Science topic

Eyes - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Eyes, and find Eyes experts.
Questions related to Eyes
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
Hi,
I am trying to analyze the duration of the gaze toward a specific object. Our lab has the Smart Eye Pro systems (mounted on a driving simulator), and I would like to find a way to annotate the locations of road users/objects by time so that we can track their locations video-frame by frame and determine whether the gaze landed on the road users/objects.
That being said, is there any video annotation software to save the coordinates data of the road users frame by frame?
Thank you in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
If you are using smart eye pro together with iMotions, you would be able to define areas of interest (AOI). For dynamic stimuli such as moving objects this does require you move the AOI periodically and the algorithm can interpolate the points in between to give you smooth movements. Gaze based metrics are then calculated on the area automatically.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
I want to Immunostain retina vasculature, so I'm looking for a protocol to embed the retina in wax, do I need to embed and section the whole eye or do I have to remove the cornea and the lens and embed the eye cup and is there any tips on how to handle the retina during the embedding????
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it would be good if you could isolate the lens, since it could break while sectioning, and breaking the rest of the sections.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Learning to read requires children to jump with their eyes from letter to letter and from word to word. I assume that experience with picture books trains children's skills to jump with their eyes over a page. Does anybody know whether there is research about this?
Furthermore, animated picture books induce eye movements through the animations. Thus, children respond to changes in the environment rather than actively steer their saccadic eye movements. Thus, they may be less skillful in controlling their eye movements when learning to read. Again my question: does someone know whether there is empirical research about this?
If there is no research on these two hypotheses: Who would be into running a study together?
Relevant answer
Answer
I am interested as I am also working on a related topic in my PhD research. I am investigating the use of design elements in learning to reduce the cognitive load in children using eye tracking.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
7 answers
Dear experts,
Is there any study showing that computer work causes increased eye pressure, a symptom representative of Glaucoma?
I have personally talked with several eye doctors, but they told me that it had not been proven so far. So, I am seeking such new researchers in this regard.
Best regards,
Bahman
Relevant answer
Answer
In literature and most population based survey, no correlation between intraocular pressure and computer use has been reported neither has it been established that there is increased risk of intraocular pressure elevation with use of computer. However, more study is needed to prove or dispute this claim.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
Can we prepare chlorhexidine 0.02%eye drops from mouthwash preparations?
Relevant answer
Answer
We have to freshly prepare 0.04% chlorhexidine under strict aseptic precautions under laminar hood. It will be an alternative to PHMB. But higher concentrations are toxic to the eye
Take 0.2 ml of Chlorhexidine from 20% solution and add 99.8 ml of stere water.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
1. What should be the tailored approach & plan of management for patients with Retinitis pigmentosa & other suspected cases of predominantly cone/Cone-rod dystrophy in Retina OPD in a setting lacking auto-fluorescence, & other electro-physiologics? &
2. Role of LVA trial & colour filters for these type of patients?
Relevant answer
Answer
1. Your clinical diagnosis is sufficient for RP and other dystrophies with typical morphology. But you can always get the electrophysiology tests done at centres where they are available. Your nearest medical college should have these facilities. They are also equired for follow up monitoring. But since you are doing these tests infrequently, patient can visit the centers with such facilities at your referral.
But tailoring the management to individual patient depends mainly on the functional vision of the patient and patient's visual needs in terms of his activities of daily life. Use standard questionnaires to assess this. For example this should be helpful
2. LVAs are highly subjective and require specialist assessment. Better start with simple aids like hand magnifier or high plus glasses for reading. Use of smartphones is a good substitute in place of LVAs for most of the patient's visual requirements.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Hello,
How to record the curing process of myopia, My major is not medicine. I have a method which can recover my eye from myopia, now, I want to record the curing via scientific instruments,like this: Day 1,my myopia degree : 450 Day 2, my myopia degree: 420 Day 3, my myopia degree :400 .Day 4,my myopia degree: 360 …… . The theory is in this preprint:
doi: 10.20944/preprints201903.0207.v3 Thank you very much.
Relevant answer
Hello!
usually we record myopia in dioptries. Another method of myopia control is axial lens. It help us understand focus distant. And the last method witch can check daly changes is OCT of choroid.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
HI!
I was wondering if it is possible and to a certain extent viable program a normal webcamera to be used as an eyetracker? This can be a great tool for those who may not have funds to procure a professional eyetracking hardware.
Also, are there any opensource softwares available that can do the abovementioned task?
Regards
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it seems like that. Try here:
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Dear All,
I intend to establish psychology lab in my department. Please suggest suitable version for Tobi eye tracker as I found greater differences in prices. I need one which is highly specialized and latest one with diverse features which suits psychology laboratory experiments and researches.
Regards,
Dr. Afreen Faiza
Relevant answer
Answer
Я пользуюсь простейшим Tobii Eye Tracker 5. Для текущих задач психологического тестирования его волне хватает. Если Вы собираетесь решать неврологические или нейроофтальмологические задачи - следует рассмотреть более сложную и более дорогую профессиональную аппаратуру
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
After sectioning mouse eye cups of wildtype mice, I see some bulges in the retina after dapi staining. What are the possible reasons for this? Could it be the dissection? Could the mice be compromised?
Relevant answer
Answer
You can try s procedure we have recently developed. Please refer to
and doi: 10.4081/ejh.2020.3154
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
We are writing an article and we don't know how to properly describe it? Is a dimple behind a horse's eye alright? Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
supraorbital fossa
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
13 answers
I am working on Eye tracking data from Tobbi Eye tracker. I need to generate heatmaps and scanpath for visualization. I have fixations coordinates for left eye and right eye, and timestamp for each fixation. I need to calculate saccades to generate scanpath. Please let me know if anyone know how to create heatmaps and scanpath ?
when we have only fixations and time.
Relevant answer
Answer
Also check please the following useful RG link :
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
6 answers
I want to know if my supposition is possible and achievable, or if it is impossible.
I was considering that colors are just reflection of the light toward the eye's retina. It is the case because only in presence of light we see color and shapes, while in absence of light there is no color and no visible shape of objects.
Now, in the tech world there is a good interest in developing virtual reality technology. I see Facebook (now Meta) investing in OculusVR, Google tried the Google Glasses and other companies are developing VR technologies.
But all those technologies have head-mounted devices, which I highly doubt customers would wear, especially for a prolonged period, and I see it even less as a solution to improve human's daily activities.
Is there a possibility to develop a projector that projects light directly in the human eye, and that generate an hologram in this way? The hologram, with this method, i guess would probably be seen only by the individual who gets the light pointed toward him. How possible is such technology? What problems am I not considering?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Hello! Can anyone help me please? I have sent purified bacterial sample of a bioluminescent bacteria isolated from a squid's eye to a commercial sequencing lab. The results came today, but the sequence similarity is showing 91% homology with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The problem is we did morphological and biochemical tests in the lab on this bacterium and it does not look at all like Pseudomonas aeruginosa I don't know what went wrong. It is Gram-negative, pinpoint and extremely bioluminescent bacteria. I am confused. Is it a new bacterium or there is a technical mistake??
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks very much. I have checked with the company. It was a mixed template. So I am sending the sample again. I guess it got contaminated during transport.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
Hello! I'm curious whether anyone has used sectoral input-output modelling to test or identify circular (as in Circular Economy) patterns in the economy. My impression is that most publicly available economic data is very "linear" in nature, reporting income, output, and flows among sectors. I'd be curious if anyone in the economics or regional economics fields have applied these methods with an eye toward circular patterns like resource recirculation, re-use, durability, adaptability, value retention, etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
A circular economy (also referred to as circularity and CE) is "a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible"
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
Theoretically, if only the saturation is changed in the HSV format, then the perceived brightness of the image should not change. However, the human eye clearly feels a blink if even a small part of the image changes the background saturation. I am attaching a gif image. Why this phenomena is happen?
Relevant answer
Answer
FY: Is it because color and brightness are entangled?
Formally not. But maybe the human color perception has its own additional neurons signal that makes blinking filling. For example, blurring gives not this phenomenon. See attached gif.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
9 answers
A patient has an intraocular pressure of 24 mmHg in one eye and 20mmHg in the other eye. The first eye is above the threshold for treatment but would colleagues start treatment to both eyes ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Do a glaucoma work up: Optic nerve head evaluation, OCT scan, VF, pachy. History is also very important in this case. If everything is normal/not remarkable, monitor
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
For Eye Ulcer prediction we need image dataset, kindly share where to get those.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
I am transplanting a polymer (Parylene-C) coated structure in the anterior chamber of the eye and expect it to reside on the iris, however, almost all of them get adhered to the cornea and not the iris. Is there any eye-physiology-related explanation to that?
Relevant answer
Answer
Very interesting video Vladimir Siplivy , thanks!
That is right, the iris movement seems predominant. However, we do see tissues being transplanted to the ACE and they all got vascularized. Now, we are aiming to position our device at the angle of the eye where iris movements are minimal.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
I would like to hear from fellow behavior analysts on massed trials and interspersed trials. Maybe I did not understand the concept well, so I will post here what I understand by each type of technique.
Massed trials: These are successive trials of the same task, usually presented in 3 blocks with 10 trials.
Interspersed trials: These are trials that are interspersed across multiple tasks, and multiple blocks are made between tasks to achieve 10 trials. That is, one of three trials of touch, then one or three of mand, then one or three of eye contact, and so on.
I usually use massed trials. From what I read in the last articles it is not clear which system gets the best results.
What is your opinion?
Relevant answer
Answer
I generally recommend massed trials for establishing a new skill and then interspersed trials for generalization and maintenance.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Im researching prediction of Diabetes using Iris image.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thankyou for your answer.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
I have a matlab structure eye data from SRR eyelink. How to combine behavioral data with the eye data and extrcat saccadic amplitude for each trial.
Relevant answer
Answer
I used this software before, it may help you, ''Data Viewer for EyeLink Eye-Tracker Gaze Data - SR Research (sr-research.com) ''
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
16 answers
The literature is conflicting with approximately half of the studies reporting no change in colour vision and the remainder a change. The interesting group of patients are those with a tinted implant in one eye and a plain one in the fellow eye. There is a case report of one such patient demanding the tinted implant to be explanted
Relevant answer
Answer
I am answering this as a patient as I have no medical qualifications whatsoever, thus it's an experiential report. I recently acquired a clear implant, vs the other one, implanted two years ago, which was yellowish. I believe both have a UV filter, but the tinting is different: that can clearly be seen by shutting each eye in quick succession and comparing. When both eyes are used, I see something in between: the difference does not bother me in terms of everyday vision, but I do prefer the yellow tint (warmer) in terms of perception. I am very happy with the results so far, but had I been given a choice of 'coloring' I would probably have chosen tinted in both eyes, provided there were no medical disadvantages. I also prefer warm lights in general (say inside the home etc.), but I know people who prefer cold lights - perhaps they would prefer non-tinted implants. Still- having both 'options' is also interesting: each eye sees differently, and sometimes better, more detail etc., compared to the other, in differing light conditions, so that could be regarded as an advantage I suppose, a kind of (slightly) improved potency.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
Especially when it comes to hydrating the eye/conjunctiva/sclera and prevent it from getting reddish and showsing reddish veins like in this picture.
Relevant answer
Answer
In the cornea, another highly hydrated eye tissue, the keratan sulfate proteoglycan lumican holds a lot of water. I wouldn’t rule out the sulfated PGs in sclera. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2020.00731/full
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
6 answers
I am looking for tool that can track gaze and can provide the coordinates of the gaze on the webpage?
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
Is there someone that in involved on abnormal neonatal eye movements? I am lookIng for someone that is collecting polygraphy video eeg on this.
Relevant answer
Answer
Defintly neurologist
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
Dear all,
we are experiencing problems with hydroponical cultures of rice. A month ago, we started using a new growth chamber. Since then, the plants started to accumulate crystals of minerals at the leaf tips and the tips get burnt. The crystals are visible to the naked eye, however, we check it under the microscope and they are definitely crystals. The solution is the same as ever, and so are the conditions. Only the growth chamber brand is new. We will for now try to increase the humidity (which is set at 60% at the moment), but I have been wondering, if you have anybody experienced the problem, or if you have any ideas what could be causing it.
Relevant answer
Answer
And what to try water adjustment via Grander System?
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
I wish to know more about the user interface (UX Edition software) and issues, if any, associated with the technical assistance offered.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes there are others too
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
I know that in the cow eye, tapetum lucidum is not present in the inferior or ventral part of the cow eye, where the optic disc is. But, is the tapetum lucidum preferentially oriented towards nasal or temporal?
If so, in which other animal species is this conservated?
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
In the cow tapetum lucidum located is located within the choroid layer of the eye, it is found in retina superonasal..
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
I'm looking for journals and congress to present my studies related to consumer behaviour and UX conducted by biometric techniques such as eye tracking, emotion analysis, galvanic skin response etc...
Any recommendation could be appreciated. Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Also
1-What will business-to-business marketers learn from neuro-marketing? Insights for business marketing practice
Lim, Weng Marc
Journal:
Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing
Year:
2018
2-The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data
J. Richard Landis and Gary G. Koch
Journal:
Biometrics
Year:
1977
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
Hello, dear colleagues,
We've been performing intravitreal injections in mouse eyes but in almost all cases we observe some kind of pathology developing several days after the procedure (even if we inject the PBS): the cornea of injected eye becomes slightly opaque and during the electroretinogram (ERG) recording there is a substantial decrease in b-wave amplitude but a large increase in amplitude of component originated from Muller glial cells. I would like to ask if you could suggest the nature of such pathology and give any tips about the procedure of injection itself to avoid it.
Briefly, we use the disposable 30G sharp needles to puncture the eye and a blunt 34G needle to inject the 1.5-2 microliters of solution. All instruments are desinfected with UV and ethanol, the solution and eyedrops (local anaesthetic and atropine) are filtered and, if possible, autoclaved before injection. Experimentator wears sterile gloves, the mask and operates with anesthetized mouse under a dissecting microscope. The most "suspicious" steps (in my opinion) are:
1) We storage the blunt needles and Hamilton syringe in a sealed glass with 70% ethanol. Could it be that residual ethanol somehow enters the eye together with injection solution? We rinse the needle with distilled water several times before procedure but may be it is still a possibility?
2) We use the PBS for control injection an observe the same sympthomes as described above. Could it be that PBS is not the best choice for control injection and may itself cause some damage to the eye?
3) Afrer the end of procedure we apply the tetracyclin eye ointment on the puncture location to prevent infection. In different papers describing similar procedure there are different types of antibiotics, so may be tetracyclin is not the best option? Which one would you recommend then?
Relevant answer
Answer
You are welcome.
Kindly, keep me posted on how things eventually work out for you, just out of curiosity.
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
11 answers
Often, many find it difficult to choose an eye catching yet relevant subject to write a review paper on. How do you tackle this?
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
6 answers
It's an online assessment for which there are 14 learning objectives. I had 3 groups (Novice, intermediate, and experts) take the assessment that had 4 items for each of the 14 objectives. Ultimately I want the assessment to randomly select only 1 item for each learning objective (a 14-item assessment) from 3 possible items. What test(s) will help me choose the best 3 items for each learning objective? I already have data from 169 test-takers (77 novice / 55 intermediate / 37 experts).
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mark. You should study the chapter on reliability from Julie Pallant book on how to use SPSS. It gives you practical hints on running reliability tests and eliminating the items that do not fit. Any questions? Please feel free to ask.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
I'm engineering B. Subtilis, and I need to install a reporter mechanism that triggers upon cell lysis and is visible to the naked eye. My current approach is to pair a chromogenic or red fluorescent substrate with either a native or non-native intracellular enzyme that cleaves my substrate molecule and triggers a visual change. A few caveats are that the substrate I use cannot be reactive to any enzymes in human saliva, the enzyme must be produced intracellularly, and both the substrate and the enzyme must be impermeable to the cell membrane.
Relevant answer
Answer
it is a non-covalent complex composed of a substrate-bound .It is formed during a chemical reaction
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
Hello, we are trying to implement eye tracking recording for non human primates, larger study is looking into neural activity and movements. Our group had a few questions that we thought people here could help us with as we have similar questions that were asked before here. I looked through those inquiries but didn't quite find the answers we were looking for.
1. Is anyone selling a used eye tracking device? For example the GP3 HD?
2. Has anyone tried using a GoPro camera, can capture 240hz, so seems like an option, and use open source software for eye tracking?
3. Are there any new resources for creating a budget friendly eye tracking system? Using webcams for example, and which webcam as most capture at 30hz.
Thank You
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe that conducting an eye tracking recording for nonhuman primates may necessitate a very accurate gaze tracking mechanism and that it should be done in a specialized lab setting.
Several eye-tracking solutions based on off-the-shelf cameras have been developed over the last decade. These low-cost solutions, however, cannot be expected to provide higher accuracy. Some web camera-based eye-tracking systems are listed below.
  1. https://eyeware.tech/academic-research/
  2. https://www.realeye.io/
  3. https://gazerecorder.com/
  4. https://webgazer.cs.brown.edu/
  5. https://eyesee-research.com/
  6. https://www.tobiipro.com/product-listing/sticky-by-tobii-pro/
If you intend to conduct your research with a GoPro camera, you must consider the visual stimuli that you will present to these nonhuman primates. If you're looking for a low-cost eye-tracking system, one option is to use the front camera of a mobile device to estimate gaze direction.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
Use of different diagnostic modalities is increasing day by day like USG, CT scan, MRI, PET etc.
Recently Google are using retinal scan with Artificial Intelligence (AI) for detecting Diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular diseases. So in near future advanced technology can replace clinical eye. What is your opinion ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr Rahman,
The applications of artificial intelligence in Ophthalmology has considerably evolved, especially in the recent years, that's why I invite you to read this recent article about the relationship between physician-patient interaction and artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of Ophthalmology.
Best regards,
Pr Hambaba
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
No matter how poor a writer I may be, this question needs to be asked in 3 different Projects, including "Human Ethology and Development (Ethogram Theory) : A Full-Fledged Paradigm for PSYCHOLOGY" :
The nature and bases of abstract thought and processing can't continue to be unknown or confusing; we must relate each inception to key directly observable overt behavior patterns (and corresponding environmental aspects, or rather: often aspects of multiple circumstances). These are the EASIEST and yet , I believe, some of the BIGGEST "PROBLEMS" we yet have to solve (STILL, to-date) : SUCH very CENTRAL SETS OF DISCOVERIES THAT MUST BE MADE and they have not yet been well-attempted; there is NO reason such searching for the key observations, looking to establish key discoveries, cannot be attempted, especially now, with modern technologies (eye tracking , etc.); there are ways to solve this sort of problem which we have had historically and in philosophy and within the limits of our "labs" (at least given conceptualizations thereof) -- all these negative views, placing artificial limits on theorists'/researchers' imaginations. **
These are central problems for Psychology in general and for General Artificial Intelligence.
I have proposed, as something central to discovering such "starts" for each level/stage: doing better for ourselves, with recognizing/developing a better or more open and true conceptual structure, for self-understanding, basically: trying/having a much better imagination about imagination _AND_ seeing our Subjects, themselves similarly, having the Memories (imaginations) with the needed spans and scopes, across and between sets of circumstances -- all in a real empirical concrete phenomenological way (and clearly a possible way). (Again, this is for ourselves, for really recognizing all the capacities of the human and the Subject; this would be coming to see that our imaginations (the Memories) can very well "time travel" back and forth through represented circumstances (in the "mind's eye") TO see aspects that only in those multiple contexts (which may superficially seem to be quite different) are VERY meaningful, where only there (altogether considered-together), ARE MEANINGFULNESS-es resulting in abstract understandings, and abstract terms and processes (<-- thinking in/about such multiple circumstances and in those terms).
[ Any notion that ANY concept does not have an important basis in concrete circumstances OR (similarly) the unfounded, self-limiting notion that some abstractions (abstract terms) are not related to ANY specific sets of real features of situations or circumstances IS FALSE AND DEBILITATING. Even the strangest of our abstractions MUST be founded/grounded/or starting-IN directly observable overt behavior patterned responses (circumstances, properly considered). The old-fashioned arrogant, yet very limiting, way of thinking of many historical philosophers MUST BE ABOLISHED. The old-time thought is neither empirically or biologically sound.
** FOOTNOTE: [(Also, by the way, it is even quite conceivable that some discoveries of some key situational circumstances (even if, also, related to more) and related to key pivot points for/of some behavior patterning shifts and the new beginning understandings of "things" of/in KEY circumstances may even be possible to make in the lab [settings].) ]
Relevant answer
Answer
Though the matteability in intelligence is revisited with neuroplaticity I have reasons to conjure its a mistake to match feelings with thought. A misgiven is a suspension until the elimination process is final that sustains that is other facets to well-being than how to apply self-image. I agree that a governance of predictions are limited though the feebleable revisits to eye-trespassing can change a superpower to a third world vice.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Adverse health effects from Rotenone have been well documented in the time since the NOSB reviewed botanicals in 1994. But still Rotenone is continue to be used for organic production. Although no longer offered for sale in the USA, rotenone is still in use as a pesticide on organic farms. Among the compelling reasons to prohibit rotenone, the most heavy is it's linked to eye problems and Parkinson's disease. Astornishelly enough is to note that Rotenone's synergist, piperonyl butoxide, is prohibited from use in organic agriculture.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dr. Tsyrlov, I found your question interesting. I found that rotenone is associated with the induction of parkinsonism in rat models. Also, ''Rotenone will be added as a nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.'' https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/usda-amends-the-national-list-of-54211/
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
My colleagues and I are trying to embed very small tumor spheroids and the major limitation has been actually seeing them to transfer them from culture to Histogel.
We have read several reports of using stains such as Erythrosine dye or Nuclear Fast Red prior to embedding to allow them to be seen easier, but I've seen mixed information about whether or not these dyes are, themselves, fluorescent. We are looking to do three-channel immunofluorescence following sectioning, so dyes which fluoresce would not be helpful.
Can anyone with experience in this area advise? We are not limited to the dyes listed above - we are just looking for a dye that will be visible to the eye, but "invisible" for downstream staining.
Thank you!
~ Kate
Relevant answer
Answer
I have the same question too. Any answers? Specifically, I am having trouble visualizing the spheroids on my cryo/paraffin sections when I look under the microscope. They are roughly around 250microns in diameter.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
  1. Is there any publicly available dataset of eye conjunctive image with corresponding Hemoglobin value?
Relevant answer
Answer
This dataset might be the closest one which I found from the publicly available datasets.
You can contact the authors for the images, In case you need the actual images.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
I am an engineering management student at the American University of Beirut. For my thesis, I am doing research on vigilance decrements .The metrics to be collected include the following performance measures and eye tracking metrics.
Today, and during this pandemic, I want to hold experiments online, using the laptop’s webcam. I am seeking a user-friendly software, where participants can watch the video, react (either by a mouse click or keyboard click).
Relevant answer
Answer
An important topic. follower
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
8 answers
Dear Researchers,
It is a known and obvious fact that the human eye can see better during daytime than nighttime. I am interested to know how electromagnetic radiation (EMR), in general, is playing a critical role while making the human eye able to visualize better during daytime than nighttime. Please provide the detailed physics behind this in view of the remote sensing applications. Thank you.
Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
Relevant answer
Answer
It's a simple signal to noise ratio problem. The sensor in the eye (your retina) has a fixed noise level. The amount of light available to the eye defines the signal level. More light means more signal means better SNR. Of course there are also dynamic range limits to the maximum level as well, and the pupil provides dynamic range control similar to a variable gain amplifier in the front end of a receiver setting the reference level.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
In the Levi-Strauss kinship model; and its applications to artistic design and architecture; and the Harrod revised formula; What are the total numbers of recurrent characters or entities; their distinctive typological labels; their main attributes; their optional attributes; their sequence; their spatial or semantic positions; and structural layers?
Are there any parallels between your revised formula, and the archetypal structure that I found in artworks and rock art works (Furter 2014; Mindprint), and in building sites and cities (Furter 2016; Stoneprint).
See my posts on www.stoneprintjournal.com and in various articles in Expression, detailing the sixteen recurrent types in all cultural and several natural media; their sets of optional attributes; their fixed sequence; their spacing on an ocular (eye to eye) grid; and the five polar features of limb joints or junctures. My formula has hundreds of artworks and building sites as evidence of individual and collective subconscious expression of natural structure, identical in all ages. All five layers of structure, as a kind of natural grammar, are easily demonstrated in artworks or on building sites. I am looking for a model that demonstrates the archetypal subtext in myth and ritual , where the boundaries of character, events, sequence and semiotic positions are blurred and fluid.
Relevant answer
Answer
Agner, I have found that style is inherently meaningless, and used only to differentiate a polity from known rivals. Thus it is similar to the sound allocation layer in language. The theory of culture as a collective personality thus has limited use. My data contradicts the theories or rather paradigm of culture as evolved and evolving. Cultures differ only in format due to maturity curve, due to population density. This is most relevant to material culture or technology, not to the core content of behaviour and media (art, myth, ritual, icons, pantheon, language, etc). My question is, How do Canonical structuralist formulae, relate to the five layers of recurrent features that I have demonstrated?
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
I am working on object classification and I am looking for a database that I have seen in some articles on bolt, washer, eye bolt, hook, dovetail, but I have not found it, hopefully you can suggest some
Relevant answer
Answer
These CAD model datasets might be helpful
Engineering Shape Benchmark (ESB) -
Mechanical Components Benchmark (MCB) -
CADNET Dataset -
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
I am trying to develop a goniolens and meshing it to the surface of the cornea of the eye model
Relevant answer
Answer
This question is perfectly described in the 7th edition of this book.
Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL, Fox DD (2014) The finite element method for solid and structural mechanics, 7th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
Could anyone please explain if a drosophila melanogaster line can express some white eye flies whereas its wild type is red eye. Is this fading out possible or is it a contamination?
Relevant answer
Answer
As the white eye gene is on the X chromosome, heterozygous females will be red-eyed but carry the white eye gene. if these females are mated to a wildtype male, half of their male offspring will be white eyed, half of the female offspring will be heterozygous carriers of the white eye gene. If the heterozygous females are mated to white eye males, half of the males will be wild type and half of the females will be wildtype. Clearly you have some heterzygotes in your cultures.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
I have been frustrating with certain contamination issues for a while, and strangely I kept having the same contamination problems (yellow color and round shapes). The media was not cloudy by eye (only can see them when they became large), but there are tiny dots that are usually floating or settle at the bottom of the culture dish. It keeps showing up every 2-3months after we toss cells, decontaminate the incubator, and defrost new cells. Any suggestions to help us to overcome this? Thank you so much in advance!!
Relevant answer
Hi Rosemary,
I think I would have to agree with Mehmet, that does seem like fungus contamination. Its source could be variable, so, in addition to what Mehmet already recommended you, I am going to give you some pieces of advice based on Freshney (2010).
As you described your issue, it seems like a repeated contamination, so the first thing I would suspect is that contamination comes from the reagents employed or the cell line.
I see that you already poured some fresh media in an empty dish and incubated it, and nothing grew. In our lab, what we do to test media contamination is that we plate it in a petri dish with plate count agar medium (PCA) or potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) to see if there are any bacterial or fungi contamination, respectively. I think you could try this instead of just an empty dish, and discard it if any colonies grow on either plate.
Alternatively, sometimes contamination comes from the simplest things, such as an overcrowded hood or lab, room air quality or the use of the same laboratory coat on different laboratories. Perhaps you could evaluate if this could be an issue. I am pretty sure you have lots of experience with aseptic technique, but constantly reviewing and enhancing aseptic technique is critical for avoiding contamination.
If contamination persists, probably the most adequate thing to do is to discard the cell line and ensure future imported cell lines go through quarantine. As I saw you are planning to increase pen-strep concentration, however, sometimes increasing antibiotics concentration could be unsuccessful or lead to the development of an antibiotic-resistant microorganism. Therefore, I would not recommend this unless it is the only alternative, so please be careful.
I would like to know if any of these tips help you with your research. Have a good day! :)
-Josué
References:
Freshney, R. (2010). Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications. Ed Wiley - Liss. USA.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
EyeTribe eye trackers are now obsolete, following the shutdown of the company. Yet we think that there may be labs that are still using these devices.
Recently, in our lab at METU Cognitive Science we tried to make their EyeTribe eye tracking devices work in a Windows 10 Release 1803. However, the trackers were initialized as generic USB devices and were not recognized by neither the EyeTribe eye tracking server nor the EyeTribe eye tracking UI. A roll back to Windows 1607 patch solved the problem. With the exact same driver set and hardware in place, the only observed difference between the two systems were the OS level security patches against Spectre & Meltdown security vulnerabilities. The Intel microcode level patches applied via BIOS updates were still in place, yet the devices operated correctly after OS rollback.
Relevant system settings with EyeTribe eye tracker problem present:
- Intel 7th gen Core i5 7500
- Dell OptiPlex 3050, BIOS ver. 1.10.2
- Windows 10 ver. 1803
System settings with no issues:
- All other settings were kept the same
- Windows 10 ver. 1607
Thanks Efecan Yılmaz for testing and implementation.
--
Cengiz Acarturk, PhD
Relevant answer
Answer
We did not patch it, indeed. We still use that previous version of Windows 10 (1607) when needed.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
I am working on a project of automated adenoviral conjunctivitis/pink eye disease detection. To achieve the same, I am finding some open datasets having labelled images for healthy eye and pink eye.
It would be very helpful if someone can share pointers to download the datasets.
Thanks in advance.!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi there
There is some tear tests in order to perform diagnostic test of viral conjunctivitis
Some machines as Idra(SBM) or Keratograph(Ocullus) grade the conjunctival hyperemia
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
I would like to know if anyone has suggestions for removal vitreous from fixed eye while performing flat mount imaging.
Relevant answer
Answer
Vitreous usually comes off very easily in the course of removing the retina. A small piece of Kimwipe can be dragged across the retina, but you must be careful not to also damage the ILM.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
I have a good experience of special fixative working very good in samples of a donkey testis(I attached three published article from my master thesis using Worbel Moustafa fixative) .
I want help for the best fixative for the eye and the best way to apply the fixative by injection between sclera and cornea by syringe or by making a small opening and injection the fixative slowly inside the eye. and left eyes in the fixative overnight at 4'C- Then wash in 0.1 M PBS 3 times to remove fixative.
I have also the attached file for eye fixation(two files).
I want help for the best fixative for the eye and the best way to apply the fixative by injection between sclera and cornea r by making a small opening and injection the fixative slowly inside the eye.
I wish to receive the answer. I want good fixation of the retina
Relevant answer
Answer
I opened the eye via longitudinal section in cornea and i removed the lens and fluids inside the eye. Then I fixed it in 4% PFA overnight at 4 degree, it works well. I made that in eye of large animals but for fish fries I fixed the whole fish in 4% PFA overnight at 4 degree and the retina easily observed.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
This issue was raised in a lab meeting when discussing my experimental setup so now I'm looking for sources that cover this. So far I've found one article "Fellow eye effect of unilateral intravitreal bevacizumab injection in eyes with diabetic macular edema" and it does show an effect but it's not specific to my research.
If I could get sources more closely related to murine corneas/retinas that receive an injected treatment or part of some injury model that would be perfect.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
I suppose the following papers will be useful. Good Luck !
Does Anti-VEGF Treatment for AMD Lower the Risk of ... - IOVS
by RL Avery · 2018 — Does Anti-VEGF Treatment for AMD Lower the Risk of Neovascularization in the ... These drugs have been detected in fellow eyes, and numerous case reports as ... to demonstrate an effect on development of neovascular age-related macular ...
Fellow eye effect of unilateral intravitreal anti-VEGF injections ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › articles › PMC4330277
by J Hanhart · 2015 · Cited by 1 — Fellow eye effect of unilateral intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in eyes with ... unilateral ranibizumab therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME). ... anti-VEGF compounds likely have an effect on the fellow eye to some extent.
Therapeutic Effect of Anti-VEGF for Age-Related Macular ...
https://www.hindawi.com › journals › criopm
by H Isildak · Cited by 3 — Intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have ... to occasionally produce a therapeutic effect in the uninjected fellow eye. ... The patient was treated with an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1.25 mg ... and S. R. Sadda, “Effects on the contralateral eye after intravitreal bevacizumab ...
‎Introduction · ‎Discussion
Effect of Monocular Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial ...
PDF
by A El-Moniem · 2019 — CRT and the systemic condition could affect the outcome of the treatment. Keywords: DME, anti-VEGF, fellow eye. INTRODUCTION.
Effect of intravitreal ranibizumab on the ocular circulation of ...
by M Sugimoto · 2017 · Cited by 8 — The mean dMBR was significantly higher in the treated eyes than the untreated ... And to have systemic affects, the anti-VEGF agents must pass from the ... anti-VEGF agents, will affect the ocular circulation of the fellow eye.
Comparative Eye Effect of Unilateral Intravitreal Bevacizumab ...
by B Malbin · 2019 · Cited by 3 — Purpose:The purpose of this article is to compare the fellow-eye effect of ... growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibe... ... Effects on the contralateral eye after intravitreal bevacizumab and ...
Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injections Reduce Aqueous Outflow ...
http://doi.org › iovs.16-20786
by JC Wen · 2017 · Cited by 31 — Intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, which includes bevacizumab (Avastin; ... edema in the fellow uninjected eye.34 Yet, even if the anti-VEGF medication affected the ...
Incidence of New Choroidal Neovascularization in Fellow ...
https://jamanetwork.com › jamaophthalmology › fullarticle
by R Parikh · 2019 · Cited by 7 — Rates of Choroidal Neovascularization Conversion in Fellow Eyes by ... factors influencing the conversion of the untreated fellow eye in patients who had ... The cohort of patients with eyes undergoing anti-VEGF treatment for ...
Intravitreal bevacizumab versus ranibizumab: Effects on the ...
https://www.sciencedirect.com › science › article › pii
by M Peyman · 2019 · Cited by 5
Incidence of New Choroidal Neovascularization in Fellow ...
https://jamanetwork.com › jamaophthalmology › fullarticle
by R Parikh · 2019 · Cited by 7
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
Figures are x40 and x100 magnifications of Masson's Trichrome-stained light micrographs of transverse section of the eye of Eidolon helvum.
Relevant answer
Answer
These are the "choroidal papillae" - structures unique to the retina of pteropodids. Despite being described in early 1900s the functions of these structures were mostly unknown. Some studies in the late 1900s have shown that these papillary cones are oriented in specific directions such that the retinal image is not masked by their shadows. However recent studies suggest that their primary role could be mainly supplying nutrients to the thick avascular pteropodid retina.
I attach some of the studies on this for your reference (in case you missed it)
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
3 answers
For how long period, the cattle remains infective after getting the Pink Eye and when can the animal be safely return to the herd?
Relevant answer
Answer
Infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis, or IBK:
The bacterium Moraxella bovis (M. bovis) is the main infectious cause of pinkeye in cattle.
M. bovis organism is sensitive to Oxytetracycline and penicillin.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
When you observe the presence of Tyndall in an inflamed eye:
Does each of the small floating dots correspond to an individual cell or to an aggregate of cells?
Does a conventional slit lamp have enough magnification to see individual cells?
Perhaps even if it is not possible to see individual cells, it is possible to see the diffraction they induce in the incident light?
Best regards.
Relevant answer
Thank very much Andreas.
Julio.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
The difficulty to use para-linguistic features such as body language, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, etc. in online teaching has affected class control at various levels across the globe. Some naughty students, who are digital natives, outwit their teachers in online classes. How can teachers ensure better co-operation and active participation from students? What are the best strategies and techniques for effective classroom management in online education?
Relevant answer
Answer
A very good question. Probably one for teachers experiencing online work around the world. I guess we are only now appreciating how easy it is to stimulate activity when we are in one space. To motivate engagement. O-line work has made the trust in students drop - we have questions about whether they actually did it themselves, whether they are present, and if they are, are they actually or is it just their avatar hanging around our class?
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
6 answers
I'm taking some measurements using Raman spectroscopy of healthy pig eye samples using a new excitation wavelength and my supervisor said to choose a sample size to allow for spec/sens of 85%. These measurements will be identical just on different, healthy eye tissue to simply show that I obtain similar things each time. Is there a way to estimate/calculate what my sample size should be for this or do I need previous data, numerical limits etc? Any help would be great, thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Based on the results that we have presented, a sample of minimum 300 subjects is often sufficiently large to evaluate both sensitivity and specificity of most screening or diagnostic tests
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
Why is BP monitoring not part of routine optometry services in many countries, despite the numerous evidence on the link between BP monitoring and glycaemia and eye diseases.
Still one of my favourite papers, which signified the power of collaborative research and impact of translating research findings into practice. We conducted a survey to find out why Optometrist were not taking BP measurements of their patients. We identified the need and filled it.
We found that by taking BP measurements in optometry practices, Optometrists identified one previously undiagnosed patient with high blood pressure for every 8 adults tested, 28% of previously diagnosed patients whose BPs were poorly controlled. More interestingly, the patients who participated in this study were positively disposed toward the routine measurement of BP by optometrists.
The initial findings [https://lnkd.in/gbJuS2v]. and the follow up on routine BP monitoring were also published (https://lnkd.in/gvfjA_V)
Relevant answer
Answer
At our region it is done routinely.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Is there any research paper or advisory that specifically emphasized on educating the public to keep the eyes, nasal and oral structures clean to prevent or fight against the infection caused by corona virus? If not, why it has been disregarded? Are people wearing the masks & regularly sanitizing the hands not affected by COVID 19 at all?
Relevant answer
Answer
WHO guidelines which have been adopted by various ministries of health point clearly that research has been done and we need to prevent touching our eyes or mouth because of ease of contracting COVID-19 .
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Hi community members,
My target tissue is sclera. Now, I want to extract the whole protein and RNA of the sclera, but I can not separate the sclera from the RPE/choroid well because of a tight coupling. When I am trying to peeling off all of the RPE/choroid on the sclera, there is always RPE/choroid remaining on the sclera.
So, is there any good protocol for me to isolate the sclera well from the eye of the mouse?
Thank you very much!
Shunmei
Relevant answer
Answer
Sorry, I fail to it.@ Jefferson J Doyle
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
6 answers
We have a transgenic mouse line in the laboratory from which we are looking to culture retinal cells from. Our experiments indicate we might be able to produce stable cultures from these cells that could be used for many passages.
However, our current limiting factor is cell survival after extraction of the retina. Currently, I am planning on following a protocol I designed from several sources:
1. Extract retina from eye tissue and incubate in HBSS/EBSS containing DNase and papain for 60 minutes at 37 C whilst shaking at 700 rpm.
2. Pipette remaining tissue gently to dissociate further and place in DMEM with 10% FBS to inhibit papain action.
3. Culture in 24-well plates in retinal maturation media.
Any recommendations, improvements or notes would be highly appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your question
But this is not the scope of my work
Greetings to you
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
Gaze tracking technologies are used in a wide variety of applications. Most gaze tracking systems require a personal calibration process where the user is instructed to gaze at certain points before the system can be used. I focus on the relationship between the eye, camera, and light sources.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
The affected fish (O. niloticus) are three months old. The infected fish were taken for a public display after which this infection started. Water quality parameter for the tank where the fish were stocked are as follows:
D.O. - 6.3 mg/l at 86% sat
Temperature - 25°C
Ph - 8.25
The infection was observed to start from blinding one eye then spread to the other, then the fish stops feeding and dies. The fish died after two weeks from the time of the first observation of infection.
Relevant answer
Answer
I following the best answer.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
With the focus on masks and general advice to "wash hands frequently" there seems to be little data to inform decision-making about prioritizing the public health message. The masking focus may actually be covering up more or equally important behavioral intervention strategies.
With other viruses, the message has been don't "rub your eyes or pick your nose." And of course, keep your distance from people who cough and sneeze. Not so this time. It's all about mask-wearing. Yet with mask usage high, infection rates continue to climb. People touch all manner of high-turnover public surfaces (gas pump handles, convenience store doors, shopping carts).
Self-contamination through fomite transmission has been ruled out by a few studies as a major vector, but is it time for a closer look?
The pollen allergy season seems longer this year, with the warm fall pushing symptoms now into December, at least on the East Coast. The result could be more nasal discharge by mild or asymptomatic people spreading the virus by physical contact with both public and household surfaces. Additionally, staying indoors on lockdown has brought people into, in some cases, into a more allergy-prone environment with indoor dust, animal dander, and mold/mildew, further increasing the chance of allergy symptoms. With nasal/oral discharges being moved by hand-to-face contact by family and friends.
In short, while masks may help reduce airborne transmission, the risk of fomite self-infection via ocular and nasal contact pathways may be underestimated. To be blunt, it is not unusual to see someone remove their mask after pumping gas, only get back in their car to pick their nose, touch up eye makeup, or with allergy season running longer, rub and scratch at their eyes.
I'd also like to see further mask analysis done.; masks often slide into one's eyes through movement or removal. If they have viral contamination, then could that be an easy route to transfer it directly to the eyes, thence on to the nasopharynx, which we know is the initial incubation site?
This is "out of my lane" as an IT person, with a previous background in neurosciences, but I would love to get involved in some research in this area if anyone knows of anything in progress. There seem to be a lot more ways to control infection than the message getting out to the public.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
Some referential studies suggest +250Hz eye trackers for research based on reading. Eyelink 1000/2000 products appear to be among the most preferred options. Considering a study for which the researchers need to travel and collect reading data, what alternatives are there to Eyelink Portable Duo? Regards.
Relevant answer
Answer
EyeSeeCam , Pupil labs , SMI Eye-Tracking Glasses , Tobii Pro Glasses 2
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
In this Covid situation, we starting our class since morning from laptop, our reading materials is provided in electronic media,our books all available in e-media,our assignment provided submitted through e media,our discussions with friends, all programs and training is conducted online, published journal all studying online ,so what will be the way to deal with all this situation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Nice question. Usage of all the devises which are causing stress to our eyes must be used in proper way and controlling way.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
2 answers
How far Infrared sources are eye safe while working with Vehicular Communication? I read two research papers by Isumu Takai etal. where Infrared LED array consisting of 100 LEDs is used as the Light source(870 nm LEDs) .how far is this practice eye safe ? even if u consider 1550nm LED's they are hardly available in India. Whether we should consider IR LEDs or Visible LEDs for vehicular communication? Incase if we use IR LEDs are there any precautionary measures to be taken to avoid damage to eye ? Please Let me know
Relevant answer
Answer
This sounds like the perfect question for an animal model study. Also, some work at Mitsubishi on MIR emission from arc lamps.
As an ignoramus, I would not want to be too close to a power LED at 870 nm. In a car application, severla feet = probably OK (?); security app, ditto.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
5 answers
For instance if you are using Rapid eye data 5m spatial resolution and Terraclim data 4km in a model, Do you resample to the pixel size of Rapid eye or to the 4km resolution of Terraclim?Please provide a why answer to your response or references. Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can also do well using the right ArcGIS programs, and some built-in tools (plus python writing!) to arrive at a downscaled version of GCMs. This is simplified approach and can work well for a case study. Check this methodology:
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
While working on mycotic keratitis in man we isolated a large variety of fungi which are saprophytes abundant in our environment. Most patients give trauma before onset of mycotic keratitis, including trauma due to contact lenses. But in a few cases there is no history of trauma. Use of steroids and antibacerial antibiotics may abrogate the defense mechanism of the eye that may lead to mycotic keratitis. The learned workers may know many factors that may lead to mycotic keratitis or keratomycosis.
Relevant answer
Answer
Filamentous fungal keratitis usually occurs in healthy young males engaged in agricultural or other outdoor work; these fungi do not penetrate an intact epithelium and invasion is secondary to trauma. Trauma is the key predisposing factor, occurring in 40–60% of patients. other reported risk factors include previous ocular surgery, ocular surface disease, previous use of corticosteroids (either topical or systemic) and contact lens use.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
1 answer
I'm currently storing human eye tissue, in particular retinal tissue, in 4% PFA stored in a fridge about 4 degrees. This is long term storage/preservation for research to be conducted in future.
My questions are; human tissue in 4% PFA can it be stored in room temperature or is it better to be stored in a fridge?
How long can human tissue be preserved in 4% PFA before the quality of the tissue degrades - that is 1, 2 or 5 years?
Does anyone have a better recommendation for long term preservation and storage of retinal eye tissue - such as dehydration in 70% ethanol?
Relevant answer
Answer
Good question. Probably best to store in fridge, but I would keep it only for 1 year. The DNA degradation is significant for soft tissue post 6 months.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
7 answers
I have to measure the growth of the bacteria in a piece of fabric for my senior design project. I don't know how to measure it. The only way that I know is by the naked eye or by the microscope. Is there any way another than these?
If there is not, can I have similar articles that are related to the experiment that I will do?
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with both Benedik and Wilkes, you need to provide a bit more detail about what have you done and what are you looking for.
However if you are just interested in the total counts, you may elute the piece of fabric in measured amount of sterilized distilled water or saline (the volume will depend upon the size of piece, to be on safe side suspend in 5 ml). Vortex mix and then plate a little amount (100 ul) on nutrient agar or any suitable medium as per your requirement. After overnight incubation, you may count the colonies using colony counter or even manually. This number will represent the CFU in 100 ul, which you can calculate for the total eluted volume and that will be the total viable count on the piece of fabric.
  • asked a question related to Eyes
Question
4 answers
I ask the question both in Spanish and English.
En Ilíada 16.739-742 se describe cómo muere el auriga de Héctor, Cebriones, cuando un piedrazo en la frente hace que los ojos le salten de las cuencas y caigan en el suelo delante de sus propios pies. Me gustaría saber si alguien conoce algún otro caso, fundamentalmente en fuentes antiguas o medievales, de este tipo de evulsión completa de los ojos o al menos de un ojo por un golpe. En particular, estoy interesado en fuentes épicas o historias de guerra.
In Iliad 16.739-742 there is a description of how Hector's charioteer, Cebriones, dies when a stone blow to his forehead makes his eyes pop out of their sockets and fall to the ground in front of his feet. I would like to ask if anyone knows of any other case, mainly in ancient or medieval sources, of this type of complete eye-evulsion (one or both eyes) due to a blow. In particular, I am interested in epic sources or war stories.
Relevant answer