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Hello.
I am looking for a bicrystal fabrication company.
My major is focusing on the exploration of grain boundary structure.
And thus for a model experiment I need metal*or ceramic** bicrystals.
Could you let me know about possible companies which grow bicrystals for my research.
I would appreciate your reply.
Sincerely,
Bo
*Cu, Ni, Au, etc
**SrTiO3, BaTiO3, sapphire (Al2O3), etc.
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Dear Dr Zhu,
I am adding further comments to your question.
In the above comments on my initial question, the colleagues suggested Crystec GmbH and Princeton Scientific.
As far as I know, Crystec GmbH no longer deals with bicrystals.
Princeton Scientific can supply bicrystals, but their option is limited to substrate bicrystals for superconductivity (https://princetonscientific.com/materials/).
Anyway, you can also check it.
Bo
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Hello everyone,
I am using multilayer soft lithography to fabricate microfluidic devices. I am struggling to align the PDMS layers using a stereo microscope since both of the layers stick together and eventually do not move.
Is there a way to prevent them to stick with each other and align them eventually?
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Short thoughts about that:
- for PDMS bonding, I have mostly seen air or oxygen plasma, not argon. Argon plasma is used for cleaning (as it has a physical effect), while you are more searching for a chemical activation. I have no experience with argon plasma bonding, maybe check if in the literature it's used or not for that application.
- Going that line, plasma duration and power is really important. Even with air plasma, if your plasma is too long or too powerful, you will both activate the PDMS chains but also break them. Results: the short activated chains will stick super well to your second substrate, but they will also detach from rest of the PDMS part...
Some papers that might help you:
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Would you kindly give me some requirements about fabricating core-shell fiber? Such as the requirements of the polymer solutions (miscible, immiscible?), the applied voltage, etc.?
Thank you.
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Dear Tran Khanh, at least tell the system you are working on, no one can guess that to give precise contribution. Please have a look at the attached files. My Regards
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I fabricated a supercapacitor which uses carbon as electrode material and found specific capacitance, cycle life, EIS studies, GCD curves, power and energy density.
Is it possible to simulate the same (fabricated electrode) using MATLAB Simulation.
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Develop mathematical model and simulate in MATLAB or develop structure and simulate in COMSOL with AC-DC modules.
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Hello Researchers,
I am looking for some research work on the topic of ''Influence of laid scrim or grid on the Permeability of carbon Non crimped fabric (NFC) without Stitched.See the attached picture.
Mostly of the articles which I found was related to NCF stitched fabric.
I request if anyone working on it please share the knowledge.
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Hello Everyone!
Greetings!
I am planning to work in the area of Synthesis of Polymer matrix composites for various Industry applications.
We have a dedicated Lab comprising 'Electrospinning Machine'. So any collaborations and constructive remarks are most welcome.
Thank you
Regards
Dr. Namdev Ashok Patil
#planning #work #research #electrospinning
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Hello Dear Dr. Namdev A. Patil,
Suggestion: Owing to nanoporous fiber can be produced using electrospinning machine, self-healing for advance material (polymeter) composite is interested research area.
All the best brother.
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Hello everyone,
I am trying to fabricate a homogeneous polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) thin film by spin coating. However, my spin-coated film is opaque and porous in the middle with many defects, and there are also some areas not covered by the film on the edge of the Si wafer.
I dissolved 12wt.% PVDF-TrFE powder into DMF. The solution was shaken in a mixer overnight until getting a transparent and homogeneous solution. Then, the solution was dropped on a clean Si wafer and spin-coated at 3000r/m for 60s.
Does anyone know how to get a transparent and homogeneous PVDF-TrFE film?
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It is possible that precursor's incomplete defoaming. And the substrate must be very clean.
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When we fabricate a free-standing membrane sample, we would perform primary characterizations like FTIR, microscopic analysis, thickness, diffraction studies, thermal-mechanical analysis. Other than these I would like to know about some advanced techniques or experiments to examine the prepared membrane samples in general.
Thanks in advance.
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Conductivity test, AFM (non-contact mode), Fuel cell test, Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy, Methanol Permeability test if fabricated for DMFC
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I have metalic nanoparticle powders iwanna perform a cv electrichemical measurement i could not fabricate my working electrode using the powder please could anyone suggest to me ways and tips to prepare my working electrode. I'll be so thankful
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You can use ink coating methods. You can find many reports on supercapacitor and water splitting applications where power electrode materials/electrocatalysts were thoroughly mixed with polymer binders like PVDF or Nafion solution with IPA and DI water (with specific volume ratios) to form a well-dispersed solution and later coat on your substrate viz. glassy carbon electrode/ carbon paper/ or any metal foams like Ni foam etc.
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Hello everyone,
I hope you all are doing good.
During UV soft molding I am facing the delamination of Photoresist in The UV soft mold.
Can anyone suggest the best releasing agent for photoresist for UV soft molding?
Thanks.
Have a good day.
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Usama Tahir do you have access to a PR remover like Microposit 1165? Alternative an O2 asher may help remove any residual resist depending on the thickness.
Good Luck.
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Can someone please tell me which agencies in India fabricate microwave absorbers, typically transparent ones.
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thus check for suppliers of coated glass for thermo reflective windows
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I hope you are doing well. I need your suggestion on PR stripping during UV soft mold imprinting directly from a silicon wafer. After making the silicon wafer mold by using the silicon wafer fabrication process.
I modified the surface with releasing agent.
Try to do UV soft imprinting directly from the silicon wafer mold.
But I am facing stripping of PR from the silicon wafer.
Could you suggest to me some method to overcome this issue?
I don’t want to use PDMS due to the shrinking issue.
Here is my method to make the silicon wafer.
📷Cleaning with piranha (H2SO4+H2O2).
📷Heating 110 0C for 3 minutes.
📷PR (AZ 10 XT).
📷Spin coating 2000~3000 rpm.
📷Bake 110 0C for 3 minutes.
📷Expose :300 mJ, 5mW/cm2for 60 sec.
📷Develop: (AZ 300 mif) 5~7 minutes.
📷Bake 150 0C oven for 5 minutes.
📷hard bake 110 deg for 6 hours.
📷Releasing agent dip for 20 minutes and dry for 24 hours under
room temperature.
📷Then did the UV imprinting.
📷Issue PR is stripping from the silicon wafer during soft molding.
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If yours is an adhesion problem between AZ photoresist and silicon substrate, I may suggest to use an oxygen plasma strip before coating.
regards
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Currently, liposomes are synthesized using lipid-coated beads. To make lipid-coated beads, lipid powder is initially dissolved in methanol containing rhamnose and glass beads. I am wondering about the function of the rhamnose, is it related to the coating ability of lipid on the beads?
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Kindly see also the following useful RG link:
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We have tried to fabricated nano and micro structures together by using MR-I-8000 resist. However, we havent obtained any good patterns. After that, when we extracted microstrucutes from our design, nearly good resolution patterns were fabricated. In that time, thermal resist was not seen in some of the substrate. Therefore, ı need to some suggestion about thermal and UV Nil.
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Dear Osman Sahin , thanks for sharing this interesting question with the RG community. In principle, according to the manufacturer´s technical note for MR-I-8000 resist, it should be able to produce simultaneously nano and micro-patterns.
Please, have a look to the technical spread sheets:
For example, you can see a picture where the company logo is reproduced, showing that it is indeed feasible to obtain micro and nano structures in a single step.
Apparently, from your description, it has been possible to obtain the micro patterns but not the nano ones from your master mold. Given the resist can resolve nano-structures, it will be a good idea to look for issues on your master mold, substrate or processing method, in order to fix this problem.
First, check your master mold material and how well it can be "wet" by the resist. If your master material and the resist have different polarities, the resist will "wet" badly the mold and it could not go into the tiny nano holes of your mould, even applying a large pressure.
Second, check the aspect ratio of your nanostructures. A large or very large aspect ratio (imagine your nano-structures are like very thin needles) could make difficult to fill the gaps with the resist and even if they are fully filled it could be tricky to remove the mould without breaking the nano-structures.
Third, check the pattern density, often it is easy to obtain nano-structures when they are sparse than when they are packed in a small area. This is not always the case, but it is generally true.
Fourth, check the substrate-resist adhesion. Apparently this is not a problem in your case, because you were able to demould and getting the microstructures.
Five, check the vacuum. Normally it helps to apply vacuum to help to fill the mould patterns by removing the air trapped inside them.
Six: check the temperature of processing: follow the manufacturer´s recomendations.
Seven: Check the demoulding process. May be your moulding process was ok (the resist filled the smaller and larger gaps), but during demoulding the nanostructures break apart, due to friction or adhesion of the solid resist to the walls of the mould. It could be part of your problem, given you didn´t observe the micro-structures in some parts of your substrate. If it happened with the big ones, it could happen too with the nano. To confirm this point you could have a look with a SEM to your mould, if some resist remained attached to it, you can see it.
If you are using a Thermal NIL printer machine, it could use some gas for mold releasing (air, N2...). If you are not using a machine, probably you are using a blade to start the demolding process. Normally molds made of elastomers (rubber, PDMS, ...) works better than rigid moulds, at least at the time of demoulding, because they can be deformed, helping to release the replica.
About UV-NIL, I would say the big advantage over Thermal NIL is the really fast curing process (just a few seconds). I mainly work with this method, and Ormocomp, another resist from MicroResist, has worked amazingly well for micro, nano and combinations of both types of structures. The drawback of UV NIL: that you need a UV transparent mould or substrate to allow the UV light reaches the resist. (If your resist is thick enough you could irradiate it through the side, it could polymerize anyway, given it is a radicallary process.
Common issues both with T-NIL and UV-NIL include the demoulding process.
A difference between them is that UV-NIL implies -generally- a crosslinking process, so there is a chemical change between the initial polymer (free or independent pre-polymer chains) and the cured one (crosslinked). While with a T-NIL polymer, it just goes through a phase change, but it is the same polymer before and after moulding.
Hope it helps. Good luck with your research work and my best wishes.
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We have tried to fabricated nano and micro structures together by using MR-I-8000 resist. However, we havent obtained any good patterns. After that, when we extracted microstrucutes from our design, nearly good resolution patterns were fabricated. In that time, thermal resist was not seen in some of the substrate. Therefore, ı need to some suggestion about thermal and UV Nil.
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Thank you for your help:)
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Can someone help me know the program that I can use to draw the stages of manufacturing silicon solar cells.
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Yes
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I mean, is there any possible way to make polyester fabric as soft as cotton or like?
Can we make any masterbatch for this application if yes then what raw material will be involved in making of masterbatch?
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Thank you Mr. Brain Lee!
actually, I wanted to know about any additive or masterbatches that can be used to soften polyester rather than denier change or spinning process.
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Recently, we built up a new fuel cell station. But I cannot reproduce my old data for a while at other test station even use commercial one. I am not sure where is wrong.
I've tried some conditions and variables: MEA fabrication (including CCM, CCL, new ionomer, new catalyst, dispersion solvent ratio, spray-coating, hand-brushing...etc.) and test condition (anode/cathode flow rate, humidity, cell temperature...etc.), but still no production of current and power. OCV was normal (around 1-0.9 V).
So I started to consider about the test station, however, I am not familiar with this. Maybe is the cable(but VOM meter test no problem) or over connection(I need two terminals to connect cell because the types of electrode are different. I'm not sure this will have too much resistance that make current no produce or not).
And another question is, after cell test, CCL cannot stick on the AEM. Will there is the reason why make current produce? (but I used CCM still not produce current at all)
This bother me for a while. Can anyone help me? I will be really appreciate you.
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Xuelang Gao Thanks for your reply. I think I should solved the sealing problem. Maybe can use hot press? but I haven't seen paper will use hot press in AEMFC. ( I've been tried hot press, but the membrane still cannot stick together because the membrane has high Tg and crosslinked. Have there any method can combine them together?)
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We wanted to fabricate a perovskite solar cell using methylammonium lead iodide as the absorber material. But the popular HTL and ETL layers are very expensive and we can't afford those. Also, we don't have the facility to synthesize them too. Could somebody please suggest a few low-cost HTL and ETL materials that we can purchase to use with methylammonium lead iodide perovskite?
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Have you looked at suppliers like Borun or Xi'an? Spiro and PTAA is relatively cheaper from these suppliers. Also for the ETL, perhaps you could use the chemical bath deposition technique.
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For making conductive fabric either we can print the fabric with conductive inks or we can simply use conductive yarns that have metallic or non metallic coatings. So which method is more useful and what are the advantages and disadvantages for both methods?
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CFRP panel is fabricated and cure for 24 hours at atmospheric condition. now I want to know that, Is further curing can be done on hot air oven? and how we decide the temperature limit?
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thank you so much prof. Jigneshkumar Parmar for your kind help.
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Hello,
I have unsuccessfully tried to determine ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) for fabric samples as described in standard EN 13758-1. To calculate UPF, I have measured absorbance spectra of the fabrics with a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, as told in the standard. However, my calculations produced way too low UPF values for each sample, including reference samples with known UPF. After double-checking the calculations and absorbance data with my professors, we noticed that at 290 - 340 nm even the most opaque samples did not exceed certain absorbance threshold. In fact, almost all my samples had some kind of an "absorbance plateau" there.
My questions:
1) What could have gone wrong with my measurements?
2) Is it common for the absorbance data to plateau like that?
3) Is the data unusable? If yes, how can I get correct absorbance data when doing re-measurements?
All the best and thank you for your answers.
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Hello Juha,
The fact with the "absorbance plateau" you mentioned sounds interesting.
It seems that the limit of the dynamic range of the detector is reached in this case, i.e. the detector cannot differentiate anymore if, e.g., 0.01 % or 0.001 % light are transmitted. That is potentially causing that a certain absorbance threshold is not exceeded even for very opaque samples.
In the case of a strongly absorbing solution that would cause a similar effect, one would simply dilute the solution to be compatible with the absorbance range that is accessible with the spectrophotometer. Unfortunately, that method will not work with solid samples like your fabrics.
Not sure if that would help, but potentially you could try to measure in reflectance mode (not absorbance) and then determine absorbance data from these measurements?
Best regards,
Kay
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Hi,
I tried to use SU-8 2150 to fabricate some micro structures (with a thickness of about 500um) with Mask Aligner. But I saw some white residue on top surface of the structure (see picture attached) after development. I used PGMEA to develop, followed by rinse with IPA. But no matter how long I developed, the white stuff was still there.
Does anyone have similar experience? What are the possible reasons for this?
Thanks!
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I think that the problem could be an overexposure, 200 second is to much if the doses that arrive to the wafer is 20mw/cm2, the time need to be around 20 s. May be you can try to adjust the expose parameters. Regards!
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Dear Researchers, Need to fabricate specimen from CNT powder using additive manufacturing technique and What could be suitable process for fabrication. Any vendors available for specimen preparation.
Thanks in advance
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What will the thickness of patch for fabricating CPW fed antenna.(substrate is FR4 Epoxy with thickness 1.6mm)?
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For 5 GHz, FR4 Epoxy with a thickness of 1.6mm is enough to design the antenna. However, the radiation performance of the antenna is mainly affected by thickness especially the bandwidth of the antenna changes. If we increase the thickness of the substrate which increases the surface waves.
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is immediately after cell fabrication the li ion goes to the carbon? and so when we carried out first cycle it is discharging (lithium goes back to anode). or in discharging lithium ions got inserted in to carbon anode.
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the reason (concept) is based on (where is) the source of the Li-electrode.
In practice the, only one, Li-source in common Li-half-cells is the (excess Li-source) Li-metal (always negative, CE).
In more words, since the extensive Li-source in your (nano-) Si (based, positive) WE (half-)cell is the electrode of the Li-metal (negative, CE), then you have to start with 'a discharging step', at the (very beginning stage, as the) initial (Li+) direction mode, e.g. transfer of the Li+ (via the electrolyte) to your Si based WE.
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Can you recommend a high resolution printer to fabricate plastic photo masks for lithography (esp. for SU8).
Please recommend a specific printer that's suitable for printing minimum feature size of 5 um.
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this might be helpful..
copied content: Step 4 – Transparent film photomask fabrication Process
The film is fed into the processor after imaging via a series of rollers, and undergoes some chemical changes through the development of the image. Development changes the exposed silver halide crystals into ‘black’ particles in the emulsion layer of the photomask.
The development times and temperatures are critical for maintaining the correct CD of the photomask, and the transportation of the film from one step to another needs to be finely tuned. Fresh chemicals are added to the tanks in pre-defined rates according to the mask size, and the chemistry is pumped and re-circulated through the tank to ensure correct dilution.
Fixation is the next chemical process of the photomask fabrication and is necessary to stop the development reactions and obtain a stable image. At this stage, the unexposed silver halide is washed out of the film photomask and the base dyes are cleared. Just like during development, the fixer is consumed during the process, and materials washed out of the film build up in the fixer tank. Fixer replenishment helps to counteract these processes.
Following adequate fixation, it is important to wash the film to remove residual processing chemicals and byproducts. Again, careful replenishment rates are set to ensure that the wash stage is clean and free of contaminates (which are washed to drain). The chemical and wash phases are complete and all that remains is to dry the film.
At this stage the most important factors are adequate drying of the film while maintaining good dimensional stability.
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Hello Folks, I have fabricated perovskite module of size 10*10cm2. Now I want to laminate this module? Can someone suggest how to do proper lamination of the module. If you can please refer the method, materials or reseach papers, it would be of great help. I have been looking for materials like meltonix (by Solaronix), encapsulation epoxy (Osilla) but not sure if we can use it? Please let me know If anyone can assist. Thanks
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Hi Asif, Epoxy is rather a messy substance and it can be hard getting the air bubbles out of it. Typically solar modules are laminated using an "EVA" film plus an additional plastic layer. If you just wish it for shorter term testing the EVA layer can be used on its own.
If you head over to youtube you will find lots of people doing DIY lamination of their own solar panels, so you can get an idea of what is involved. It can be hard getting the temperatures just right so you get an even bubble free layer however.
We actually did some similar work however and found it was easiest to buy a semi industrial paper laminator from china (typically the type that accepts rolls of laminating material), we selected one that was able to select thick items and this worked well for glass slides. You can actually simply use the standart laminator plastic sheets in fact also. If you use EVA film on its own you can cover it with a piece of Teflon or silicon backing sheet as this separates easily from the EVA after it has cooled.
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The type k has chromei wire,alumei wite n probably copper wire.It is the most available thermocouple probably.
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In the past I built many thermocouples, like cromel-alumel, Cooper- constantan, cromel- copel and so on. First we twist the two wires each other and in a graphite well filled with alcohol conected to an electric transformer we built the junction by a short circuit and melting. The junction with a ball shape was observed with a glass magnifier to check for defects. Finally we calibrate the junction by comparison to a certificate thermometer inside a oil bath or a water bath depend on the temperature range.
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I have to fabricate a 2D Hot electron transistor for my project.
I come mainly from a theoretical physics background. So I don't know what to search or read to know about what parameters affect the frequency of a 2D heterostructure Transistor. Can someone help me out by pointing the literature I should really be looking for?
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I am fabricating the screen printed carbon electrodes with Ag/AgCl reference electrode, carbon working and carbon counter electrodes. How can I validate its parameters and functioning? Is there any defined set of standards regarding electrical conductivity and resistance? How shall I carry out the electrochemical characterization?
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This is a sensible question, though there is no standard test, and companies that make screen-printed electrodes won't share their approach. I would suggest validating for a specific small set of applications, because no screen-printed carbon electrode can be ideally suited for every possible electrolyte and/or current density. It's worth keeping in mind that most of the commercially available products are only designed for single use, and they are rarely stabilized before measurement (wetting the porous carbon and reaching a stable OCP often takes longer than a few minutes).
You could choose a few electrolytes and electrochemical measurements for your tests, then I suggest repeating the same tests across multiple electrodes of the same batch and between batches. If you're trying to match a particular commercial screen-printed product, do the same test on those and compare that repeatability with your electrodes.
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Also recommend which fabric to use for better results in evaporation?
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More details here
Enhancing the solar still performance via rotating wick belt and quantum dots nanofluid
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the types of the electrodes in Cyclic voltammetry according to what I can choose it
and
if you are fabricating a counter electrode (cathode ) in PV cell and anode
Are they the same in CV, if they are the same which one is the working electrode and counter electrode
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Lee Hk , you can perform cyclic voltammetry in both three and two-electrode systems. For three-electrode measurement, the active material (the material of interest) is used as the working electrode, the counter electrode (Pt wire or plate) is used for completion of circuit and flow of current and the third is the reference electrode (Ag/AgCl, SHE, etc) are used.
While, in a two-electrode system, the working electrode is the material of interest and the reference and counter are shorted to use as the second electrode.
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As we know, heteroepitaxy is an interesting topic in the field of semiconductor material fabrication by CVD method. For diamond heteroepitaxy on Ir substrate, we know no related results about heteroepitaxial nucleation are reported without the bias enhanced stage. It means some specific method is needs though the diamond heteroepitaxy on Ir substrate is possible from a theoretical point of view. So what factor decides whether one material can be heteroepitaxially grown on a substrate?
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Len Leonid Mizrah Thank you for your generous share. Your considerate suggestions brings me a lot of ideas. In fact, heteroepitaxial diamond growth and even single crystal growth is not a technical problem for me; however, it is an important task for me to understand why epitaxy can occur. Thanks again.
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how we can synthesize control growth of the vertically aligned ZnO nanostructures on the carbon fiber surface in a outward direction?
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thank you prof. R. Sagayaraj
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I found that a senior professor has done data fabrication to get funding and make publications. That is eventually for his private company. Making money using disabilities is ok, but research needs to be conducted in a transparent way for fair competition.
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In general, when researchers willfully deceive their colleagues by falsifying information, misrepresenting study results, or appropriating the words and ideas of others without providing credit, they are breaking fundamental research norms as well as fundamental society values.
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We are going to fabricate silicon based anode materials on copper foil. We are targeting to enhance cyclic stability of anode as a result of Li ion insertion. In literature, mostly it has been done after coin cell fabrication. Is it possible to test that without coin cell fabrication in electrochemical work station by EIS and CV? If yes, then what should be complete electrode assembly? We are looking to use LiOH solution as an electrolyte, sample deposited copper foil as working electrode and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. Will it work? Any suggestion or recommend from literature will be appreciated.
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Your electrolyte will be substantially different, therefore the cycling characteristics of your electrode in this setup would be substantially different than those in a cell made using a standard Li-ion electrolyte. Can this difference be ignored for your publication?
If I tried to do this with my cells - and I wish I could - my first problem would be that my binder (CMC/SBR) would dissolve in any aqueous electrolyte. This binder seems to be the standard for Li-ion anodes, but lots of researchers ignore that and use PVDF/NMP. Does this apply to your anode?
Electrodes are often treated as if they perform in isolation, but the electrochemical efficiency of an electrode in any cell is dependent on both the electrolyte solvent and salt. This isn't just because of the SEI, it's fundamental to the charge transfer at the interface.
If you want to conduct CV and EIS without coin cell cycling, I recommend using a swagelok-type cell (some manufacturers are EL-CELL and redox.me) with a standard electrolyte that can be assembled in an inert environment then removed and tested with a standard potentiostat.
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Hello all colleagues,
I have a simple question that I am finding the Grams spectroscopy software (with full approach) for 3D fabrication. I am not able to find any version for personal usage. If you have information how to search for it or if you have the software to share with me , please let me know. I will contact via email as well.
Thank you and Most sincerely,
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Dear Dr Bojidarka B. Ivanova, Thank you for your answer. I have the same idea with you. The software comes along with the machine in the institution. I can open the files in the general computer. Best regards,
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Hi,
I am simulating a NFC antenna (planar coil inductor) on a polyimide substrate in HFSS and comparing the input impedance/smith chart of the simulation with the fabricated sample. I checked the inductor value at 13.6 MHz which is a good match between the physical sample and simulation. However, for the physical sample smith chart measurement, I am getting open point at 45 MHz frequency whereas in the simulation it is 66.3 MHz. I have attached the picture of both simulation and actual measurement. I want to match my simulation with the physical measurement.
In the simulation what might cause this difference in open point frequency shift, anybody can suggest?
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It is very clear that you have a parallel resonance circuit as expected. The resonance frequency at zero reactance. The presence of the capacitance is very apparent. In order to obtain matching with the experiment you need to add a parasitic capacitance across the inductor. It may be just the header capacitance which is the capacitance between the connection pads pf the inductor.
It is a normal practice to find the measured resonance frequency is smaller than the simulated one.
Best wishes
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we want to fabricate Schottky barrier-based Source and Drain in MOSFET without ion implantation and Diffusion because of lack of facilities. For our device, Channel width and length are not a concern, we want to fabricate Simple high channel length devices.
can anyone suggest to me the process flow and any good paper for fabricating simple SBMOSFET?
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Dear Bobby Bnm ,
Happy new year!
If you have n-type silicon then you can use metals which have a high work function phi such that the work function of the metal is greater with that of the semicondcutor with with few tenths of an electron volt. In this way one can build rectifying Schottky contact. It is well known that platinum and Gold build good rectifying MS contact with n-Si.
If you have p-type material then you have to choose a metal with lower work function than the p-Si such Ti, Al, Ta, and Ag. such that a potential barrier is formed across the interface leading to the rectifier behavior.
The most important issue is to have a very clean surface of the semiconductor before the metal deposition. Very thin oxide film may enhance the enhance the rectifying contact. Also silicidation can also help to get reproduced Schottky diode.
Best wishes
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Looking for Graphite whose particle size is less than 1 micro meter in India.
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Respected Sir,
Refer this link for more details
Hope this information is useful.
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I am working on composites for FDM, my work requires mixing of additives and filament fabrication.
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The microcompounder has a capacity of making polymer nanocomposites. Mini-injection molding machine can subsequently prepare tensile/flexural specimen from the blends/nanocomposites. Thus, the facility offers an option to effectively blend as well as mold smaller quantity of polymeric materials and prepare test specimens for tensile and flexure
For more details please visit:
Microcompounder and mini injection moulding facility | Industrial Research and Consultancy Centre (iitb.ac.in)
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I want to fabricate CuSe thin film by... solution method
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a brief review about properties and charactertics of blended fabrics of 20%wool/80%nylon
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Étant donné que le textile en polyamide encore appelé nylon initialement créés présentent des problèmes de rigidité, d'absorption ( car est Cristaline) et confort. Le mélange avec la laine facilite l'absorption ( la laine étant constituée des zones Cristaline et des zones amorphes) et réduit la rigidité du polyamide et le rend plus confortable.
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The cantilever is trapezoidal shaped with non uniform substrate thickness. Piezoelectric layer, and electrode layers are uniform. I want to learn the the possible fabrication steps such kind of cantilever.
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Dear Anand, I am not sure to understand your question, but the steps might be:
- build the rod
- rectify if necessary the surface where you want to create your piezo substrate,
- bond the piezo layer (a ceramic or piezo-composite plate? Film?) and the electrodes, if not already done by the manufacturer,
- bond insulant layers where necessary,
- bond the piezo-assembly to the rod...
If you have to heat the sample during the bonding process, be careful to not exceed the depolarization temperature of your piezo-material!
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I am working in perovskite photovoltaic lab. We are fabricating carbon based monolithic perovskite solar cell. The structure of our cell is FTO/c-TiO2/m-TiO2/ZrO2/C and perovskite infiltration. We have fabricated the solar but we are not getting ideal IV curve which also results in low efficiency. How to improve the fill factor and get better IV curve?
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Georgi Hristov Yordanov Yes, your assumptions are correct. We have some good results also but we get curve similar to this.
I agree there is severe shunting, how can I avoid this thing in order to have ideal IV Curve? Am i doing anything wrong while fabricating the device?
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Would a conventionally (e.g., non-microfluidic photolithography fabricated) small hypoxia chamber be suitable in place of a microfluidic fabricated hypoxia chamber for a C. elegans acute hypoxia (1-2hr) assay?
What I am asking is weather a device I make out of plexiglass or glass parts would be suitable for creating hypoxic conditions for C. elegans for a 1-2hr assay with a pre-mixed gas mixture, and would there be a compelling physics/engineering reason why this would **not** work in respect to the gas flow in the interior chamber and creating hypoxic conditions?
The interior chamber volume would increase from 90 μL (microliters) to 9mL so a 10000% volume increase from a microfluidics device (Grey, 2004), but I have pre-mixed gas mixture available so this would just be an increase in the volume of the chamber and not the flow rate once a continuous flow of 1ml/min at 1atm (~14psi) in the device is established and the outflow analyzed and validated with an oxygen meter.
Based on a literature search and finding a paper from Dr. Bergmann’s lab (Grey et al, 2004 ) where they used a (PDMS epoxy e.g., Dow SYLGARD 182/184) they fabricated device on a petri dish with C. elegans worms to create an oxygen gradient.
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I agree with Shin Murakami.
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I fabricated a composite membrane using PSF and PEG with DMF.
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When considering each polymers functional group, PEG contains OH functional group; it may form Van der Waals forces with sulfonyl group in PSF polymer. If you used temperature to prepare the membrane, new bonds might be created by breaking the bonds. You can check the membrane on bonds level using FTIR, if new peaks appeared by comparing it to the original polymers peaks. I'm not specialized in chemistry, but u can search weather it's possible to found H-bonding between the two.
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What are the challenges in using glass substrate for microstrip fabrication? Do industries really use them?
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Yes, they can be used. They are nowadays used for 5G applications because of stability in temperature and humidity and low dielectric loss.
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Hello,
I am planning to coat membrane casting solution onto a supporting material. However, it is quite difficult to find a suitable membrane support material. Most of vendors sell nonwoven support materials in buck, more than 200 yards, which is quite expensive.
Can anyone recommend any vendor who sells nonwoven fabrics for ultrafiltration membrane support in lab scales?
Many Thanks!
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Hello Ke Meng , I am currently in the same position as you trying to find a vendor for nonwoven fabrics for membrane casting. Were you able to find a vendor that sold the fabric in smaller quantities?
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What will be the future of solar cells? Perovskite solar cells? OR III-V Solar cells ??
1. Perovskite solar : Easier to fabricate (can be printed like paper) and have low conversion efficiency but might include toxic materials.
2. III-V solar cell: Difficult to fabricate, however, it can provide higher efficiency (47.1%, 2020).
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I think that the perovskite solar cells will be further developed to overcome its instability and toxicity. There is already appreciable advancements in the direction by using more stable perovskite materials and by using metal oxide transport layers which seal the material against the water moisture in the environments.
Because of the many advantages of such cell type it will be further developed for committal applications.
As for the the iii-v solar cells they may be used with optical concentrators.
But their cooling may limit their wide use in addition to the limited resources of their materials.
I am very convinced that the solar cell industry will be further depend on silicon solar cells with all type of silicon solar cells from the crystalline to the multicrysatlline to polycrystalline to microcrystalline to amorphous solar cells.
We developed newly the heavily doped silicon solar cells that do not need silicon with high purity or just need what is called solar grade silicon.
I would like that you follow our research by looking for example to the paper in the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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I'd like to fabricate by lithography multilayer metasurfaces in the visible. Which kind of high transparent polymers or something else can you suggest me ? For example I tried with OrmoClear FX but NMP damages the polymer with the second layer.
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ITO is the standard transparent layer at the surface of the solar cells. Use RF sputtering to have a 2 microns layer of ITO deposited on the surface of the solar cells.
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Share novel interlacement of woven fabric and how the effect interlacement pattern on mechanical properties of the fabric.
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Is it possible to fabricate perovskite (AgNbO3, BaTiO3 etc.) thin-film via the RF/DC sputtering method with the help of pure metal precursors such as Silver and Niobium in the presence of an Oxigen (O2) environment?
If anyone has tried,
If anyone has experience with another perovskite thin film, please share your experience.
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Dear Mohammad,
this is a very interesting technical question. To the best of my knowledge this is not possible, and personally I don't see the advantages of such an approach. To my under standing, sputterting is a physical process, thus I think it is much easier to prepare the peroykites AgNbO3 and BaTiO3 by established chemical methods and then do the sputtering. Of course you can also use commercial samples such as described in this typical literature reference:
Properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films grown on silicon by rf magnetron sputtering
This paper is freely accessible as public full text on RG. I also strongly suggest to search the "Publications" section of RG for terms like "sputtering of perovskites" to find and access helpful articles about this topic:
Good luck with your work!
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Dear scholars,
I am wondering to know which type of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) can yield epoxy nanocomposites with superior optical properties, particularly transparency. In other words, is there any difference between the transparency of nanocomposites fabricated by cellulose I or cellulose II.
I would be grateful if you could please suggest decent references regarding the feature of nanofillers that affect the transparency of composites.
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Dear Reza Bahrami, the following review sheds light on all facets of this type of materials with their applications. My Regards
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I use indium mounts to hold my sample on an 2-inch holder, now I want to remove the indium on the backside of my sample since I want to fabricate a MOSCAP, can somebody tell me what can I do?
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I encountered the same problem after the growth of PEALD at 700C recently. You can put the samples into HCl and the hydrogen will generate. After several minutes, indium can been wiped by cotton swabs easily. The bubbles will disappear if the Indium has been completely removed.
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I am fabricating activated carbon from biowaste like peanut shell for supercapacitor applications. Literature shows that all calcination are doing under inert atmosphere and not normal calcination. We dont have facility to do calcination under inert atmosphere. Will it affects the result if I go for calcination without providing inert atmosphere
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Dear Vishnu Sankar S, yes both processes are used, i.e., with and without an inert atmosphere. Please check the attached file. My Regards
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I am fabricating a optical micro ring resonator where the width of the main waveguide and ring wave guide is 1 um. I am wondering what should be (optimum) height of the waveguides so that it supports a single mode with maximum confinement.
Thanks.
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Substrate is SiO2/Si. no there is no separating layer.
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I would like to extend the study of electrochemical performance of the electrode material using two electrode setup and the literature describes the coin cell fabrication in a glovebox. If I am not using elements like lithium or sodium, should the assembling be done necessarily inside a glovebox or is there any alternative?
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Glovebox is usually not essential until and unless you are using toxic chemicals.
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I need a High Precision Printer that can print photolithography Mask in Transparency at 10um range. I know Inkjet printers does better in this case but I need a specific Model that people used for this kind of thing. It would be really helpful for me if can suggest me the model number.
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Hi,
I am working on the design and modeling of micro heat pipes. Then, I am going to fabricate some samples and experimentally validate the obtained results. Is there any research center or company in Europe where can I use their setups or order them to fill the customized heat pipes? I would appreciate it if you mention some places.
Best regards,
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I would recommend contacting Aavid thermacore Europe, they may be able to help.
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Respected Researchers,
I want to fabricate the rods from Hydroxyapatite ( HAP) nano powder. I want to develop these rods for the coating purpose by thermal spray process.
1. Can opt the thermal spray method for the development of coating with this powder?
2. Please suggest the good literature and method for the fabrication of the rods of dia 6.67mm length 300mm.
I am waiting for the positive response
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Dear Vibhu Sharma,
Do you want to use a wire flame spray gun for thermal spraying? Thermal spraying with wire/rod is based on melting and atomizing the material. This means that your nano powder will be melted and its "nano" structure will no longer exist. In the event of the molten particle spraying, you can use a conventional powder with the same result.
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I want to fabricate a floating gate FET for biosensing but I could not understand about width, length size for Drain, Source and Channel. I want to make a well up on channel for electrolyte and analyte housing by PDMS and want to use gate as floating in the electrolyte. Would you please help me about this?
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As we know, it is a very difficult task to differentiate tsunami deposits from storm deposits. Sedimentological (grain size, grain sorting, sedimentary structure and sedimentary fabric), palaeontological, geochemistry and geophysical analysis are the most common methods to identify and characterise the tsunami deposits. Recently, X-ray computed tomography is being used in grain size, sedimentary structures and fabric analysis. Can we consider X-ray computed tomography as a unique tool that could discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits?
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The criteria that can be used to distinguish between tsunami deposits and storm deposits includes: the frequency of the deposits, the nature of neighbouring Facies associations and the sedimentary structure associations
The frequency of storm deposits is greater in a sedimentary series than those of tsunamis, to the point that sometimes we can have a succession of several hundred meters consisting almost essentially of storm facies as is the case for the Ordovician series of Morocco
Storm action is recorded from land to distal offshore so storm deposits must be associated with other shallow deposits: foreshore, shoreface, offshore or delta deposits. While tsunami deposits can occur in various environments ranging from the coast to the deep sea.
Storm deposits generally exhibit a wider variety of sedimentary facies than tsunami deposits.
Tsunami deposits may include sedimentary structures that reflect the combination of oscillatory currents and turbulent unidirectional currents. For example tsunami deposits of the Oligo Miocene of the NW Rif (Morocco) include layers of constant thickness displaying hummocky cross-stratification or Micro-hummocky cross stratification and large flute casts and groove casts at their base
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Dear Researchers,
Kindly suggest techniques to fabricate THz microstrip antenna
PCB etching process,
Lithography,
Micro-machining
Please point me.
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According to me Lithography is the best technique
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I see a similar issues encountered by other. Can anyone help answering. Thank you.
My hyperledger fabric network consists of 1 orderer, 1 organization and 3 peers. I tampered ledger of first peer and then tried to do another transaction on the same peer, then the following error was thrown:
"Error: deliver completed with status (SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE) before txid received - proposal response: "
But the transaction was executed and also the block was added in tampered ledger of peer. But the tampered data was not restored to previous state.
With the reference of the answer in this link - "https://intellipaat.com/community/17752/in-hyperledger-fabric-blocks-locations-and-validity-criteria", I came to know that if the tampering is done, "the state database can be dropped and rebuilt from the blockchain".
So this process of dropping and rebuilding the database is done automatically by peer or we need to do it manually?
In short, if tampering is done in ledger of peer, how can be the previous state of ledger restored?
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maybe this helps:
or
Though I'm not familiar with the toolset provided by Fabric for such cases, I would rather say you have to rebuild the peer manually. As far as I know, there is no process which reconciliates the state/chain of a peer with states/chains of other peers - so you typically won't see that you deviate from other peers.
Cheers
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As a low cost mask fabrication process, Kapton films can be used by stretching them on a ring. what is the best method for this stretching?
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You´re welcome Yagmur Demircan Yalcin , I was looking for some company selling these kind of Kapton blanks, but without any real success.
Good luck with your research.
Regards.
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Hi, all
I'm struggling with fabrication of working electrode on SU-8 layer.
here is detailed fabrication process.
1. Ni sacrificial layer deposition by Sputtering (100nm, 5mTorr, 150W, 15nm/min)
2. SU-8 bottom layer patterning
- spin coating with SU-8 2002 (microchem) at 4k rpm
- pre exposure bake: 65temp 3min --> 95temp 5min
- UV exposure with MA-6 mask aligner --> 350W, 25sec exposure
- post exposure bake: 65temp 3min --> 95temp 5min and slow cooling
- Developing in SU-8 developer 2min with puddling
- N2 gas drying
3. Cr/Au working electrode patterning & deposition
- patterning with LOR 3A/S1805 PR
- ebeam evaporation of Cr with 1 A/sec, 5nm (deposition start at ~5 E-7 torr)
- thermal evaporation of Au with 1 A/sec, 100nm
4. Passivation with SU-8
- same procedure as 2.
after fabrication, electrochemical property (impedance, Nyquist plot) is measured.
but only 1~2 devices are working well among 50 devices.
what would be a problem in this case?
i have doubt about surface roughness or micro crack of SU-8 layer and Au electrode.
please let me know your opinion.
Thank you in advance.
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Hello, great day.
First of all, Im not sure if my experience can help you since I did not fabricate any devices but instead I only produce a simple thin film Au electrode. I can see that you did not proceed with annealing process after the Au deposition. My last experience, Au thin film layer will have some crack problem during the electrochemical measurement if they were not annealed after the deposition process. And ya, it does effect the results really bad because the cracks affects the connectivity. The results get better once I tried to anneal the Au thin film after the deposition process. Material that experienced thermal deposition will contain some stress in their phase. So annealing process will help to release the stress slowly while rearrange the particle grain growth. Therefore, it will help to overcome the cracking problems during the electrochemical measurement. In my case, it was clearly Au thin film cracking is the main problem. Im not sure in your case. But seeing your results, I agree that it might be caused by the connectivity problems due to some cracks. Im not sure about the rough surface , but I do believe that if there are any micro scratch on your device, it might caused disaster too. Hope this help.
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Software to find the density, hardness, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of magnesium matrix composites fabricated by powder metallurgy?
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@Vipul Sharma
Thanks for your suggestion.
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Hello there,
How much is the highest power level of SiC modules at the moment which have been fabricated for utilization in electric vehicles?
Please share the reference.
Thank you very much in advance
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Hi Sofyan,
That's wonderful!
Thanks
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I am working on the fabrication of Bio-FET. I am looking for some software where I can model and silumate my device.
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You can use SILVACO ATLAS TCAD for the simulation of bio-FET. License and crack version are available.
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I'm interested in nanopatterning transparent teflon sheets in a reactive ion etching process. I previously thought an O2 etch would be enough to etch PTFE since it is a polymer however after SEMing the surface does not appear to be changed. Does anyone have any references for etching teflon in an RIE or any recipe recommendations? The nanopatterns i am interested in fabricated would be anywhere from 200-300nm tall.
Thanks!
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Hi Gabriel Cossio , i was wondering if the fab after following Hongjun advice worked fine. I am planning to do something similar.
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Hi Everyone,
Hope you are doing well. I am trying to fabricate perovskite solar cells based on nip configuration structure. After patterning FTO Glass slides with Zn and 2M HCL, I am using heat-resistant Kapton tape to mask the targeted areas shown in the figure attached to spin coat subsequent layers. I have the following questions related to the fabrication process:
1: Does Kapton tape adhesive deposited on FTO and Etched side effect charge carrier collection and transportation to the contacts?
2: If yes, how can I remove the adhesive residue of Kapton tape without damaging the perovskite absorber layer?
3: Is there any other way to prevent the deposition of layers on bare FTO and etched surfaces?
Thank you for your time. I really appreciate your help!
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It is so that it is required to keep all solar cell layers free from contamination. So, when pulling up the Kapton tape some adhesive residual must remains sticking on the surface. These residuals must be completely eliminated by selective chemical etching. In the sense you have to use selective etching materials for the adhesive residuals only.
It you could not find any selective etching solution then you have to use other method.
For example you can deposit your layer on the whole surface and then remove the unwanted areas of the intended layer by a photolithographic and selective etching step. Such step is used routinely in the fabrication of integrated circuits and electron devices.
My answer is a conceptual answer that may guide you to solve your problem.
best wishes
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