Science topic

Experimental Particle Physics - Science topic

Explore the latest publications in Experimental Particle Physics, and find Experimental Particle Physics experts.
Filters
All publications are displayed by default. Use this filter to view only publications with full-texts.
Publications related to Experimental Particle Physics (327)
Sorted by most recent
Preprint
Full-text available
With the present trend in experimental particle physics of probing yet shorter distances and with the requirement on the theoretical side of renormalizability, conformal invariance becomes an attractive symmetry for particle interactions. That is because conformal field theories form a large class of massless no-scale renormalizable quantum field t...
Article
Full-text available
This work proposes a domain-informed neural network architecture for experimental particle physics, using particle interaction localization with the time-projection chamber (TPC) technology for dark matter research as an example application. A key feature of the signals generated within the TPC is that they allow localization of particle interactio...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on ‘Big Science’ have shifted our perspective from the complexity of scientific objects and their representations to the complexity of sociotechnical arrangements. However, how scientists in large-scale research attend to this complexity to facilitate and afford knowledge production has rarely been considered to date. In this article, we lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The impressive progress in data rate capabilities, pattern recognition, and spatial resolution of current detectors in experimental particle physics has been possible thanks to the availability of sophisticated analog processors combined with complex digital signal processors implemented in custom made front end ASICs. The demands in terms of perfo...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the next years, the energy and intensity frontiers of the experimental Particle Physics will be pushed forward with the upgrade of existing accelerators (LHC at CERN) and the envisaged construction of new machines at energy scales up to hundreds TeV or with unprecedented intensity (FCC-hh, FCC-ee, ILC, Muon Collider). Large size, cost-effective,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Standard Model of Particle Physics cannot explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This observation is a clear sign of new physics beyond the Standard Model. There have been many recent theoretical developments to address this question. Critically, many new physics models that generate the baryon asymmetry have a wide range of rep...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated gender bias in letters of recommendation as a possible cause of the under-representation of women in Experimental Particle Physics (EPP), where about 15% of faculty are female—well below the 60% level in psychology and sociology. We analyzed 2206 letters in EPP and these two social sciences using standard lexical measures as well as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine learning techniques are now well established in experimental particle physics, allowing detector data to be analysed in new and unique ways. The identification of signals in particle observatories is an essential data processing task that can potentially be improved using such methods. This paper aims at exploring the benefits that a dedica...
Article
Full-text available
Mesons comprising a beauty quark and strange quark can oscillate between particle ( $${B}_{\mathrm{s}}^{0}$$ B s 0 ) and antiparticle ( $${\overline{B}}_{\mathrm{s}}^{0}$$ B ¯ s 0 ) flavour eigenstates, with a frequency given by the mass difference between heavy and light mass eigenstates, Δ m s . Here we present a measurement of Δ m s using $${B}_...
Article
Full-text available
The standard model of particle physics is both incredibly successful and glaringly incomplete. Among the questions left open is the striking imbalance of matter and antimatter in the observable universe¹, which inspires experiments to compare the fundamental properties of matter/antimatter conjugates with high precision2,3,4,5. Our experiments deal...
Thesis
Full-text available
Elementary particle physics is a contemporary topic in science that is slowly being integrated into high-school education. These new implementations are challenging teachers’ professional knowledge worldwide. Therefore, physics education research is faced with two important questions, namely, how can particle physics be integrated in high-school ph...
Article
Full-text available
Light emissions and Schlieren structures were simultaneously observed from streamers produced by tens of kilovolts 1.2/50 μs impulses, representing the high voltage component of lightning, applied across a 4 cm air gap between a variety of electrode geometries and a ground plane in an unconfined environment. The results demonstrated that the light...
Article
Full-text available
In 1956 Reines & Cowan discovered the neutrino using a liquid scintillator detector. The neutrinos interacted with the scintillator, producing light that propagated across transparent volumes to surrounding photo-sensors. This approach has remained one of the most widespread and successful neutrino detection technologies used since. This article in...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work proposes a domain-informed neural network architecture for experimental particle physics, using particle interaction localization with the time-projection chamber (TPC) technology for dark matter research as an example application. A key feature of the signals generated within the TPC is that they allow localization of particle interactio...
Article
Full-text available
The optimization of reconstruction algorithms has become a key aspect in the field of experimental particle physics. Since technology has allowed gradually increasing the complexity of the measurements, the amount of data taken that needs to be interpreted has grown as well. This is the case with the LHCb experiment at CERN, where a major upgrade c...
Article
Full-text available
Neutrinos exist in one of three types or ‘flavours’—electron, muon and tau neutrinos—and oscillate from one flavour to another when propagating through space. This phenomena is one of the few that cannot be described using the standard model of particle physics (reviewed in ref. 1), and so its experimental study can provide new insight into the nat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Linguistic analysis of 2,206 lettres of recommendation compared gender bias in two disciplines differing in women's representation: experimental; particle physics (EPP, < 15% female) and social science (> 60% female). Standard lexical measures (e.g., "communal," "agentic," and "standout") did not show bias against women in either discipline. On the...
Article
Full-text available
A search for magnetised quark nuggets (MQN) is reported using acoustic signals from hydrophones placed in the Great Salt Lake (GSL) in the USA. No events satisfying the expected signature were seen. This observation allows limits to be set on the flux of MQNs penetrating the Earth’s atmosphere and depositing energy in the GSL. The expected signatur...
Article
Full-text available
Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a promising approach with a high optimization potential for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. To study the efficacy of PIPAC and drugs, first rodent cancer models were developed. But inefficient drug aerosol supply and knowledge gaps concerning spatial drug distribution can limit...
Article
Full-text available
The complicated structure of the neutron cannot be calculated using first-principles calculations due to the large colour charge of quarks and the self-interaction of gluons. Its simplest structure observables are the electromagnetic form factors1, which probe our understanding of the strong interaction. Until now, a small amount of data has been a...
Article
Full-text available
Tidal measurements are of great significance since they may provide us with essential data to apply towards protection of coastal communities and sea traffic. Currently, tide gauge stations and laser altimetry are commonly used for these measurements. On the other hand, muography sensors can be located underneath the seafloor inside an undersea tun...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) tools are able to learn relationships between the inputs and outputs of large complex systems directly from data. However, for time-varying systems, the predictive capabilities of ML tools degrade if the systems are no longer accurately represented by the data with which the ML models were trained. For complex systems, re-trai...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, minuscule gas bubbles called bulk nanobubbles (BNBs) have drawn increasing attention due to their unique properties and broad applicability in various technological fields, such as biomedical engineering, water treatment, and nanomaterials. However, questions remain regarding the stability and behavior of BNBs. In the present work,...
Article
Full-text available
Charged lepton system symmetry under combined charge, parity, and time-reversal transformation (CPT) remains scarcely tested. Despite stringent quantum-electrodynamic limits, discrepancies in predictions for the electron–positron bound state (positronium atom) motivate further investigation, including fundamental symmetry tests. While CPT noninvari...
Article
Full-text available
Cherenkov detectors enable a valuable tool to identify high-energy particles. However, their sensitivity and momentum coverage are limited by the refractive index of host materials. Especially, identifying particles with energy above multiple gigaelectronvolts requires host materials with a near-unity refractive index, which are limited to bulky ga...
Article
Full-text available
The reconstruction of charged particle trajectories at the Large Hadron Collider and future colliders relies on energy depositions in sensors placed at distances ranging from a centimeter to a meter from the colliding beams. We propose a method of detecting charged particles that decay invisibly after traversing a short distance of about 25 cm insi...
Article
Full-text available
Muon radiography is a methodology which enables measuring the mass distribution within large objects. It exploits the abundant flux of cosmic muons and uses detectors with different technologies depending on the application. As the sensitive surface and geometric acceptance are two fundamental parameters for increasing the collection of muons, the...
Article
Full-text available
Although the quest for more accurate solutions is pushing deep learning research towards larger and more complex algorithms, edge devices demand efficient inference and therefore reduction in model size, latency and energy consumption. One technique to limit model size is quantization, which implies using fewer bits to represent weights and biases....
Preprint
Full-text available
Stochastic simulators are an indispensable tool in many branches of science. Often based on first principles, they deliver a series of samples whose distribution implicitly defines a probability measure to describe the phenomena of interest. However, the fidelity of these simulators is not always sufficient for all scientific purposes, necessitatin...
Article
Full-text available
Cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) not only promote genomic integrity in healthy tissues, but also largely determine the efficacy of many DNA-damaging cancer treatments, including X-ray and particle therapies. A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of the mechanisms that detect, signal and repair DSBs may depend on t...
Article
Full-text available
To harness the full potential of the ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and microscopy (UEM), we must know accurately the electron beam properties, such as emittance, energy spread, spatial-pointing jitter, and shot-to-shot energy fluctuation. Owing to the inherent fluctuations in UED/UEM instruments, obtaining such detailed knowledge requires re...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03367-9.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the nucleon spin structure in the regime where the strong interaction becomes truly strong poses a challenge to both experiment and theory. At energy scales below the nucleon mass of about 1 GeV, the intense interaction among the quarks and gluons inside the nucleon makes them highly correlated. Their coherent behaviour causes the eme...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the spin structure of protons and neutrons tests our understanding of how they arise from quarks and gluons, the fundamental building blocks of nuclear matter. At long distances, the coupling constant of the strong interaction becomes large, requiring non-perturbative methods to calculate quantum chromodynamics processes, such as lattice...
Article
Full-text available
The need for photodetectors in various fields has gradually emerged, and several studies in this area are therefore being conducted. For photodetectors to be used in various environments, their transparency, flexibility, and durability must be ensured. However, the development of flexible photodetectors based on the current measurement techniques o...
Preprint
Full-text available
I would like to thank Junk and Lyons (arXiv:2009.06864) for beginning a discussion about replication in high-energy physics (HEP). Junk and Lyons ultimately argue that HEP learned its lessons the hard way through past failures and that other fields could learn from our procedures. They emphasize that experimental collaborations would risk their leg...
Article
Full-text available
The applicability extent of hadron therapy for tumor treatment is currently limited by the lack of reliable online monitoring techniques. An active topic of investigation is the research of monitoring systems based on the detection of secondary radiation produced during treatment. MACACO, a multi-layer Compton camera based on LaBr3 scintillator cry...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a toy model to study Dirac charged leptons and their associated antineutrinos in the presence of a magnetic field within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics. The discussion is kept concrete by reducing the space dimensions to 2, considering `spinless antineutrinos' in 2+1 space-time dimensions. Solutions to specific problems...
Article
Full-text available
The electro-mechanical and electro-thermal properties of high-performance Restacked-Rod-Process (RRP) Nb 3 Sn wires are key factors in the realization of compact magnets above 15 T for the future particle physics experiments. Combining X-ray micro-tomography with unsupervised machine learning algorithm, we provide a new tool capable to study the in...
Article
Full-text available
The Glashow resonance describes the resonant formation of a W− boson during the interaction of a high-energy electron antineutrino with an electron1, peaking at an antineutrino energy of 6.3 petaelectronvolts (PeV) in the rest frame of the electron. Whereas this energy scale is out of reach for currently operating and future planned particle accele...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamental building blocks of the proton—quarks and gluons—have been known for decades. However, we still have an incomplete theoretical and experimental understanding of how these particles and their dynamics give rise to the quantum bound state of the proton and its physical properties, such as its spin1. The two up quarks and the single dow...
Article
Full-text available
The manipulation of quantum states of light¹ holds the potential to enhance searches for fundamental physics. Only recently has the maturation of quantum squeezing technology coincided with the emergence of fundamental physics searches that are limited by quantum uncertainty2,3. In particular, the quantum chromodynamics axion provides a possible so...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03142-2.
Article
Full-text available
Laser wakefield accelerators promise to revolutionize many areas of accelerator science. However, one of the greatest challenges to their widespread adoption is the difficulty in control and optimization of the accelerator outputs due to coupling between input parameters and the dynamic evolution of the accelerating structure. Here, we use machine...
Article
Full-text available
One of the key challenges for nuclear physics today is to understand from first principles the effective interaction between hadrons with different quark content. First successes have been achieved using techniques that solve the dynamics of quarks and gluons on discrete space-time lattices1,2. Experimentally, the dynamics of the strong interaction...
Article
Full-text available
Optical imaging of particle beams is a promising method for range and width estimations. However it was not clear that optical imaging was possible for muons. To clarify this, we conducted optical imaging of muons, since high-intensity muons are now available at J-PARC. We irradiated positive muons with different momenta to water or plastic scintil...
Article
Full-text available
We report the generation of ultrashort bright electron pulses directly driven by irradiating a solid target with intense femtosecond laser pulses. The duration of electron pulses after compression by a phase rotator composed of permanent magnets was measured as 89 fs via the ponderomotive scattering of electron and laser pulses, which were almost a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation at 2nd Int’l Workshop on Experimental Particle Physics: Detectors & Applied Electronics, IPM, Iran (Nov 11, 2020)
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents new knowledge on primary defect formation in tungsten (W) and iron (Fe) irradiated by fission and high-energy neutrons at near-room temperature. Using a well-established method of positron-annihilation lifetime-spectroscopy (PALS), it was found that irradiation of W in the fission reactor and by high-energy neutrons from the p(35...
Article
Full-text available
Thus far, underwater and underground positioning techniques have been limited to those using classical waves (sound waves, electromagnetic waves or their combination). However, the positioning accuracy is strongly affected by the conditions of media they propagate (temperature, salinity, density, elastic constants, opacity, etc.). In this work, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent "replication crisis" has caused practitioners and journal editors in many fields in science to examine closely their methodologies and publishing criteria. Experimental particle physicists are no exceptions to this, but some of the unique features of this sub-field of physics make the issues of reproduction and replication of results a v...
Article
Full-text available
Cosmological models in which dark matter consists of cold elementary particles predict that the dark halo population should extend to masses many orders of magnitude below those at which galaxies can form1–3. Here we report a cosmological simulation of the formation of present-day haloes over the full range of observed halo masses (20 orders of mag...
Article
Full-text available
The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,324 new measurements from 878 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as super...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to optimize the process parameters for preparing polystyrene (PS) PM2.5 particles by supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method. Toluene was selected as the solvent and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used as the antisolvent. The Box–Behnken design-response surface method was applied to investigate the effect of...