prepared (dissolution and blending tmperature, applied shear, use of plasticizer and/or compatibilizer).
At least 3 factors may be responsible for the non-uniformity of your films:
1. Dissimilar polymers show the tendency to phase-separate when mixed, even when molecularly dissolved.
2. Starch dispersions in water already form a biphasic system if not heated at temperatures > 120 C and/or subjected to high shear). This is because starch granules when heated in water rather swell than dissolve, unless T is very high.
3. Both starch and PVA in water are prone to crystallization on cooling.
I guess that the presence of phosphate salt in the blend does not greatly affect the phase structure.
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We all have seen a very big rise in the streaming of the entertainment content over the OTT platforms in the wake of the global pandemic and the resultant lockdown. Do you think that the popularity of the OTT platforms will subsequently affect the business of the cinema halls and theatres premenantly in the future?
It made the youths get glued to their screens
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I want to make free standing perovskite film by solution method. Is there any specific way to make that perovskite thin film?
How thick films would you like to have? A few hundred nanometers? If so, you could use a smooth glass substrate and coating a metal film before drop-casting your perovskite solutions to make stand alone films.
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Is it possible to calculate the work functions of nanoparticles such as HgTe, HgSe QDs, or nanolayers of Bi2Te3 film with respect to references like HOPG or Au?
I started to scan them at room temperature and got foe them some different values of CPD, now the question is will it be a more sensitive measurement to scan them in dry air like purging by Ar or N2 gas flow. Is it necessary to do the experiment in the UHV condition to calculate the WF of nanoparticles as QD & 2D layers?
Thanks for feed-back
Dear Botirjon Norboboev,
You can certainly use KPFM to study the surface potentials of your samples. I wouldn't use a gold sample as a reference since it is not stable and easily contaminated on its surface. We normally choose a high quality of HOPG as the reference which is much stable in UHV. I wouldn't use inert gas environment since the tips on the instrument is very sensitive to the gas flow.
Hope it helps.
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I am preparing ZnO thin film by the chemical bath deposition method. Although I have worked with several parameters and tried many times to have a uniform film I am not able to form a uniform film yet. Please give me some suggestions about how do I make the film more uniform in the CBD method?
I recommend trying to follow methods from existing literature as closely possible. Works that have been highly cited likely have repeatable methods. Without knowing exactly what parameters you are experimenting with, it's hard to say exactly what the issue is. Certainly the concentrations, pH, temperature, and substrates all play a role. Please see these two papers, and I recommend some additional literature review to find more.
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Dear all,
I was trying to use DC sputtering to coat around 50 nm silver on both side of a casted PVDF film (thickness around 25 micron). I used a 3d printed ABS mask during the sputtering. I checked the surface morphology under SEM and found no pinholes and severe porosity. I wonder is there other reasons this short circuiting could occur, and potentially how to avoid it.
Thank you very much.
Jignesh G. Hirpara Thank you very much for your answer. May I know the reason of using the metal as mask? I thought you explain it in the first thread but I fail to understand. Thank you.
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Hi, I am trying to start a deposition simulation for TiO2 film on Si surface. Si (001) surface is ready now I want to initiate deposition. Will use fix/deposit for Ti and O at 1 to 2 ratio.
I will be using Tersoff potentials for Si and O interactions and Buckingham/coul with MA coefficients for Ti-O interactions.
But what is the potential that best describes the Si-Ti interactions?
Thank you all.
During deposition of TiO2 or Al2O3 on Si substrate, I am planning to have the sputtered atoms as charged atoms. But I am not sure if I should also make the subtstare Si atoms charged.
During deposition negative potential is applied at the target and thus they are sputtered by the impact of positively charged Ar atoms. Sputtered atoms can be neutral and also charged in the plasma with the ionized O atoms as well which combine with Ti to form TiO2. Si is grounded so I am planning to keep them as neutral.
what do you think?
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Hello
I am trying to simulate the droplet deposition in the Ramp. When I defined the interphase mass transfer flux between film and droplet as field function(dot($${Area},$${VelocityDROPLET})*{Velo cityDROPLET}*\${VolumeFractionDROPLET}), I faced such as error "the field function cannot be evaluated for the cells of unspecified". I get stuck in this problem in the Star-CCM+. I would greatly appreciate it If you could let me know. Thanks
موضوع ليس من اختصاصي ولكني مهتمه جدا
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Good day everyone!
I was about to make some pouch cells, frame made of commercial Aluminum-lamination film and in the place of contanct inbeween the current collectors/the film/the nickel tab/ in order to achive the complete sealing commercial heatable polymer is used. Unfortunately I do not own one of these right know, but I have Al-film. Would is the nature of this heatable polymer? So I could syntehise it myself OR find the very close alternative to it the goal is to achive hermetically sealed case (since the Ni current tabs are relatively thick, thicker layer of polymer might be needed).
Any kind of advice is welcome
Thanks!
Effects of Polypropylene Orientation on Mechanical and Heat Seal Properties of Polymer-Aluminum-Polymer Composite Films for Pouch Lithium-Ion Batteries
Fangxinyu Zeng,† Jinyao Chen,† Feng Yang, Jian Kang,* Ya Cao, and Ming Xiang
Go to:
Abstract
In this study, polyamide-aluminum foil-polypropylene (PA-Al-PP) composite films with different orientation status of the PP layer were prepared, and their morphology, tensile, peeling and heat seal behavior were studied. The comparative study of tensile and fracture behaviors of single-layer film of PA, Al and PP, as well as the composite films of PA-Al, PP-Al and PA-Al-PP revealed that in PA-Al-PP composite film, the PA layer with the highest tensile strength can share the tensile stress from the Al layer during stretching, while the PP layer with the lowest tensile strength can prevent further development of the small cracks on boundary of the Al layer during stretching. Moreover, the study of heat seal behavior suggested that both the orientation status and the heat seal conditions were important factors in determining the heat seal strength (HSS) and failure behavior of the sample. Four failure types were observed, and a clear correspondence between HSS and failure types was found. The results also elucidated that for the composite film, only in the cases where the tensile stress was efficiently released by each layer during HSS measurement could the composite film exhibit desired high HSS that was even higher than its tensile strength.
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Solvent casting of gelatin film
1.45
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I want to locally remove top or bottom PET film on a readymade flexible organic solar cell just to expose the silver electrode underneath. Is there some etchant to do that not destroy the cell?
Thanks.
@Yasir F Joya,
Try varied ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. You will get optimised processing for your samples in your lab.
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I would like to attach the CNF top to the PU film. I have tried with solvent casting method, but It could not attach top on PU film. The CNF film was prepared after solvent evaporation unattached the PU film on which I tried to cast the CNF film. I think PU is hydrophobic on the other hand CNF is hydrophilic. So, I need the suggestion on how I can attach these two films?
You need to improve the interfacial interaction to prevent delamination. CNF and PU both have a polar surface, expecting to have interaction(H-bond) while it does not always go through the same way for some reasons unless you improve the interfacial interactions. One of the methods that you can give it a try is the annealing method to improve interface entanglement. To do so, you can expose your film to a high temperature for a specified time (lower melting point of PU and higher than its Tg). It might assist in the better interaction of CNF and PU. Another way might be using a primer or crosslinker. It's normal to use such materials to improve interaction, such as surface modification of CNF or using some crosslinker such as boric acid, citric acid, so on to improve interaction (annealing is required to activate crosslinking). So, you need to go through the literature how to improve interfacial interactions by googling some keywords that you will come out from your dilemma.
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Hello everyone!
I'm working on the electrosynthesis of polymer film based on metallo-porphyrin (in fig 1). For the polymer synthesis, I'm performing cyclic voltammetry using a solution prepared in ACN with TBAP as supporting electrolyte.
The resulting voltammogram is shown in figure 2.
From this, it seems that the polymer is conductive with an increase in the current cycle by cycle.
I'm trying to characterize the polymer in a solution of a redox probe (e.g. [Fe(CN)6] 3-/4- prepared in water with KCl as supporting electrolyte ), by cyclic voltammetry. The comparison between the bare electrode and the functionalized electrode with polymer shows a dramatical decrease in current after the electropolymerizationpolymerization.
How is it possible to describe this different "behaviour" of the film?
Any useful papers?
Thank you!
Tiziano
I'm showing you the Nyquist plot for the bare electrode and the data fitting with a Randles circuit. It seems that there is a Warburg component in the impedance spectrum. Is it an useful information?
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CZTSe film was synthesized by the hydrothermal method and RTP annealed at different temperatures. After annealing the EDS data shows Sn-rich films. Why is this happening?
Yes, such results are often seen when elemental migration occurs, and such conditions can be temperature related.
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Hi, everyone. I am considering the heat conviction during compacting simulation by Abaqus. I was wondering that how to define the sink temperature and film coefficient?
Is there any references for the two parameters of different materials?
Sincerely
If you are using a coupled-temp-displacement step, you can utilize the 'surface film condition' option available in interaction.
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Dear sir,
What is the interpretation for the co-doped SnO2 film, when there is a decrease in intensity and an increase in width at half height of the most intense peak (110) ?.
and is there any work on Ni/Co co-doped SnO2 for photovoltaic or gas sensor application ?.
Dear sir,
Thank you for the message, Pro. Noubeil Guermat
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Hello! I've been a little confused recently with some obtained data. The related question is, can roughness of a spin coated and highly uniform film be larger than the thickness of the film? For instance, if the film thickness is 20 nm, can roughness be 25 nm?
Here are a couple sample illustrations of how you may get a large surface roughness measurement from a thin film. The top two can appear quite uniform to the eye even though the variation could be larger than the average film thickness.
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