Science method

Extraction of Natural Products - Science method

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I am a PhD student and am currently working on metabolite profiles of some marine invertebrates.
While analysing some raw data generated from LC-MS, HRMS, NMR and FTIR, I was told by some researchers that these raw data, once submitted to a journal as supporting files, cannot be used further for any other analysis. For each analysis I need to generate the raw data again, otherwise it will be treated as a case of self-plagiarism.
I can see that my raw data has a potential of producing three distinct publications. I can analyse different parts of my raw data differently to present distinct conclusions.
But generating all the raw data again from these analyses, and that too for each publication, does not look sustainable to me. And clubbing all three publications in one also does not seem to be a good option here.
So I would like to know your views on this matter as a researcher and also as an Editor/Reviewer. Also, please share your similar experiences and solutions to it.
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It depends. Much data, for example fisheries records, are published for a given purpose - for example to manage a fishery. Many years after that data was published, it may provide other researchers with other information - for example on understanding "shifting baselines". There are many very good pieces of research using historic datasets. My herbarium vouchers are a form of "data". They are lodged in public Herbaria across Australia. The Herbarium staff make the vouchers, and the associated environmental data, available to researchers around the world. They do not limit the number of times any particular voucher may be used to provide a datapoint in someone's research. Those of us who contribute these data rarely hear about their reuse unless we subscribe to platforms like Bionomia. Over a career collecting environmental data I have much that I may never explore fully. I use platforms like the Atlas of Living Australia's BioCollect platform to host my old datasets. It is possible that one day someone may use the hypersaline lake diatom and physico-chemical data from Australia to develop a "diatom metric" index of water quality for these understudied habitats... or for gnammas, or coastal lagoons...
IAs you know what analyses you plan to subject the dataset to, maybe you would be better served in clubbing a group of papers together that look at the different things you have extracted from the dataset, and then provide the entire group to one journal to publish as a "set".
But I would not like for you to have the opinion that data may only be used once then needs be discarded. What a waste of effort. Well conserved datasets, with excellent metadata relating to the methodologies and data collection, can be valuable into the future, in ways we have no current understandings about.
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This component is found in Fatsia leaves but I have found no article mentioning the ration or the structure.
Does anyone know anything about this component? The solvents and the color or it's ratio in the plant leaves?
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Hi Shaimaa Heider is there any chance that you have respiration rates available for cut foliage Fatsia japonica?
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I am extracting compounds from large marine invertebrates stored at -80C. I am planning on trying to quickly cut pieces off of them with a scalpel or chisel before they thaw (to place in bead beater tubes), and then return the specimen to the -80. Is there a better way to do this? I also want to store pieces for genetic analysis
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If you read the labels on food, you'll see the words "natural flavoring" or "artificial flavoring". The initial impression may be that the first must be good, while the second must be bad but if we look at what natural & artificial really mean in practice, most natural & artificial flavors are exactly the same chemical compounds, differing only by their source and both natural & artificial chemicals are or will be purified in a lab.
Is natural really better or safer or more tasty than artificial?
In some cases, natural flavoring may be more dangerous than artificial flavoring (e.g., natural flavor extracted from almonds can contain toxic cyanide but the artificial flavor has the taste but does not have cyanide).
Few years ago, my students prepared natural & artificial strawberry jams in a practical course. The taste of the artificial was judged to be better unanimously by the technician, my students & me.
Few years ago, a colleague's students made real strawberry ice cream & artificially- flavored strawberry ice cream. I tasted both & the second was more delicious, for me.
These two observations puzzled me. I know something about flavoring but I am not a full-fledged expert so I am asking to learn: Are natural flavorings really better & safer than the artificial counterparts? Is the public health at risk upon consuming foods & drinks with artificial flavors?
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The term natural flavor or natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating, or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, etc. Artificial flavors, on the other hand, are made from anything else that doesn't fall under the "natural" umbrella. Interestingly, both types of flavors are made in the lab by scientists called "flavorists," who blend various chemicals together. The flavorist creating an artificial flavoring must use the same chemicals in his formulation as would be used to make a natural flavoring, however. Otherwise, the flavoring will not have the desired flavor. Although "natural" sure sounds better than "artificial," ingredients that come from nature aren't always safer than those that are artificially made. There are many deadly toxins that are produced in nature. In addition, artificial flavorings are simpler in composition and potentially safer because only safety-tested components are utilized. Besides health effects, natural flavors also may have more negative environmental impacts than artificial flavors. An example of massoia lactone, which is used for a creamy, coconut, spicy flavor. Harvesting it from the massoia tree in Malaysia kills the tree because harvesters have to remove the bark. In other cases collecting natural flavors involves clear-cutting and carbon emissions, which doesn't happen when flavors are created in the lab.
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When walnuts is good for reducing LDL and total cholestrol levels in blood,I think we can boil folium layer in kernel of Walnuts in water and use it as a usefull Liquid.
thanks.
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All the nuts, including Walnut are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.
Although leaves (folium) of walnut tree have been shown to have salutary effect on lipids, no study as such has used the folium of the kernal of the walnut
Have a look at this article in the link:
The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Walnut ...
3.
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Principle depends on the addition of acid or base at the beginning of the water extract of tobacco
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Nicotine is a classical alkaloid the separated
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All contributions are highly appreciated.
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DPPH inhibition (%)={(A0 –A1)/A0}×100 where A0 is the absorbance of control and A1 is the absorbance of test.
For standard test 1.0 mL of various ascorbic acid solutions (100 μg/mL) and gallic acid solutions (10 μg/mL) were used in place of sample extract.
In DPPH free radical scavenging method, IC50 (Half maximal Inhibitory Concentration) value is the concentration of the sample that could scavenge 50% of DPPH free radical.
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i m working on osteoarthritis, i want to isolate the active compound which is responsible for preventing arthritis
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I would like to know the procedure for isolation,purification and characterisation of bio active compounds from plant extract.I have to isolate the major consitutent of my sample.
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By using the HPLC, TLC, column,
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I was performing fractionation for a plant extract, i was perplexed by the answers i found on the internet as "denser solvent is the lower portion" .
however, another answered the separation is done based on the molecular weight, in this case chloroform is the lower portion.
Can anyone confirm this? your help will be appreciated, Thank you
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Yes, certainly chloroform is denser than water
If you want to make sure, put colored water with chloroform in the simplest experiment to determine which is more dense
The methanol is less dense and mixed with water
It also mixes with chloroform, so when applying alkaloids purification as an example of an alcohol methanol extract
When applying chloroform, two layers do not appear clear even after changing the acidity of the extract
This is why sometimes we have to add water to reduce the mixing of methanol with chloroform........................This view is through experiences
best regards
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Dear colleagues,
We have a Nanodrop model (Nano-300 AllSheng) which allows for scanning samples from 200-800 nm. I was thinking whether it could be used as an alternative to more sophisticate methods of sample compositional analysis, e.g. purity of honey?
I was wondering if anyone here has ever experimented to use a nanodrop in that context, instead of usual DNA/RNA purity or protein dosage analyses. Please provide any relevant insights.
Thanks in advance,
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I have returned to answer my own question, and encourage colleagues to break the habit and try out Nanodrops with samples other than DNA/RNA.
I have successfully employed this machine in rapidly assessing the purity of alkaloid extractions, using synthetic analogues as controls. No cross-contamination nor other issues with the equipment were perceived, provided we cleaned the equipment properly with compatible solvents between each use.
My paper describing the method is available below:
Raw data is available at:
Hope this discussion inspires others.
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I am extracting citrus peel oil by UAE using Ethanol as the solvent. I am facing a problem of separating the wax from the crude extract.
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You can use filtration technology for citrus oil de-waxing. More information can be seen in this: https://www.pall.com/content/dam/pall/food-beverage/literature-library/non-gated/FBABSUPRAFLVREN.pdf
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Anyone have a preference on a type, brand of reagent or grade? Need advice before I order.
M
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n-hexane can't extract the phenolic compounds. it is always used as a defatting agents.
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Natural indigo dye produced from different sources contains many impurities in it.What is the best method to purify it ?
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My thesis's subject is determination of flavonoids; catechin and quercetin from sea buckthorn leaves with HPLC-DAD. I have extracted the leaves with ethyl acetate 5x12,5ml, and I have now extract about 40ml. I think next step before determination with HPLC is acid hydrolysis, because flavonoids have glucosides and I gues those should dorp out of measurement.
But I have a problem, how should I do the acid hydrolysis? Should I use 4M HCl or weaker, about 2-6M, and should I use reflux 2h at temperature 40C with stirring?
For now I have tried to do this acid hydrolysis like this: 9,5ml ethyl acetate extract + 0,5ml 4M HCl and heated for 5min in waterbath 75°C. The end concentration of sample is 0,6M (I mean extract + HCl). I have found this advice from here page on 47-48
But this doesn't work so well. Am I doing something wrong? I haven't found any good or spefisic advice. So would you guys help me?
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can anyone tell me the Rf value of standard D-quinovose??? I have searched alot but did not find it.
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In various Pharmacopoeia, It was much discussed about tablet and capsule and others, but less discussed the content uniformity of semi solids like ointment and Gels.
For example, Single component gel (Adapalene 1% gel)
I need Content uniformity test rather than Uniformity of weight.
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The ointment contains multiple doses in a single tube, the uniformity of drug needs to be established based on its solubilized / dispersed condition in the matrix.
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How does the moisture content of sample affect extraction yield of essential oil? 
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My hypothesis is, since the most abundant component in the moisture content is water, this water molecules in the substrates will affect the extraction performance and the yield. If the moisture content value is too high, the water molecules will block the pore of the substrates and interfere the steam to uplift the oil component. Otherwise, if the moisture content value is too low, the substrates get too dry and there will be a high loss in the essential oil number within the substrates.
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Actually i am working with seed size variation in wheat. For this i need to extract total proteins from developing and mature seeds. Which buffer will perform best?
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Dear Yash Gupte,
Can you share the protocol or paper? Also, does it extract all or most of the proteins for accurate quantification using Bradford's method ?
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I want to extract flavonoids from cherries..
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What are the best conventional methods of extracting bioactive compounds from fresh cherries. Taking into account that GRAS solvents must be used for food application and everything that I found uses methanol?
Some suggestion of methodology.
Thanks.
Good work.
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I used ethylacetate but yield was very less please suggest me what solvent system i can use for extraction. 
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Extract with MIBK solvent
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The best protocol to got polysaccharide enriched fraction using alcohol precipitation. 
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I want to remove carbohydrates from my proteins sample. Is it possible to use ethanol or any solvent mentioned above, because what i think it might affects the functionality of proteins. Any suggestions on this, please.
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Does anyone know dubois (1951) formula for calculation of sugar in plant extract? I have already calculated soluble sugar content in the sample using the standard graph developed using pure glucose.
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Biochemical calculations
CALCULATIONS for many biochemical like protein, sugars, free amino acids with appropriate standard.
Amount of test sample taken = 0.5g
Total volume of the supernatant = 10ml
Volume of the sample taken for experiment = 1.0ml
Test sample Absorbance of 1.0ml =____OD units
Find out standard absorbance (OD) units and Standard absorbance value (micro gram) through standard graph.
Calculations
Test sample absorbance x STD. Absorbance Value (micro g) / STD absorbance units = ------- micro gram
micro g/1000 = -------mg
i.e., 1.0ml sample contains = ____mg
10ml supernatant contain ____mg x 10 = _____mg
I.e. 0.5g test sample contain = -----mg
1g of test sample contain = ---mg x 2 = -------mg / gram test sample
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Dear Colleagues,
I was wondering if there is an esasiest method to extract essential oils from dry leaves? 
Thank you
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Thank you all of you
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Can we use Soxhlet for extracting the secondary metabolites from the Actinobacteria fermented broth? Soxhlet is generally being used for dry/solid materials. If we adopt this to actinobacteria does it work?
or the regular solvent extraction is sufficient? Recommend me some rapid and efficient method to maximize the yield of total metabolites.
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Of course you could but you have to select the suitable organic solvents
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LPS
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lipopolysaccharides
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I have collected one active fraction from Si-gel CC using Hexane:EtOAc gradient. The active fraction eluted with 3:2 ratio. Now its time to purify the active compounds from this fraction. TLC analysis shows the presence of many spots, that's why now which method I need to follow to purify the compounds?
Expert suggestion would highly be acknowledged.
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How do you know the visible spot is the bio-active compound? The active compound might be co-eluting with the spots that you see and may not be visible.
As for solvents to try to resolve the spots better, try a different "selectivity" group. Run TLC with hexane/dichloromethane, hexane/toluene, and hexane/ethanol. Each of these solvents has a different selectivity. Alternatively, try a different stationary phase. Look at alumina, or CHP-20 (a reverse phase resin). By changing the stationary phase, you are also changing the selectivity.
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I have soyhull in powder and I want to obtain dietary fiber from it. According to a bromatology study the soyhull have 45% of dietary fiber.
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The standard AOAC method 991.43 should support your goal.  The method can report total dietary fiber (IDF and SDF) or the individual components.  I have no doubt we have done soy hulls in our lab.  There will be significant IDF in the fraction.
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how to extract dye from Cordyline terminalis?
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There are several techniques for natural dye extraction. Solvent extraction would be a great approach. Moreover, supercritical fluid, ultrasound, microwave, ozone, plasma, UV, Ionizing radiation etc. could proliferate the dye yield %. 
Finally, I will also suggest you to focus on relevant review articles and MS+PhD dissertations. 
All the best. 
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I have a plant crude extract (70% alcoholic extract) and isolated compound (water soluble compound).
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Thank u sirs. Finally I reached the institution which is doing research in malaria. Thank u all for the answers and guidance..
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Right now, my extraction technique is by means of simple distillation using a rotary evaporator: I blend equal parts carrot and water (plus a little bit of NaCl to reduce enzymatic reactions), then place the homogenized solution in a round-bottom flask and use the roto-vap to collect the first 200 mL or so of condensate. 
Is this an effective extraction technique? I need the volatiles in liquid form for my cell culture work. I've tried to read some other papers but am feeling overwhelmed by the diversity of extraction techniques. 
Thanks for your help.
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However, some researchers pack their vegetables in foils and then suck the headspace air (with a pump) into another flask that is loaded with a sorbent. This will also bring some kind of enrichment and clean-up.
The best methodology is to use a SAFE-destillation apparatus. This you will find in every literature from all the famous (food) flavour chemists.
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I know that extraction with automated Soxhlet takes less time, but I'd also like to know is there any data how much water and electricity is saved when using automated Soxhlet system?
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Ask the manufacturer?  The answer will be 'TONS'.
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I extracted oil of H. rhamnoides fruits by soxhlet extraction method using both benzene and hexane separately. but while i am concentrating it and evaporating the solvent on waterbath, i am getting the oil with some sediments. what could be the sedimented material? and the next issue is the dark orange colour of the extracted oil, which may be not pleasant if it is incarporated in any topical formulation. i don't know if there is any solution to remove or decrease the colour of the oil. could anyone provide some useful texts, please? 
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The sediments are probably marginally soluble compounds which precipitate during concentration. Consider decolorizing charcoal to remove the orange color.
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I am working on isolation of compounds from plant. I used 80% methanol for extraction and then made fraction of n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. during isolation of compounds from n-butanol fraction i get some material which s neither soluble in methanol nor water. what may be it is??? 
and another thing is i got clear crystal soluble in water from butanol fraction. what are these crystal may be?
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your insoluble material is most probably balasts, lignin and/or cellulosic stuff.
Crystal can be tartarates or oxalates, I don't know which plants you are using.
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I plan on extracting tannins, attempting to separate the hydrolyzable from condensed, and then using tannase on the hydrolyzable ones for another (bioassay) experiment. However, many of the articles I found online gave me dead ends.
I would really appreciate some help. I've read some of Ann Haggerman's work but I'm still uncertain how to proceed. It's my first solo year-long experiment.  
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from lagerstroemia speciosa. My goal is to compare the glucose uptake modulatory effects between the extract, the tannins, and the mixture of hydrolyzed products.
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I want to remove chlorophyll from methanolic leaves extract by using hexane:ethanol. But, I'm not sure about the ratio of the solvent.
Anyone have a suggestion?
Thank you.
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Removing chlorophyll by fractionating the methanol extract with n-hexane is alright if you don't mind loosing other non polar constituents of the extract along with the chlorophyll. However you can dissolve the extract extract in water : methanol ratio 3:1.  
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In my research I found that my %dpph inhibition (presenting antioxidant activity) of my extract in methanol50%(rest50% water)>water>pure methanol.
Can anyone explaining why methanol50% gives higher result?
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Your answer is n your question!
Because- 50% of water and 50 % of methanol get the antioxidants that are both "water soluble- phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins" and "methanol(lipid) soluble- say lipids, carotenoids, chlorophylls, steroids, sterols, etc." more effectively, than either one of them in isolation!  So, of course the chances to get both the worlds is easier than only MeOH/H2O.
However, if you isolate separately in H2O and MeOH 100% each, and then combine 1: 1 ratio, then it would be far more effective than 50%-MeOH-H2O! Experiment this as well!
Thanks,
Biswa
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Hello
At first I would like to say that your article with title of "Novel High Efficient Coatings for Anti-Microbial Surgical Sutures Using Chlorhexidine in Fatty Acid Slow-Release Carrier Systems" is grate 
in this article you use chlorhexidine and palmitic acid but you dont say which type of chlorhexidine and palmitic acid do you use?
would you pleas give me more information about type and assay of chlorhexidine and palmitic acid?
thank you
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hello Mr.obermier
can we use another material instead of chlorhexidine diacetate like chlorhexidine gluconate?
thank you
Best wishes
Babak Hassanshahi
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It's part of oral digestion step.
Human salivary a-amylase(EC 3.2.1.1) is needed to achieve 75 U mL-1 in the final mixture, So how many mg or microgram of this a-amylase I need to add to the water to make this 75 U mL-1 in the final mixture, my sample weight is 5g.
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The enzyme container, or information available on the supplier's web page for that lot of the product, should give a value for U/mg, which you can use for the calculation.
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Antioxidants have often been used to protect against free radicals by scavenging oxygen or ending radical chain reactions. One of the promising sources of natural antioxidants is barberry fruits. Many studies on chemical composition of barberry extract shows that the main components of barberry extract are alkaloid constituents with an isoquinolinic nucleus such as berberine, berbamine and palmatin. Conventional extraction techniques based on organic solvents have been applied to the extraction of natural antioxidants from the plant sources but those are very expensive, long time extraction period and baneful effect on product. Encapsulation is the best way to maintain the antioxidant properties of barberry.
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 Probably it would be helpful too.
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Ah oui, c'est vrai... J'ai déjà lu une partie de ce livre 'sur les huiles essentielles' ça remonte à longtemps. ça m'a carrément échappé! Merci Beaucoup Naïrouz Benzeggouta! 
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I wish to separate a solvent soluble drug and a lipid on a TLC plate, can anyone suggest me a mobile phase for same 
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Start with dichloromethane and see the Rfs. If too high, start adding hexanes. If too low add for example ethyl acetate. If 100% ethyl acetate the Rf is low go to methanol or acetic acid.
Each case is unique, so you must “discover” by yourself.
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for different fraction of fruits
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according to various research paper many researcher prefer soxhlet method for extraction of palnt material. i need some more information about this method. 
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Soxhlet apparatus allows isolation of desired oil even if it has limited solubility in the solvent & when other substances or impurities are insoluble in that solvent. What happens is a nonstop extraction of the oil by continuous contact with the solvent.
Of course,  Soxhlet extraction requires a volume of solvent which reaches the siphon level & time until nearly all the oil is separated. Some may consider this as a disadvantage but this operation is more efficient than extraction by a separatory funnel.
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In literature, there are a lot of methods to extract antioxidant compounds from saffron but what about saffron petals? Can someone suggest me any article about this matter? I am trying the best solvent method to make antioxidant extraction.
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In Preparation of Perfume, Its needed to use various solvent. Which one is ideal solvent for preparation of perfume.
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Fragrance Type  % oil      % alcohol    % water
Perfume         15 – 30       90 – 95       5 – 10
Eau de perfume8 – 15      80 – 90      10 – 20
Eau de toilette   4 – 8        80 – 90      10 – 20
Eau de cologne 3 – 5        70                30    
Cologne splash 1 – 3       80                 20
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Plant pigments extracted from fruit processing waste such as peels of fruits 
The possibility to stabilize the pigment using nano technology.
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I have heard about encapsulation of pigments from algae and higher plants as food coloring materials using mostly carotenes.  But I am not sure of nanoencapsulation  of pigments
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We isolated a labdane diterpene from the seeds a locally available plant. It is resinous and highly hydrophobic. So, we dissolved it in DMSO. To obtain 5% DMSO from the stock prepared, we added the required volume of water or aqueous buffer. The solution turns opaque cloudy. What could be the reason for this? Is it spontaneous emulsification (Ouzo effect) or something else?
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Many of the labdanes are non-polar, and mixture is hydrophobic, so no surprise that it turns cloudy when diluted with water. Yes, it could be the Ouzo effect.
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I think about mixing with Aloe-Vera extract with Hair-Bleach. And I focus more Anthraquinones in Aloe Vera active ingredient, because Anthraquinones have phenolic compounds which has antioxidant function. But I wonder is this Aloe-Vera extract is still stable when mixing with Alkalic Hair bleach. And I plan that Spray- dryer process after mixing Aloe-vera extract with Hair bleach. Is Phenolic compounds in aloe vera stable when this is under spray-dryer process?
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As you know antraquinones usually have OH group, may be these OH have a reaction with alkaline médium. You have try iir and check What happen.
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i need to remove chlorophyll from leaf material so that chlorophyll content donot hamper the isolation of pure compound. Does ethanol gradient method will effect the extraction procedure in any way?
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Acetone  or chloroform is good solvent  
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I have a crude aqueous plant extract and i would like to fractionate it. The extract does not contain medium polarity compouns (i.e flavonoids). Prliminary studies showed high cocntent in polysaccharides and proteins, along with other compounds. In literature, Sephadex LH-20 is commonly used, but for methanolic extracts. Could you suggest me how to do the fractionation? (what materia, and possibly the solvents needed).
Thank you
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If you are running assay directed fractionation, the posters below describe a technique for column/solvent screening:
This works with unknown compounds. The "wide polarity range chromatography", the chained gradients, allow one to elute a compound from a column even if they don't yet know the identity of the active compound, and washes nearly everything from the column.
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Dear Friends
I wanna use dragon fruit peel as source for extraction active compounds in my research. But I never found the comparison phenolic content or antioxidant level in the dragon fruit with another fruit to show that dragon fruit is a good source. The journal only mentioned that dragon fruit peel account up to 33% of the fruit weight and their peels and pulps are sources of natural colorants. Any idea? what my supervisor told me, I need to know why I'm used dragon fruit compare with another fruit.
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Dear Olga
the answer already given by Amel. thanks Amel
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I'm looking a method for crystallization in hexane extracts for purification of high molecular weigh compounds like sterols...
Thank you in advance!!
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Thank you very much to all your recommendations!!!
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Dears
I prepared seaweed extract in MeOH/water (70/30) and evaporated the solvent. Now I want dissolve dry extract in MeOH for stock and future analysis, but the extract dose not fully dissolve in methanol. We have 50 g seaweed yielding 14 g methanolic extract. I dissolve all 14g extract in 10ml MeOH, but it didn't fully dissolve and there is residuum like salt at bottom of tube. I weighted the unresolved (residue) extract. it was almost 10 g. now what can I do? Can anyone help me in this case?
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Dear Salim
in any case you should try to define is the insoluble you got are organic or inorganic substance. Some time during the concentration process some interesting compounds could be isolated.
by other side you should follow the advices to the former researchers. Good luck.
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generally we use to do nutritional parameter study by the crude material of plant, but I want to know if we will take any organic solvent extract of any plant material can we do the nutritional parameter study.
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Hi Ms. Karla, thanks for your valuable suggestion.
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I want to keep the extracted teeth in 0.1 thymol solution, but according to thymol's oily nature, I wonder if I can dissolve it in water
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Thymol has a solubility in water of 0,98 g/L, 1000 g/L in ethanol and 1428 g/L in chloroform (at 77 ºF (25 ºC)).
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i have got equation y=mx+c for quercetin in  microg/ml concentration . i have used 2mg/ml extract (1ml of extract for alcl3 assay). now can any one explain how can i got quercetin equivalent microgm/g of dry powder extract for TFC. i have used 300 gm powder to extract?
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In the linear equation obtained from the standard curve, Y is the absorbance of the sample obtained from UV-visible spectrophotometer. X is the concentration of Standard from calibration curve. From the value of X, the total Flavonoid content (mg/g) C can be calculated using following equation.
                                                   C = X x V/N
where: V=volume of extract taken in mL: N=weight of plant extract in g
In your case V = 1mL and N = 0.002 g (2mg)
and the value of X can be calculated from standard curve
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I am in the process of formulating a nutraceutical product with bacopa as one of the ingredients and trying to figure out the best possible extraction solvent with lowest toxicity.
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Hi!
For effective extraction and composition of the extract we can consider following :
1. Process for the preparation of a extract rich in bacosides from the herb Bacopa monniera ,US 6833143 B1.
Good Luck
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DNA extraction from a plant leaves rich in phenolic compounds.
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I have a similar protocol for extraction of DNA from plant leaves.  If this protocol doesn't work, you may add PVP to the initial grinding step.
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I need laboratories when i can determine the phenolic compounds in plant extract using HPLC.
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THANK YOU
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What kind of emulsifiers are you interested in for preparation of your nutraceutical emulsions?  Good luck with your project
Amr Edris
Aroma & Flavor Chemistry Department
Food Industries & nutrition Department
Natiional Research Center
Egypt
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We mainly focused on pulse proteins. Thank you.
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Dear all .any body please explain the (steps) of defating my extract with hexane.example solid/liquid ratio? How to separate hexane and re-dry it again?
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Defat procedure does not affect the phenolic compounds as defat system use nonpolar organic solvents like hexane, petroleum ether which do not take phenolic compounds. Moreover, the phenolic compounds are extracted using polar solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and water.
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could you please help me find a review paper or several method for pesticide residue analysis from volatile oil such as (orange oil, chamomile oil, marjoram oil, jasmine oil, onion oil and basil oil using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.
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pass the volatile oil on the bed of florosil, elute with hexane , followed by acetone, methanol. Esimate the pesticide residues by concentrating the elutants from the column and injecting to GC with Ec detector for chlorinated pesticides, GC with FID detector for phosphorous conaining pesticides. Qualitative detection can be done by spotting on  a TLC plate with standard pesticides and spraying with chromogenic reagent.
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i want to extract polyphenol from a certain plant in both hot and cold alcoholic extraction:
what is the suitable mixture ratio of solvents for both hot(soxhelt )and cold alcoholic extraction?
thank you
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I Prefer cold extraction. But each extraction can have some problem. For example with soxlhet you can lose some property of molecules dues to the temperature etc...
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Crude extract fractionation, what quantity of the crude extract can be used?.
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There is no a general recipe, it is usual to try at first with small amount of dry sample, may be 50 g. You should use solvents according its polarity since to less polar and increasing it, i.e. Hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol and water. You should try TLC and colour reaction to have an idea about the presence of some kind os secondary metabolites and according that you can decide how much material You should use for extraction and separation.
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i have done a hydro alcohol extract of a plant leaves , now i wanna to purify the flavonoids of the extract , so can anyone suggest me the best method of purification and isolation of flavonoids .
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A methanolic extract can also be used. to aliminate the noplar fractions using hexane e.g   by liquid-liquid separtion. Use the polar fraction to test a separation possibilities with an Reverse-Phase HPLC using 4 different solvents with different polarities, if the result looks good , then you can use a preparative column to collect peaks and identify them with other techniques
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Crude extracts are widely used against fungi. So How I get crude extract of bacteria??
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Are you extracting the DNA or protein?
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How to get essential oil and solid phase from its dissolve of leaf ?
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If you have obtained the essential oil by hydrodistillation, than you have boiled your plant material for some hours. This treatment is likely to have caused the formation of many artifacts
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Also, how does this help develop sugars on the plate?
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The solvents you mentioned do not react with the sugar(s) but because of their polarity and the solubility of the sugars are responsible for the relative retention time of the spot(s).
It is the spray you use that 'visualize' the spot(s).  It is this spray that reacts with the sugar(s).
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We are looking for the does of crude Cannabis sativa and Nux vomica for mice. It will be a great help if anyone can share the information regarding dose of these plants when used as crude powdered form.
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Dear Sir,
Thank you very much for your kind reply. However, the website of said university is not accessible due to unknown reason. Therefore, I would request you to share the information please.
Thanking you in advance,
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I need to do a MIC and MBC test in a finished product that is based on waxes, this product in insoluble in water the MIC and MBC are meant to be done for the salicylic acid content which is 40% on the product. Could we do it directly on the product or should we do it on the s. acid and if so where can I find a methodology. Thank you all!!
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Thank you so much to all of you!
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Some of paper that I read, they use EtOAc in preparing fungal extract for antioxidant test and MeOH for pigment extraction. Is either of this chemicals suitable for preparing the fungal extract for antioxidant test and pigment extraction? The fungi that I would be using are endophytic fungi isolated from pitcher plant. Thank you. 
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I agree with both Mr. Tekale and Ms. Phadke's answers. I want to add that if you prepare Methanolic Extract  in 80% Methanol (using 80% methanol, 20% distilled water), increased polarity will improve extraction yield.
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I want try with FTIR-ATR, by extracting in chloroform. Lecithin, Bees wax share same chemical nature (fatty ester group) so I’m thinking I may not successful by approach?. Please anybody help me solve this problem.
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HI Shakeel,
Thanks for your Answers. I will consider this idea.
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EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL 
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Please read the methodology of extraction and follow it.
Regards
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i want to know how can i prepare the crude olive cake for animal feeding
and how can i seperate it from the oil pomace and dry it without oil ?
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 Thanks a lot   Mohamed Hemis
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Methods of extraction and preparation, methods to study its flavonoid content, activity and its toxicity. Also, its effect in treatment of cancer?
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Please find the details in our developed work in the QUB-UK
Good luck
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I want to see antimicrobial activities of some plant samples.I have  used DMSO but not getting good results.
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We can use dilution series of methanol water with blank/reference solvent system.
The solvent without sample and with extract would help in the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity.
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I wish to fractionate crude plant extracts 
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Assuming you don't know what causes the biological activity....
Do a literature search on your plant and see what may have been isolated already. Keep these compounds in mind.
If doing antibacterial/antifungal screens, run thin layer chromatography (silica, alumina, diol, C18) with a variety of solvent systems and do bio-autograms which will allow you to see that the biological activity moves, and if it is resolved from other compounds.
If doing other biology, I like to run a "column screen" with "wide polarity range chromatography". The "wide polarity range chromatography" is as Olga described, except I like to continue on beyond methanol and use water as well. I use this solvent system as part of a column screen which includes silica, alumina, and diol columns. For reverse phase, I like to run C18 and run a gradient of water -> methanol -> dichloromethane. I also like to include ion exchange columns in my screen (see links below).
Collect all fractions and submit for biological assay. Run active fractions through an LC-MS to see if the molecular weights match known compounds, be aware of fragments and adducts.
The column screen provides information on a purification strategy and information about the polarity of your compound. It can provide enough material for LC-MS and possibly initial purification. Although I used an automated system, it can be run with glass columns as well.
More information on column screens:
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Since aglycons are less polar and they are separated in EtOAc, whereas more polar glycosides are partitioned through BuOH.
Is this correct ? Could you please let me know with reference?
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no
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I'm working of endophytes. I'm doing my extraction procedure with a little bit confusion. is that necessary that we have to do the primary extraction with ethyl acetate. 
In most articles they suggested to do in ethyl acetate.
as i dont know what will be compound present in the microbe, can u tell me what should i do?
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The use of EtOAc is under the assumption that it is polar/non-polar enough to extract all metabolites (both non-polar n polar). Additionally caustic enough to break cell membranes. You can use other solvents if you so desire (chloroform, butanol) or just soak the cells in methanol etc with mechanical agitation.
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We are planning to isolate pesticides (multi-residue) from dried wetland soil samples using GC-MS (Agilent). We have facility Cold Maceration and Soxhlet for extraction. We find Cold maceration as more convenient along with time-saving. Will it be efficient in pesticide extraction? What else do you suggest?
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Dear Dhaval
after dried soil take 5g of it and put 50ml of hexane and then and 50ml of DCM and make sonication for it and then take supernant a and remove the water from sample using 2 spoons of Na2SO4 anhydrous. and filter your sample, and later evaporate your samples using rotary eveporator, dissolve your final sample with 1 ml of hexane and itroduce it for GC/MS analysis.
regards
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Hello, what do you think of extraction of 1kg crude plant material directly into acetone? I wish to get out an alkaloid with a fatty tail, I wanted to use dichloromethane but we dont have this solvent and it is too toxic in large quantities so I want to choose an extraction solvent with a lower polarity than methanol, would acetone be good?
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It should work fine. Depending on how long the tail is, you can try using an SCX column- see the link below:
Also, ethanol may work well too. Since you have a kg of material, try some small scale experiments to see what works best for you.
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Since Merckmillipore, sigma and etc companies have several grades for their solvents and reagents. I am confused about them. Please instruct me about best applicable grades and qualification of solvents and reagents.
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