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Fertilizers - Science topic

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Managing soil salinity is a major issue in many regions of the world. For instance, this issue is common in Morocco, forcing farmers to employ acid fertilizers to acidify the nutrient solution, albeit this is not always evident. To aid in their absorption, it is required to deliver a number of nutrients by foliar application (Fe, Cu, Zn).
So, if you know any practical answers to this challenge, please share them.
Thank you
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Here are a few references that discuss salinity and plant tolerance
Salinity in Agriculture
Chapter 13 Plant Salt Tolerance
Handbook 60 -
Article - Protocols and Guidelines for Field-scale Measurement of Soil Salinity Distribution with ECa-Directed Soil Sampling
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Please I obtained soil from a depth of 20cm and placed 5kg of the soil in pots of 29cm in height and labeled them. Please should I be calculating the fertilizer and biochar application rates according to the height of the pot (29cm) or according to the depth at which the soil was collected (20cm)? Please kindly find attached the calculations I have made and kindly advise.
Thank you for your time.
Example Biochar application rate calculations
Height of pot = 29cm
1h = 10000 m2
Assuming soil bulk density of 1.2 g/cm3
Volume = 10000 m2 × (29cm × 10-2) = 2.9 × 103m3
m = p × v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.9 × 103 × 1 × 106) cm3
m = 3.48 × 106 kg
or Use 20cm which is the depth at which the soil was collected and end up with
Volume = 10000 m2 × (20cm × 10-2) = 2.9 × 103m3
m = p × v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.0 × 103 × 1 × 106) cm3
m = 2.4 × 106 kg
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ِDear, Aurelia Ayi-bonte,
First of all, we have to test the soil inside the pot to see if it has fertilizer components and what it needs. Then, according to the target plant for planting, determine the fertilizer requirement for the plant. Finally, you choose the soil volume of the pot as the target for you.
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How accelerated study is done in case of fertilizers to study the shelf life ? What should be the minimum period of study ?
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@ Murlee, the shelf life of fertilizer depends on chemical make up and proper storage. I think, the study should be the minimum period of three years. Normally, liquid fertilizers can last upwards of 10 years, and granular fertilizer has no finite expiration date.
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Please I obtained soil from a depth of 20cm and placed 5kg of the soil in pots of 29cm in height and labeled them. Please should I be calculating the fertilizer and biochar application rates according to the height of the pot (29cm) or according to the depth at which the soil was collected (20cm)? Please kindly find attached the calculations I have made and kindly advise.
Thank you for your time.
_________________________________________________________
Example Biochar application rate calculations
Height of pot = 29cm
1h = 10000 m2
Assuming soil bulk density of 1.2 g/cm3
Volume = 10000 m2 × (29cm × 10-2) = 2.9 × 103m3
m = p × v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.9 × 103 × 1 × 106) cm3
m = 3.48 × 106 kg
_________________________________________________________
or Use 20cm which is the depth at which the soil was collected and end up with
Volume = 10000 m2 × (20cm × 10-2) = 2.9 × 103m3
m = p × v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.0 × 103 × 1 × 106) cm3
m = 2.4 × 106 kg
_________________________________________________________
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Dear Professors
Please, thank you for your explanation. I am grateful.
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Hi, Researchers I hope you are doing well. Currently, I am doing a research to find the relationship between nitrogen application doses and chlorophyll SPAD values. But the tricky is that I am having some issues in finding correlation between them. I have taken SPAD values with every week interval. I applied different recommended fertilizers of NPK. But my focus of concern was nitrogenous fertilizers. I know, very well how to find the correlation between two intervals i.e. X & Y. Let, I have applied 3 different doses of N fertilizers (e.g. 100 kg N/Ha-1,150 kg N/Ha-1 & 200 kg N/Ha-1). So, Now my questions are;
1.) What are my X & Y variables ???
2.) Do I have to find the correlation separately for each N application dose ?
3.) or 1st I take average of above mentioned three doses & then I find the correlation between them?
4.) Let, I want to find the correlation b/w nitrogenous doses & Days after Sowing (DAS) as in my case it is after 7 days interval , so what will be my X variable and Y variable ?
5.) Suppose, I take DAS as my X variable and Nitrogen doses as Y variable. Now, the question is that I would have 3 (Y variables of N doses), should I take average of them or find separately for each doses of N ?...
6.) If I take average of Y intervals (.. kg N/Ha-1) , Then, why did I applied different doses ???.
7.) If I find correlation separately for each dose of N , then How to correlate with other doses ?
8.) Let suppose, after all tricky steps I adopt any method/step and get my answer e.g. 0.91 or 0.21 or or even -0.81 or any answer,,, Then, what will be my next step ?
9.) On the basis of my SPAD values can I recommend N fertilizers in future ? If yes then how ? or if No, then what is the logical reason ?..
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In your experiment the nitrogen level is the x variable and the y variable is spad reaading. Y = mx + b spad reading is equal to a slope times the nitrogen plus a y intercept value
Also the Y cam be yield as the final yields and this can dependent on both the nitrogen level and the spad readings
The expected relationship is a law of diminishing return on the nitrogen level or the spad readings related to yield
The yield response is expected to plateau as susfficiency is met fot nitrogen and Spad which is chlorophyll level.
The level of plateau can be used to determine maximum cumulative response and the level of maximum economic response can also be calculated.
The spad level can be used to determine a sufficient level that supplemental nitrogen would not be useful.
Hope you find some of these ideas useful.
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We all know that the Haber Bosch process produces CO2 emissions. I am looking for the quantitative number as to the GHG emissions of 1lb of nitrogen fertilizer. However, we must also include the amount of GHG produced from over-fertilization. We are using a 25% uptake of synthetic fertilizer and therefore 75% goes into the soil and the waterways. Is there a way to quantify, or at least estimate, how much GHG is produced from the fertilizer not being used by the crops?
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Thank you Paul for your response. This is in line with other sources I have been gathering. From a high level, synthetic fertilizer has a significant GHG emission factor for production and a large one for application (primarily due to over-fertilization and the nitrification of unused fertilizer), but transportation and storage are minimus. Organic fertilizers, such as that coming from compost, have a much larger GHG from storage (since GHG continues to off-gas as the compost ages), however, transportation is low because of the small distances anyone is willing to transport compost (primarily a local product from local waste). The one thing, which is certain in all of the papers I have reviewed, is that determining GHG emissions is not yet a science. It is still an art that depends upon the ability of the researcher to define the vast number of variables needed as input into the equation.
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I have the following crops with the fertilizer used. How can I find the standard nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer application rate (lb/ft^2):
1- Celery (NPK 15-15-15)
2-Citrus (NPK 15-15-15 & NPK 12-24-12 )
3- Flowers (NPK 15-15-15)
4- Foliage (NPK 10-30-10 & NPK 15-15-15 )
5- Beans (NPK 10-30-10)
6- Lettuce (NPK 15-15-15)
7- Corn (NPK 12-24-12 & NPK 10:30:10)
8- Medicinal ( NPK 15-15-15)
9- Forage Pastures (NPK 15-15-15)
10- Banana (NPK 10-30-10 & NPK 15-15-15)
11- Tomato (NPK 15-15-15)
12- Carrot (NPK 15-15-15)
Thank you very much
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The following RG link is also very useful:
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Dear All,
I would appreciate if you could give an advice what is the best approach how to model phosphorus emissions to water in an Life Cycle Inventory, if only the amount of applied fertilizer is known?
Thank you!
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for calculate phosphorus emissions, you can use SALCA model.
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I am a agricultural adviser in Huambo in Angola, which is said to have the most fertile soil in Angola, what I can't see here really.
Wheat and maize were here planted for 2 years and irrigated with a pivot sprinkler system to ensure emergence in the dry season, but yields was yet with only moderate success. The corn yield was just as weak as that of other farmers in the area. I estimated that the maize yield is only around 1000 kg/ha. After the harvest residues, the wheat was only ¾ with a height of 1 m.
The soil with about pH 5, is a grey silty-sandy soil, presumably because the soil is 500 m from a river. But here isn't a laterite of rusty-red coloration like most soils here and that laterite are more remote from rivers.
My specific question is:
What is the best choice of soil preparation, fertilizing and which seed varieties to cultivate and gain best yields for wheat and corn on juvenile soil cleared before such acid and very sandy soils? Precipitation ist 1300 mm per Year.
The farm worker prefer to SEED and fertlize all by hand. Soil preparation and seed covering is done by harrow disks.
J HUMER, 18.7.22, Huambo
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It's known that phytates are a P storage in plants, in particular seeds. Plants produce enzymes to release P upon need. Also ruminants can digest phytates thanks to their gut microbiome. However, for all other animals phytic acid is an antinutrient because it binds nutrients in cationic form (Ca2+, Mg2+ etc.). There is plenty of literature from the food science perspective. but I can't find whether plants can uptake phytates from the soil or secrete the phytase or other enzymes to digest phytates in the rhizosphere to uptake P in other forms.
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@ Nicolo, please have a look of the attached file.
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Additionally, how to manage P fertilisation in such soils? Continuously apply P fertiliser even though there is a big chance it might be fixed by sesquioxides?
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Portia Phohlo We compared ten P-tests to extract P from acidic soils (Podzol) managed under forest and managed fields with different fertilizer application histories. Water, citric acid, ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA), Morgan, Olsen, Bray-1, Bray-2, Mehlich-1 and -3 solutions were used to extract and analysed with ICP and colorimetric techniques. The studied soils had a pH range from 3.4 to 6.9; clay contents ranged from 6% to 38%; SOM varied between 0.5% and 47%. We found that Water ≤ Morgan < AB < M1 < B1 < M3 ≤ Olsen << B2 <<<citric acid. B2 extracted 2-folds, and citric acid extracted 4 to 6- folds more P than M3. Proper selection of P-test is required based on the soil properties such as Al, Fe, and SOM content and pH, of course, calibration against nutrient removal or crop yield is very important.
Note: if the acidic soil is currently converted from forest or low in SOM, M3 will overestimate P; if it has been under the management and has higher SOM (5%), M3 might underestimate P.
I will share the manuscript after the final decision of the editor.
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How to prepare liquid fertilizers from dry form for drip irrigation in palatable form to the plants. How to avoid degradation of fertilizers quality after making in liquid?
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You need to avoid having high concentrations of free Ca and P present together if that is your question
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I am looking for a collection / dataset of yield response curves (to fertilizer and other inputs), ideally for many countries and many crops.
I can find a lot of research on specific crops response curves in specific locations, but I am struggling to find more general studies that review the literature on the topic.
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It is rarely to be found in one article, for there are many and different variable that crops respond to. Regards
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Farmers have started using chemical fertilizers and pesticides to get more yield from crops, now it is used in high doses. Hence it should be controlled with alternate methods.
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I do agree with Prof Dr Medhat Elsahookie.
Furthermore, overuse of these chemicals causes Release the warming gases especially from those contained halogens groups.
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Could you recommend research publications on the energy consumption of phosphorus fertilizers? There is a lot of information on the energy consumption of nitrogen fertilizers, but research on phosphorus and potassium fertilizers is difficult to find.
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@ Marja, energy consumption values for phosphate and potash fertilizer are estimated at 5,600 BTUs per pound of phosphate(P2O5) and 4,700 BTUs per pound of potash (K2O).
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Why manure and mineral fertilizers are important to increase soil labile carbon and nitrogen fractions in conservation tillage?
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What is the appropriate method of fertilizer application in surface seeded crops?
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Surface row-seeded crops are generally sown in undisturbed wet soils when it is difficult foe tractor or even animal drawn implements to operate. Normally seeds and fertilizer nutrients are placed right on the wet soil surface and covered with residues of the previous crop. Subsequent done of fertilizer can also be broadcasted, followed by a light irrigation. It is better to kill weeds before fertilizer application. Herbicides spray may be used to control weeds. In row planted crop situations, fertilizers can be dibbled or band placed manually or with machine during an intercultural operation.
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What is procedure for calibrating seed - cum - fertilizer drill?
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Seed drills of different makes are fitted with seed metering devices to increase or decrease seed rates within specified limits. First, fix seed metering lever in appropriate seed rate delivery notch measure circumference of drive wheel (Cd). Measure width of the drill (Wd) or else multiply the number of tynes with distance between the two tynes. Put seed material in seed- box and rotate drive wheel manually ten full rotations and collect seed delivered trom each tube separately in polythene bagd. Weigh seeds in each bag and also determine pooled/ total seed weight (Sw). If the difference in seed weight between individual delivery tubes more than 10% contact the machinf for adjustment/repairs of the drll. Repeat operations with fertilizers in box to find weight of fertilizer material (Fw), delivered in ten full rotations of the drive wheel as described. Calculate seed and fertilizer application rate per hectare using the following formula:
Seed rate (kg/ha) = (Sw/ Cd x Wd)
Where, Sw = Total weight of the seed released in 10 revolutions (gm)
Cd = Circumference of drive wheel (m)
Wd = Width of the drill (m)
Similarly, fertilizer rate (kg/ha) can be determined using the same total weight of fertilizer released in gram (Fw) in place of total weight of seed (Sw).
It is cautioned that calculated seed and fertilizer rates can differ by 5% from the actual rates due to drag and slippage of the drive wheel depending upon the soil moisture, surface roughness, presence of crop residues and field level. Carry out minor adjustment in seed/ fertilizer rates by actually testing drill in the field.
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What is the impact of the single dose of N fertilizer application on the nutrient losses status of rice?
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All fertilizer nutrients are not equally mobile in soils. Under aerobic conditions, relatively mobile nutrient such as nitrate moves deeper into soil profile beyond the reach of the active root system. Under anaerobic puddled conditions with water - table close to soil surface , nitrate nitrogen gets transformed into ammonical form and is absorbed on the negatively charged clay particles, thus not able to move freely with water. This reduces losses of deep placed N. Therefore, it is often recommended for a single deep placement of total N in rice. It seems that it could even be practiced in wheat and other upland crops to harness synergy of nutrient - water interaction for greater photosynthetic activity.
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Soil biodiversity is hampering day by day due to various anthropogenic activities. One of them is use of inorganic fertilizer. So are the side-effects?
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Excellent answer @ Abesh
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We are looking for a suitable sorbent to remove phosphorus (relatively low concentration of ca. 1 mg/L PO4-P) from lightly brackish water with around 6 PSU (Practical Salinity Unit, ca. 10 mS/cm), which can subsequently be reused as soil conditioner / fertilizer. So far we considering sorbents such as coated/modified biochar, calcareous materials or even recycled material such as crushed concrete according to various literature. However, we were wondering whether there is a sorbent which is specifically suitable for such a lightly brackish water.
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Generally, fertiliser companies or even countries, though they mention the moisture percentage, do not mention the particle size of fertilisers in the specification/notification. Even if the nutrients of the plant are okay in quantity what would be the effect on soil and crop performance if the moisture and size are different?
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The price of imported chemical fertilisers reach an all-time high recently due to increased freight costs. It is high time for small-scale farmers to substitute chemical fertilisers with working and effective non-chemical solutions. This question seeks to look for working solutions in substituting chemical fertilisers, without significant reduction in crop yields. For example, via the use of potent bio-fertilisers, composted farmyard manure, and plant growth-promoting bio inoculants, amongst others.
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The best alternative to chemical fertilizers and does not leave negative effects on the growth and yield of plants is bio-fertilizers like (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azospirillum brasilense… etc.)
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It is said to be "trace" wherever I look for, but what is the typical order of magnitude? is it 0.001%, or 1% or in between?
P.S.: What I have mentioned is of open unpacked fertilizer sold in rural market (e.g. of South Asia), where even concept of asking composition to vendor would be illogical
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Can you ask the manufacturer?
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We have Calcium Hydroxide dried sludge in huge quantity as a waste material. How we can make it as an effective soil conditioner. What process you can suggest to convert this waste to an effective soil conditioner. It’s pH >12.5 and EC is >10.
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Such a material can be used for the treatment of Acid Rock/Mine Drainage in mine site remediation. See https://www.imwa.info/piramid/files/PIRAMIDGuidelinesv10.pdf for instance.
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With the current hikes in fertilizer prices, is it possible through an agronomic lens to switch from conventional (mineral) agriculture to organic agriculture?
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the main goal of organic farming is to reduce crop yields to avoid overproduction. therefore, organic agriculture is popularized in Europe, where the state can afford to pay subsidies to farmers and is completely unsuitable for poor and developing countries. This issue is more political than agronomic. Organic fertilizers can never completely replace mineral fertilizers, the most optimal approach is to combine both types of fertilizers.
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Since shortages of fertilizer are being forced by the war in Ukraine and for other reasons, there will be changes in the crops grown, with some being stunted. Has anyone done any research on how much the stunted growth of crops will reduce the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere? What is the total amount of CO2 taken up by food crops?
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The content of greenhouse gases in our environment is largely a function of the current excessive exploitation of fossil fuels and the lack of counteractive ability for the plant biome to deal with the fossil fuel use.
The fossil fuel use is mostly related to electricity transportation and industrial activities and also commercial and residential activity.
Agriculture production in the United States has a slightly less 10% greenhouse gas foothill and about half of this is laid at the feet of fertilizer especially ammoniated fertilizer.
While producing our food with legumes instead of fertilizer and will marked reduce the carbon footprint. The biggest way to improve both production and the carbon footprint is the adoption of conservation and regeneration agriculture to improve soil organic matter resources.
Increasing soil organic matter can allow the avoidance of drought losses the principle cause of erratic field crops and it can contribute to reduce the excessive atmospheric gas level.
The monitoring of soil organic matter and the targeting of soil organic matter goals can combine with reduced the production practice footprint to optimize crop performance reduce inputs and give more reliable production especially in stress environments as periodic droughts in rain fed agriculture.
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I am trying to determine the available phosphate content in a commercial fertilizer. I need a lab protocol (methodology) to carry out the test
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@ Sudarshan, the attached file may be useful to you.
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I want to know is there any specific substance for this aim? because anti-caking agents (for example silicate base anti-caking agents) make the fertilizer turbid.
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Adding the fertilizer needs at the appropriate time, quantity and fertilizer ratio that are proportional to the productive capacity of the land, the stage of growth, the age of the plant and the degree of its tolerance to salinity, to reduce the possibility of the plant being exposed to salinity problems.
📷
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Are there clear recommendations for the use of modern biological products in the system to meet the need to provide agriculture with mineral fertilizers in exchange for organic fertilizers?
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I do agree with Prem Baboo.
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We have huge quantity of Calcium Hydroxide dried sludge as a waste material, and planning to utilize it as a soil conditioner, please suggest the utilization possibility of that material. Major issue with the sample is pH >12.5 and EC is >10.
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Yes you can used Calcium Hydroxide as a soil conditioner but depends upon soil pH. It has higher pH and corrosive in nature you can apply carefully. Hydrated Lime Treatment is particularly suitable for the rapid response phase due to its short treatment time, simple process and use of readily available materials. With trained and skilled staff, it allows for safe, cost-effective and rapid treatment of faecal sludge with outputs that can be safely used for irrigation or soil amendment or can be safely infiltrated or disposed of, if the environmental conditions permit.
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How manure acts as a better fertilizer for increasing crop yields than synthetic fertilizer does by improving soil fertility?
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Why is fertilizer important for feeding the world and why does the application of fertilizers become essential for better crop yield?
Fertilizers are food for plants. Fertilizers replace the nutrients that crops remove from the soil. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yields and agricultural productivity would be significantly reduced. That's why mineral fertilizers are used to supplement the soil's nutrient stocks with minerals that can be quickly absorbed and used by crops.
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Because ferttlizes are supplying essentionl elements reqired for better crop growth development thereby increading biomass yield
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How does organic fertilizer affect the environment and ecology?
Without fertilizer, soils are not as productive and crops do not grow as quickly since fertilizers give more productive soils and faster growing crops. Fertilizer is therefore key to ensuring enough produce is grown to feed populations on a large scale. However, applying excessive amounts of fertilizer leads to the release of harmful greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and the eutrophication of our waterways.
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Why does tillage reduce organic matter? Does adding organic fertilizer or organic matter in the soil improve soil health and crop quality?
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More exposure to air and sunlight more oxidation of SOM occur as a result SOM content decreases. SOM enrichment results reduced in BD, increases microbial proliferation, improve aeration etc. Hence it improves soil health.
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Recommended fertilizer dose is 20:40:20 kg/ha. 19:19:19 NPK are available sources.
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Calculate the weight of one hectare of soil: Psoil (kg ha)=Da * 0.2m * 10000m2, assuming a Da (bulk density of your soil, at 0.2m depth), then calculate the amounts of N, P and K for 2 kg potted soil: N pot (kg )=(2kg soil * 20 kg N ha) / Psoil(kg ha), then calculate the amount of fertilizer needed: Kg Fertilizer=( N pot (kg) * 100 kg Fertilizer ) / 19 kg N (in 100 fertilizer). Use same formula for P and K. Since double P is needed, you would have to use another fertilizer to add the remaining 20 kg, but if you use a phosphate that contains N or P then you would have to take this excess contribution into account to carry out the calculations again using the 19:19:19 fertilizer formula . You could use phosphoric acid or calcium phosphate to avoid this.
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We want to compare the willingness to pay for an alternative size such as 10 kg bag, 25 kg bag against the current available size of 50 kg.
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I think 25 kg bag.
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I am looking for information or interactive maps that list fertilizers used in a region. I my case the southern United States. I want to determine what elements are in locally used pesticides so that I can determine which elements I should pursue for a monitoring study.
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Very interesting question
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I want to work on the effect of nitrate fertilizer on toad (Bufo bufo)
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Interesting question
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Attached photos are clicked by me during the field visit to the drip irrigation farmer, As per my knowledge Drip irrigation is done in the root zone to get proper benefits from it. But the farmer was saying sugarcane's roots are spread in the farm and it will absorb water. I gave him detailed benefits of drip irrigation method in terms of saving water, reducing weed by proper method of drip, power, fertilizers, etc. Also he satisfied with the same. Also suggest me is it right method by farmer?
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I have a different research-related topic, but I'm considering a nitrate, phosphate, or potassium fertilizer.
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Muriate of potash, NaNO3 etc. are abit toxic to skin.
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Your opinions please!
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First of all, yes, fertilizers provide crops with nutrients which allow crops to grow bigger, faster, and to produce more food. To grow, plants require nitrogen compounds from the soil, which can be produced naturally or be provided by fertilizers. However, applying excessive amounts of fertilizer leads to the release of harmful greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and the eutrophication of our waterways. The synthetic chemicals in the chemical fertilizers adversely affect the health of naturally found soil micro-organisms by affecting the soil pH. The use of chemical fertilizers also jeopardizes the health of bacteria that fix the nitrogen balance in the soil. Though chemical fertilizers increase crop production; their overuse has hardened the soil, decreased fertility, strengthened pesticides, polluted air and water, and released greenhouse gases, thereby bringing hazards to human health and environment as well. However, there is imbalance of NPK. It has been observed that, continuous application of DAP has caused build up of P in the soil.
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two scenarios:
1) the fertilizers mixed in water and applied to the base of the fruit plant
2) fertilizer nutrients applied through drip irrigation (FERTIGATION)
Q: In which scenario, nutrients will be faster available to the roots of the fruit crops?
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Fertigation process is more effevtive
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Hello dear colleagues
A question came to me
What is a good method for measuring total phosphorus in organic fertilizers?
And how do you discolor the browning and darkening of the resulting extract for the phosphor determination method? Is it necessary?
Thanks
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Dear Saheb Soodaee Mashaee many thanks for posting this interestng technical question on RG. Being a synthetic inorganic chemist, I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field. However, I often made the experience that it can be very helpful to use RG directly as a valuable source of information. Numerous relevant research articles have been posted by RG members, many of them even as public full texts. For example, please have a look at the following potentially useful article which might help you in your analysis:
Measurement of total phosphorus and organic phosphorus contents of animal manure composts by the dry combustion method
This paper can be freely downloaded as pdf file. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Governments in developing countries are being pressurized to feed their growing population. Thus, they have to do everything, including among other things apply inorganic fertilizers, cultivating marginal lands and converting forest areas for crop production. But, these types of interventions are not environmentally sustainable, and only gives temporary solution, for obvious reasons. So, given this paradox what do you suggest?
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Mechanization and resource use efficiency have significant effect on production, so there better management could lead to Environment friendly agriculture. Environmentally sustainable agricultural practices are now available, and it is essential that this information are widely disseminated and promoted. Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent population is clashing with efforts to conserve habitat and natural resources. Sustainable intensification, an effort to increase crop yields with fewer inputs and without expanding land use, seeks to balance these priorities. However, agriculture is focused on the working of soil and other facilities to produce crops, animals and trees for human consumption or further refinement into products, while industry is focused more on refining and processing raw materials into products for sale.
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I faced many times in the agricultural field experiments that some treatments eg. no fertilizer zero yield in some areas. Then, should I include the zero yield for the ANOVA?
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Thank you very much for your response. The missing value technique could not be employed here as the value is true. For example, you evaluated 10 varieties of a given crop for their aluminum tolerance and if 5 of them failed to grow and give zero yields, we can not assume here missing value methods.
Thank you again and with kind regards,
Tadele Amare
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RG members please discuss it...
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Directly inorganic fertilizer application won't increase OM in soil.
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Hello all,
I got soil analysis report from a commercial lab that includes "total exchange capacity" (TEC), measured by summation method. This seems to be the sum of Ca, Mg, K, Na, some other bases, and H+. My soil comes from Illinois Mollisols and what I see is that TEC increased significantly (almost x1.4 greater) in soils that received N fertilizers compared to unfertilized soils. Indeed, this increase in TEC was driven by the increase in its H+ proportion. So here are my questions:
1. Is TEC just another name for CEC or effective CEC? If not, what is it?? And is it commonly used?
2. If TEC is CEC, I find it hard to believe that fertilizing the soil increased the negative soil surfaces this much. No literature talks about N fertilizers increasing CEC, rather it decreases CEC. Is it possible that the lab mistakenly added the soil acidity (since N fertilizers did acidify the soil) as exchangeable acidity?
Help......
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You should ask the lab, but it appears that the exchangeable cations and acidic components (from the KCl extract) have been summed. This sum is usually described as effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC). In contrast, CEC is measured at a high pH, and the pH value should be stated (typically in the range 7.5 to 8.5). For soils of pH values less than that at which CEC is measured, CEC is expected to exceed ECEC.
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Wanting to apply fertiliser at a rate of 65, 75, and 90 kg/Ha for a small-scale experiment. Using 1 L pots, 600 g of soil per pot.
How much fertiliser do I apply to each pot?
N = 5, so each treatment uses 3kg of soil.
I have calculated:
75kg/Ha = 4.5g fertiliser per 600 g of soil.
However, I was reading a thesis doing a very similar thing and the person added 0.045g of fertiliser to his 600g of soil.
How did he get this? Obviously he divided it by 100 but why??
My logic is that 1 Ha = 10,000kg then 75kg/Ha = 0.75%
And 0.75% if 600g = 4.5g.
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The calculation of fertilizer per Ha to g/kg is very clear
See, the dose of fertilizer/ha is calculated for 15 cm of plough layer holding 3 million kg of soil i.e. 3000000 kg
so, in case of 90 kg/ha dose, if you want to calculate it for 1 kg soil, it would come to 90/3000000
In the given case of 600 g soil, the fertilizer would be, (90/3000000)*0.6
Make sure that the dose mentioned is for 90 kg of 'fertilizer' per se, not the 90 kg of 'nutrient' (in the second case you need to consider nutrient content of the given fertilizer, e.g. 60% N in urea, 18 kg N and 46 kg P2O5 in DAP)
Don't forget to follow row randomization and column randomization for your experimental pots for maintaining homogeneity
Best of luck
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How is phosphate fertilizer made from sulfuric acid in industry?
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The basic method involves reaction between phosphate rock and sulfuric acid. Ground phosphate rock is mixed with sulfuric acid to form a semi solid product and left for cooling. After cooling they are left for additional curing. At the end the product is crushed, and screened and marketed.
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Fertilizer P has become a costly in put in recent times and farmers are facing problem in procuring sufficient amount for application to crop as per recommended rates of application. As Fertilizer P losses from soiil are minimum or negligible, one can think of application of just equivalent P to crop removal , avoiding depletion of soil P. This approach may help farmers to save cost on Fertilizer P and also maintain soil P without much depletion.
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Also check please the following very good RG link:
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Specifically, used black tea leaves.
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I do agree with J. C. Tarafdar.
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URGENT PRACTICAL QUESTION
  • Timing of nitrogen fertilizer application is key in nutrient management in agriculture.
  • Nitrogen is considered the most mobile plant nutrient in the soil, hence timely application is necessary. Phosphatic fertilizer applied during the sowing of seeds is sufficient enough to sustain the seed until spring.
  • N application should best be applied in spring when plant root establishment in the Rhizosphere is at maximum (Shicheyi Philip, 2021).
  • N becomes the most limiting factor even in developed countries, leave alone the smallholder farmers, because of untimely application, with over 70% approximated as wastage due to leakage (Shicheyi, 2021).
  • Until and unless plants have roots they cannot utilize the applied fertilizers (Keshab, 2021). Potassium and phosphatic fertilizers take a little longer time to be ready for the plants. Therefore they must be applied as basal.
  • There should be the wise application of Nitrogenous fertilizers as they are lost through volatilization, leaching, and runoff water. If Phosphatic fertilizer is a complex one with some amount of N, it is not necessary to apply additional N through Urea or other sources (Keshab, 2021). This is the reason, instead of applying 50% N as basal; increase the number of top-dresses at various stages. It will automatically increase the N use efficiency by crop.
  • It must be noted that basal use of N is recommended if and only if it is combined with a urease inhibitor (Shicheyi, 2021).
  • Nitrogen is most needed during a plant's vigorous growth stage which obviously is not basal (Shicheyi, 2021).
  • Moreover, unused Nitrogen in the soil can lead to ammonification which in itself is a source of pollution and CFC.
  • Normally, agriculturists recommend 50, 100, and 100 kg/ha of N, P205and K20, respectively as a basal dose (Keshab, 2021).
The bottom line concept is, 'Supply plant nutrient at the right time in the right quantity and quality."
So:
  • when is that right time?
  • is the basal application of N fertilizer scientifically correct?
Dear RG professionals, could we get references for your valuable answers?
STAY BLESSED!!!
Alem
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You are most welcome dear
Wish you the best always,
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How the biobased fertilizers helps in soil health improvement.
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Dear Dr Rondla Sai Kumar . Yes. See the following useful RG link:
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How to fertilize the trees more economically, environmentally friendly and effectively, such as the fertilizer type, fertilization frequency, time, method of fertilization, etc.
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Good answers but for perennial tree crops, leaf analysis is technique which gives estimation of nutrients requirements. For annual crops, after every harvesting soil samples are taken for soil analysis to know fertility status, but for perennials leaf analysis/ tissue analysis is best technique.
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Now a days various approaches are used to calculate fertilizer doses for various crops such as blanket, soil testing, plant nutrient testing, soil test crop response etc. All the approaches gives the result based on the nutrient present in the soil. The fixation study can also helpful to estimate the nutrient required to satisfy exchangeable position in soil. Therefore, the quantity of fertilizer required will be sum of the nutrient required to satisfy fixation and crop requirement. In this context fixation study was executed by adding a specific amount of plant nutrients in solution to a specific volume of soil. The plant nutrients were extracted and analyzed using the same procedures used for original routine soil analysis. The data for potassium were generated and fitted with langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm and presented in the attached file.
How we can use these data for recommending fertilizer (Potassium) to rice instead of blanket, soil testing and other approaches so as to satisfy the nutrient fixation capacity of soil and to get better and highest yield?.
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There are many things that must be known before carrying out the composting process in the field, what are they?
📷
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If you are talking about composting prior seeding or transplanting, better to consider:
1. Field should be free from previous crop.
2. The first ploughing should be already accomplished.
3. FYM must be well decomposed.
4. Do not spread the FYM in the field to prevent from nutrient loss from volatilization and leaching.
5. If you need to store the FYM for few days in the field, cover it with mulching materials, soil or black polythene sheet.
6. Spread the FYM thoroughly/uniformly in the field.
7. Cover the spread FYM with soil properly for efficient use of its nutrients by plants.
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Hello,
I am growing rice. The leaves do not look healthy. And emerging leaves are dying before they unroll. Please see the attached images. I haven’t seen this before. I am growing the rice in UC Davis mix, and gave them 2/L of a commercial all purpose fertiliser about 1.5 weeks ago. I have sprayed the plants with iron and have sprayed with white oil to control mites. They are about 5-6 weeks old. Any ideas?
Thanks,
Aaron :)
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It may be leaf rolling insect.
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My initial soil test says ,%of Total N is 1.12% that is very high according to STVI class ( >.45%) .
What will be the recommended dose of Nitrogen for Indian Spinach?, where recommended Nitrogen (Fertilizer element ) for different fertility status given below :
Optimum 0-35 kg/ha
Medium 36-70 kg/ha
Low 71-105 kg/ha
Very Low 106-140 kg/ha
(My soil status is very high for Nitrogen )
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Interesting. I agree with Dr. Paul Milham and Dr. Anoop
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- Example: The effect of fertilizers on field crops (wheat, barley, etc.)
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It is not difficult, but you need three dimensions, let us take wheat, to draw that , you take same doses of each of N , P, and K. Sketch the diagram, and you will find it as a volume. A cube or parralelopiped structure .
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We all know that fertilizer increase the OM growth but the application of fertilizer have a great role in this mechanism.. myself Udit want to know about the fertilizer application method and OM content in soil.
Thank you
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An interesting question . The rhizocompetent microbes would prefer broadcast method of fertilizer application , uniformly available to microbes spatially over band placement ...it will be an interesting execise to evaluate the crop response under two different methods of fertilizer applications vis-a-vis microbial growth ( population counts and diversity as well).
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Nitrogen is the most limiting and the least efficiently used (NUE is 0.3-0.5 in developed countries) plant nutrient.
But what most gets me in doubt is the time of nitrogen fertilizer application.
  • Some say before planting (African Farm Resources Center, attached herewith)
  • Most say during planting (N.B. maize takes 6-9 days to emerge, but still not active to use fertilizer)
  • Only a few say after planting.
Which one is scientifically correct? Please include references!!!!!!!
==============================================================
N.B.
I don't know if Nitgen fertilizer has other uses in the soil than as food for the plant. Some well-experienced farmers have told me that Nitrogen dehydrated water-logged soils; "It ignites the heat that helps seeds to emerge profoundly"!!!
============================================================
Appreciate your valuable help for all in doubt like me!!
Alem
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Dear Dr. Redda,
Very nice and practical question you raised. Normally, agriculturists recommend 50. 100 and 100% of N, P205 and K20, respectively as a basal dose. As you mentioned, until and unless plants have roots they can not utilize the applied fertilizers. Potassium and phosphatic fertilizers takes a little longer time to to be ready to the plants. Therefore they must be applied as basal. There should be wise application of Nitrogenous fertilizers as they are lost through volatilization, leaching and run off water. If Phosphatic fertilizer is complex one with some amount of N, it is not necessary to apply additional N through Urea or other sources. This is the reason, instead of applying 50% N as basal; increase the number of top-dresses at various stages. It will automatically increases the N use efficiency by crop.
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Thalassia hemprichii to be specific.
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Organic fertilizer is a great solution to the negative impact of chemical fertilizer on earth and climate change. However, the efficiency of organic fertilizer is 10 to 20% of the efficiency of chemical fertilizer so it will be really difficult to change. Also, as NPK ratio of organic fertilizer will be only 20% or even lesser than Chemical NPK, so is there any way to increase efficiency of organic fertilizer or to make almost pure organic fertilizer with at leat 80% of NPK and oligoelements?
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Organic fertilizers improve the soil long after the plants have taken the nutrients they need. Therefore, the longer your soil is fed with organic fertilizers, the better its composition and texture. So, while inorganic fertilizer is cheaper in the short term, it adds less to the soil in the long term. So in my opinion the best option is organic fertilizer,better for the soil and the environment.
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On a proposal I evaluated, a student planned to examine the effects of 3 levels of intra-row Spacing and 4 NPS Rates on Growth and Yield of Garlic. The student designed the treatment structure for NPS rates as follows:
NPS rate (kg ha-1)
10, 29 and 5
19, 38, and 7
28, 47 and 9
38, 57 and 11
As I think the student may use the proportions of N, P and S in NPS fertilizer blend, i.e., 19%, 38% and 7% as a basis to set his treatment structure. I claimed that this treatment structure is wrong and suggest changing it into 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 NPS rate, or something like that. But, the student and his supervisor refuse my suggestion.
Dear Professors and colleagues, is it really the correct way of treatment structure? If not, what is your advice for them?
after having a thorough review of some answers i have decided to add the following remark on my earlier question
Remark: The student is not making a physical blend of each fertilizers rather he will use the already blended form of NPS fertilizer.
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Dr. Srivastava answered rightly. @Tsegaye Babege, you can suggest accordingly.
Regards.
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Hi there,
I'm designing an experiment (not necessarily to be conducted) in which the primary source of nitrogen within large monocultures is manipulated, and yield of crop is measured over time. The objective is to determine the feasibility of using peanuts as a primary source of nitrogen on large-scale agricultural operations.
Site: large-scale (~200 ha) orange grove in Florida.
Treatments: one plot (1-ha) with only peanuts, one plot (1-ha) with some peanuts plus strategically applied synthetic fertilizer.
Control: one plot (1-ha) with no change in fertilizer regime.
Data will be collected from 5 subplots (400m2) per plot (15 total).
Recorded from each subplot will be number of trees and number of boxes of oranges yielded per tree. This data will be scaled up to estimate number of trees per hectare and number of boxes of oranges yielded per hectare.
Feasibility would be determined by change in yield over time. Little variation in average monthly, seasonal, and overall yield per plot would indicate potential feasibility of using peanuts as fertilizer. Great variation between experimental plots and control plot may indicate that peanuts are not suitable sources of nitrogen for monoculture oranges.
What would be the appropriate statistical test to analyze this data? I'm thinking a single-factor ANOVA will tell me differences between treatments, but how can I compare data per treatment over time to determine overall change? Repeated measures ANOVA?
Any suggestions/examples would be appreciated.
Thank you.
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For applying the same, you need 12 degree of freedom. You have 3 treatments. 5 subplots can be treated as replication. Then your df is only 8. If you have 4 treatments, it would be good.
Expecting comments from the statisticians.
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I am working my master thesis on watermelon and potassium fertilizer rates. So any one any one who can share me materials related with my title.
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I can't send material but strongly suggest that you support the research by performing foliar analysis
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Sulphate composts are useful for alkaline soils. There are huge amount of sulfur production during refinery processes. Sometimes these amounts of sulfur can not be directly used and should be converted into some other by-products. What is the easiest way to convert organic S into SO4 compost?
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Please find the attachments.
Regards.
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for solving the sustainability issues organic agriculture is an answer, it has many pros and cons as well. but if there is any possibility to increase the yield through organic fertilizer for crops it will enrich the soil and conserve nature. any short-term and long-term strategies to be followed in the way forward through organic fertilizer. ?
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Look at the Rodale Institute and their farming trials and experience.
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Hello everyone
I introduce myself I am an Engineer in Chemical Engineering and Process; Currently I am at the door of scientific research and I am looking if you have ideas for a thesis subject concerning the field of fertilizers and especially liquid fertilizers
Thank you for your collaboration
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I worked on some experiments with vegetables in greenhouses. I need information about converting some imputs (human and machine work, wather, fertilizers, pesticides) and yields into energy in MJ (megajoules). If someone can help, please write me.
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Look at this , it's an example in an apple orchard:
An analysis of energy use, input costs and relation between energy inputs and yield of apple orchard
look also at FAO resources such as
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I have come to know that 5:1 ratio of NO3:NH4 makes the melon most sweet in hydroponics? But what about field crops? Here, Nitrate fertilizers are banned. So the only option for inorganic N source is Urea or DAP. From the internet, I have learned that, plant can only uptake N in nitrate form. In that case, Is there any difference if I cannot provide Nitrate fertilizers? Also, I am providing plants with mustard cake fertilizer and fish fertilizer to provide ready nitrates .
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Tomato blossion end rot increases under ammonium fertilization it is related to boron calcium deficiency.
Boron can be deficient in many global soil situations and the boron content optimized by address acid soil aluminum toxicity.
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Bio Slurry(Cow dung/Poultry) contains a lot of water. But for organic fertilizer, the Government's Water/ Moisture content range is (10 20)%. As a result we need to remove the excess water content. So what is the proper process to remove excess water?
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A dewatering machine will instead lead to loss of dissolved nutrients. i think solar drying is the most appropriate
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For instance, the dependent variable is the amount of fertilizer (KG) and the independent variable is Land typology (0=low land, 1=mid low, 2=mid high and 4=high land). I want to investigate the association between the amount of fertilizer use and land types.
Thank you in advance.
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Dear Dr. Salvatore, thanks a lot for sharing the resources. After reading i felt we can not directly calculate through Stata and have to manually calculate after Swallis test. Thank you so much.
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Here is my soil test. As you can see Calcium is an issue and pH is quite high.
Let's not focus on micronutrients for now please. I'm trying to help very young mango seedlings get established, and I'm worried about P fixation.
What would you pick as an NPK of choice. Suppose we start from a balanced ratio like 18-18-18 for example, would you rather prefer more N, more P or more K or any other combinations of those?
Again, the goal is to help very young seedlings get established, they're actually up to 1 year old from planting the seed.
Thanks
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In such sandy calcareous soils , mango is comapratively tolerant to calcareousness , i would be good idea to keep additional 25% phosphorous , preferably as single superphosphate and micronutrients like Fe and Zn , considered three most crunch nutrients . Irrigation is another factor ( otherwise calcareousness with pH 8.4 will create osmotic pressure , detrimental to growth of such young mango seedling) to keep partial pressure of CO2 well under limit for an optimised plant growth. We very often also add manures 9 farm yard mansucre or vermiocmpost , preferably 250 g with 25 g sulphur to keep calcareousness well under control through acids from these two divergent sources. You cant get any text book like prescription , its more of a your practical instinct than anything else. ...
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I wanna draw a correlation data in form of graph that shows a quadratic relation between N fertilizer application and nitrous emission