Science topic

Fatty Acids - Science topic

Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
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This work was originated from the need to study how animals individually react to environmental challenges. Common practical constraints in research protocols often lead to data collected at frequencies that are not high enough to capture the dynamics of animal responses. One approach to deal with that issue is to transform discrete empirical time...
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Background Increasing intramuscular fat (IMF) is an important strategy to improve meat quality, but the regulation mechanism of IMF deposition needs to be systematically clarified. Results A total of 520 chickens from a selected line with improved IMF content and a control line were used to investigate the biochemical mechanism of IMF deposition i...
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The structural and dynamical properties of the binary mixture of Menthol (MEN) and Fatty acids (FAs) were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. To this end, the relationship between the structural and dynamical properties of the eutectic mixtures of MEN and FAs with different molar percentages of FAs are studied. Structural properties...
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Ensuing protein malnutrition in developing countries, an affordable protein food source needs to be distinguished. Fabaceae family accommodate moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia L . ) as its one of the important members that ascertains exceptional nutritional composition. Moth bean is a drought-tolerant food legume of the tropics. Seeds of moth bean se...
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Energy shortage and environmental concern urgently require establishing the feasible bio-refinery process from various feedstocks. The methylotrophic yeast Ogataea polymorpha is thermo-tolerant and can utilize various carbon sources, such as glucose, xylose and methanol, which makes it a promising host for bio-manufacturing. Here, we explored the c...
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Identifying gene that enhances specific product accumulation of industrial strains is a central tenet of metabolic engineering. Aurantiochytrium sp. has come into the limelight by virtue of their biotechnological importance in the production of bioactive compounds, including fatty acids and carotenoids. However, there is restrict in the high yield...
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms symbiotic with plants and play critical roles in the growth and survival of their hosts. However, the influence of shrub encroachment on AMF remains unclear. We analysed the soil microbial biomass of fungi, especially AMF, under interspace grass patches and shrub patches during the process...
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A series of novel 10-Undecenoic acid-based triazole derivatives were designed and synthesized in the present study. 10-Undecenoic acid on treatment with propargyl bromide yielded the corresponding ester which was reacted with different aryl azides to obtain the novel triazoles. The synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, IR, and mass spect...
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The study sought to investigate the combined impact of parsley biodiesel blend (PSB) proportion, engine speed, and load on diesel engine parameters. The obtained result revealed that an increase in the proportion of PSB blend as the load increases, led to a rise in brake thermal efficiency (BTE), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and a decline in brake spe...
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Purpose Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (TFPD) and isolated long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) are two related defects of fatty acid β -oxidation. While NBS has decreased mortality, morbidity remains significant. Additionally, the relationship of genotype to clinical outcome remains unclear. To better unde...
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Purpose High-fat and low-fibre discretionary food intake and FTO genotype are each associated independently with higher risk of obesity. However, few studies have investigated links between obesity and dietary patterns based on discretionary food intake, and the interaction effect of FTO genotype are unknown. Thus, this study aimed to derive dietar...
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Biodiesel, a sustainable fuel attained by acid or base-catalyzed esterification and transesterification, holds advantages over petro-diesel due to its low toxicity and environmentally friendly properties. The conventional production route is problematic as it utilizes low free fatty acid (FFA) edible oils catalyzed by a homogenous catalyst, which e...
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The Chrythophyta alga Nannochloropsis oculata was mixotrophically grown in artificial media enriched with acid-prehydrolyzed bagasse waste as a source of organic carbon. The used growth medium was composed of F2 nutrients, sea salt (22.0 g L−1), and bagasse extract dissolved in sterile tap water. All of the determined growth parameters resulted in...
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Although high CO2 and warming could act interactively on marine phytoplankton, little is known about the molecular basis for this interaction on an evolutionary scale. Here we explored the adaptation to high CO2 in combination with warming in a model marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Whole-genome re-sequencing identifies, in comparison to po...
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The benefits of gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) towards health and metabolism have been emerging since the past decade. Extensive studies have been carried out to understand the mechanisms responsible in initiating the functionalities of these SCFAs towards body tissues, which greatly involves the SCFA-specific receptors free...
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Background Salvia-Nelumbinis naturalis (SNN), the extract of Chinese herbal medicine, has shown effects on NAFLD. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of SNN for regulating the lipid metabolism disorder in NAFLD based on the SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) were used to establis...
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The effects of feeding lactating dairy buffaloes with crushed flaxseed or fibrolytic enzymes supplemented diets on milk production, composition and milk fat properties was studied. Thirty five lactating dairy buffaloes were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on: control diet without supplementation, diets supplemented with low (LCF) or high (HC...
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Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is the core pathological feature of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and insulin resistance (IR) is the most common metabolic complication of OSAS. Studies have shown that the levels of free fatty acids (FFAs), which are mainly released from adipocytes by lipolysis, are elevated in OSAS and play an important role i...
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Purpose Milk-derived free fatty acids (FFAs) may act as both biomarkers of intake and metabolic effect. In this study we explored associations between different types of dairy consumption, a selection of milk-derived free fatty acids, and cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors. Methods Sixty-seven FFAs were quantified in the plasma of 131 free...
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The breakdown of lipid droplets (LDs) provides energy and contributes to the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Recent studies have suggested that motility plays a key role in LD breakdown. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LD motility were poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the function of microfilament-associate...
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Insulin stores lipid in adipocytes and prevents lipolysis and the release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Excessive release of NEFA during sustained energy supply and increase in abdominal adiposity trigger systemic insulin resistance, including in the liver, a major site of insulin clearance. This causes a reduction in insulin clearance as a...
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Cuticular wax plays a critical role as a plant protectant against various environmental stresses. We predicted that the presence of the mutualistic fungal endophyte Epichloë gansuensis in Achnatherum inebrians would change both the composition of leaf cuticular wax as plants aged during the growing season and the gene expression levels associated w...
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Fatty acid (FA) composition of foods dictates a diversity of aspects regarding food quality, ranging from product shelf life, sensory properties to nutrition. There is a challenge to quantitate FAs using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry due to poor ionization efficiency and matrix effects. Here, an isotopic-tagged derivatization strategy was...
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Lignocellulose (LC) might be used as a substitute fiber source for dogs as a strategy to decrease energy density and enhance gastrointestinal functionality. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of including different levels of LC on apparent nutrient digestibility and fecal parameters (dry matter (DM), fecal score, and dail...
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The present work reports a novel, continuous, specific, and colorimetric coupled method for the assay of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which involves use of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) as coupling enzyme and Dilinoleoyl Phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) as substrate. This method is based on the principle that free fatty acids (FFA) produced by PLA2 are acted upo...
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Aggregation-induced emissive materials are gaining particular attention in the last decades due to their wide application in different fields, from optical devices to biomedicine. In this work, compounds having these kinds of properties, composed of tetraphenylethylene scaffold combined with fatty acids of different lengths, were synthesized and ch...
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For peanuts, roasted at 170 °C, the formation of selected glycerol-bound oxidized fatty acids (GOFAs), namely 9-oxononanoic acid (9-ONA), azelaic acid (AZA) and octanoic acid, was observed by GC-MS (EI). The content of octanoic acid as well as AZA increased with continuous roasting time (from 59 mg/kg peanut oil to 101 mg/kg peanut oil and from not...
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Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) is an economically important mariculture fish worldwide. However, its latent mechanisms of reproductive regulation remain unclear. G protein-coupled receptor 173 (GPR173) is the putative receptor of phoenixin (Pnx), which together play a role in reproductive regulation. However, little is known about the function of...
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Pancreatic lipase catalyzes the cleavage of triacylglycerols at the oil–water interface, and is known as the dominant determiner of dietary fat digestion. Reducing dietary fat digestion and absorption by modulating the activity of pancreatic lipase has become a favorable strategy to tackle obesity. Orlistat is, at present, the only pancreatic lipas...
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In this study, the ternary blends of palm kernel oil (PKO), soybean oil (SBO) and two types of palm stearin (PS) (PS33 and PS38) were systematically prepared and evaluated for their application as an alternative to milk fat in frozen dessert. The physicochemical characteristics namely fatty acids constituent, triacylglycerols (TAGs) composition, me...
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Background Previous studies have analyzed the associations between the circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but no consistent conclusions have been reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether plasma SFAs were in correlation with GDM risks in our in-house women cross-sectional study and to bett...
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A novel Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated WB101T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern located in Wendeng, PR China. Strain WB101T shared a high level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhodohalobacter barkolensis 15182T (93.5%), R. halophilus J...
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One of the drawbacks of using vegetable oils directly as a lubricant is poor low temperature performance, mainly pour and cloud points. Oleic estolides were developed to improve these properties as well as increase the oxidative stability of the oil. However, additional low temperature properties are desirable to increase the field of use of these...
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Tropical peat swamp forests are unique ecosystems that are found in the tropical regions of Southeast Asia. Since tropical peatlands have high sunlight penetration, high temperature, and low pH (2.9–3.5), unique microorganisms can survive under certain environmental conditions. Acid-tolerant microalgae, Stichococcus-like species from a peatland in...
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Background and aims Evidence regarding associations of circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with chronic diseases is mixed. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between total or individual SFA biomarkers and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Methods Four electronic databases were searched from inception to March 20...
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Endogenous substances, such as fatty, amino, and nucleic acids, are often purposefully used in parenterally pharmaceuticals, but may be present as impurities. Currently, no consensus guidance exists on setting impurity limits for these substances. Specific procedures are needed, as the amount and types of toxicity data available for endogenous subs...
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This study aimed to evaluate intake, animal performance and carcass traits with the inclusion of corn dried distiller grains (DDGs) replacing cornmeal (Zea mays L.) in non-forage-based diets for finishing feedlot Nellore cattle. Sixty-four uncastrated Nellore cattle weighing 267.22 ± 20.4 kg and 18 ± 3 months old were distributed in 16 pens. Experi...
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Purpose of Review We review the clinical benefits of altering myocardial substrate metabolism in heart failure. Recent Findings Modulation of cardiac substrates (fatty acid, glucose, or ketone metabolism) offers a wide range of therapeutic possibilities which may be applicable to heart failure. Augmenting ketone oxidation seems to offer great prom...
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Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat from barrowS of same genetic lineage supplemented with organic chromium and selenium initiated in different weight ranges in the finishing phase using 24 carcasses. Three different diets were used that represent the time when supplementation starts: control...
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Coffee is one of the most popular and preferred drinks in the world, being consumed for its refreshing and energizing properties. As a result, the consumption of coffee generates millions of tons of waste, in particular, spent coffee grounds (SCG). On the contrary, food waste recovery is an incredibly sustainable and convenient solution to the grow...
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Epoxidation-esterification of fatty acid methyl ester obtained from Anacardium occidentale kernel oil (AOKO), its characterization, kinetics and thermodynamics were the main focus of this study. The methyl ester obtained via base catalyzed transesterification was used for epoxidation-esterification modification process. Epoxidation kinetics and the...
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This study aimed to produce healthy mayonnaise with a protective effect against cardio-vascular diseases, containing omega-3 fatty acids (FA), using flaxseed oil (FXO), which includes a high percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3). The mayonnaise was prepared by replacing soybean oil with FXO at 20, 30, and 40% levels. The effect on the...
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This work is aimed at determining the Electrical Stability (ES) of various oil-based mud (OBM) pre-mix formulated with 100% synthetic base oil (SBO), 100% crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), 100% refined palm kernel oil (RPKO), blends of SBO & CKPO, and finally blends of SBO & RPKO. An oil-based mud pre-mix is a preliminary mud, prepared in the blending...
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Seed size is often considered to be an important trait for seed quality, i.e., vigour and germination performance. It is believed that seed size reflects the quantity of reserve material and thus the C and N sources available for post-germinative processes. However, mechanisms linking seed size and quality are poorly documented. In particular, spec...
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One of the main characteristics of cancer cells is the alteration in lipid composition, which is associated with a significant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) enrichment. In addition to their structural functions in newly synthesized membranes in proliferating cancer cells, these fatty acids are involved in tumorigenic signaling. Increased expr...
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Studies on fatty acids (FAs) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are limited. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes of circulating FAs in patients with HNC and to examine potential correlations of FA changes with treatment. The secondary aims were to investigate correlations of FAs with cytokines and patient-related factors, and...
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Metabolic demands of skeletal muscle are substantial and are characterized normally as highly flexible and with a large dynamic range. Skeletal muscle composition (e.g., fiber type and mitochondrial content) and metabolism (e.g., capacity to switch between fatty acid and glucose substrates) are altered in obesity, with some changes proceeding and s...
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The white wax secreted by the male insects of the Chinese white wax scale (CWWS) is a natural high-molecular-weight compound with important economic value. However, its regulatory mechanism of wax biosynthesis is still unclear. In this study, a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to analyze transcriptome data of first- and...
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As one of the most important organs in animals, the intestine is responsible for nutrient absorption and acts as a barrier between the body and the environment. Intestinal physiology and function require the participation of energy. 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a classical and highly expressed energy regulator in inte...
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Objective: To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence on the effect of quality of dietary fat intake and different classes of fatty acids on the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia in adults aged ≥50 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central of Controlled Trials, and Scopus for clinical trials and pro...
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Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are lipid mediators derived from poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which have been demonstrated to have an important role in the inflammation environment, preventing an overreaction of the organism and promoting the resolution of inflammation. Our purpose was to point out the current evidence for specia...
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Background Fatty acids have diverse immunomodulatory functions and the potential to be associated with inflammatory responses in sarcoidosis. Methods The serum levels of multiple long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) were compared between 63 patients with sarcoidosis and 38 healthy controls. The associations of LCFAs with clinical outcomes of sarcoidosis...
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Diversification of species and ingredients is essential for further developing aquaculture production. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of a blend of microalgae oils and poultry oil as total replacers of fish oil in aquafeeds, a fast-growing species for aquaculture diversification, that was shown to require high dietary n-3 LC-PUFA...
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Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia, is closely intertwined with metabolic abnormalities. Recently, a metabolic paradox in AF pathogenesis has been suggested: under different forms of pathogenesis, the metabolic balance shifts either towards (e.g., obesity and diabetes) or away from (e.g., aging, heart failure, and hypert...