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For the determination of effective degradability of a feed, I need to use Naway Computer Programme. Can anyone help me to get this programme?
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Md. Rahat Ahmad Redoy
Did you find this program? I am also looking for a Naway Computer Program. Unfortunately, the file from Redimio Manuel Pedraza Oliver is not working.
Maybe any company sells this software??
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identification protein source do you use in feed formulation for broiler  
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an update maybe maggot (insect meal).
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Expected answer from the researchers.
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NRC is mostly followed centrally. And each nation m have their own. India has ICAR recommend ed allowences or standards
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Hello,
i am learning to count feeds particle size: geometric mean diameter (GMD), geometric standard deviation (GSD) and descrete mean (dMEAN). I need to make sure I do the right procedure.
May anyone help me please? I attach some calculations for example.
Thank you very much.
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To determine the costs of feed in israeli milk production I am interested of the amount of roughage, TMR and byproducts that an average dairy cow consumes in Israel.
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Please have a look at the following link and PDF attachments.
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What is the ideal pH, protein and moisture content required for such silage to be used as animal feed? What could be the potential toxic stuffs that could be present in silage?
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I think the much difficulty involved in making silage using animal offals would be putrefaction and rancidity owing to the fact that they contain high quantities of protein and fat. To achieve good results, a high carbohydrate source must be added to achieve fermentation and reduce the pH to preserve the silage . If this is not done, then we will rather end up with large quantities of lysosomal enzymes in the product which could rather be toxic both to man and livestock.
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Hello there
I want to know amount of chukar partridge's maintenance energy.
Is there anybody who knows that?
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Thank you dear Alrubaee
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The best pH of a good silage should be around 5.5. We are trying to develop a methodology that can measure the pH of cassava over time to ensure that the quality is maintained. 
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it is a good method for measurement of PH
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Because treated bio-solid amount appear to be a big problem, what is its effect on forages and fodder shrubs yield and on livestock (sheep and goat). Is their any references? Thanks.
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If biosolids doesn;t coatain any heavy metal and/or other harmful elements and if it is prepared through anaerobic fermentation after separation from waste water then it may use as organic manure for forage production.  
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Food and protozoal N and residual N are normally calculated while knowing the effect of different feeds on rumen fermentation patterns
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Dear Ravi
Please go through the reference cited by Zahira. It is very helpful. I have read it before and found it to guide me very precisely.
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Producers of emulsifier for animal diet (like lecthin and lysolecthins) define matrix value for their products. This matrix value in different diets is same?
In other word, lecthin or lysolecthin can apply their matrix in diets containing low level of oil like diets containing high level of oil?
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First you have enough oil in your diet in order that these products can effect in it. And you be able to reduce fat equal to matrix value.
Second I doulbt about that figures they say. Third  matrix values  depends on dietary components   bird health and other  rearing management and condition.
You should also consider the cost.
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while researching, most materials talk about already existing enzymes from flora and fauna in the GI tract, i would like to know about integrated enzymes and how they can aid the fish feed development and production.
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Dear Ihilesen
Listed below a number of sites that wish can benefit of them
Best regards
Amjed K. Resen
M Lauff, R Hofer - Aquaculture, 1984‏ - Elsevier‏
L Ribeiro, JL Zambonino-Infante, C Cahu, MT Dinis - Aquaculture, 1999‏ - Elsevier‏
G Rosenlund, J Stoss, C Talbot - Aquaculture, 1997‏ - Elsevier‏
J Walford, TJ Lam - Aquaculture, 1993‏ - Elsevier‏
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Drinking water, acid secretion and digestion process are inter-related. I am interested to know, when and in what quantity one should drink water. In monogastrics and ruminants what should be the rules for optimization of digestion and assimilation process. If food changes to meat based item what changed we should do and so also for fibre and concentrate ratio in ruminants. Can anyone help me on this aspect
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My experimental observations with both monogastrics and ruminants indicate that access to water is very important, but this varies with the dry matter content of the food or feed consumed. Dry foods/feeds must be accompanied by access to water; otherwise, food/feed intake declines quickly. High moisture diets do not require access to water immediately, but may stimulate need for water afterward, depending on their composition. Cattle grazing lush, spring pastures do not need much water, but cattle grazing dry pastures or consuming hay need much more. Similarly, monogastrics will reduce food/feed intake if their water is restricted. If one looks at the GI tract, it is "wet" and absorbs and recycles excess water. In ruminants, digestibility of the feed is increased with slow passage and decreased with fast passage. Passage is affected more by % of fiber in the diet and especially by % of undigestible fiber than it is with water. Nevertheless, if the total feed intake has a moisture level of less than 40% or so, then water becomes critical. I believe the best approach is to allow voluntary water intake whenever the animal (including humans) senses that they need more water. Drink up!
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While the user reviews in the app stores are considered important, there might be biased opinions or flawed reviews. The flawed reviews might come from the developers of a similar kind of applications or from the customers who are biased to a particular application. The question is, how trust worthy are the reviews?. I wanted to know that whether there are any methods to evaluate and process the user reviews to know the trust worthy-ness of the users.
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You can consider the measures of user satisfaction or measures of service quality an adapt them according to your view and then find out the user loiality to the App 
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I am planning to conduct an experiment on broiler chicken with organic acids first time. I do not know dose and method of application of organic acids. So, can any body help me in this regards ?
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Dear Megh
There is current trend to replace the antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) by using probiotic additives and organic acids ( for example formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, lactic, and citric acids ), these acids have antimicrobial activity, which results in modification of the gut microflora profile, and modifications to the gastrointestinal microflora which reduce pathogen attachment may have a profound effect on the structure of the intestinal wall.
For more information please, use the link:
Good Luck
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Dear research colleagues,
    How dairy cattle/buffaloes respond to two isonitrogenous diets with similar ingredient composition differing in starch levels through cereals (eg. maize) such as high starchy diet (compound feed with 40% starch) vs. low starchy diet (20% starch)? Supporting your answer(s) with relevant literature references would be highly appreciated. 
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I will like to add that all these effects will be more pronounced in high yielders who are at risk of acidosis and feeding less starch grains like bajra sorghum could be helpful in these which can decrease risk of acidosis as well as may help to maintain normal rumen fermentation  process
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Is it due to mathematical prediction?
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Did you find out what happened? I believe I'm facing related problems.
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I attached the data about my research. Can it be possible or not. do you have any idea about this matter 
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I had the same problems when analyzing the citrus pulp and soybeans
hulls. The levels of NDF were lower than those of ADF. Seeking an
explanation for the results, the use of alpha-amylase and a sequential
analysis were suggested. In my case, the problem was the pectin, too
high in the soybean hulls and in the citrus pulp.
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I currently want to formulate fish feed and bumped into these isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Can anyone explain what isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets are? Most journals I've read, manage to get approx. 30% of crude protein for their formulated feed. They manipulated the content of the formulated feed yet they manage to maintain the CP. How can I do it? What is a suitable software to formulated the animal feed other than winfeed? Can anyone give my a tutorial on how I can use winfeed software?
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One common mistake in diet studies is the failure to insure that dietary treatments have the same caloric density (isocaloric) or the same protein level (isonitrogenous) when they should.Thus, simply exchanging ingredients will change the energy level of the diet as well as the protein level and confound the experiment with an extra variable. Energy must be added to some of the diets to make them isocaloric.
The same principle can be applied to experiments that include diets with different protein sources as dietary treatments. In this case, care must be taken to make sure that the growth effects being measured are due to protein source rather than protein level. The diets are made isonitrogenous by varying the level of the protein sources according to the protein content of each
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We were trying to formulate a ration for African civet and it was difficult to get feeding standards for these wild animals. Anyone, who has suggestion for our challenge?
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Is flaxchoice seed the best Omega-3 enhanced pork.
?
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Be care with feeding pigs with fish oils rich in EPA and DHA, unfortunately results in pork with a distinct fish flavor and after-taste.
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Any one can suggest how the relative gas diffusivity changes after liquid pig manure (slurry), cattle slurry and anaerobic digested applied in a sandy loam soil?
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Thanks Susantha ! Do you have any suggested literature for me? please share if you have.
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Many nutritionists are not sure about the efficacy of them due to: (i) their lack of knowledge on active compounds and their dose; (ii) technical data sheets and labels do not provide with data about the plants/compounds contained nor their proportion/quantity.
Moreover, extraction and homogenization has been always a problem for manufacturers.
Finally, regulation is changing, limiting the number of allowed active compounds and their regulatory category/function: flavours vs growth promoters vs health promoters. Also, regulations will possibly force to declare all the compounds and their quantity.
All in all: how do you think this topic will evolve?
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Hi Hijaz,
for sure the replacement of antibiotic is an interesting issue, however you have correctly stated "some potential".
I think that the future will be a complementary use of these additive with the antibiotics, following a strategy to reduce antibiotic resistance.
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I am doing a trial on the effect of phase feeding on the reproductive performance of the Fiji sheep ewes under grazing condition. I have already flushed the ewes with brewers grain (dried) for a week, mated them from late November to December, 2015. Currently awaits for their 70 day after mated for feeding.
From 0 - 70 day mated, no feeding, at 70 day feeding starts (only brewers grain), at 100 day feeding (brewers grain and copra meal), at 120 day feeding (only copra meal with additional calcium) till lambing.  
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You can achieve a good Ca:P ratio by adding 7,5 units of ground limestone with every 100 units of Brewers grain.  And when feeding 100 units Brewers grai plus 120 units of Copra meal, add 10 units of limestone. This shold give a Ca: P ratio in the vicinity of 2,28:1
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Silage evaluation
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My colleague Michael Dom did his research on Sweet Potato silage. You can follow him if your question relates to sweet potato silage. thanks.
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Knowledge of individual dry matter intake (DMI) is important
to select cows according to efficiency of milk production, to
improve profitability, and to reduce the environmental impact
of livestock. The alkane technique has been used widely to estimate feed intake primarily in grazing ruminants but also in other dietary situations. Do you provide some more information about this topic?
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It would be easier using the alkanes technique if the slow release device was available. Otherwise you need to dose twice daily alkanes (or other compounds, such as TiO2) in gelatine capsules. Cattle in temperate environments are usually offered high quality herbages, which have a rapid rate of passage so dosing a marker for faecal output has to be twice a day. We can probably bring back the slow release capsules if there was enough researchers wanting to use it. 
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In some Costa Rican farms, people are using the tomato plant (stems + leaves) to feed sheep and dairy cows. We are analyzing this as a feed, but we need more information in order to do a better characterization.
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Hello Mr Garipoglu (or Mr Vaiz, I don't Know, sorry!!!)
Values of 13,56 and 17,6 were reported in tomato leaves  by Osama et al (2013) and Ventura et al (2009), respectively.  Analyzing tems, Ventura et al (2009) reported 18,4%. In whole tomato plant (stems+leaves), Lofti (nd) indicated a value of 19% and Ventura et al (2009) 18.1%.
I think that values between 20-25% can be possible in certain agricultural conditions, dependind on the soil type, maturity of the plant, fertilization levels.  Also, if your samples are soil-contaminated, it can be expected higher ash levels.
Also, as a part of the silage process, you could use some additives that hightened your crude ash levels.
I hope this answer can be useful for you. If it isn't, please say it to me.
I attached the publications cited. I'm very sad, but I cannot give you any Costarican info, beacause I didn't received yet analysis results of my sample.
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Eg: Linear regression etc.
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Just as an illustration a attach a chart of predicted vs measured starch content in maize bran (Uganda). Prediction following the equation given above. You notice a bias (about 5%) due to the fact that NDF doesn't represent tatal fibre (some soluble fibre are not included in NDF). However the R² is good (>0.95).
On the same data you can estimate starch more simply (2 parameters) by:
Starch (%DM) = 75.68 - 3.29*ASH - 3.42*C Fibre  (R²=0.86)
Another example on a worldwide database of rice bran (342 samples)
Starch (%DM) = 75.86 - 1.07*ASH - 1.65*C Fat - 1.03* C Fibre (R²=0.91)
So, depending on the parameters you know or have access to (ash, protein etc.) you can establish prediction equations for starch on a particular material.
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I need to conduct an experiment with soil and different treatments. Each treatment needs an application of a different 14C compound to soil. Two of these treatments require the addition of slurry amended and non-amended with some organic additives provided by my supervisor. However, I need to make this slurry labelled with 14C and wonder whether I can supply 14C-glucose or 14C-cellulose to the normal livestock diet in order to have some labelled dung to be used as manure/slurry for my experiment. Unfortunately, I cannot find any method in the literature about this type of treatment and cannot use plant material under 14CO2 to have labelled forage for cattle.
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Would 13C not be a better option as you do not have to comply with regulations on use of radioactive materials? 
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We are trying to ensile square bales of legume hay for an animal feeding trial.
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Thank you Dr.Kumar & AleJandro Saborio-Montero.
Best,
Dill
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Does anybody know of a good recipe for creating a neutral detergent solution for NDF analysis via reflux digestion (as by Van Soest).
Thank you.
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Hi,
I have been feeding some bark feeder beetles with twigs and would like to measure the amount fed in cm2.
The main issue is that the damages are not regular and have two different depths that I would like to measure separately. Does anyone had to do similar measurements?
Thanks
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I had areas traced on transparencies that I scanned and then used Photoshop to calculate number of pixels in the area/polygon and then converted that to area (cm2). (Make sure scale doesn't change in scanning and viewing on screen in Photoshop).  I've also heard that ImageJ is really good for this.
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The mechanical process e.g fermented and non - fermented of feed are important in order to increase the biological availability of feed, which methode is the best for feed of rabbits for example? thank you in advance
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Agricultural materials used in feed production contain a lot of polymers which ordinarily cannot be digested by enzymes in the intestine. By the process of fermentation the complex polymers will be broken down by enzymes produced by the fermenting organisms ,to simpler unit that can be digested. This increases the bioavailability of the components. Therefore I believe that fermentation increases the biological availability.
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See above.
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hello Ioannis Anastasiou 
I do not exactly know what this plant is?
If it's more than the percentage of nutrients and nutrient Send me e-mail it to me..
best regard for you
i hope to can answer your question.
thanks
.
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Ruminant nutrition.
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Here is a simple explanation for your question: Rumen microbiota (bacteria 80%) accomplish ruminal digestion thru fermentation prcesses. The in sacco method depends on multiple factors but mainly on the activity of these microorganisms. Changes on the ruminal enviroment are going to affect this ferementation processes. So, the rate of the ruminal digestion of any component in the diet, is an indirect measurement of these microorganisms activity.
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Growing pigs
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according to its age and diet composition
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I want to measure the apparent crude protein digestibility in poultry excreta require specific steps to isolate the nitrogen from other sources than the diet (Urine, digestive tract). Are there any methods that doesn't require specific equipment?
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Fecal nitrogen determination:-
The fecal nitrogen was determined following the procedures outlined by Jakobsen et al. (1960).
Principle:
Trichloro-acetic acid will dissolve the non-protein nitrogenous compounds, the protein is then filtered and the residue is subjected to Kjeldahl determination.
Reagents:-
1- sodium borate (dissolve 50 g boric acid + 100 g sodium hydroxide in 385 ml distilled water).
2- Potassium permanganate (dissolve 3.16 g potassium permanganate in 97 ml distilled water).
3- 10% Trichloro-acetic acid.
4- 2% Trichloro-acetic acid.
Apparatus:-
1- Hot air oven. 2- Kjeldahl apparatus.
3- Filtering funnels. 4- Beakers, 300 ml, with glass stirring rods.
5- Ashless filter paper. 6- Water bath.
7- Analytical balance.
Procedure:
1- Add 70 ml distilled water to 2 g of the dried-excreta in 300 ml capacity beaker.
2- Then add 20 ml sodium borate and 6 ml potassium permanganate.
3-The beaker is placed in water bath at a temperature of 50 0C and is stirred for an hour.
4-It's left to settle for one hour at least at room temperature.
5-Add 30 ml 10% trichloro-acetic acid solution and stir with a glass rod.
6-The beaker is left again for one hour at room temperature.
7-Filter through 15 cm ashless filter paper, wash 4 times with 25-30 ml 2% trichloro-acetic acid and for each, in order that the precipitate is free from solution by pressing on it with glass rod covered with plastic.
8-The filter paper containing the sample (on the glass funnel) is dried in an oven at 90 0C.
9-The sample along with the filter paper is digested following the Kjeldahl method for determining the nitrogen.
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I will perform lactate and VFA analysis on corn silage samples by gas chromatography. Can you help me with this subject?
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Thank you for your interest 
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I want a good method for measuring pectin content in legumes (peas, lupin, bean). I have ref for other plants, does it differ?
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Wheat grau is a byproduct resulting from the manufacturing of flour.
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Wheat byproducts are a wide range of products, from corse bran to fine middlings. The position of what you call "grau" in this continuum is not clear. You will find valuable information on wheat bran - including starch content - in FEEDIPEDIA online animal feed encyclopedia :
The starch content of bran is from 13.0%DM to 38.7%DM, but in whet middlings it can be much higher.
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Barley sprouted fodder is a 'live' feed and the secret is in the root where there are enzymes that increase the digestibility of other feedstuffs that have been used in total ration. In dairy ewes and ruminants generally, up to 30% concentrated feed can be replaced with the same results in productivity. The biggest problem in ruminant rations are the starches that often lead on lower pH in rumen and acidosis in bigger doses. It's better for these animals to feed them sugars rather than starch. Replacing corn or wheat in a dairy cow or goat's diets with dextrose and dried sweet whey ( >70% lactose) to a 2% level will increase the total milk yield and the % fat of the milk! Barley is 30% digestable and by sprouting (6-7 days) the digestibility increase to 80-90%. In a trial in a pig farm, replacing 2 kg of concentrated feed with 2 kg of barley sprouted fodder (15% DM) for farrow sows increased the body weight of piglets by 12% in 28 days. So, the sows gave more milk! What is your opinion about sprouted grain fodder?
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The feed cost on a dry matter basis is 5x that of livestock feed.
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For measuring the nutritive value of ingredient using in vitro trail, should the ingredient used alone in the in vitro trail or mixed with the whole diet then used for the trial?
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Here's a nice article: J Dairy Sci. 2000 Oct;83(10):2289-94. The classic in vitro digestibility method is the old Tilley and Terry method J. Brit. Grassland Soc. 18:104-11, 1963. One caveat of terminology typically is that nutritive value refers to the chemical composition of the ingredient. So measuring nutritive value typically involves wet chemistry proximate analysis, NIRS, etc. An in vitro procedure won't give you information about the chemical composition, just the digestibility.
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I am looking for valid (representative) data from different grassland/rangeland regions of the world. The most needed information is crude protein, fibre fractions and energy values, but even one of these parameters could help.
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Title: Large scale patterns of forage yield and quality across Chinese grasslands
Author(s): Shi Yue; Ma YinLei; Ma WenHong; et al.
Source: Chinese Science Bulletin Volume: 58 Issue: 10 Pages: 1187-1199 Published: APR 2013
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I would like to investigate the physical properties of digesta in finishing pigs so that the most accurate descriptors of performance can be identified.
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good option is to measure digesta viscosity like in poultry, even though viscosity has less impact on nutrient absorption in pigs, still it changes due to carbohydrate composition, particle size, polymerization etc. Moreover it is also easy to show post mortem changes just placing digesta in scaled cylinder measuring water and solid fraction.
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I need a rapid method to determine cyanogenic compounds in methanol extract or dry matter in pods of Acacia farnesiana.
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you can see more aboth in book:leo m.l.nollet,2000:food analysis by HPLC.marcel.dekker.inc.new york
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I need test methods to determine antinutritional factors (total alkaloids, saponin, tannin, etc.) in animal feed samples.
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Dear Ghadir
Tannin-binding assay is a very effective mean to quantify tannin in direct relationship to their biological activities: see my publication in J Agr. Chem. Food sci for the method and my review in Animal Feed Sci Technol. These publication can be downloaded from this site, or from my publication site (see link in the data set).
Nissim
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We usually follow the NRC system, but it might not be suitable within our local conditions.
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http://www.brcorte.com.br/en/. this is from Brazil.There is a link for the complete book, eight chapters, close to the information link.
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I am attempting to evaluate those arthropods that could be used as a food source for insectivorous mammals.
The ability to rear them in vitro will be limited by space, staff time and financial resources, but regular harvesting of arthropods in our geographic location may be too unreliable. I am hopeful that there are some species that, with relatively little investment, can provide a significant yield (even if only in a larval form) in a laboratory setting.
Does anyone have any thoughts?
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Black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens) maybe a good candidate for your research. They are quite common, easy to grow and easy to harvest. Best of luck! http://www.blacksoldierflyfarming.com/
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We are culturing Isochrysis sp. in batches to be pooled together to obtain sufficient cell density. After the first batch is harvested, it is kept in a refrigerator waiting for the next harvest before pooling the cells together.
How far can the nutrient content differ/degrade between the two batches?
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If for short time (3-4 days) you should not have lost of nutrients in refrigeration, if for longer time is preferable to freeze, in that case you should add some food grade criopreservative solutions to avoid ice formation, i mean cristalization of the water content, because cristalization destroy wall cells and then you will have lost of nutrients.