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I was looking for a mass budget on a subsystem level of Orion spacecraft, i.e. a listing of its mass and the contributions of the different subsystems, especially life support and structure. Does anyone know if something like this has been published?
The reference guide of NASA does not have one.
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Thank you! :) I'll check it out.
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Hello, I am trying to use mdpocket (from fpocket 3.0) to analyze pockets in a MD trajectory. I am in the Pocket Exploration stage. I have a .nc trajectory file, and am trying to run fpocket on it. However, in the output, the trajectory is not aligned with my structures, even though they are centered. I think this might be because I am indicating the initial MD structure as the pdb topology file, a required parameter. I thought the point of using fpocket 3.0 was that we no longer needed pdb files, only trajectory files. What should the input pdb topology for the -f flag file be?
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Hi, did you figure this question out? I am facing a similar question these days.
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Currently, drugs are being used to inhibit gastric cancer, and pathways are being explored in terms of mechanism. There are many articles on the mechanism of gastric cancer, but I do not know how to choose them.Ask for advice,thank you very much.
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(A)What is Exploitation and Exploration in Optimization Algorithms? (B) Describe the local and global search for the PSO, GA, ABC and ACO algorithms and compare them.
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Dear Prof. Tishko N. Muhamad,
I have the following paper:
In this paper I said the following paragraph which may be the solution to your valuable question about Exploitation and Exploration:
Fig. 2 exhibits that the searching process falls into quadruple pivot points: stochastic, exploration versus exploitation, iterated (i.e. iterative), and guided:
  • The searching has a stochastic nature when the set of random variables is employed in extracting a new generation, called a potential solution [9][16]. Each generation's new values of these variables are chosen stochastically in harmony with the general paradigm. On the other side, some problems are evolving stochastically at different points in time which makes the optimization hard to grasp and solve. For instance, the passengers' numbers of airlines occur stochastically which calls the airlines for implementing the statistical theories, including stochastic analysis and probability distributions, in forecasting the numbers of passengers.
  • Exploration and exploitation are two supplementary activities used to explore the search space. The first one is the activity through which the search algorithm tries to explore as much broad search space as possible to evade falling in the local-optima traps. Whereas the second one is representing the activity in which the searching algorithm tries to develop the finest discovered solutions through some targeted approaches. While exploitation is the optimized outcome derived out of exploration, the progress of the search for more solutions continues in both cases to find more-optimal ones. [10][17][18]
  • For highly efficient exploiting the former iteration (also called trial or time-step) to the greatest possible extent, the outcomes in the guided search are frequently improved over the course of the iteration steps where the newly generated trials are influenced by the older ones. The basic idea of that is wrapping around deliberating knowledge and extracting patterns from the former good-quality searching iterations in an effort to harmony guide the searching process in the subsequent iteration steps hoping to be in the optimal solution direction, hence the notion of “guided” is used to continuously approximate the goal based on replacing the old solutions with the new successful ones. From a more general angle, the useful information related to the optimas of the preceding iteration steps is stored on to get benefit from them in the succeeding ones. That is, the key philosophy of deriving more successful trials is coupled with building up a well-stocked knowledge store containing the past trials. [10][17][16]
  • Unlike the conventional local search that stops when it gets stuck by any local optima, the guided local search makes the best use of the available features of the current optima to escape away and then form another more optimum feasible solution. In the guided search absence, an optimization algorithm (OA) inevitably takes on a longer exploratory time range that is mainly driven by the trial-and-error aspects. [10][17][18]
  • - The progress of the searching process will be continuing iteratively with the same searching procedure until one or more of the predefined evaluation functions, called termination conditions or stopping criteria, imposed by the user are reached, and accordingly, the best possible candidate solution is produced. Without that, the progress of the searching mechanism will obviously be in an infinite loop [10][17]. The followings are some of the possible termination conditions that may be imposed by the user to terminate the series of iterations: the maximum number of iterations steps previously defined (i.e. no. of runs) is reached, the maximum allowable CPU computational run-time (i.e. max-CPU-time), coming across some significant evidence that an optimal solution has been achieved, the maximum number of iteration attempts that comes amid two successive developments is reached, the maximum number of iteration attempts has reached without noticing any difference or making any forward positive progress for the problem of interest, or there is no way to get more developments for the problem of interest (i.e. there is no progress) [10][17]. Related to the first termination condition, the applications of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) use the name “epoch” to represent an iteration step (i.e. time-step) [10][18]. In-line with the second termination condition, it's very crucial to balance between the quality of given feasible solutions and the overall computation time frame that is utilized in generating these solutions and decide accordingly how to set up the timeout bound [10][18]. On the other hand, the last termination condition represents the case that after many generations, the solutions start approaching each other in the hope that this approaching is a good indicator that the final achieved solution is closer to the ideal solution of the problem under research [10][18]. In the report of this, there is an essential need for suitable criteria to define the quality of the acceptable solution and to decide according to that whether to stop the searching activity or not [10][17][18]. If the procedure fails to reach a visible solution or a practical compromise within the timeout bound, it is inevitably stopped [10][18].
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Dear All,
Recently, I have looked into the Web in search for some works on Search And Rescue or guarding strategies. I have found some works related to UAV exploration in urban environment or SAR disaster site exploration. But, it was not what I really meant.
I wonder if there is any up-to-date literature (analytical, mathematical, physical, simulations maybe?) devoted to search and rescue or guarding, e.g., on the sea. I recall the stories from the time of WWII when allied vessels, after loosing contact with the submarine, started to move in circles with increasing radius. Also, there were special books prepared by mathematicians describing sequences of random turns to avoid being hit by a torpedo.
Do you know if there were any advances in the topic since then? Where the strategies using by modern SAR service are taken from?
Regards,
Michal
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Hi Michał,
In general, the entire SAR action conducted at sea and especially a selection of the search pattern depends (obviously) on a specific situation. Many factors are affecting the course of the action, such as search area (proximity of the shoreline and nearest rescue center), distance to the commence search point, number of the vessels involved, availability of support for the air (helicopters, aircraft), environmental conditions (usually unfavorable), etc.
When looking from the merchant ship's viewpoint, we have an official manual prepared jointly by IMO and ICAO, the so-called IAMSAR Manual (International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual) where some procedures to be followed are presented. Among these, there are also search patterns introduced. Their application differs mainly depending on the aforementioned factors (especially the number of the searching vessels or possible cooperation with an aircraft). One of the most common patterns for a single ship is "expanded square", which is very similar to the example of allies vessels action recalled in your question. Other popular patterns used are, among others, sector search (also called a "flower-pattern") - usually with the support of a helicopter, as well as various modifications of parallel track searches - usually in cooperation with aircraft or other ships involved in the SAR action. For more practical information please refer to:
IAMSAR, 2007. International Aeronautical and Maritime Rescue Manual. Volume II, Mission Coordination. IMO/ICAO publications, London/Montreal; or any newer IAMSAR version.
However, in the mentioned IAMSAR Manual, you will find mainly simply operational procedures for the crewmembers of the merchant ships. If you are looking for algorithms or mathematic explanations of the most effective search methods/patterns you have to check scientific sources. There are a few, quite recently published papers about modern solutions in this field. You can see, for instance, the following papers:
Ai, B., Jia, M., Xu, H., Xu, J., Wen, Z., Li, B., & Zhang, D. (2021). Coverage path planning for maritime search and rescue using reinforcement learning. Ocean Engineering, 241, 110098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110098
Ai, B., Li, B., Gao, S., Xu, J., & Shang, H. (2019). An Intelligent Decision Algorithm for the Generation of Maritime Search and Rescue Emergency Response Plans. IEEE Access, 7, 155835–155850. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2949366
Xiong, W., van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M., & Yang, K. (2020). A decision support method for design and operationalization of search and rescue in maritime emergency. Ocean Engineering, 207, 107399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107399
Especially the first publication seems to be suitable for you. When you check the reference list, you can find there the older papers/books from the math domain, like:
Koopman, B. O. (1957). The Theory of Search. Operations Research, 5(5), 613–626. https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.5.5.613
Good luck,
Mateusz
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From the announcements of politicians, it appears that in a few years manned expeditions to the Moon will resume. On the Earth's moon, bases will be established for the preparation of a man's expedition to Mars, which may already be carried out in a dozen or so years. Manned expeditions to Mars in the perspective of a dozen or so years have already announced the US and China.
So there is a rivalry in the field of who will first make a manned trip to Mars. Will it be a similar competition as in the 1970s between the US and the USSR in the area of ​​the then competing programs of the planned and implemented manned expedition to the Moon.
Or maybe a manned expedition to Mars will not be a competition between the biggest economic and technological powers of the world? Perhaps these planned further cosmic manned expeditions will be international expeditions, will be implemented as part of international cooperation and co-operation, and the crew of cosmonauts will be a crew composed of representatives of various countries?
What is your opinion on this matter? Should a manned space expedition to Mars be conducted as part of the international competition between competing countries or rather as part of international cooperation and cooperation?
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Is the planned space manned expedition to Mars a result of the rivalry between economic powers or their cooperation?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Stephen,
Thanks for the answer. This kind of technological competition may contribute to the emergence of many new technological innovations and the transition of civilization to the next stage of the present fourth technological revolution.
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Do you think that man will ever leave our solar system?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Well, it seems like a utopia to me, but why not? Primitive man did not imagine that airplanes were created and one day could fly and it was achieved. So perhaps, within centuries, this purpose can be achieved as well.
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I have three different exploration categorical groups and need to check the difference between each category. For this, I have used the Kruskal wallies -H test which uses to test the difference between each group.
The categories were measured by several indicators and I need to test whether there is any difference between the scores generated by each indicator. ( but not within the categories).
E.g Exploration categories- A, B, C
measurement of the category "A" - Indicator 1(measured by Likert scale), Indicator 2 (measured by Likert scale), Indicator 3(measured by Likert scale).
Q1.Differences between each category were measured by the Kruskal wallies -H test. Is this correct?
Q2-What should I use to measure the difference between indicators- as these are related, can I use Friedman's mean rank?
Q3-what does Kolmogorov–Smirnov test generate? can I use it to test any of the above?
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I know there's WellCAD, but I was wondering what alternatives there are.
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Many software has optical data structural analysis. For example Well Cad and IP have special modules for fracture system analysis.
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Various metaheuristic optimization algorithms with different inspiration sources have been proposed in recent past decades. Unlike mathematical methods, metaheuristics do not require any gradient information and are not dependent on the starting point. Furthermore, they are suitable for complex, nonlinear, and non-convex search spaces, especially when near-global optimum solutions are sought after using limited computational effort. However, some of these metaheuristics are trapped in a local optimum and are not able to escape out, for example. For this purpose, numerous researchers focus on adding efficient mechanisms for enhancing the performance of the standard version of the metaheuristics. Some of them are addressed in the following references:
I will be grateful If anyone can help me to find other efficient mechanisms.
Thanks in advance.
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I recommend you to check also the CCSA algorithm implemented by a Conscious Neighborhood-based approach which is an effective mechanism to improve other metaheuristic algorithms as well. The CCSA and its full source code are available here:
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Large amounts of research focus on the balance between Exploration and Exploitation. However, this omits the power of Selection which can turn any metaheuristic into a hill climber by rejecting all exploratory search solutions.
To engage the broader research community in this important discussion, we are organizing a Workshop on Selection to be held at CEC2021 in Krakow, Poland. Please consider participating in our event or on our project page.
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I think you need to be leery against the use of "selection" in metaheuristics as an independent attribute from exploitation. If anything, the two really augment one another. History has shown that metahueristics which have a selection property to it invariably have weak explorative capabilities. Prime well-known examples are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and GAs.
My guess is that the same metrics that we currently use for estimating algorithmic performance (optimized solution, standard deviation, number of functional analysis, diversity index, etc.) can be modified to examine the so-called "selection - exploration" balance for algorithms, since as I said earlier, selection and exploitation are really just two faces of the same coin.
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List the critical solved and unsolved global/constrained/complex optimization problems, combinatorial and engineering problems?
Metaheuristic algorithms can be classified in many ways
Several Metaheuristic algorithms are proposed to solve different optimization problems, but the solved is resolved and the unsolved is still unsolved.
List the unsolved problem or the critical solved problem that need an optimal solution to help the researcher to solve the unsolved problems.
Thanks for you contributions
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Every year math programmers devise optimal solutions for more and more complex and larger problems, while metaheuristics enthusiasts still haven't caught up with the times. I find it puzzling - like it was a virtue to not finding an optimal solution. For several of us, it is quite puzzling, actually. I would be interested to hear why optimal solutions are not useful, or interesting.
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I would like to receive help, as I am trying to make an analysis of the ethanol PES, but the calculations are always giving error.
I use the conda-forge version of xtb (* xtb version 6.3.2 (954f15c) compiled by 'conda @ 5a45a0871d67' on 2020-07-02).
The output and input will be attached.
Thank you very much in advance!
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AI Safety Issues can be categorized into five main classes including "Safe Exploration", "Scalable oversight", Avoiding “reward hacking” and “wire heading”, "Avoiding negative side effects" and "Robustness to distributional shift" (Amodei et al. (2016). Concrete Problems in AI Safety).
Can we categorize safety assurance of Evolutionary Optimisation Algorithms (e.g. Genetic Algorithm) as Safe Exploration?
Is there any approach for quantitative safety evaluation of such algorithms?
Thanks for your time and consideration.
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I'd say these are classes to categorize the safety issues, not algorithms or families of algorithms.
For safety assurance, you'd need to address all issues relevant to your application.
Although safe exploration might be most important for Evolutionary Optimisation Algorithms, you'd still want to also avoid negative side effects.
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I explored different packages (such as mgcv, MCMCglmm, glmmADMB, etc) but they all have limitations. Either they don't allow for zero-inflated, zero-altered distributions or they don't allow for temporal auto-correlation through functions as corAR() or corARMA(). 
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A late addition to this question as there have been developments since then. mgcv can now handle this model!
1) The supported family of distributions has been expanded and zero-inflated Poisson can now be specified. [see ?family.mgcv ]
2) Smoothers can now be used to model the autocorrelation using a Gaussian Process [ + s(timevar, bs = "gp") ]. There is an example here:
(3) Random effects can be modelled using smooths as before. A recent paper goes over it in detail:
So the mgcv model would look roughly like:
gam(counts ~ ... + s(time, bs = "gp") + s(groups, bs = "re"), family = "ziP", data = mydataframe)
Hope that helps someone!
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Exploration for hidden treasures of oil, gas, water, minerals, man-made structure etc can be done.
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Indeed Dear Prof. Muhammad Jahangir Khan,
O&G geophysics exploration helped many years (1946-1999) hundreds of communities in Venezuela. Money to build community facilities and also to improve the quality of services such as electricity and water.
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I am working on autonomous visual navigation using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) for UGVs. I used valued based algorithm (Dueling-DDQN) to trained my robot in the simulation. I also applied parametric noise for better exploration. I got good results and submitted it in a good journal but got rejection. One of the reviewers asked me this question. "Why deep Q-learning + parametric noise? Is there any reason why A3C or other alternatives would not work in autonomous navigation? Why is entropy not a valid choice for exploration?"
A3C comes under policy-based algorithms which is not my area or hasn't discussed in the paper. We can achieve autonomous navigation using this method, i know, but why he raised this question? I googled about entropy for exploration and found many papers but all of them used the policy-based method with it. no one used it with a value-based method. How i can compare it with parametric noise? How i can answer this question, "Why is entropy not a valid choice for exploration?"
Anyone in this field, please answer my question. I read many articles but not found the answer.
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Hi Mudassir
I guess it is a problem of methodology here and how you stated the problem you wanted to address.
If the problem you addressed is "ugv navigation" and you came up with "deep Q-learning + parametric noise" and you said I have good results, the question is then "good results with respect to what ?" you need to compare your results with other existing solutions - usually taken as references in the field - and explained why you outperformed them. Otherwise reviewers will consider that you developed another algorithm but you did not bring additional "values/insight/knowledge" to the field - specially when you want to publish in a journal.
Take a look at this paper : Equivalence Between Policy Gradients and Soft Q-Learning
Best
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I have a Sequoia Parrot camera. I am trying to explore how I can find the water stress of a vineyard. Is there a paper or a known procedure to do that?
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I agree with Senad Murtic
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Hello,
I'm working for my thesis, it would be great if some of you could share the insights and results of agile methods to make your organization ambidextrous, please.
Thanks and Best regards
Hussain
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Hi, it was a good experience to dig into so much of research content to formulate the question to arrive at a conclusion. My coordinator was of a great help to shortlist papers based on the keywords search. Anyway, I'm done with it now.
All the best to you.
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I am a Phd Student, would like to explore malware detection system. It would be great if anyone can share Malgenome project dataset as site is not active anymore.
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I know this question is old but in case anyone in 2020 is looking for this dataset just like myself, here is a link i found: https://figshare.com/articles/Android_malware_dataset_for_machine_learning_1/5854590/1
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How should an exploration project be evaluated as successful or unsuccessful? What are the main criteria? Exploration of an unknown deposit based on recent protocols or standards (such as JORC or UMREK) is enough to be successful?
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Dear Zehra,
Only one criteria; the Aim, Goal, or Objective.
Without a clearly defined objective it is virtually impossible to measure success of any program. That is why you got such different answers - all of them true and valid, but not really answering your question. Each answer addresses a different measure of success, because each evaluates a different objective.
A simple example of an objective could read something along the lines of this: To delineate a CCC Code-compliant Resource/Reserve of TTT tonnes/ounces of mineral/commodity MMM, within a period of YYY years and budget of $BBB, in country/region RRR, etc.
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In a Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (PEFQS) article on the "History of Colonization in Modern Palestine" from 1900, the following was listed as one of the projects.
"1664 (circa.), Colbert, Minister of Louis XIV, founds a farm at Beit-Dejan, on the Plains of Sharon, near Jaffa. An grove of fine old olive trees is still pointed out as having been planted by him."
I'm looking for further information, sources, and documentation to understand this grove's location and chronology.
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Dear Giuseppe,
Thank you very much for your response. I had previously checked Gallica but didn't find any relevant results. I appreciate your pointing out that not all the scanned documents in this collection are OCR. Fortunately, some of the documents are searchable through other sources. The book you suggested and additional volumes are found on google books and are searchable. Unfortunately, I still haven't found any sources connecting Jean-Baptise Colbert to Jaffa. Best regards, Joseph
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Shallow Gas exploration can combine conventional exploration (at deeper depths) to exploit small secondary or biogenic pools of hydrocarbon at very low depths in the subsurface. if marketed well, can add to the revenue earnings of industry players.
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I agree, Shallow gas potential are very important for add the gas resources especially bogenic gas, because its found inthe low depth in the subsurface.
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Exploration of various psychic abilities seemed had reached a dead end with the deterministic Newtonian physics. Now, with quantum physics gaining much progression, should psychic abilities be given more consideration to explore more and gain deeper understanding about them?
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Quite agree with Hans answer, no obvious connection via classical physics.
Nevertheless psychic abilities remains a good topic for
psychologists, paranormal or not, a topic whoes popularity
fluctuates, but of interest never dropping to zero.
The quantum and chemistry are fairly well connected., but you get into a horrible complexity there. Psychiatry and brain chemistry keep advancing of course.
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I want to know if there are recent approaches for hydrocarbon exploration using gravity data. Also, is there any recent modifications on the gravity stripping technique in hydrocarbon exploration?
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Dear Ahmed,
I believe that a strong statement cannot be made regarding the limitations of gravimetry or magnetism without having evidence or data to endorse and verify them.
It happens many times that the comparison is not valid, because it is clear that seismic is a quintessential tool in reservoir characterization, especially in the case of loans in the domain of prestack elastic inversion, both, for fluid / lithology discrimination.
Such as Naeim said above, the integration of methods is the clue to solve the subsurface geometry.
But both, gravity and magnetic, are not only for Exploration stage (e.g., new frontier areas), but also it is very useful in Development or Reservoir Management: thinking about the case for instance of the 4-D Gravity Survey to characterize fluid contact in boreholes.
Even without this 4-D, gravity and magnetic aerial surveys are critical for example in areas with environmental restrictions, or logistical limitations in the stage of Reservoir Management. Thinking about the use of gravity and seismic for depth pre-salt imaging of complex hydrocarbon systems (Recóncavo Brazil / Gabon-Congo system; Santos-Campos Brazil / Kwanza – Benguela Angola).
Another example of the use of gravity anomalies in Reservoir Characterization is related with the construction of the low-frequency model to run seismic inversion. Remember that for potential method environment softwares, you can export a SEGY file with your gravity inversion, load in the seismic interpretation environment and go on with your low-frequency model previously to run the acoustic-elastic- seismic inversion workflow.
Let me show you two examples of my own experience that I compare the 3D seismic basement imaging with magnetic solutions and be careful of the sizes and the statistics that I show you, you take a better idea about the advantages.
I hope this answer will be useful for colleagues and you.
Mario E. Sigismondi
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Groundwater Exploration
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Well,
the attached link gives an idea.
Regards
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Exploration of Salar brines (containing high concentrations of dissolved salts like Lithium, Potassium, Magnesium, etc) found below the surface of dried lake-beds (Playas) is generally carried out through surface geological mapping, geophysical surveys and brine sampling through drilling.
Whether characteristic biota - both living & fossils - can be an added exploration tool?
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First of all, they must be able to extract water for their salt water metabolism, that is, filter the salt and harmful elements, and they must also be able to resist UV radiation, which is high in these ecosystems.
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Hello there.
I think that most of us would agree that exercise has been earmarked as one of the main lifestyle components that could be introduced in therapeutic interventions, as it is usually easy to implement by facilitators and be followed by patient populations.
Nevertheless, the physiological effects of exercise in cardiovascular diseases are usually neglected, with the main focus being given to its therapeutic effects.
To address this, we have started a new research topic in "Frontiers in Physiology", which is currently open for submission.
We would be keen to see submissions focusing on the physiological effects of exercise in different forms of cardiovascular disease - whether these are positive, indifferent or negative (which maybe the case in certain conditions or stages).
More information can be found here:
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Following
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We wish to studies on the " Exploration techniques for Ground water studies in Alluvial plan of Vidhabha Region" pl suggest the advance technique to adopt for exact modelling and estimation except RS and GIS
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Hi, Kishor, Exploration for groundwater in alluvial plans is relatively straightforward as the geology is usually simplier as compared to that in the bedrock terrain. Various exploration techniques are available, including geopgysical and geochemical and well drilling and testing. I suggest that you find a book on this subject as the question is too broad to answer in short description.
Good luck!
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  • Purpose of the post:
I'm struggling to understand the significance of the fat-tailed distribution especially in career choice. 80000hours career guide argues that the more accurate distribution for career choice is the long-tailed one.
I'm trying to understand how the implication would differ between a normal bell-curve and a long-tailed distribution. My request: are the implications I wrote in "Part 2: Significance of the fat-tail distribution" accurate? Please focus on points 1 and 2.
Other Names: heavy-tailed distribution, long-tailed distribution, , pareto distribution
  • Part 1: Description of Fat-Tail Distribution phenomenon in World Problems and Career Success in 80000hours career guide:
The guide is available for free download at https://80000hours.org/book/
"the most effective actions achieve far more than average. These big differences in expected impact mean that it’s really important to focus on the best areas. Of course, making these comparisons is really hard, but if we don’t, we could easily end up working on something with comparatively little impact. This is why many of our readers have changed which problem they work on. "p.60
"Each change took serious effort, but if changing area can enable you to have many times as much impact, and be more successful, then it’s worth it." (p.61)
"the top 10% of the most prolific elite can be credited with around 50% of all contributions, whereas the bottom 50% of the least productive workers can claim only 15% of the total work" (p. 89)
Simonton, Dean K. ʺAge and outstanding achievement: What do we know after a century of research?ʺ Psychological bulletin 104.2 (1988): 251 as cited in p.89 of 80000hours guide
"Areas like research and advocacy are particularly extreme, but a major study still found that the best people in almost any field have significantly more output than the typical person." Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., Judiesch, M. K., (1990) “Individual Differences
in Output Variability as a Function of Job Complexity”, Journal of Applied as cited in P.90 of 80000hours guide
"Moreover, success in almost any field gives you influence that can be turned into positive impact by using your position to advocate for important problems (p.91).
This all also means you should probably avoid taking a “high impact” option that you don’t enjoy, and lacks the other ingredients of job satisfaction, like engaging work". (p.91)
"Finally, because the most successful people in a field achieve far more than the typical person, choose something where you have the potential to excel. Don’t do something you won’t enjoy in order to have more impact. " (p.95)
📷
Figure Assumed (NOT actual) Bell-Curve for problems (p.59)
📷
Figure: Actual fat-tail distribution for problems (p.60)
📷
Figure: Actual Fat-Tail distribution of Careers (p.90)
  • Part 2: Significance of the fat-tail distribution especially for individuals (All points are comparing fat-tail to bell-curve) :
1. It seems to me that in both distributions we have a motivation to aim for the top (obviously the top would be better) but the nature of motivation changes.
The nature of the carrot and stick changes from "aim to be among the best" because
(bell-curve carrot): if you do great things will happen to you.
(bell curve stick): if you don't, you will remain in the average and mean range
To" aim to be among the best" because
(fat-tail carrot): if you do, VERY VERY VERY great things will happen to you.
(fat-tail stick):If you don't, you will remain in the average (BELOW mean)
2. The more variance there is in a statistical sample, the wiser it is to aim to move to the exploration direction in the exploration-exploitation (deliberation-action) spectrum (the relationship between variance and value of new information). In terms of career, the variance is great so the exploration investment should be great as well.
3. Median does not equal average. The average could be misleading and the median could be misleading
4. If all other factors are moderate or weak but you have a good reason to think you can reach the top, go for it because average can be misleading, your rank is as important as your field).
5. Choosing a job at random is not advised because the median is lower than we think.
6. Even though below mean is much more likely in this distribution, probability of being a hyper-performer is higher , which makes the hyper-performer goal a more realistic goal hence, it's easier to become motivated by it.
7. Looking at the outliers becomes more important because they become more influential.
8. Pareto principle (80/20) can encourage generalist over specialization because the effort you put in one field result in a better impact if distributed over many fields but at the same time it can encourage specialization over generalism because the pareto distribution makes you want to aim for the very top because its impact is disproportionate.
9. Does the long-tailed distribution favor an "all-star" "super-star" or "SWAT" team approach of fewer more qualified people (quality over quantity)?
10. Prioritization becomes more important?
11. We often behave as if the bell-curve distribution is true while it's not. So the significance lies in adjusting our behaviour?
12. Why does personal fit become more important under the long-tailed distribution? Because the long-tailed distribution has a higher variance. If success in a specific field had zero variance, then individual differences wouldn't matter much so the person-environment fit would not be v. important because as persons change nothing changes as a result. However, the reality is that there is great variance so individual differences matter a lot (how would you "react" to a field NOT JUST how good is a career).
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I really don`t like such long explanations.
You are not on the way with a mathematical proof!
If frequency of distribution and theoretical density fit you may have a solution.
Check your data with Kolmogorov–Smirnov test.
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I have a one question about my study to the exploration geologists;
There are two methods in hydrogeochemical uranium explorations one of them is U/EC ratio and other is U concentration. Both of these parameters are using with anomaly contrast and mean+2*stdeviation(treshold value). And I am trying to find a new parameter in addition to these two parameters. 
My question is;
How can I test the accuracy of the my new proposal. I have two datasets belongs uranium fields in Turkey also have any other publications. I think 
for comparing, apply this known two methods to the datasets to find anomalous zones/samples and apply my suggestion. The last step is adaption of this informations with geology knowledge of field. 
Am I wrong ? Is there any fault in my idea ?  
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Hello, for the search - exploration of uranium there are several methods, almost all related to radiometric surveys. In addition, several criteria are used for the location of possible anomalies and almost never, the results of the individual channels offer the best results. For this purpose, the so-called "complex indices" have been designed, which in general improve the interpretation process.
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Good Day,
I am interested in the following article
" An Ecological Exploration of the Internet of Toys in Early Childhood Everyday Life"
How can I get access to the whole article?
Thank you.
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Science Hub
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The mineral processing industry is increasingly facing problems with processing of secondary resources like low grade ores and other industrial wastes for a green zero waste technology and sustainable economy.
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Studied data are from the outcrops or cuttings from drilled well ? If you studied samples from the exploration-development wells, did you obtain any interesting results that we can apply in our petroleum researches ?
Bulent Coşkun-Petroleum Geologist
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The forams are very important in the petroleum industry. In the Gulf of Mexico is aplicable for dating sequences and know the paleobathymetry and paleocology related with stratigraphic sequences. In this manner we can determine the best estimation about the sedimentary models and propose reservoirs.
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I developed an instrument for measuring emotion perception based on the abilitybased model of emotional intelligence, with 3 types of items(scales): auditive , semantic and visual. I now need to select the items which fit best in to the model. Exploration and selection of the data with "typical itemanalysis" ( item difficulty and item discrimination) and followed factor analysis does not lead to best internal consistency (cronbach´s alpha) and factor structure. Is it possible to do factoranalysis first, select the items which best fit into desired factorstructure, by looking at the factor loadings? This is a very subjective approach, so are there any guidelines?
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Hello Anna,
Yes, you may first try factoring the items to see whether the anticipated scales emerge. Once those scales are identified, you could further refine them by looking at item analyses within scales. However, do recognize that the factoring step capitalizes on the observed relationships among the item scores, so item analysis estimates (esp. for discrimination, or internal consistency reliability) can be somewhat biased. For that reason, some folks would recommend separate or split samples for each analysis step.
Good luck with your work.
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I want to start a philosophical discussion and ethical debate on the reasoning behind why humanity should and must become a multi-planet species.
  • What do you think is the most profound and captivating reason(s) that you have to justify SpaceX and Elon Musk's goal of making humanity a multi-planetary species?
Elon said during the 68th Annual ISC on September 29th 2017:
"I think fundamentally the future is vastly more exciting and interesting if we're a spacefaring civilization and a multi-planet species than if we are not. You want to be inspired by things. You want to wake up in the morning and think the future is going to be great."
I agree with him here, but I think there is something more profound and captivating that must be addressed with regards to becoming a species that lives on more than just one planetary body. Other questions we may want to consider to help us reach this answer include:
  • What are the ethical considerations we must address before colonizing other worlds?
  • Do humans really deserve another planet to potentially ruin, or even sustainably terraform, if we cannot even figure out how to sustainably balance our own home world?
  • One might ask why doesn't Elon use his genius to create new technologies that will advance the human race by solving some of the Earth's worst problems?
  • Has he simply given up on this planet and does he therefore want a clean slate to build up from?
  • Does Elon think that technological advancements resulting from the drive to become a spacefaring civilization (i.e. propellant production via. CO2 sequestration powered by 100% solar energy systems) will eventually rebound to help the Earth?
  • Must we start colonizing Mars now (i.e. beginning in the year 2022) like Elon's timeline suggests? Potentially, if we wait too long, technologies to reverse climate change on Earth may not have advanced enough without the excitement of being spacefaring...
Lets see what everyone thinks about this, and let's keep it civilized in here. Try and get real profound!
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If i may add my 5 cents to this:
  • What do you think is the most profound and captivating reason(s) that you have to justify SpaceX and Elon Musk's goal of making humanity a multi-planetary species?
--> Depends how you want to see Elon Musk: as the visionary who wants humanity to thrive and improve? Or just as the one who seeks fame and fortune for being the first in doing things?
In my humble opinion, humanity has yet to reach a level of mindset to overcome cultural and religious differences. We might have satellites and smart phones, but in our thinking we still behave like cave-men.
For example, the Americans, when setting foot on the Moon, put an American flag there. Not one showing Earth. How would it be on Mars, when Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Americans set foot there? Whom will it belong to? For sure not the entire humanity, so we would just bring all of our archaic thinking into a new world. All our problems and issues, and soon the new planet will suffer all the same problems as we have on Earth.
As long as we do not manage to live as one humanity on one planet (i.e. having a global government), there is no point in making humanity multi-planetary.
  • What are the ethical considerations we must address before colonizing other worlds?
--> As mentioned above: if you want to colonise something, who does it belong to? Is there indigenous life (whether intelligent or not)? Or is it a barren rock?
Now given the barren rock case: Who does it belong to? Imagine it has a huge amount of rare minerals on it. Is it "whoever finds it can keep it"? In the outer space treaty from the 1960s, they addressed this topic, saying that space belongs to all humanity, yet not all nations have signed this and yet when it comes to mining/farming/inhabiting these space environments, how is that regulated? And if violated, who prosecutes the violators?
There is a huge legal issue in regards to occupying space environments.
Now given the planet is not a barren rock, but an obviously inhabited planet: Now we can either develop yourselves as species and not touch the ecosystems of these planets, leaving them pristine for the indigenous life. Or we can act in the human way and do the same mistakes as we did in the past over and over again and just go there, exploit and trash the planet until its depletion.
The most difficult and realistic case is actually the case of Mars:
Why is Mars so interesting? Because in its past it was very similar to Earth, it had a denser atmosphere, a magnetic field, volcanism, starting plate tectonics, liquid water and all chemical ingredients for forming life. Mars might have gone through a similar evolution as Earth, forming microbial life, or maybe even be the origin of terrestrial life, as interplanetary transportation of rocks after impact events is proven to occur. Now, Mars is the perfect (and maybe only) place to actually study how life on Earth could develop and if life could develop on other planets as well, if life is unique or if it appears quite common throughout the universe.
But, if we send now a bunch of colonists there, who will bring lots and lots of organic material from Earth, we might spoil Mars to a degree where we cannot study this anymore, loosing a very unique opportunity.
Given the case there is still life around, wouldn't it be best to first study it, before building houses, schools and hospitals next to it?
And then there is another ethical consideration that needs to be taken into account:
Sending colonists to space with current technologists would use up significant amounts of terrestrial resources. Sending just 30000 colonists to Mars would already use up all the remaining mineral oil reserves on Earth, not to mention the metals, materials, supplies, etc shipped with the settlers. In order to send these few privileged people to Mars, the rest of humanity will have to sacrifice their lifestyle, their future and their environment. Is that ethical?
  • Do humans really deserve another planet to potentially ruin, or even sustainably terraform, if we cannot even figure out how to sustainably balance our own home world?
--> If we could terraform Mars, why not first terraform Earth? Reverse the effects of climate change, stop and reverse desertification. Earth is better studied than Mars, but as long as here high-ranked people make money with pollution and deny scientific facts, nothing will happen for the better. The money that Musk wants to spend on the colonisation could as well be spent to cover parts of the Earth's desert areas with solar power plants, providing humanity with CO2-free energy. That would benefit more people.
Also, terraforming Mars will not be sustainable. Mars is loosing its atmosphere, because of the lack of a global magnetic field. it might become a home for a while, but thinking into the far future, Mars will be back to where it is now.
Plus, how do we know we can potentially manage to create stable living conditions on Mars, when we are all about destabilising every environment we enter?
  • One might ask why doesn't Elon use his genius to create new technologies that will advance the human race by solving some of the Earth's worst problems?
  • Has he simply given up on this planet and does he therefore want a clean slate to build up from?
--> Maybe because it is easier messing up something new, rather than fixing something old?
  • Does Elon think that technological advancements resulting from the drive to become a spacefaring civilization (i.e. propellant production via. CO2 sequestration powered by 100% solar energy systems) will eventually rebound to help the Earth?
--> Musk's rockets use RP1 (refined kerosine) like all other rockets, and as long as this remains the cheapest fuel, nothing will change. Rockets are basically 95% fuel that is burnt. Using synthetical fuels is a huge cost factor. And especially since the CO2-concentrations (despite being high enough to significantly influence the climate) in the atmosphere are too low for economical use, I do not see any of this happening any time soon.
  • Must we start colonizing Mars now (i.e. beginning in the year 2022) like Elon's timeline suggests? Potentially, if we wait too long, technologies to reverse climate change on Earth may not have advanced enough without the excitement of being spacefaring...
--> No. We need to politically, economically and ecologically get our shit together first. We need to all reduce our negative imprint on the environment on Earth, foster international collaboration not wars, fear or hate, we need to change our thinking not towards maximising the monetary output, but in maximising our own happiness and humanity towards others.
Also, we should (must) explore Mars first. The right step is to first send a small groups of astronauts to carefully study Mars (and come back) over an extended period of time (~20 years) to really answer all our open scientific questions, before we can even think of inevitably spoiling the pristinity of the planet.
==> this would be the right way, and would avoid many of the mistakes that human explorers on Earth have done in the past (i.e. settling at their first arrival to a new place)
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I have geolocation data acquired from Intigeo geolocators devices. I am looking for the "best" R package to do it considering I am studying a seabird species.
I already know GeoLight and I just started my exploration or probGLS, but I was wondering if there are better packages to do so.
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Try BAStag and SGAT https://github.com/SWotherspoon/SGAT https://github.com/SWotherspoon/BAStag  - on CRAN there is GeoLight or FlightR
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In Kimberlite Exploration, one extensively uses geophysical techniques for location the same. I am interested to know, the present state of art in data integration and GIS and remote sensing studies.   
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Chandra Hello
As I know, practically all geophysical methods (excluding magnetotelluric sounding and some seismic modifications) can be used in kimberlite exploration. Even such a rarely applied method as piezoelectric (seismoelectric) survey was successfully applied for delineation of kimberlite pipes in Yakutia (Russia).
Often kimberlite pipes produce ring anomalies (e.g. in magnetic and gravity fields). For revealing ring structure anomalies against noise background different processing methods are developed - see, for instance, in the RG DataBase
Eppelbaum, L.V., 2007. Localization of Ring Structures in Earth’s Environments. Jour. of the Archaeological Soc. of the Slovakian Acad. of Sci., Spec. Issue: Arch. Prosp., XLI, 145-148.
Eppelbaum, L.V. and Mishne, A.R., 2011. Unmanned Airborne Magnetic and VLF investigations: Effective Geophysical Methodology of the Near Future. Positioning, 2, No. 3, 112-133.
Best regards,
Lev 
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My compound have effect on delaying the growth rate of C.elegans, particularly on L3 and L4 stage. I want to explore the mechanism of this phenotype with the heterochronic pathway, but there is few papers related to this. 
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The compound you add is delaying growth. What food source do you use? If you breed your own OP50 it is not a real technical replicate and C.elegans can behave differently when being fed with varying OP50 conditions and quality. Do you breed OP50 in a controlled bioreactor?
Otherwise use LabTIE OP50 to make sure your feeding protocol does not influence the impact of the substance
More info can be found here
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This is an ongoing developing project across national borders to explore what is common and what differs in difference social, academic and linguistic systems so please raise questions for us.
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This is an important dialogue and raising an important issue.  When I began the publishing  my career  in higher education, my mentors at Berkeley help me see that there were multiple audiences for my work. The key in the early days of the 1970s was that the empirical piece is the first one to be published and lays a foundation for later work. APA guidelines at that time indicated that you can publish another version of 30% of the paper was new. That was framed by the third and fourth edition of their guidelines.  
The norm in those days was that the empirical publication was the first one. You can then write for different audiences based on that by adding new data to the paper. Your audiences could be more applied. That meant in the field of reading research or literacy that you could Publish an article for teachers based on the empirical work or you could publish a commentary or other form in another journal. The empirical research was the foundation.
The key is that you could not begin with a more popular article and then publish  more empirical work since empirical journals require you Have not published the material elsewhere. Each organization and discipline has a style manual and governing principles for publication. As An Editor of  research journals, I learned that each has its own norms and expectations that vary with the editorial board.  also it often takes 2 to 3 years to go through a publishing process. Quick responses are rare in publishing unless it is a special issue of a journal to which you are invited.Often you get a review that suggest that you revise and resubmit which puts it into another round of reviews.  
 One of the invisible elements in terms of promotion and tenure is how you craft the directions of your program of research. There is a need to lay out a map for you reader focusing on the purpose of the publishing in different venues.  
Answering the questions about the publication venue before they are asked was advice I was given by a management consultant who is a friend of one of my colleagues. Taking proactive action that shows that you know The review process of the venue you submit to is critical in documenting your program of research direction. He advised me to put in my description the rejection rate and the audience.
Jeffrey Stewart is correct about different audiences.   Is a scholar of history the rules that he and his colleagues follow or different than the rules require of educators who draw on social sciences and/or humanities guidelines.  One of the keys in building a reasoned argument for your work is to decide on the direction and audiences you want to address and then to articulate this to the promotion and tenure committee. Crafting a new direction requires you to do some work on helping the committee members understand the goals you have and the purpose of your work. often in the past two decades have I seen people  articulate this in their personal statement,which  shows clear guidelines  provided as you develop your case or promotion and tenure. without such information the decision is totally in the hands of the external reviewers,  May not share the same understanding the publication requirements. Knowing what materials are sent to external reviewer's is off and critical to being successful.
I have had several Dean's who understood that I do not write alone because of my philosophical framework on social construction of reality. Therefore when they were asked by those outside of the school why I didn't have more individual articles, they were able to respond with a conceptual statement and to support the direction I was taking. Over the four plus decades of my working in higher education, supportive deans and administrators have always asked me about the directions of my work so that they could support me and answer questions by those from outside our profession or discipline. In my first position, the Dean told me that I should talk with him that he had his own files. He felt that he needed to know the directions I was purposefully taking in order to make informed decisions and not just rely on what others indicated in their evaluation.
 As my comment indicates, personal agency becomes an important in framing the directions of your publications as well as making informed decisions.
One Final comment - I have found that triangulating with other departments and their interpretation  of the common guidelines is critical. Each department or discipline has its own norms. For example some humanities departments require books and not in articles, while for other social science departments, articles published in certain journals are critical. Publishing in physics is different than publishing in the social sciences but then there are overlaps when you change your audiences. Certain journals may be critical.
I hope that these comments are useful. They are based on almost five decades of work at four different universities, Teaching university to research one universities.  As An ethnographer, I have had to learn what the requirements expectations norms and realities were at each of my institution. But in reality, we have our own directions that we are trying to build with others and for others. Our decisions therefore need to be both personally and institutionally guided.   I have also learned that international Universities and Universities in other countries have different standards or expectations for where particular people should publish.  
Another way to learn the process is Volunteering to review for journals.  This will demystify the review process and give you insight into the process at the ground level. This is been the best advice that I was given and that I've shared. I hope that this is useful. 
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I have a number of years experience in the China markets marketing alcohol and other categories in the FMCG arena. I'm interested in explore collaboration and ways to contribute to this project!
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Hello
Thank you, however, I am just following this project (colleagues of mine) which I am not involved, just a follower. Please direct your question/concern to:
Weifeng Chen, and
John P. Balmer
Best wishes,
Farouk
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I am trying to look at how the University as a contested space influenced the actions, relationships and culture of the growing feminist and gay movements in Britain during the late twentieth century. 
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See Naama Klorman-Eraqi, "The Hackney Flashers: Photography as a Socialist Feminist Endeavor," forthcoming, Photography and Culture, Vol 10, no. 3, October/November 2017
Naama Klorman-Eraqi. "Underneath We’re Angry: Feminism and Media Politics in Britain in the Late 1970s and Early 1980s," forthcoming, Feminist Media Studies, Vol 17, no. 2, April 2017
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The purpose of this project is to explore how managers of international companies use best practices around management control system (MCS) specially within the area of performance measurement. 
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Wow..I studied a little bit about creation of shared value. but the them "value proposition" opens a new window in the zone of whole new ideas. I hope you will help me in another question were I am still puzzled. 
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Which area in cultural heritage preservation using computer vision techniques still need to be explored since, there are so many survey papers on Perception enhancement, restoration and preservation, monitoring,interpretation and collection analysis already.
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I feel it is time to explore a fundamental and misunderstood issue: the human dimension of built heritage (anthropometric module, proportion system and architectural composition). See my project!
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Perhaps Human base space exploration is going to enter into next generation. A good time to get commercial benefit from available & approachable "Wealth" in Space. NASA, SPACEX, European Space Agency and other organizations are trying to explore the potential benefits in space. In this regard, there are few questions;
1) What commodities can be consider as "wealth" in space ?
2) What natural phenomenon in space can come under "space wealth" ?
3) How human can get benefit from space wealth ?
4) What are different trades other than space-tourism, communication & weather-satellites can be possible ?
5) Any other aspects plz ?
Thanks 
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And hopefully there is something for pre-school teacher efficacy....
Thank you!
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Hello Livia,
I am attaching special education standards by the Council for Exceptional Children. You might want to turn them into a questionnaire.  They come from an authoritative source.  
Sandra H
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HI, I am interested in developing a Magnetrohydrodynamic Generation project, to generate electricity from a volume of gas currently being vented to the atmosphere at an oil facility. See figure Attached.
However, I have been investigating the State of the Art in this technology for some time and I do not find any recent projects. I have generally found information about plants built in the 60s, 70s and 80s. I would like to know if anyone can tell me if the research about this technology continue, and if somebody is building plants of this type anywhere in the world. Thank you
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Hi, thanks for the comment ... I hope to be able to move forward with this proposal, if so I will be glad to inform you ...
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Hi,
I'm searching for literature that deals with the comparison of orthologs between diverse species (primitive-like vs modern organisms - e.g. immune proteins in hagfish compared to mammal counterparts). Particular interest in structures/functions/pathways that exhibit profound variety between orthologs.
Perhaps a vague request but this information is required for a conversation of evolution and how it can be explored at the level of the nucleotide. Thanks
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Jaz Storz has done some wonderful comparative work on haemoglobins in different taxa, not sure is this is helpful:
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Can anyone refer me to research exploring the application of complexity theory to the criminal justice system? Or the application of complexity theory to a complex social phenomenon i.e. human trafficking?
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Hi to all!
I have some difficulties to find this:
Deibis, S., Futyan, A.R.I., Ince, D.M., Morley, R.J., Seymour,
W.P. and Thompson, S., 1986. The stratigraphic framework
of the Nile Delta and its implications with respect to the
regions hydrocarbon potential. Proc. 8th Explor. Conf.,
EGPC Cairo
Can anyone help me?
Thank you! 
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Dear All
I will try yo locate and make a pdf of this paper, but it will take a couple of weeks as I am travelling at the moment. Incidentally, I wrote and presented this paper, not apparent from the author list !!
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Redis and Memcached systems performs well in hash based tables.
I am trying to explore the tree-based main memory databases.
Some researches wrote in their papers that they replace hash table with B+-tree in Redis.
But i can't find the resources about B+-tree based Redis on the internet.
I was wondering if it is possible that somebody could share the resources about B+-tree based Redis or B+tree based Memcached.
Thanks.
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Ci sarei io se ti fa piacere  .Grazie
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The n-armed bandit seems to be the most popular method to assess exploration versus exploitation, but I'm interested in learning about others, too -- especially those that might be easier to administer.
Thanks in advance for any information you may be able to provide!
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I think foraging tasks might be useful for your purpose; there are a lot of existing computerized versions and these usually have established methods, i.e. applying a simple model-based measure, to assess the degree of "exploration".
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I am interested to explore the effects of the first pair on the third.
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Dear Researcher,
Below is available about some theoretical conception of the relationship between teacher's belief and practice as the performance. 
Thanks,
Kind Regards.
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My research focuses on the Alexander von Humboldt atlas pittoresque du voyage: "Vues des Cordillères". I am interested in the history and uses of "atlas", and how the concept "atlas" plus "pittoresque" set up a new way of travelling in an artistic manner in the nineteenth-century, encouraging the connection between artists and scientists.
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Much interested in following the results of your research !
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Exploring this question in my research studies
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My personal experience with war criminals (I interviewed quite a few) is that apart from few exceptions, such as vey young kids, they never really regret what they have done: the power and the thrill are too great. A suspended amnesty (something like parole) might be a good idea in the case of the lowest actors, but certainly not for the middle ranking operators (the organizers, such as Eichman) or the top ones (the commanders, who are the originators of the genocidal idea, such as Heydrich or Hitler). German experience after the war is that many of the operators of the SS and Gestapo found quickly a similar job in the STASI (so did the SAVAK's lower officers in Iran, who continued to apply their skills for the Mollahs); and those who did not spent much time in secret networks to help their peers find refuge in Latin America or elsewhere.
With regard to young kids, it is known now (see the works of Berthoz on vicariancy) that there are in human beings 2 windows for the building of the capacity to empathize with others, around 7 and 14 years old. Unfortunately, we are doing close to nothing to help former LRA or Khmer Rouges of that age to reinsert into society, and even less to prevent the brutalization (see works by Audoiun-Rouzeau and Grossman in particular) by organizations such as the LRA, Hutu killers, Jamaat, ISIL, Hamas, Hezbollah or the PLO from endoctrinating a new generation of fighters.
An interesting tool developed in situ has been the gacaca in Rwanda, which rely on local supervision, on the basis of admission by the guilty party.
I have a lot of documentation on that topic, since I have been creating a new science, Juripragmatics: why and how people communicate in the hearing room, on the basis of my experience as a linguist, lawyer, justice administrator and judge in those fields.
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I'm now working on a project in which I must visualize a porphyry Cu veinlet relationships, I have a variety of cores from various deeps of an ore deposit, each core illustrates the mineralization in a specific deep, I have also the cores's coordinates.if there is any useful way for vain classification, I will accept warmly.
I eagerly look forward to hear from you through this post,
Regards
Pezhman
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Since the original rocks are probably very altered, I would try to identify the alteration minerals and compare the results with porphyry copper models from other known deposits
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I have Landsat 8 downloaded from Earth explorer. The DN values shows 0-12189.7 for Band 2, 0-13479 for Band 4, 0-12323.5 for Band 3 …..How do I get the proper DN values?
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There is nothing improper about these values. The numbers are higher than those from previous Landsat satellites, because the sensor has higher radiometric resolution (can distinguish much more than 256 levels of gray in every band). Thus, it is not possible to store the values in 8bit integer numbers (0-255) without information loss, so it is stored in 16bit numbers (0-65535). If you want to compare for example Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 images, you would need to convert both to radiance or to reflectance, maybe do atmospheric correction, and still keep in mind, that even the spectral properties of the ETM+ and OLI corresponding bands are not exactly the same.
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There is a shale oil exploration going on in the Bazhenov Formation in Russia. The conditions there are extreme. Moreover, reserves has been estimated in eastern Siberian wilderness too. I was studying about the details of the exploration done by the exploration giants of US and Russia in that area. I want to know that what are the methods or tools that are used for the detection or exploration of shale oil reserves in such extreme conditions.
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If this is an exploration well: during a drilling process, the shale may be detected by the cutting lithofacies and an increase of total hydrocarbons as detected by gas chromatography. Depending on the pressure regime and superimposed rock-type there might be changes in the rate of penetration or drillability.
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I read James March's book and find the concept very interesting.
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Role ambiguity refers to the lack of clarity in the roles an employee is expected to fulfill. Since a worker needs to understand clearly what his or her role is, not clearly knowing what one’s role is may result in negative situations. In organizations, management should ensure that authority and responsibility should be clearly defined.
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The objective is to identify a deposit which will be the target for further exploration. Estimates of quantities are inferred based on interpretation of geological, geophysical and geochemical results.
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Mineral Deposits are usually identified through a combination of a set of geoscientific data based on various themes; geological, geochemical, geophysical (both ground and airborne) and remote-sensing (geomorphology, lineament and hyperspectral). Each of these themes characterise a type of information relevant to the mineral deposit of interest. Geospatial modelling techniques using spatial statistics (which also include geostatistical methods like variography and kriging) aim at replicating geological reality as closely as possible, using available geo-information. In addition, refined techniques like stable and radiometric isotope analysis, fluid inclusion study, litho-geochemistry, hyperspectral mapping are combined for generation of genetic/exploration model for the commodity, for effective analysis of the datasets and extraction of only the relevant factors and integration of these factors to generate a single prospectivity map. Integration approaches like conceptual - knowledge driven approach and probabilistic - data driven approach can be used on exploration dataset vis-a-vis its genetic model and construction of prospectivity map that illustrate how mineralization potential or prospectivity changes over an area. The assignment of weightage (interactive / geostatistically) to the various predictor / indicator maps carried out in knowledge driven interactive modelling (Index Overlay, Fuzzy Inference analysis and Vector Fuzzy modelling) and by a quantitative method based on known mineral occurrences with conditional probability following the Bayes rule (Bayesian probability) needs geostatistics in combination with GIS tools. The integration exercise using both 2D map data and 3D borehole data (subsurface geological, geochemical and geophysical) generates prospectivity maps for future exploration target areas. Similar exercise can also help in delineating the extension zones of the already explored ore body.
The integration modelling involves five steps:
• Establish an exploration model
• Build a spatial and related attribute database
• Chose a methodology of data integration – knowledge or data driven
• Process the GIS and attribute data according to methodology
• Apply integration modeling to generate Favourability Maps
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A graben with existing and historic vein-hosted gold production on its west side has similar style veins that have hosted historic silver production on the east side. Are there regional controls on the mineralization of epithermal systems that would control Au/Ag ratio vertically and/or horizontally across a graben? Could it simply be a matter of lighter elements, such as silver, precipitating from cooling epithermal fluids at lower temperatures or pressures than heavier elements, such as gold, do?
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I have noticed a relationship of higher silver with the presence of organic matter in the host rocks or the basement (coal, black shale, bitumen, etc. reductants). Agree with Ulrich that it may be a function of oxygen fugacity and availability of a sulfur. Worth asking the question.
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I have written my first article and I would like to get some feedback, specially critical comments! I have thought that maybe this could be a good platform for that?
I am PhD student in History of Art, carrying out my thesis in the Department of History of Science in CCHS-CSIC (Madrid). This is my first publication about my work in progress and all the ideas about writing, sources, style, topics, etc. will be greatly appreciated. Many thanks to everyone who take time to read it and comment.
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Just a word : if you have already- published something, before publishing it in an other place check that you are OK with Copyrights. You are supposed to sign some agreement saying for instance that you are not allowed to do so for one year etc. Also be careful about publishing parts of your Ph.D. thesis : be sure that your University agrees doing so, and that you are not disclosing too much of it.
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Rare earths, as their name implies, are not abundant. Rare earth minerals are very much strategic metals.
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Bastnasite, monazite, and xenotime are the three minerals known to contain REE in sufficient quantity. Most concentrates produced by the physical separation processes such as flotation, magnetic separation, gravity or their combinations contain these minerals and other minor minerals also containingrare earth elementrare. The toxicity and behaviour of rare earth elements (REE) in natural environments has not been studied to any great extent, and given the trivalent charge of many REE, it is largely unknown how toxic they are to aquatic species, and how they interact with natural organic compounds