Science topic

Facial Expression - Science topic

Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
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We use intonation or facial expression while we are talking to each other. But, in the case of posting short texts, the story is different. Online users used to use emoticons ;-))) After a while, tele-communication companies started introducing picto-graphics called "Emoji " which are very popular these days. People use them in short texts they send or post because they are useful in conveying users’ feelings. Despite their wide use, we still do not understand the patterns in their usage.
Is it possible to claim that emoji is a new set of symbols forming a language? If yes, can we show this language can reflect the feelings better than the other traditional languages?
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Happy World Emoji Day, every🧐ne!
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For my research I want tot test the influence of distance according to Hall's (1966) interpersonal distances (intimate, personal, social and public) on facial expression (negative or positive). Since both my independent and dependent variable are categorical ordinal data I thought of using Spearman's correlation. Is that the right statistical method?
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And If you are looking for correlation, then I would recommend that you may try Kendall tua.
Best !!
AN
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this database contains 494,414 face images from 10,575 actors of IMDb. Face images comprise random pose variations, illumination, facial expression, and resolution.
I need to remove the background and take the front pos of the face image.
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The software will be used for UX and marketing studies where the participants attend remotely by their laptop or PC (with camera on it)
What is the most comprehensive and the best software company offering eye tracking and facial expression analysis ?
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In the last week, one of my journal got rejected from International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. Now I want to resubmit it in another journal. If anybody suggest me a Q2 or Q3 journals. The title and abstract of the journal is given below:
Title: Dynamic User Experience for efficiency enhancement based on facial expressions
Abstract: The main motive of Human-Computer Interaction is to make human comfortable while working with interactive computing device so that it can increase human efficiency and release the human trouble and saves humans’ time. In this paper, we recognize the face first then change the UI automatically based on his facial expression. Some of our personas also proposed the similar idea of building a system that would play music based on their facial expression. These scenarios gave us the idea of making an integrated system of dynamic user experience based on facial expression. So, we started to collect the data of our paper-based on questionnaires and interview approaches. Then made some low fidelity prototype during requirement gathering phase. We also made some high-fidelity prototypes using Axure RP to show the stakeholders the likely output of this paper. In the new phase, we have used the software engineering model and then implemented our code in visual studio with live server extension. Then we have followed the cognitive walkthrough model as our evaluation method. During the evaluation, our stakeholders need not have provided any input manually and it was easy to earn to use the system. We found that there should be a high-speed internet connection and we have to use VPN to handle some issues. The user was not feeling fatigued or discomfort at all because it is very easy to learn. Anyone can use it and who wants to use it just need to be in front of the camera that’s it. So, the user was very much comfortable and happy to use our system.
Thanks in advance.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES, INTERACTING WITH COMPUTERS. best of lucks with your manuscript
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Where can I find the whole dataset of Whitehill's paper: The Faces of Engagement: Automatic Recognition of Student Engagement from Facial Expressions, and Amanjot kaur's paper" Prediction and Localization of Student Engagement in the Wild. It says open for research, but could not find. Or any sugessions for finding these two dataset.
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Dear Dr. Yuqian Li
Perhaps by the time I am writing you this note you have seen this site. I
hope I have helped something
regards
Reinaldo
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Hello, Scientists and Researchers,
I have time-based data of Facial muscle movements and their related protocol coding of the verbal utterances (30 min). I have a total of 17 facial muscle movements coded with their intensities (from 0 to 5 on a continuous scale, 0=being minimum and 5 being the maximum intensity). Also, I have 8 codes assigned to the verbal utterances produced for 30 min. What kind of time series data analysis should I do to find meaningful patterns in my data? Any help would be great.
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Hello,
I suggest you to see this new study:
Good luck.
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Most of existing works focus on frontal facial expression
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If it can be helpful, the Bochum Emotional Stimulus Set (BESST; Thoma, Soria Bauser, & Suchan, 2013) has a corpus including averted facial expressions.
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Hi, I'm currently doing my psychology undergraduate dissertation. I'm doing a dissertation of facial expression including topics like emotions, emotion recognition, facial detector and anything related to this field of research. I would like to ask some tips on books to buy (excluding paul ekman which I already have gotten through) and some journal articles.
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The Psychology of Facial Expression
edited by James Anderson Russell, James A. Russell, José Miguel Fernández-Dols, Keith Oatley
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I am currently working on emotion recognition. I am looking for a dataset that contains labeled image files for emotion (i.e. happiness, sadness, etc).
I've found several dataset but not exactly what I need.
· Google facial expression comparison dataset
There is no label (like emotion categories) for dataset.
· FER
The dataset does not include image files. Instead, pixel values of images are stored in CSV files.
· The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database
Small dataset
· CK+
Small dataset
If you know a large dataset, could you please inform me? Thanks a lot.
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You easily find many datasets for speech emotion recognition.
Search IEMOCAP and EMO-DB cos these both are very popular and publically available. Both of them are acted SER datasets.
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Hi there,
Recently I came across Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT) for facial expression analysis but it seems they no longer support anymore.
I am looking for an opensource tool that I can detect eyebrow-raising/ eyelid tightening/ blink data. Can you please recommend any?
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For an open source tool, OpenFace is widely used: https://github.com/TadasBaltrusaitis/OpenFace
We also recently did a performance comparison of eight commercially available classifiers, several of which provide AU-Data, eye-blinks, etc.. The comparison also includes the FACET system that was derived from the CERT. You can find the paper here:
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Can anyone recommend an emotional gestures database, which is freely available to download? I am interested in full body gestures database, not just upper part of the body.
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I am looking for softwares which can analyse the facial expression of emotion of previously recorded therapy sessions. As far as I know facereader and emotion are the only automated softwares on the market which can analyse also previously recorded videos. Grateful for any support! Many thanks,
Ghazaleh bailey
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Thank you! Sorry I missed the link;)
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As I'm approaching the end of my second year as a Psychology student I have to reflect on a topic I would like to use for my dissertation and then find 5 papers related to it. I'm deeply interested in the field of Facial expressions, body language. Therefore I have to find a topic and a title for my dissertation proposal. I'm happy about any recommendations
These are some of the guidelines they gave us:
Ground ideas in literature – avoid plucking ideas out of ‘thin air’
• Be realistic – what can you achieve in the 6 months you will have next year?
• Practicalities:
• Ethics
• Access – hard to reach populations?
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You could focus on a specific facial expression and relate it to general body language as a start and see where literature leads you.
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I am working on driver drowsiness detection through analyzing facial expression. To evaluate our proposed work we need to run experiments on facial expression data or driver face dataset. Any helping hand will be very thankful.
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Hello everyone;
Could you please suggest me a dataset for driver drowsiness detection? I am working on driver drowsiness detection through analyzing EEG recordings. To evaluate our proposed work we need to run experiments EEG signals or driver brain dataset. Any helping hand will be very thankful.
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Dear Researchers,
I was asked to prepare 20 questions based on the below scenario---
There will be 6 students sit in front of pc in e-learning environment. so I need to give them at least 20 questions in order to get their different facial expressions. Is there any sources to get set of questionnaire for facial expression detection? Thank you
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I think it's really difficult assignment, for first answer, I say may you can ask them to identify and imitate different imogi faces with different expressions
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I would like to investigate or present the methods of Facial Expressions in Crowdfunding success.. Do you have literature recommendations in this regard?
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Hello,
This reference may help you:
Kim, J., & Park, J. (2017). Does Facial Expression Matter Even Online? An Empirical Analysis of Facial Expression of Emotion and Crowdfunding Success.
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I am looking for a software that analyzes facial expression of different animals (included humans) on pictures.
Thank you very much!
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Look into Affective, in USA the vendor is imotions. Its based on Paul Ekman's work and was designed by MIT labs. Affectiva is now a private company and imotions is one of the vdenors that sells and supports affectiva
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Looking to potentially purchase new cameras for collecting footage for canine behaviour studies. Ideally we want the quality to be good enough to consider some facial expression/eye movement within a sensible distance. The best thing out there appears to be GoPro in terms of quality of camera, footage quality, battery life, can be synced with the app etc. but they are very pricey particularly for the number of cameras we're after.
Can anyone suggest alternatives or are GoPro's worth it as they're robust and will last?
Thanks!
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Hi!
Do you need high frame rates, super wide (fisheye) angles or battery powered mini devices? If not, I'd recommend to check out surveillance camera systems such as this one: https://www.lorextechnology.com/4k-ip-camera-system/4k-ultra-hd-ip-nvr-security-camera-system-with-10-ip-cameras/4KHDIP1612W-1-p
Lots of channels, lots of cameras and high (4K) resolution for a great price. This would obviously only work for experimental conditions, i.e., in a test arena where you can install the cameras. Also, you mentioned footage of eye movements - you might need higher frame rates for this purpose (with 4K resolution, you would usually not have more than 30-60 fps).
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I am looking for a dataset with both human pose and corresponding face expression, preferably categorized into different emotions.
The only one I have found so far is GEMEP Corpus created by Swiss Center for affective sciences. I attach an example image from their website. This one is labelled as angry.
Thanks for your time and energy in advance.
#Thanks for your help! I have looked up all the databases you have mentioned and there is indeed some interesting ones.
# I guess I should have put it more clearly since several answers mentioned databases that contain human face only. I am looking for database for affective body pose, which means the video/photos I am looking for must include the body part (either upper body or whole body will do). Thanks for your attention again!
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Awesome Dorota Kamińska , thank . you for your link. I'm also looking for it
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Hallo zusammen,
Ich suche noch Umfrageteilnehmer für eine Studie zum Thema Wahrnehmung von um Hilfe bittenden Robotern.
Falls Interesse besteht, würde ich mich über eine Teilnahme freuen.
Das Ganze nimmt etwa 10-15 Minuten in Anspruch.
Zur Umfrage geht es über diesen Link: https://www.soscisurvey.de/FRAME/
Wer Interesse hat, kann nach Abschluss zwei Lose bei Thesius (http://www.thesius.de) sowie Punkte bei Poll-Pool (http://www.poll-pool.com) einlösen.
Gerne darf das Ganze auch als Startpunkt für eine Diskussion über verschiedene Gestaltungsmerkmale, die Vor- und Nachteile verschiedener Ausprägungen derselben sowie über mögliche Interaktionen zwischen den Merkmalen genutzt werden.
Danke schon Mal vorab und viele Grüße
Martin Westhoven
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Dear Martin,
Here is my contribution in the discussion, i suggest you to see links and attached file on subject.
-Interactions With Robots: The Truths We Reveal About Ourselves
-Robots - Human Brain Project
-Frontiers | To Err Is Robot: How Humans Assess and Act toward an ...
-Five reasons to teach robotics in schools - The Conversation
Best regards
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Hello everyone!
I would like to know if there is currently a database of video-clip and / or images depicting virtual agents expressing emotions. I've searched everywhere, but I have not been able to find it...
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For the work of my master thesis (back in 2011) I needed an expressive virtual character, but like you I couldn't find anything, so I decided to create one myself.
I found the Daz3D Studio, which is free to download and use, but then every element you use you need to buy it, with the oldest models becoming free after some time.
So I installed the studio, found a free female model (back then it was Victoria, now I found Genesis, check links below), and so far I didn't pay for anything.
Eventually when I wanted to manipulate the facial expressions of the virtual character (model) I had to buy a relevant package and paid about 20$, which I see is still priced about that.
I am not an expert in 3D graphics, I only had a small experience, and to be honest in the beginning I found the interface a bit confusing, so it took me a couple of weeks to manage to create the expressions, but for me at that time it was the only solution.
Since I was already familiar with this method I did the same for a conference paper back in 2016.
Hope that helps! Good luck!!
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Hello,
Would you please recommend any existing facial expression dataset that has both genuine vs. posed smiles (other than Dr. Ekman's original work)?
Best wishes,
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Hello Monica,
thank you very much for your comment. In fact, I have already contacted Dr. Theo Gevers to gain access to Uva-NEMO database since it nicely fits the purpose of my research focusing on dynamic facial expressions. So far, It seems that one needs to be PI-level to obtain the stimuli (Graduate students need to contact via their advisors.) Still, I appreciate your input!!
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I want to get your opinion on the importance of observing how student feels as they read and answer an examination questionnaire (or a test). Your responses are highly appreciated.
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Facial expression reveals what's going on in their mind. By observing it we can find out if they are cheating in exam..
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I am looking for the availability of Databases containing labelled images/videos of Facial Expressions of newborns for the training of Neural Networks.
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Hi,
You should check this paper:
A Survey on Databases for Facial Expression Analysis.
R Weber, C Soladié, R Séguier - VISIGRAPP (5: VISAPP), 2018
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We are looking for a large database (200+) of pictures of human faces with neutral facial expression, in order to conduct an experiment on nonverbal learning mechanisms. We have difficulties finding appropriate pictures because we need people in the pictures to be  Caucasian, age 20 to 40, with neutral facial expression, and on neutral background. Also, it would be very good if the database is free for research purposes use. Can somebody please suggest the existing database that he or she knows?
Thank you in advance, 
Jovana
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Hi! For anyone else seeking such a database, I have combed through all of the resources listed here in addition to numerous other sources in order to construct the Face Image Meta-Database (fIMDb): https://cliffordworkman.com/resources/
The fIMDb includes info or estimates on: number of photo sets per source (and numbers of neutral and other sets — e.g., facial emotions), number of subjects per source (with approximate sex distributions), total number of images, approximate number of viewpoints, whether the sources includes photos from more than one ethnicity, whether it includes more than one age group, whether meta-data are available, the photo category (e.g., posed, wild), the reference(s) for the source (e.g. DOIs). I hope this will aid others interested in conducting research on responses to faces.
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I'm looking for facial expression databases images can be downloaded freely for building facial expression recognition application .
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Hi Abir! For which one did you register? This website lists several datasets which belong to different people/institutes, so you cannot access them all with one registration. It is just a guide to help you find a dataset which is suitable for your work. You need to follow the links provided for each dataset and request for download access from the actual owner of the dataset and not the owner of the webpage which lists the datasets. Or you already did that and the actual owner did not respond?
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I am working on facial expression recognition. i made a dataset contain features & classes of 213 images.
  • Step1: Each row of my dataset represents the features of 1 image. so for 213 images 213 rows
  • Step2: the last column represents classes like; 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
  • i used fitcsvm it gives great results but now i want to use knn.
  • QUESTIONS
  1. How to use fitcknn or any knn classifier to classify
  2. along cross-validation
  3. and find accuracy precision and recall
  4. help with this code
  5. clc;
  6. close all;
  7. data = load(fullfile('.', 'Features', 'jaffe_features.txt'));
  8. % features_train = data(1:128,:);
  9. % features_test = data(128:end,:);
  10. nRows = size(data,1);
  11. randRows = randperm(nRows); % generate random ordering of row indices
  12. features = data(randRows(1:end),:);
  13. labels1 = data(:,end);
  14. [labels] = labels1;
  15. Mdl = fitcknn(features,labels,'NumNeighbors',5,...
  16. 'ClassNames',{'1','2','3','4','5','6','7'},'Distance','euclidean', 'Standardize',1);
  17. loss = resubLoss(Mdl);
  18. CVMdl = crossval(Mdl);
  19. classError = kfoldLoss(CVMdl);
  20. label = predict(Mdl,features);
  21. % plot confusion(features_test,idx)
  22. % oofLabel = kfoldPredict(CVMdl);
  23. % ConfMat = confusionmat(labels_test,label);
  24. accuracy=confusionmatStats_2(labels_test,label);
  25. % [m,n]=size(label);
  26. %
  27. % count=0;
  28. % for i=1:m
  29. % if(strcmp(labels_test(i),label(i)))
  30. % count=count+1;
  31. % end
  32. % end
  33. %
  • Regards
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I am working on facial expression recognition. i made a dataset contain features & classes of 213 images.
  • Step1: Each row of my dataset represents the features of 1 image. so for 213 images 213 rows
  • Step2: the last column represents classes like; 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
  1. Q1: when i run classification learner and the cross validation is checked the accuracy is very low.
  2. Q2: when i run classification learner and the cross validation is not checked the accuracy is good for all classifiers.
I dont understand why? please help me? if someone has already experienced.
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Dear Mr Kashif,
I've worked in the same task about 4 years ago, you can chek my researches
and
Matlab was poor for me to accomplish my task successfully, so I used opencv
You can fire it with this quick introduction
Then I proved a new geometric based technique for facial expression recognition and it was efficient enough to differentiate between the main facial expressions . For any question contact me
Regards
Samaa Shohieb
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I want to take a deeper look at the facial expressions of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to analyse their emotional expressions.
For this purpose, I am searching for a ready-to-use software, which combines image processing (e.g., OpenPose, OpenFace) and machine learning. In addition, I would prefer a software that is free (i.e., Open Source) or at least for non-commercial research purposes.
So, I am not looking for methods, but for ready-to-use software, which includes a feature to train my own models. The reason is that every person with PIMD shows very unique behaviour signals and, therefore, you need one model for each emotion of a person.
Finally, I do not need a GUI or visualization, a simple command line application would enough.
A hint would be very helpful.
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I do not know if there is a "ready-made" software available for this, but my collaborators at University of Basel, GRAVIS group in the Department of mathematics and informatics have been working on facial recognition software.
Their project that comes close to what you seek is "Social judgement of faces" lead by Sandro Schönborn.
You can visit their webpage here:
The software they use - scalismo - is opensource.
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I need the best algorithm for facial expression which can be used with MATLAB.
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Thank you
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what features are extract from face?
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Read one book by
Tian, Y., Kanade, T., & Cohn, J. F. (2011). Facial expression recognition. In Handbook of face recognition (pp. 487-519). Springer, London.
Also read the Literature review on this:
Goyal, S. J., Upadhyay, A. K., Jadon, R. S., & Goyal, R. (2018). Real-Life Facial Expression Recognition Systems: A Review. In Smart Computing and Informatics (pp. 311-331). Springer, Singapore.
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I am trying to teach children to recognise people's emotions from body language/gestures as well as facial expressions. However whilst there is plenty of information available which describes facial expressions for emotions I'm struggling to find any information which links specific body language or gestures to certain emotions. I'm aware this is probably because there is far more cultural variation for body language than facial expression but I'm sure there must be some research out there somewhere, so hoping someone may be able to give me a good starting point please.
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Hello,
It seems that the majority of works on this subject involved actor, dancer or deal with the decoding of body posture/gesture (which emotion is inferred when the subject see someone and not which posture/gesture is the most correlated with the emotion induced).
More specifically, for the gesture, it's not certain type of gesture that seems to be correlated with basic emotion but more general parameters like amplitude of the gesture, rythmes and tensions (e.g. fist formation associated with anger). This point,you will find references on the link above.
Good luck for your research
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This is way outside my field and I wouldn't know where to begin.
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Not directly. There is some research displaying for what appears to be the amount of time spent online relating to a decrease in gray brain matter, aswell as other key functional parts of the brain (altho the content of what it means to be functional and for what purposes is not discussed here; being good at doing stuff online could be the functional of tommorow e.g.). Tie this with the idea that a more social brain (which presumably - because how much emotion is indeed recognized consciously and how much subconsciously - will be better at recognizing facial expressions that beget emotion) will most likely feature bigger versions of these parts of the brain (Robert Sapolsky argues in his book Behave, that the bigger the social group, the more social the brain, thus the more evolved these brain regions would be; to deal with deception, which includes recognizing aswell as supressing emotions and so on) and you get an indierct answer; the more time spent online most likely reduces your ability to recognize emotions displayed in facial expressions in vivo. If we reduce everything to these dimensions ofcourse.
Sources:
  • Hong, Soon-Beom, Jae-Won Kim, Eun-Jung Choi, Ho-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Eun Suh, Chang-Dai Kim, Paul Klauser, et al. “Reduced Orbitofrontal Cortical Thickness in Male Adolescents with Internet Addiction.” Behavioral and Brain Functions 9, no. 1 (2013): 11. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-9-11.
  • Hong, Soon-Beom, Andrew Zalesky, Luca Cocchi, Alex Fornito, Eun-Jung Choi, Ho-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Eun Suh, Chang-Dai Kim, Jae-Won Kim, and Soon-Hyung Yi. “Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction.” Edited by Xi-Nian Zuo. PLoS ONE 8, no. 2 (February 25, 2013): e57831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057831.
  • Lin, Fuchun, Yan Zhou, Yasong Du, Lindi Qin, Zhimin Zhao, Jianrong Xu, and Hao Lei. “Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study.” PloS One 7, no. 1 (2012): e30253. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030253.
  • Yuan, Kai, Wei Qin, Guihong Wang, Fang Zeng, Liyan Zhao, Xuejuan Yang, Peng Liu, et al. “Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder.” Edited by Shaolin Yang. PLoS ONE 6, no. 6 (June 3, 2011): e20708. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020708.
  • Zhou, Yan, Fu-Chun Lin, Ya-Song Du, Ling-di Qin, Zhi-Min Zhao, Jian-Rong Xu, and Hao Lei. “Gray Matter Abnormalities in Internet Addiction: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.” European Journal of Radiology 79, no. 1 (July 2011): 92–95. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.10.025.
  • Sapolsky, Robert M. Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin, (2017): 429, 513, 430.
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Can anyone help me about the best method to classify facial expression database? I have tried using FFT and SVM, but still it's just based on the whole features in image. It doesn't necessarily focus to mouth or eye expression. Thank you
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Traditionally, Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has been successfully used as features for facial expression recognition. It is very important to extract LBP from regions in a grid over the face image and concatenate them in a single vector.
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I'm wondering whether eye movement, facial expression or EEG signal can be used to calculate the attention level on the content when a subject is watching a film, an advertisement video or any other kind of videos?
Could any one give me some light on this?
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I have seen eye movement and heart beat mesurement used, but naybe you shozl look into neuromarketing research.. I am yure they hva gone much further than this.
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For an experiment I am conducting for my master thesis on emotion concepts in two different languages I would like to do a labelling task. The participats will be asked to name emotions from pictures of human facial expression.
Does someone know where I can find those pictures, maybe from the stimuli of previous experiments?
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Hey Giorgio,
There is a number of ready, evaluated databases available. Try Radbound University's Radbound Faces Database for example! They offer a big database of faces pictured from different angles and with different emotional expressions:
Normally the stimuli can be accessed upon request, when the authors can confirm the affiliation with a scientific organisation. Hence, you would probably have to ask your supervisor to do this for you. But it's a free and widely accepted procedure.
Good luck :)
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Is there relationship between facial expression and environmental factors(weather/climate)? And between facial expression and economic condition?
We want find out if facial expression can globally/universally be the same for emotional expressions such as anger, excitement, fear, disgust and joy; irrespective of factors such as race, environment, economic situation and socio-cultural background
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In short I would say YES, but could not be universal at the same time to all people. Weather/climate have their pros and cons to different people at the same time.
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Can anyone share some ideas/papers on physical Fatigue detection by monitoring facial features
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Hello,
in my paper " T. Pursche, J. Krajewski, R. Moeller: Video-based heart rate measurement from human faces" i presented a way to get informations about the heart rate and some other vital signs. Fatigue signs and the coupling with vital signs are well discussed in the papers of my coauthor J. Krajewski. If you have a look at this papers you will get a good overview about the subjects.
Regards,
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I am conducting an experiment examining the effect of background music on memory for facial expressions.
IV has 3 levels (No music, happy music, sad music)
DVs are: 1- Total recall score 2-Accuracy of happy facial expression recall (correct happy facial expressions recalled divided by total number of happy facial expressions) 3- Accuracy of sad facial expression recall (correct sad facial expressions recalled divided by total number of sad facial expressions)
I want to check if (1) happy music significantly affects the DVs. (2) Sad Music significantly affects the DV.
I tried MANOVA (with the help of youtube) but I'm not sure how to analyze the results.
Thank you!
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You've said that you want to examine the effect of the IV on each of your DVs. That suggests to me that you have two univariate questions, not one multivariate question. If you do have two univariate questions, estimate two univariate ANOVA models: There is no need for a preliminary MANOVA. See Huberty & Morris (1989), for example (link below).
Also, you say you want to see if happy music and sad music affect the DVs. I assume you mean you want the following contrasts for each DV: 1) happy vs no music; 2) sad vs no music. If so, carry out two planned contrasts. If you need help figuring out how, try a Google search on <spss one way anova contrasts>, and look at one of the tutorials that comes up. HTH.
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I am doing a research on facial expressions for kids among 18 and 36 months, for this reason I would like to known If you could give some advice
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Hi Sara,
if with "for kids" you mean you need also pictures of children, I can recommend using the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD). It is free and it should contain 10 child identities each with different emotional expressions.
If it's not convincing enough, in the validation article they state: "RaFD further contains images from both adults and children, thus being one of the first databases also providing high-quality stimuli for use in developmental research."
Here is the link to their website: http://www.socsci.ru.nl:8180/RaFD2/RaFD?p=main
Good luck!
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i am working on infant cry detection system, i want to detect infant cry by facial
expression, so what are features of the image i should extract to do with deep
learning algorithms. how it is done?
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The biggest advantage of Deep Learning is that we do not need to manually extract features from the image. The network learns to extract features while training. You just feed the image to the network (pixel values).
What you need is to define the Neural Network architecture and a labeled dataset.
In your case you need a set of images and, for each image, you need to know if the person is crying or not.
For the NN architecure, you can choose a standard architecture such as VGG, GoogleNet or ResNet.
You should consider using a network that was trained on a large dataset (ImageNet) and finetune it to your application. This is called Transfer Learning and you can see some examples here: https://keras.io/applications/
I strongly advise you to spend some time learning about Machine Learning/Deep Learning. There are some good online courses (Coursera, CS231N) that will help you get started. Also, I would advise you to read some papers on the subject.
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Research on the recognition of facial expression of emotions often seems to rely on pictures on which actors show different acted facial emotions (e. g. they are not genuinely surprised or angry, etc.) I was wondering wether results would be different with the use of real "authentic" facial emotions. Does anyone have one or two papers on the subject to suggest?
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Michelle,
Lie to Me is a good show for which Paul Ekman was an adviser. Pretty much of the fact on facial expression and what we can know and what we can't know with them are supported by scientific proof. But on the deception detection topic, the focus on facial expression, and more specifically on micro-expression is exagerated. A better focus on interviewing technique and strategies and on manipulation of the cognitive load by these techniques and strategies would have give a better picture of the possibilities given by the research on lie detection. 
But a very good show, I'm a fan ^^
Julien
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Hello, i'm working on a research about source localization involved in face processing.  I need to do a statistical comparison between two conditions: face perception and scrambled face perception; what software can i use to represent these statistical maps on the subjects MRI?
thanks
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Not that I'm aware of. As Dr. Schulreich above suggested, SPM also does this. If you are comparing maps from different subjects, you first need to warp them into a common space, which SPM also does really nicely. I've just found it hard to use SPM for EEG data, compared to EEGLAB and LORETA, but if you are not happy about a standard template, SPM might be the best way to go.  
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I'm trying to find papers on how people with facial disfigurements feel and react to their facial expressions not being recognised or misunderstood. I'm working on a paper about affective computing, which uses facial recognition software to enhance the users' experience. I want to know what happens if people with facial disfigurements use it and what their reactions would be.
Any help on this would be perfect.
thank you
Brian
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Harriet Oster had done some work a number of years ago on children with facial/cranial abnormalities and their parents.  I'm not sure how much was published, but you could do a search on her name.
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We have studied the impact of shape, color, and most recently, game characters' expressions on learners' emotion and, as a result, on their learning outcomes. What other design elements have been found to induce positive (or negative) emotions?
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Jan,
I've thought about your question a bit and it seems to me that it's both complex and deserves a bit of consideration. If I'm up to date on your work and the games you and your group have been designing, then the types of cues and variables you've described seem likely to evoke some reaction. But my hesitation stems from what appears to be an underlying assumption inherent to the question. Color, shape, etc. may/do have biological links. Red has been shown in psychology to evoke a certain type of response in certain situations. Biologically linked variables like that seem to be universal. However, gesture, sound (notably, spoken tone), or other interpersonal cues are less universal. Consider, for example, that gestures in one culture have varying significance. Hand holding is quite common in the United States, but is a sign of advanced romantic affection in Japan. By extension, maintaining gaze in a conversation is a sign of respect in one culture, while averting gaze is a sign of resect in others.
I've written about the challenges games researchers face when generalizing the term games to mean more than they should. Tetris isn't World of Warcraft. Neither are the games you've been designing. I don't assert that this is happening here, but I caution against seeking general variables that are linked to culture. In that case, you're certainly going to be establishing a context to which your findings are applicable and others to which they are not.
For the most broadly applicable variables, I would look into elements of the Uncanny Valley as it applies to graphics (as opposed to human traits), motion and refresh rates, distracting elements, and maybe the alignment of expected affordances (or anticipated ones based on the system) and actual affordances. I could expand on any of these ideas if you're interested. Ultimately, they would likely have a mitigating impact on affect. But understanding that is just as important for design purposes as knowing how to promote growth and positive affect, right?
PG
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Hello dear researchers
sorry about this pictures that I uploaded.
my theses is about Facial expressions but I didn't faced with this kind of expressions so I'm asking about their names.
Frist I thought it is joy but now I'm confused.
Can anyone help?
Thank you
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Thank you sir.
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As Viola-Jones algorithm is used for 2D image
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dear sir 
i think in 3d the work on the geometry method such as detect mouth nose eye brow
best wishes
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facial expression, emotion recognition, machine learning
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facial expression recognition depend on the features extraction if it very good then any image can be test on system.
best wishes
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I want to assess sensitivity to subtle emotional expressions, and I'm interested in using "morphed" faces (e.g. 10% increments of a given emotion between neutral and full emotion). Do anyone know about any such datasets that are openly available?
Thank you!
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Hi Dan-Mikael, 
The CANTAB Emotion Recognition Task might be worth considering as it uses morphed faces in the presentation of emotional expressions. 
I have used the NimStim set that Julia recommends and found them quite useful. I think someone created a morphed version of some of Ekman's images, but I don't have the reference to hand.  
regards, 
Christian
Kessels, R. C., Montagne, B., Hendriks, A. W., Perrett, D. I., & de Haan, E. F. (2014). Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: Normative data from healthy participants aged 8–75. Journal Of Neuropsychology, 8(1), 75-93. doi:10.1111/jnp.12009
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I'm currently working on my master thesis which is about ego-depletion and facial expression control.
I can detect the AUs of participants and would like to map those AUs to arousal and valence so that I can compare them with participants' self-report.
Is there any research on this topic?
Thank you!
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Hi Ou,
I'm happy to help!
1. I'm not really sure about other models, but when we use iMotions it will automatically records and syncs the data for arousal, and the AUs, so you can just filter the data afterwards to see the highest values for each (or however you want to do it really). That way you can see how the arousal level matches the highest, or lowest,  value of each AU.
2. There is often a bit of a delay with arousal level - we usually put it at about 5 seconds after the initial presentation of the stimulus, when using GSR. I believe that measurement method would be fine to use if the stimulus presentation is only ten seconds long. It's of course important to have the presentation of each stimuli clearly defined from one another (a quick link for one of our guides that I think can help with how to arrange the stimuli: https://imotions.com/blog/experimental-design/). But as for ECG, I have seen other studies that use a stimulus presentation time of 10 seconds or less (for example: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1469-8986.3640453/full), but I'm not sure if they've been looking at LF/HF. You might have to increase the stimulus presentation time if the results aren't clear from 10 seconds of data (I would recommend combining with GSR, but that might not be available of course).
3. The AUs themselves will ultimately inform the valence of the participant. Affectiva is an example of a company that uses the AUs and translates them into an emotional / valence value - so the AUs can tell you if someone is happy, sad, angry, etc. When we use iMotions software, this is automatically determined, and then we can map the apparent emotion to the arousal level.
It can be difficult to trigger facial expressions (to elicit the AUs) with static stimuli, such as an image. Video is often much more effective at inducing facial expressions, so I would recommend that, if possible (here's an article that also talks about this, and might be of help: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1505/1505.07398.pdf). 
I hope that helps a bit, but of course let me know if you'd like any more information!
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I am working on a Facial Emotion Recognition task and for that I need a database that consists of facial emotions from USA sample. Specifically, facial expression should differ in terms of emotions (defined by valence and arousal).
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This may help to point you in the right direction.
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The topic of my study is Emotional communication. Categorical measures of emotional somatic and facial expression will be assessed with the STAI serving as the outcome variable in the AVONA.
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I also would say it is problematic to combine state and trait scores from a theoretical point of view. And while your reasoning that also past behavior influences current behavior makes sense, this could be mediated by the current state. 
Why you want to create a "larger range" anyway? 
Just a side note: If you are mainly interested in anxiety, then the STAI is not the best measure (since it has bad discriminant validity regarding depression and anxiety). 
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Dear fellow researcher,
in a project we aim to measure emotions in real-time to loop this information back into a gamification module. We plan to integrate mainly body cues and facial expressions, but at least in the lab we also look at GSR, heartrate and brain signals. Can anyone recommend a solution (software library, development kit etc. - not a lab software) which integrates such signals and generates emotional states? We search for something like the SHORE kit (facial expressions), only with more modalities.
Best, Oliver 
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Dear Oliver,
I believe that our package, EventIDE (www.okazolab.com),  can carry all functions that you need alone. It 1) can be used to build rich, interactive games (including 3D graphics and VR), 2) ensures millisecond accuracy, 3) supports acquisition, synchronization and online processing of multiple bio-signals (GSR, HRV, EEG, eye-tracking, etc). Real-time emotion recognition via a web-cam is in development and will be available shortly. You can contact me for a demo on i.korjoukov@okazolab.com
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I need to visualize the effects of teratogens on human development. Can anyone direct me to documents or multimedia that simulate the effect of teratogens on facial features? I would like to see an illustration of an individual's face with, e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome next to a simulated image of what he/she *would* have looked like without the damage. Thanks in advance.
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Hi Professor(s)
I am working on facial expression recognition.I need to use BU-3DFE database to do experiments, but i don't understand the structure of the database, When i open the *.wrl and *.bnd files, there are a lot of data that i don't know its specific meaning.
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Dear li Qian,
Look the links, please, may be useful.
Regards, Shafagat
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Suppose that there is a positive and negative judgement for three facial expressions( Happy, Sad, Angry).  The data are as following.
             Happy  Sad  Angry
Postive    18      3         5
Negative   2       17      15
I want to calclute the unbiased hit rate for each expressions. How to calculate them?
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Many thanks, Luke!
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Who knows how to use the tensor to represent facial expressions? Or what‘s the tensor?
Thanks.
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Hi,
You can find all the theoric information about the the tensor in the link attached. But to resume, a Tensor is a representation of a matrix for n dimension in one vector using some transoformations (More details in the link).
In the recent deep learning frameworks: Tensorflow and Torch. The use the concept of tensor in order to represent the input image. It permit to make the process faster if the data is represented by tensors.
There are some applications for face and facial expression recognition using these frameworks. You can find several papers about that.
Hope it will help you,
Regards.
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and how do you use fuzzy logic to detect the facial expression of person in image?
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Luxand FaceSDK enables you to develop applications with VC++ and even JAVA.
You may find a  list of some useful API's in the following URL:
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Hello! I'm looking trying to find Stimulus sets consisting of facial photos of Arab-Mulsim people. In the best of worlds previously used in Imlicit Attitude tests (IAT). I thought this would be easy, but i've scored nil so far. Any input would be greatly appriciated! /Leo
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Thank you Marcel!
That's good advice, I might use that database for other purposes!
One of my supervisors pointed me in a good direction, and I actually managed to get ready made stimuli sets of Arab-Muslims. from the Dasgupta et al. (2009) "fanning the flames of prejudice". 
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Can someone direct me to a validated visual stimulus set of faces (both sexes) containing emotional expressions (happiness, anger etc.), as well as neutral expressions (coughing, sneezing etc.).
Thanks
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A now de facto standard database is the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF). The wonderful thing with it: it is FREE--and well validated and widely used.
The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) is a set of totally 4900 pictures of human facial expressions of emotion. The material was developed in 1998 by Daniel Lundqvist, Anders Flykt and Professor Arne Öhman at Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
The material was originally developed to be used for psychological and medical research purposes. More specifically material was made to be particularly suitable for perception, attention, emotion, memory and backward masking experiments. Hence, particular attention was for instance paid to create a soft, even light, shooting expressions in multiple angles, use of uniform T-shirt colors, and use of a grid to center participants face during shooting, and positioning of eyes and mouths in fixed image coordinates during scanning.
The set contains 70 individuals, each displaying 7 different emotional expressions, each expression being photographed (twice) from 5 different angles. F
Please consult the homepage http://www.emotionlab.se/resources/kdef.
All the best for xyour research.
Best,
CCC
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Positive and negative reactions of an audience through facial or bodily expressions
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With facial movements we can express a whole range of emotions, from the deepest to the most superficial. If something is bothering us, our annoyance is reflected in a hard or angry facial expression. The human face has a tremendous variety of expressions. If we consider the head as well as the face, we find another whole set of movements. You can nod your head, shake it, turn it away, and raise it sharply; all these movements are significant.
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I'm currently doing a research project on the facial display of complex emotions using FACS. It involves assigning FACS codes to a number of still pictures of posed emotional expressions. I've successfully completed the FACS coder training, but ideally, I need someone else to independently verify my coding. I'd be happy to reciprocate by helping out with any coding needs that you might have yourself. 
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Hi there, 
I'm a certified FACS coder. 
Feel free to contact me either here or at S3731873@unige.it
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I am working on emotion recognition using facial expressions. I have to classify static images into one of the following (happy, surprise, sad, angry, etc.,) using characteristics of the face image. i have cropped the image into various parts such as eyes, nose, eyebrows etc. but i don't know what to consider and  store as features of the data set, and in which form it is? if it is some numerical values for each of these features to store, how to get those values?
suggest me some good papers or books to refer? or MATLAB functions?
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One of my students has been using the open source tool Fiji (http://fiji.sc/Fiji) to create data sets for Weka, based on image segmentation. This is done via Fiji: preinstalled plugin: Plugins -> Segmentation ->  Trainable Weka Segmentation. A set of filters is provided by the plugin.
Our work in briefly described in: 
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Hello,
Generally expression synthesis algorithms impose one of the six universal expressions on a given expression-neutral face image. I wish to impose a combination of these basic expressions on a given face image. Can anyone please help me in this regard?
Thanks for your help in advance.
-Swapna Agarwal
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Recently one of our paper entitled "Life and Consciousness - The Vedāntic View" has been published in the Journal Communicative & Integrative Biology. An interesting discussion on this paper can be found at: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/online_sadhu_sanga/Mcv2O-yhqLE
From paper:
"The scientific confirmation of the existence of consciousness in unicellular organisms and plants certainly establishes that the brain is not the source of consciousness. Several decades back, research in medical science has also proven that the brain is not the source of consciousness. In 1970, Robert White and his team successfully transferred the head of a rhesus monkey to the headless body of another monkey. The monkey survived for 8 days.68 Researchers are also attempting to perform the same scenario with human beings.69 It is reported that if a human head has been detached under controlled conditions, it must be reconnected to the circulatory flow of other person's body (which is conscious or living) within one hour.70 Therefore, brain-based analysis for understanding consciousness (neuronal analysis) does not have very bright prospects."
Paper: Life and Consciousness - The Vedāntic View
Journal: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Publication date - 09 Oct 2015
Author: Bhakti Niskama Shanta - http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2039-3249
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I am looking for all you know, just for comparison. I am not looking for methods, but for ready-to-use software which includes the trained models.
What I know so far:
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An implementation of the CVPR 2014 paper "One Millisecond Face Alignment with an Ensemble of Regression Trees" is available in dlib, including a pretrained model and code for training own models.
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I have a problem to act a smile detect code and other facial actions.
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Sorry,
No idea.
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The focus on facial expressions in art is commonly mentioned in caricature or in mangas and animation (ex: in "Art and Illusion" of Ernst Gombrich, "Grapholexique du Manga" of Denis Sigal and "Understanding comics" of Scott McCloud's respectively) and rarely in classical western artworks (ex: "L'art de la grimace" of Martial Guédron). However, I wonder if some research are led in facial expressions in tribal (or primitive) art.
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excuse my poor english, but as referes the study of masks (levi strauss) is a good guide, if you can read in Portuguese, demand this Benjamin Pereira work "Máscaras Portuguesas".
Studies of masks associated with the festive cycles (carnaval) seems to me a good foothold (Europe);
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We are looking for an emotional body database (such as from Atkinson, deGelder etc) but that includes all 6 basic emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise & disgust. Ideally realistic, full-light stimuli, but point-light might be an option. Can anyone help? Thank you
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Emotions that depend upon a consciousness of the self in relation to another (love, shame, embarrassment, pride) are considered secondary rather than primary emotions.  Also referred to as the self-conscious emotions.  
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Hello Researchers, I need public a database on Arousal-Valence which is only based on Facial Expressions (e.g., Surprise, Sadness,...., Happiness) for my ongoing research on Emotion Profiling. Thanks. 
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The BINED database is an excellent alternative but it uses clips of facial expressions of emotion, not still pictures (http://www.psych.qub.ac.uk/BINED/) it has valence ratings (from a limited number of raters) but no arousal data to my knowledge. But since using existing databases demands that you do a small pilot study of valence/arousal perception on the materials in your target population you can easily fix it like that. I'd recommend it. It's got the best ecological validity of all the existing facial expression of emotion databases out there.
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I need MATLAB/C++ implementation of any recently published algorithm for facial expression synthesis/transfer. Can anyone please help me in this regard? Thanks in advance for your help.
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Miss. Swapna. Its code for only expression recognition system of AAM model. From the output you have to make remodel the expression transfer/ imposition.
in this link u download the tar file which include the read me text file tells about  detail of compilation the code and work on linux platform.
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My knowledge in this area is limited, Thanks in advance.
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Like it as been said, there are several tasks for emotion recognition. One that you could be interested in is the Radboud Faces Database
The database contains portrait images of 49 models in two subsets: 39 Caucasian Dutch adults (19 female), and 10 Caucasian Dutch children (6 female). 
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I'm desperately looking for a stimulus set of dynamic emotional faces which includes more than 5 different actors per sex. Can somebody help ?
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As part of my Master's degree, I've developped a database of dynamic virtual faces expressing the 6 basic emotions. As of now, we validated 6 characters (3 men and 3 women). But, the virtual stimuli offer numerous possibilities of personnalisation. It could be possible to create specific stimuli corresponding to your particular demands.
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The Facial Action Coding System is built to code the intensity of each action unit. But in studies on emotional facial expressions, how the intensity of global expressions is coded ? I have not found articles that indicate if some rules exist when someone want to measure the global intensity of an expression (e.g. not AU 6+12 separately, but the smile as a whole).
Many thanks for considering my request.
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Jeffrey gave an interesting hint at how we can combine individual AU's intensities into a general intensity index. But as he noted, it has limitations. I would add that since FACS intensity levels are not on an interval scale (for example, the C level covers a wider range of movement than the B or the A levels), using a 1 to 5 linear scale to compute intensity values does not represent what was intended in FACS (let alone the fact that the adjectives "slight", "marked", or "severe" can be interpreted differently by different people). Based on the paper by Sayette et al. (2001) in JONB, we used three levels to code AU intensity then we compute an expressivity index for each AU based on intensity and duration of each AU. Once you do this for several AUs you can decide of a way to combine these values. As far as I know there is no gold standard 
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I would like to work on facial expression recognition, and I am new to image processing also. So please help me in finding good books on MATLAB on image Processing/ facial expression in programming way.
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I would recommend buying two books: one that is simple such that you aren't lost from the start because the text assumes you are very experienced with MATLAB and/or image processing, and another which is almost at that level to use as a reference guide. For the simple book, you might wish to check out
Marques, O. (2011). Practical image and video processing using MATLAB. Wiley.
For a more comprehensive source to use as reference material, I would suggest
Solomon, C., & Breckon, T. (2011). Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing: A practical approach with examples in Matlab. Wiley.
or
Gonzalez, R. C., Woods, R. E., & Eddins, S. L. (2009). Digital image processing using MATLAB (2nd Ed.). Gatesmark Publishing.
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I have tested them in my doctoral research and would like to know whether it is subjective or can be tested objectively who has no prior knowledge of them. I will be happy to provide necessary information such as how to notate, how to use and what to look and when. Please feel free to message me.
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I would like to participate as well. Your work is very interesting. I'm trained in bharata natyam, so the terminology of Natya Sastra is familiar to me, but not this way of working with it. 
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I'm testing autistic subjects on how well they can read natural not-posed facial expressions.
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Hello there,
Maybe these databases can be helpful for you.