Science topic

Feed Formulation - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Feed Formulation, and find Feed Formulation experts.
Questions related to Feed Formulation
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
How this system works, how to apply, what kind of terms should be provide to suit the system? Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
This number is suitable for cattle comfortable temperature (generally 15 to 18℃), house feeding, light activity, no stress environment. When the temperature is below 12℃, the maintenance energy needs to increase by 1% for every 1℃ decrease. Net energy for weight gain (kj) of growing-finishing cattle = (2090+25.1W)X daily gain /1- (0.3x daily gain) [where W is body weight (kg)
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
For instance; I know the nutritional requirements of broilers and I also have data on the nutritional value of feed ingredients that I want to mix, now, how can I use excel to calculate & reach those requirements?
A document or a reference of a step-by-step guide on feed formulation in excel, or any written suggestion to simply calculate for 4 or 5 feed ingredients could be more helpful.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
We have had a few cases of mandibular osteodystrophy in adult dromedary and want to be sure we are balancing their ration properly.  The basis of their diet is grass and home grown grass hay in Pennsylvania, USA supplemented with alpaca feed.  We would like to know the recommended levels of Ca, P, Na, Cl, Vit D (and other nutrients to make a concentrated feed that will balance the nutrients provided in the feed)
Thank You
Dr Zivotofsky
Relevant answer
Answer
There is a paper which is published in 2019 which have good information about the nutrient requirements of camels.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
10 answers
Does someone have an excel file for formulating feeds using linear programming or a free online tool where this can be found?
Relevant answer
Answer
Do you mean something known as the optimal diet problem i.e. the problem in which the total cost of some food products is minimized subject to the constraints describing real consumption of nutrients included in the food products being at least/at most at some predefined levels?
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
I produced Glycerol monolaurate in lab scale, with a melting point of about 37 C. Now I want to use this product as animal feed additives. However the melting point of 37 makes the product difficult to be sold as solid nor as liquid. Now I need to convert this product to be liquid at room temperature, what do you suggest? Kindly put into consideration that the final product is feed additive.
One suggestion is to mix with a another material with very low melting point.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
67 answers
identification protein source do you use in feed formulation for broiler  
Relevant answer
Answer
an update maybe maggot (insect meal).
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
I am modelling a sustainable feed formulation using weighted goal programming. There are five minimization goals (one for cost, and four environmental impacts).
My concern is about how to weight different goals.
So far, I am going to use a grey weighting method.
Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
A: Use actual values from NIRS
B: Use a margin of safety
C: Use stochastic programming
D: Do nothing about it
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
12 answers
Hi all,
I would like to find feed ingredients (such as corn gluten meal, wheat) naturally contaminated with DON/ T-2 toxin.
Is there anyone working with mycotoxins that can advise me where I can search for contaminated ingredients?
Any suggestion would be highly appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
Vivi Koletsi
PhD student at Wageningen University & Research
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Vivi Koletsi,
Do you need the mycotoxin in feed anymore?Pribolab is specialized mycotoxin standard and reference material in different matrix(such as corn ,feed wheat) , customized different concentration range. If you need, please send mail to me: gracetan@pribolab.com
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
33 answers
Expected answer from the researchers.
Relevant answer
Answer
NRC is mostly followed centrally. And each nation m have their own. India has ICAR recommend ed allowences or standards
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
2 answers
Any suggestions are welcome on the prediction equation for estimation of AMEn.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can try this android application to calculate ME value.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
11 answers
Methionine toxicity
Relevant answer
Answer
The converted enzymes of D methionine to L methionine in the liver and kidneys in small chicks are low on conversion due to the lack of enzymes available to them, and since the productivity performance of the first week old broiler has an effect on the overall performance
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
Fifty to 85% of P stored in cereal grains is bound in phytic acid and its salts. Phytase, a digestive enzyme catalyzing the release of P from the phytate complex in plant-derived ingredients, significantly increases the utilization of PP in poultry.
what are pros and cons of using it for broilers in terms of “energy consumption”?
Relevant answer
Answer
Phytase does not use energy to release Phosphorus as it is an enzyme, and enzyme action typically does not cost energy in the metabolism.
The use of Phytase does contribute to the energy value of the diet in which the phytase is added, simply because it degrades phytate which normally, when completely intact, can bind to certain nutrients (Ca, Zn, K but also starch, Amino acids and proteins) which become when bound unavailable for absorbtion.
So what Phytase does is increase the energy value but also the Amino acid digestibility of the diet due to higher availability for the digestive system of nutrients which would otherwise be bound by phytate.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
What is the ideal pH, protein and moisture content required for such silage to be used as animal feed? What could be the potential toxic stuffs that could be present in silage?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think the much difficulty involved in making silage using animal offals would be putrefaction and rancidity owing to the fact that they contain high quantities of protein and fat. To achieve good results, a high carbohydrate source must be added to achieve fermentation and reduce the pH to preserve the silage . If this is not done, then we will rather end up with large quantities of lysosomal enzymes in the product which could rather be toxic both to man and livestock.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
Protein is the most expensive ingredient in feed formulation and work continue to explore new and different alternative sources but do they really proved practical or advantageous?
Relevant answer
Answer
Alternative protein sources should be safe, good amino acid pattern, good digestibility, and competetively priced.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
Hello there
I want to know amount of chukar partridge's maintenance energy.
Is there anybody who knows that?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you dear Alrubaee
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
Tell me your views in this sense for both dairy and beef cattle.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes .we fed diets that is concentrated.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
I am currently designing a project to determine the diet of Bell Miners, Manorina melanophrys, and I am wondering whether anyone can recommend the simplest and most effective way of sampling insectivorous bird diet. To make it complicated, they also feed on psyllid lerp, the sugary coating produced by a herbivorous insect.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi
I agree with  Mr. James B Clapp
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
I already synthesized the silver nanoparticles using plant extract. I would like to do in vivo test onto fish.
How can I supplemented the AgNPs into fish feed?
Is it okay if I added the synthesized AgNPs during feed formulation. Is there any effect on the AgNPs when it undergo through the extruder during feed preparation process?
How can I confirm the final concentration of AgNPs in the fish feed?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi
I agree with Dr.MRajamohamed
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
5 answers
Industrial by-products (brewer's yeast) as pig feed.
Relevant answer
Answer
 It is a high value protein source for monogastric animals and much too valuable to be referred to as 'spent'.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
9 answers
Kindly share the lipid source you use in feed formulation for fish or shrimp.
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on you balanced n-3/n-6 or EFAs or not, If these fatty acids are balanced and there are some left of dietary lipid that you want to fulfill to reach the lipid level aimed. Any source of lipid can be used. In the same way, if you want to replace marine oil by plant oil, maximum replacement level should not impact balance of n-3/n-6 ratio or EFAs. Importantly, please check that how you fish or shrimp that you aimed to study utilize lipid well or not, if bad please control lipid level in diet in which provided optimum EFAs and the rest may be a little bit increase of protein or carbohydrate 
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
Due to limited availability of fish meal , now a day many plant based conventional and conventional  ingredient  is being used across the globe in fish feed formulation . I am requesting you to share the most common ingredient  used in your area or country to feed the fish. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Many local and unconventional fish feed ingredients were tested in Iraq but none of it give good results as fish meal replacer. However, some researchers are focusing now on slaughterhouse wastes by applying some biotechnology to improve its nutritional value for fish. Moringa is one of the suggested plant alternative but it didn't studied in Iraq yet.
Regards
SM Najim
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
I wanted to know the normal salt concentration in rat diet to make a different feed formulations for my work. I came across with few paper and found 0.1% salt is the normal level, is this correct?
Relevant answer
Answer
1% of the diet
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
10 answers
I would like to know a mechanism that a bacteria becomes two. I guess that there must be a threshold for the intake of feeds in order for a bacteria to multiply. Is it right?
Relevant answer
Answer
It must be noted that, rumen bacteria thrived well when the rumen ecosystem is favourable. The multiplication of rumen bacteria is not only the function of the quantity and quality of feed they consume. However, there are threshold for each nutrient intake below which the fumen bacteria activities are hindered.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
got the answer
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello!
We can advise you to study the activities of pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase, proteases) in the duodenal digesta since it was established that the pancreas can effectively adapt itself to the feed quality; supplementation of a diet with an additive will affect secretory function of the pancreas and corresponding intestinal enzyme activities.
Sincerely,
Dr. V. Vertiprakhov e-mail: Vertiprakhov63@mail.ru
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
14 answers
Does it make sense taking into account that humans need DHA and EPA and cows scarcely convert C18:3n3 into them?
Relevant answer
Answer
You may want to check Valorex, French company using extruded linseed
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
5 answers
Producers of emulsifier for animal diet (like lecthin and lysolecthins) define matrix value for their products. This matrix value in different diets is same?
In other word, lecthin or lysolecthin can apply their matrix in diets containing low level of oil like diets containing high level of oil?
Relevant answer
Answer
First you have enough oil in your diet in order that these products can effect in it. And you be able to reduce fat equal to matrix value.
Second I doulbt about that figures they say. Third  matrix values  depends on dietary components   bird health and other  rearing management and condition.
You should also consider the cost.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
36 answers
Compared to local free range poultry, the taste of intensive production of poultry and its products are losing it original taste and natural flavour. Is it the breed or the feed formulation that is affecting these trends?
Relevant answer
Answer
Methionine is necessary  for growth without it  low performance , but it should be redeuced or completly ommited from the diet a weak before slaugther.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
8 answers
Supplementation of medium with high concentration of nitrogen inhibits wheat straw delignification. Co-cultivation with yeast is not efficient because of poor medium.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear researcher
you can treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus
You can see the link:
Regards
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
We are doing an experiment where mice must eat a highly preferred food, which has been manipulated to have an unpleasant taste. We planned to use quinine but it may not arrive in time for our experiment.
Is there something else we can put on their food which will a) have no smell (so the mice will still be motivated to approach and try the food), but b) taste unpleasant to a mouse? Oh, and perhaps I should add, c) it should not kill the mice.
Thanks in advance for any ideas!
Relevant answer
Answer
You could try with some local native bitter plants. An example is Solanum Ligustrinun  Lood , plant relatted to potato family.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
13 answers
Drinking water, acid secretion and digestion process are inter-related. I am interested to know, when and in what quantity one should drink water. In monogastrics and ruminants what should be the rules for optimization of digestion and assimilation process. If food changes to meat based item what changed we should do and so also for fibre and concentrate ratio in ruminants. Can anyone help me on this aspect
Relevant answer
Answer
My experimental observations with both monogastrics and ruminants indicate that access to water is very important, but this varies with the dry matter content of the food or feed consumed. Dry foods/feeds must be accompanied by access to water; otherwise, food/feed intake declines quickly. High moisture diets do not require access to water immediately, but may stimulate need for water afterward, depending on their composition. Cattle grazing lush, spring pastures do not need much water, but cattle grazing dry pastures or consuming hay need much more. Similarly, monogastrics will reduce food/feed intake if their water is restricted. If one looks at the GI tract, it is "wet" and absorbs and recycles excess water. In ruminants, digestibility of the feed is increased with slow passage and decreased with fast passage. Passage is affected more by % of fiber in the diet and especially by % of undigestible fiber than it is with water. Nevertheless, if the total feed intake has a moisture level of less than 40% or so, then water becomes critical. I believe the best approach is to allow voluntary water intake whenever the animal (including humans) senses that they need more water. Drink up!
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
Hello. I am looking for Arprinocid (an old anticoccidial feed additive for poultry no longer produced by Merck, which was sold under the brand name Arprocox) to perform a study on oocyst sporulation with Eimeria. If you know where I can get some, thank you in advance to tell me.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think you will find what you are looking at these sites. You can contact these sites. Good work.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
Proximate compositions of Sea Cucumber commercial feed
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks a lot...
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
Currently designing a feed for a Tilapia aquaponic system in the Dominican Republic. Have multiple options to replace the protein content of fishmeal: Black Soldier Fly Larvae, Duckweed, Moringa, Papaya Leaves. Wondering what else needs to be added to complete a Tilapia diet for healthy growth (omega-3, carbs ect.)  Also, any ideas on what can be used to fill those needs?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can find an answer here:
Homemade Feed for Nile Tilapia in Madagascar
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
n/a
Relevant answer
Answer
The idea is that free amino acids should be 100 % available and bound amino acids have to be liberated form their protein/peptide bond first, resulting is less availability.
However also peptide bound amino acids can be well absorbed in the intestine. (see article).
Furthermore, in feed formulation you usually work with either table or average data which may not be accurate for the feedstuffs available. Thus you have to use a certain margin of error to prevent undersupply. Thus in practice it may not be of (large) relevance to use free or bound amino acids in your formulation
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
We were trying to formulate a ration for African civet and it was difficult to get feeding standards for these wild animals. Anyone, who has suggestion for our challenge?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
Insects are viewed as the next sustainable sources of cheap, quality proteins for feeds to rear farmed animals. This is as fish and soy based proteins are becoming increasingly unsustainable, due to rising competitions among the uses to which these resources are put. Unfortunately, growing insects has not yet been fully adopted as business enterprises as production processes are still crude and yet to be standardized.
In your experience, which insects would you suggest as the fasted growiing to yield the highest quality protein that is cheap and sustainable, and why?
Would you say that people will readily consume farm animals grown with such insects?
Relevant answer
Answer
I do not  know which journals would have that information.  Check Auburn or University of Georgia special reports or the journals from the late 1970's or early 1980's.  
As I understand it, the procedure is not that difficult.  Make a shallow pit with ramps to a higher elevation (6 = 8?).  Put manure (we were going to use caged table egg layer manure in the area under the cages) in a shallow pit, add flies,  Collect the larva when it crawls up the ramp, perhaps off the edge into a container.
It should be a fairly straight-forward process.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
hello!
i´m looking for a the manner to add oxycholesterol (25-hidroxycholesterol for example) in feed on shrimp culture. i have already seen how to add in cells media but not in animals feeds.
Relevant answer
Answer
Assuming that oxycholesterol is adequately fat soluble, you can first mix it with an appropriate oil and than add this oil to the other ingredients of your shrimp feed.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
Excessive use of trace minerals (i.e. zinc and copper) causes environmental pollution. However, the story does not have its end right there. Similarly to genes related to resistance to antibiotics, it has been observed that bacteria also develop resistance/tolerance to such minerals.
As a consequence, we have to (not must) reduce their use. It is not easy at all, of course.
Thinking about solutions, why not to include an specific line of incentives within that existing related to environmentally-friendly production systems? This could be a measure to reward/encourage the implementation of more sustainable practices. In case that environmental protection is still not enough, such increasing resistance/tolerance to minerals and their consequences for human health should justify the existence of specific incentives; at least during the first years of transition, while science and technicians get used to manage under new rules.
What are your views?
Relevant answer
Answer
A.J. I agree with you. I think agricultural subsidies or incentives will help. Even though the EU has reduced Cu and Zn levels, i don't think they are the only trace elements. Therefore if your idea is taken up, it will really do some good; provided there's no interference from the people who started the project in the first place.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
What would be the correct fatty acid profiles for piglets (less than 30kg) and broilers to achieve the max growth?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Joline,
There are some general recommendations that you can find in the feeding systems: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/management_and_nutrition/nutrition_pigs/feeding_levels_and_practices_in_pigs.html
Apart from that, depending on the fatty acid profile you want to obtain in carcass and meat, you can modify the diet.
Regards,
Alfredo J. Escribano.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
Is flaxchoice seed the best Omega-3 enhanced pork.
?
Relevant answer
Be care with feeding pigs with fish oils rich in EPA and DHA, unfortunately results in pork with a distinct fish flavor and after-taste.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
26 answers
Many nutritionists are not sure about the efficacy of them due to: (i) their lack of knowledge on active compounds and their dose; (ii) technical data sheets and labels do not provide with data about the plants/compounds contained nor their proportion/quantity.
Moreover, extraction and homogenization has been always a problem for manufacturers.
Finally, regulation is changing, limiting the number of allowed active compounds and their regulatory category/function: flavours vs growth promoters vs health promoters. Also, regulations will possibly force to declare all the compounds and their quantity.
All in all: how do you think this topic will evolve?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Hijaz,
for sure the replacement of antibiotic is an interesting issue, however you have correctly stated "some potential".
I think that the future will be a complementary use of these additive with the antibiotics, following a strategy to reduce antibiotic resistance.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
16 answers
Cost of certification,
Time spent on it,
Burocracy load,
Restrictive regulations on organic farming,
Two separated production lines (one for conventional and the other for organic production) because being only organic is not profitable due to low demand. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Checking for the presence of noxious compounds in feedstuffs is not a very effective way of ensuring good quality feeds (being organic or not), Prevention, although not always easy, is much better (see attachments)
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
11 answers
I am doing a trial on the effect of phase feeding on the reproductive performance of the Fiji sheep ewes under grazing condition. I have already flushed the ewes with brewers grain (dried) for a week, mated them from late November to December, 2015. Currently awaits for their 70 day after mated for feeding.
From 0 - 70 day mated, no feeding, at 70 day feeding starts (only brewers grain), at 100 day feeding (brewers grain and copra meal), at 120 day feeding (only copra meal with additional calcium) till lambing.  
Relevant answer
Answer
You can achieve a good Ca:P ratio by adding 7,5 units of ground limestone with every 100 units of Brewers grain.  And when feeding 100 units Brewers grai plus 120 units of Copra meal, add 10 units of limestone. This shold give a Ca: P ratio in the vicinity of 2,28:1
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
17 answers
I think this is an interesting finding. How can I explain it?
Relevant answer
Answer
In general, is unlikely that milk lactose increase or decrease in response to forage/concentrate ratio, mostly because lactose is a component closely related to water compound of milk. So, even if forage/concentrate ratio allow bacteria to produce more propionic acid, it will affect the amout of milk, far more than milk lactose.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
14 answers
Optimum Feeding Trial Time and why?   What is the optimum feeding trial period or time for formulated feed with dietary prebiotics and probiotics? Please share your idea with a reference.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would be interested what the normal growing period of these fish under these circumstances would be. If your experimental period is at least 1/2 to 2/3 of that period than you have in my opinion a strong argument in favour of validity of your results. If less than 1/2 of the normal growing period, one might argue that any effect might be gone at normal catching/slaughter age.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
Please share your expertise and easy protocol.Is there any easiest way to enrich live feed with Ascorbic acid?
Relevant answer
Answer
what kind of live feed are you using?
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
I use NSGA-II to solve constrained MOOP, feed formulation problem. In initialization step, I always verify the generated random chromosome with constraint need before it accept and put into population. But this step need much time, approximately 24 hours.
If I did not verify the chromosome, the given solution did not meet the constraint. Most of solutions just meet 1 - 2 nutrient constraint from 8.
In this case, how to generate initial population fast?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are some authors that have handled the problem including a penalty in the objective funtion for the deviation in feasibility (not meeting the constraints). In this way the infeasible solutions will be discarded eventually by the fitness function. However if you have a tight constrained problem, you will need to generate a very large initial population to meet the probability of finding some feasible solutions.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
9 answers
Hi Everyone. Is there anyone who knows how to estimate the value for acid detergent fiber (ADF) in forage based on the value of neutral detergent fiber (NDF)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all for the anwears :)
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
2 answers
How to begin the aqua feed formulation using the seaweed extracts which is been purified by the so called procedures, now i want to make this as a feed is more effectively comparable than the commercially available in market. what is the feed enhancement process do i need to follow ?
Relevant answer
Answer
The use of seaweed or extract is restricted to be a source of complex carbohydrates and minerals of high quality. These nutrients can be used by several aquatic species of herbivorous and omnivorous habits, bred in captivity. The key to its possible use in diets produced artificially, is the drying process. These plants must be dried without allowing the Maillard reaction occurs as this reaction avoids, that the nutrients are bioavailable
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
12 answers
I want to find the oral bioavailability for spray dried encapsulated bioactive compound. I used protein as wall material. My query is how to feed my powders into rat by intragastric administration? 
Can I disperse the powders into any liquid medium? If so what is the principle to choose the liquid medium? In water, my spray dried powders are completely soluble, can I use that for feeding.
Please help.
Relevant answer
Answer
At our laboratory, we generally suspended the material using suspending agent (e.g. CMC-Na)  if the material was not soluble in water, but if it is soluble I think you can dissolve it in water (if it is stable), so it is nice if you check first the stability of your material in water.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
i hope to have some detalis about eel feeding and mangement
Relevant answer
Answer
New glass-eel is fed cod-roe in farms and later on weaned to dry-feed comparable with Catfish food indeed. paper under gives some info.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
In order to estimate metabolisable energy (ME) requirements of lactating buffaloes, three isonitrogenous rations needs to be formulated, each one with 15% variation in  ME. We have two concentrate mixtures with 20% CP, and 2.5 and 2.8 Mcal/kg of ME. Is it mandatory to maintain constant forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio in such studies within the same group, as it was observed difficult to meet desired individual animal requirements without altering F:C ratio.
Relevant answer
Nice work,
I agree with d-r Vieira, best wishes
Also I downloaded for you these two articles .......I know some formulating of ratio in our local Pelagonia farms, but this is for Holstein -Friesian cows, I do not know nothing for bufalloes if it is the same............ good luck
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
8 answers
When poor quality roughage feeds are supplemented with good quality fodder, improvement in the digestibility and energy value of the basal diet is expected. While in vivo (and in vitro trials) may be the direct approaches to observe such interaction effects, I am interested in having an empirical formal (that uses the nutritive qualities of individual feeds as input, eg chemical composition) to predict the benefits of mixing poor quality roughage such as crop residue with a good quality fodder such as legumes on the digestibility, energy value and hence animal performance.     
Relevant answer
Answer
The nutrients could be used for maintenance, growth or lactation and the requirements differ for these three, so you will need to specify specific performance traits that are of interest. Also, it would be useful to know more about how you might control feed intake. Will it be offered ad libitum or restricted? A simple emperical method would be to calculate the crude protein and total digestible nutrients using feed composition tables and then average these for various combinations of the poor quality forage and the fodder. You will need to adjust for dry matter content and convert all values to a 100% dry matter basis for direct comparisons.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
8 answers
Eg: Linear regression etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Just as an illustration a attach a chart of predicted vs measured starch content in maize bran (Uganda). Prediction following the equation given above. You notice a bias (about 5%) due to the fact that NDF doesn't represent tatal fibre (some soluble fibre are not included in NDF). However the R² is good (>0.95).
On the same data you can estimate starch more simply (2 parameters) by:
Starch (%DM) = 75.68 - 3.29*ASH - 3.42*C Fibre  (R²=0.86)
Another example on a worldwide database of rice bran (342 samples)
Starch (%DM) = 75.86 - 1.07*ASH - 1.65*C Fat - 1.03* C Fibre (R²=0.91)
So, depending on the parameters you know or have access to (ash, protein etc.) you can establish prediction equations for starch on a particular material.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
5 answers
Neem products have several uses. I want to know whether animal feed formulations based on neem products are available. What could be some of the advantages and disadvantages?
Relevant answer
Answer
Coating with sweetening agent.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
I need to conduct an experiment with soil and different treatments. Each treatment needs an application of a different 14C compound to soil. Two of these treatments require the addition of slurry amended and non-amended with some organic additives provided by my supervisor. However, I need to make this slurry labelled with 14C and wonder whether I can supply 14C-glucose or 14C-cellulose to the normal livestock diet in order to have some labelled dung to be used as manure/slurry for my experiment. Unfortunately, I cannot find any method in the literature about this type of treatment and cannot use plant material under 14CO2 to have labelled forage for cattle.
Relevant answer
Answer
Would 13C not be a better option as you do not have to comply with regulations on use of radioactive materials? 
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
What are the most precise criteria for assessment of efficacy of phytase for poultry and which sources of phytase is most effective regarding releasing of P from NPP and why.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks the question and for this great contributions. I also think  that another precise way to quantify this will be to evaluate P digestibility, myo-inositol, and the IP esters (IP1 to IP6) levels in the ilea digesta content and in possibly in fecal material following feeding a diet with known level of phytase.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
I am interested in feeding rates, digestibility and the forms it is fed in.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much Natalia!
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
5 answers
Does anyone know of antinutritional factors in milk thistle (Silybum marianum)? How many doses or percentage of milk thistle in the feedstuff for rabbit or any herbivore animals are safe? thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Akhir,
You mean to use whole seed not extract from Milk thistle. In this case especially for cows dose at a rate of 0.3 kg per head/day seed meal.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
8 answers
Is there anyone who can provide knowledge related to the possibilities of using safflower seeds in cattle or lamb fattening?
Relevant answer
YES IT CAN BE USED FOR BOTH , BUT BE CAREDFUL ABOUT FIBER CONTENT.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
4 answers
someone said this plant is high of nitrate? is it true? do you know advantages and disadvantages of milk thistle plant fed to rabbits? thank you for your answer?
best regards...
Relevant answer
Answer
The LD50 value is 140 mg/kg in rabbits after i.v. and after oral administration tolerance is even higher 10 g/kg.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
11 answers
The mechanical process e.g fermented and non - fermented of feed are important in order to increase the biological availability of feed, which methode is the best for feed of rabbits for example? thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Agricultural materials used in feed production contain a lot of polymers which ordinarily cannot be digested by enzymes in the intestine. By the process of fermentation the complex polymers will be broken down by enzymes produced by the fermenting organisms ,to simpler unit that can be digested. This increases the bioavailability of the components. Therefore I believe that fermentation increases the biological availability.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
12 answers
I read a paper about this subject. But I'm confuse, actually  can we use insects in poultry feed without any problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Insects are used in making animals feed but  with caution on how they are obtained to prevent transfer of disease causing organisms to the animals. some insects also contain a lot of ash as a result of the exoskeleton which makes digestibility of the feed difficult.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
1 answer
See above.
Relevant answer
Answer
hello Ioannis Anastasiou 
I do not exactly know what this plant is?
If it's more than the percentage of nutrients and nutrient Send me e-mail it to me..
best regard for you
i hope to can answer your question.
thanks
.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
2 answers
Growing pigs
Relevant answer
Answer
according to its age and diet composition
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
11 answers
Assuming a similar forage to concentrate ratio and correction for similar feed intake, would the large particle size of grain only bypass the rumen and be digested in the small intestines or, depending on the cereal type, be fermented further in the large intestine?
Relevant answer
Answer
Indeed there is. Degradation rates increase fairly dramatically as particle size decreases. If you will provide an email address I would be happy to send a graph illustrating this relationship.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
I want a good method for measuring pectin content in legumes (peas, lupin, bean). I have ref for other plants, does it differ?
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
2 answers
Garra rufa is a Cyprinid used in spa skin treatments, then is important to know its requirements of water quality and nutrients.
Relevant answer
But... Are there some quantified requirements? E.g. 25%CP, 4 mg O/dl minimum...
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
Literature concerning cobalt supplementation for chickens is scarce. NRC (1994) recommended that cobalt is required as a trace element in the poultry diet, but it does not need to be supplied as a trace mineral because it is a part of vitamin B12. However, nowadays we can find cobalt as a part of mineral premix made for poultry.
Relevant answer
Yes poultry needs cobalt & the requirements are often met by the available cobalt in the B complex. supplementation therefore lead to excess cobalt, in the system of the birds.. In addition,it could l
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
Algal biomass - fibre content.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank-you. I have tried simliar methods without sucess but this gives me more information to work out the method.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
16 answers
Barley sprouted fodder is a 'live' feed and the secret is in the root where there are enzymes that increase the digestibility of other feedstuffs that have been used in total ration. In dairy ewes and ruminants generally, up to 30% concentrated feed can be replaced with the same results in productivity. The biggest problem in ruminant rations are the starches that often lead on lower pH in rumen and acidosis in bigger doses. It's better for these animals to feed them sugars rather than starch. Replacing corn or wheat in a dairy cow or goat's diets with dextrose and dried sweet whey ( >70% lactose) to a 2% level will increase the total milk yield and the % fat of the milk! Barley is 30% digestable and by sprouting (6-7 days) the digestibility increase to 80-90%. In a trial in a pig farm, replacing 2 kg of concentrated feed with 2 kg of barley sprouted fodder (15% DM) for farrow sows increased the body weight of piglets by 12% in 28 days. So, the sows gave more milk! What is your opinion about sprouted grain fodder?
Relevant answer
Answer
The feed cost on a dry matter basis is 5x that of livestock feed.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
8 answers
For measuring the nutritive value of ingredient using in vitro trail, should the ingredient used alone in the in vitro trail or mixed with the whole diet then used for the trial?
Relevant answer
Answer
Here's a nice article: J Dairy Sci. 2000 Oct;83(10):2289-94. The classic in vitro digestibility method is the old Tilley and Terry method J. Brit. Grassland Soc. 18:104-11, 1963. One caveat of terminology typically is that nutritive value refers to the chemical composition of the ingredient. So measuring nutritive value typically involves wet chemistry proximate analysis, NIRS, etc. An in vitro procedure won't give you information about the chemical composition, just the digestibility.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
7 answers
What are the methods for the determination of "antinutritional factors " in feed?
Relevant answer
Answer
I have this book , you can determining "antinutritional factors " and any phytochemical (such Tannins , saponin . EO) in feed
Harinder P. S. Makkar, S. Siddhuraju, Klaus Becker. Plant Secondary Metabolites (Series: Methods in Molecular Biology - 393). Humana Press, 2007
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
97 answers
For many years urea has been used as the most common non-protein nitrogen feed source for ruminants, while it is assumed that could be toxic for single-stomach animals like poultry. Therefore, I was surprised by seeing an article studied different levels of urea in laying hens diet to reduce soybean meal content.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is worth reading this - http://www.ajas.info/Editor/manuscript/upload/9-34.pdf, and other sources of comment, although this paper is now 20 years old.
Replacement of protein by urea in poultry diets seems an unlikely posibility, although urea is essentially non-toxic to mono-gastric animals. It is toxic to ruminants in excess as their digestive process readily produces ammonia from urea, and ammonia is toxic, but in small amounts is converted by gut bacteria to amino-acids.
The "problem" with poultry digestive tracts is that they do not provide a sufficiently large habitat for bacteria that would have long enough to produce significant amounts of ammonia, and then convert it to amino-acids.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
10 answers
I want to use a specific ingredient in poultry diet and need to add an enzyme to make this ingredient more digestible for poultry. How should I add the enzyme - based on the amount of feed or the amount of this specific ingredient (e.g., gram enzyme / kg Diet or gram enzyme / kg ingredient)?
Relevant answer
Answer
What ingredient, what enzyme?
Your question could be answered either way.
If the ingredient in unusual for poultry diets, refer to the producer's claims regarding the substrate...
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
5 answers
I would like to investigate the physical properties of digesta in finishing pigs so that the most accurate descriptors of performance can be identified.
Relevant answer
Answer
good option is to measure digesta viscosity like in poultry, even though viscosity has less impact on nutrient absorption in pigs, still it changes due to carbohydrate composition, particle size, polymerization etc. Moreover it is also easy to show post mortem changes just placing digesta in scaled cylinder measuring water and solid fraction.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
5 answers
We usually follow the NRC system, but it might not be suitable within our local conditions.
Relevant answer
Answer
http://www.brcorte.com.br/en/. this is from Brazil.There is a link for the complete book, eight chapters, close to the information link.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
6 answers
Whole grains in diets of chickens may support gizzard development and gut health.
Relevant answer
Answer
some papers on the topic
Svihus B, Sacranie A, Denstadli V, Choct M Nutrient utilization and functionality of the anterior digestive tract caused by intermittent feeding and inclusion of whole wheat in diets for broiler chickens. Poultry Science 89: 2617-2625.
2. Gabriel I, Mallet S, Leconte M, Fort G, Naciri M (2003) Effects of whole wheat feeding on the development of coccidial infection in broiler chickens. Poultry science. pp. 1668.
3. Engberg R, Hedemann M, Steenfeldt S, Jensen B (2004) Influence of whole wheat and xylanase on broiler performance and microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract. Poultry Science 83: 925.
4. Engberg RM, Hedemann MS, Steenfeldt S, Jensen BB (2004) Influence of whole wheat and xylanase on broiler performance and microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract. Poult Sci 83: 925-938.
5. Wu Y, Ravindran V, Thomas D, Birtles M, Hendriks W (2004) Influence of method of whole wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology of broilers. British Poultry Science. pp. 385-394.
6. Svihus B, Juvik E, Hetland H, Krogdahl A (2004) Causes for improvement in nutritive value of broiler chicken diets with whole wheat instead of ground wheat. British Poultry Science. pp. 55-60.
7. Gabriel I, Mallet S, Leconte M (2003) Differences in the digestive tract characteristics of broiler chickens fed on complete pelleted diet or on whole wheat added to pelleted protein concentrate. British Poultry Science. pp. 283.
8. Delezie E, Zoons J, Buyse J, Decuypere E (2006) Influence of whole wheat inclusion on optimal feed withdrawal duration. British Poultry Science. pp. 572-575.
9. Banfield M, Ten Doeschate R, Forbes J (1998) Effect of whole wheat and heat stress on a coccidial infection in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science. pp. S25.
10. Wu Y, Ravindran V (2004) Influence of whole wheat inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the performance, digestive tract measurements and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology. pp. 129-139.
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
3 answers
The grain sample must be hydrolyzed by 6N HCl for 20hr at 110C. A volume of this hydrolyzate is then evaporated to dryness. Can I dissolve the residue in 0.01N HCl, filtrate and inject it directly into LC-MS system? O arer there some other preparation steps? What is the suitable sample weight/acid ratio?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ahmed
The preparation is not as simple as just hydrolysing the proteins and the analysing it with LC-MS. You will also need to derivatise the amino acids in order to improve bot the the separation on a column and/or to aid in visualisation of the amino acid. Have a look at the following book:
Two derivatization methods from Waters, Pico-Tag method and the Accu-Tag method, are generally used in the LC-MS analysis of amino acids. Have a look at these links to some of the application notes:
Also note the amino acid analysis is quite a specialised analytical technique demanding high accuracy and repeatability in sample preparation and analyses, as well as quite expensive derivatisation kits/reagents, standards and columns. If there is any possibility that you can out-source the amino acid analysis of your samples to a facility dedicated to amino acid analysis, I would advise that you do just that. I speak from decades of experience in doing amino acid analyses.
Hope it helps.
Regards
Marina
  • asked a question related to Feed Formulation
Question
10 answers
Broiler diet formulation
Relevant answer
Answer
You may try protein (21-22%), Fiber (5% approx) Lysine (1.2 %), calcium (1.1% max) Fat (2 -2.5% Max) for starter.You have to standardize the formulation based on availability of Raw feed materials