Science method

Experiential Learning - Science method

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I have just been accepted in a PhD program in Environmental Science. After the first meeting with the program coordinator, I have been informed that I have to perform an 'Experiential learning' for one semester in order to 'learn how to do research'. Based on the explanation I received It's a kind of internship, like the compulsory academic internship I did some years ago at undergraduate level but here it will be in a research institution or lab. And what's very surprising for me is that during this internship-like semester what I will be doing should not have any link with my research interest nor with my PhD project. So dear friends, my questions are:
  • Has anyone of you ever heard about this kind of "internship" at PhD level?
  • Do you think I could get any benefit from this kind of "internship" or it is a pure waste of time?
I'm now wondering if I would change a program or university. Please I need your comments to help make this issue clear.
Best,
Alcade
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I had the opportunity to carry out several experimental learning stays in several countries within the framework of my doctoral program
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Have you been curious about the experience of qualitative research participants?
Often when we explore lived experience in qualitative research, participants tell us about some aspects of their life in such a way that they may have never told someone before. When going through such research procedures (like interviews or focused groups) have you been curious about the influence of your designed research procedures on participants' lives? Have you wondered how to do research on the impacts of research participation and the ethical dimensions and issues surrounding such procedures?
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This sounds very interesting Peyman! Of course, participants' experiences of participating in qualitative studies needs to be explored and documented. As a qualitative and narrative inquirer I have engaged with participants with an intention to elicit their stories of lived experiences. I can confirm that they do share with us (researchers) stories they have not shared with anyone else. I think that as qualitative researchers, we have focused on generating data and reporting findings. I like your view which directs us to the perspective of participants.
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i am writing a research proposal which is about the experiential learniing in EsP in this time of pandemic. I need concrete answers about the strategies applied in experiential learning. Thank you!
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Generally, in pre-EL, During EL and post-EL it will depend on your focus - perceptions in readiness; student/supervisor self assessment of cultural competencies ? Assess change in attitudes, biais ore-during-post EL? Perceptions of skill acquisition and competencies? Program evaluation ? Supervisor/University support?
You may find this reference helpful: Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation, and his 4 level evaluation model. First published in 1959 with several recent revisions.
All the best to you in your work !
EOC
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Hello. I am doing a study to understand the effects of an experiential learning module on the employable skill development of MBA students. I am doing a quasi experiemental design. I want to know if it is okay to use mean calculation of pretest scores as a basis to divide the groups into control and experimental groups?
Looking forward for answers.
Thank you
Shruti Srinivasan
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Hello..
I think you can use the Mean of the pre-test to divide the group into experimental or control. It's fair enough.
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This is the main inquiry question for my PhD studies. I'm asking it with the geographic particularity because of the need for ecoliteracy to be sensitive to bioregions and cultural differences. Your ideas are welcome!
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Teeka Bhattarai Children do learn from doing. Children love to do real and meaningful things. Children like to do things that might make a difference. John Dewey and Evelyn Dewey mentions Marietta Johnson in their book "Schools of To-morrow". This is a very old book (1915) with great ideas that seem new even today. You will find it free online. Also the book they recommend, "Thirty years with an idea" written by Mariette Johnson, have ideas that would suit your thinking.
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Lockdown every now and then universities closed as other institutions. Teaching design online is emerging with new normals as we are witnessing in other fields. For my major studio subject, I have to spend hours staring at gleaming laptop screen, giving students feedback on their designs and discussing possibilities out of their process work. There's no in-person interaction, we are not experiencing materials with students to share creative alternates, gestures are limited to convey subtleties and no in-classroom movements to give your backbone some relaxation. On the flip side, there are positive aspects of distance education I can give each student sufficient time to discuss her work, my design vocabulary has been drastically improved and I can reflect on my teaching better than ever as there are a lot of data that I can access about my class. COVID-19 brought me more time for my family and work-life balance seems an achievable task. What's your thought on experiential learning during the pandemic?
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Dear Mr. Ali!
You pointed to a significant issue. Hereby I searched for you material that you can use and have a point of comparison:
1) Korucu-Kış, S. Preparing student teachers for real classrooms through virtual vicarious experiences of critical incidents during remote practicum: A meaningful-experiential learning perspective. Educ Inf Technol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10555-7 Free access:
2) Iyengar, R. Rethinking community participation in education post Covid-19. Prospects (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09538-2, Free access:
3) Pelikan, E.R., Lüftenegger, M., Holzer, J. et al. Learning during COVID-19: the role of self-regulated learning, motivation, and procrastination for perceived competence. Z Erziehungswiss 24, 393–418 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11618-021-01002-x Free access:
4) Shun Yao et al. (2021). Exploration for network distance teaching and resource sharing system for higher education in epidemic situation of COVID-19, Procedia Computer Science, Volume 183, 2021, Pages 807-813
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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With lesser time spent face-to-face in light of the pandemic, one wonders whether online classes can substitute for the experiential learning that used to take place between in-person teachers/experts and students/learners
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Case based learning is an experimental learning.
But
All Experimental learning are not necessarily case based.
I explain:
Case based learning are highly needed and are the practical learning in some areas like Law, auditing etc.
But for branches like Physics , Chemistry , there is no case based study as such.
For these branches , the Laboratory Experiments are the practical studies.
For Engineering branches like, mechanical, Civil, Electrical and many other branches there are need for laboratory based practical studies as well as case based studies.
I think the difference will be clear from the discussion.
If any query , please tell me . I will try my best to make the difference clearer.
Thanks
N Das
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Hi everyone, i saw this figure and i'm really struggling to understand it, can anyone please help me. Its about the relationship between experiential learning and incremental behaviour/learning. In the article, they describe it like this "The following figure shows that by implementing experiental knowledge the firm will gain tacit knowledge and this will in turn decrease the perceived uncertainty about the market, which will reduce the need for incremental behaviour. The consequence of this is that there is actually a negative relationship between experiental learning and incremental behaviour (Forsgren, 2002)."
The sign between incremental learning and perceived uncertainty is a + so why is there a decrease? Does this mean that the more one engages in experiential learning, the lesser the incremental behaviour? I would appreciate if someone could explain this to me. Thank you.
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Confusion about this can depend on "incremental learning" today is used mostly (?) as a machine learning term in computer science, but in 2002 it seems to not have had much with AI or machine learning to do at all, more with the ideas of organizational learning (for me still an area for many questions...) of the time, connected maybe to agile frameworks thinking (to work and learn in increments, small steps).
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"Claims of experience" are autobiographical and semiotic. Yet they offer glimpses into the unique world of the individual. In a sense an empathic window into the "soul" of the experience. How does one sift out the exaggerations and elicit the "truth" when what is the truth is not even certain if the experience is reported for the first time?
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Samy Azer highlights a key element in the design phase - the inclusion of discussion. This is critical to promote scrutiny and consensus around trustworthiness.
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On the first page of his book, "Experiential Learning", David S. Kolb (1984) writes: "Human beings are unique among all living organisms in that their primary adaptive specialization lies not in some particular physical form or skill or fit in an ecological niche, but rather in identification with the process of adaptation itself-in the process of learning. We are thus the learning species, and our survival depends on out ability to adapt not only in the reactive sense of fitting into the physical and social worlds, but in the proactive sense of creating and shaping those worlds" In what way is experiential learning similar to this a part of the learning process in schools you know? - and; How is it done in practical terms?
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Dear Kjartan,
You might find some relevant examples in this guidebook :@GretchenKerr
Regards, Eileen O'Connor
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I'm seeking advice on resources for a proposed theoretical dissertation on a radical ecopedagogy. I'm looking to utilize a hermeneutic method that would be informed by ecodiscourse analysis as well as ecolinguistics. At this point, the following are some of the subfields/approaches I'm planning on utilizing: ecopedagogy, ecoliteracy, liberatory pedagogy, critical pedagogy, dialectical development, ecopsychology, ecofeminism, and deep ecology.
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Dear Eric,
I am a Critical Realist and Critical Realism would be helpful for theoretical consideration because it emphasises ontological reality while accepting that knowledge is socially produced. Please have a look at the following attached documents below, they might help. Also the book: Explaining Society by Berth Danermark et al.(2006) and the work of Stephen Sterling including this:
Best wishes,
Dima
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We are considering adding experiential learning in our engineering curriculum in the soph/jr years. Some of the experiential learning will be formal (classes) and others informal (professional societies, mini baha etc). We were wondering if there are literature results where the effectiveness of adding these opportunities was measured? We have done a comprehensive search and have found no direct studies. thanks for your time!
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The best measure for the effectiveness of experiential learning in engineering and all courses are curriculum standards. In reviewing and revising curriculum we always look at the alignment of standards, instruction, and assessment.
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We are considering adding experiential learning in our engineering curriculum in the soph/jr years. Some of the experiential learning will be formal (classes) and others informal (professional societies, mini baha etc). We were wondering if there are literature results where the effectiveness of adding these opportunities was measured? We have done a comprehensive search and have found no direct studies. thanks for your time!
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I strongly agree in adding experiential learning in any curriculum. But first define what is experiential learning. Experiential learning is bringing knowledge into action to develop skills and attitude from what was learned. Experiential learning is learning by doing. Examples of experiential learning are laboratory works, role playing, simulation, practicum, apprenticeship, internship, on the job training, fieldwork, volunteering.
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I am currently researching the outcomes of experiential learning activities in kindergarten - grade 12 (K-12) classrooms in a small, eastern Canadian province. In particular, I am looking at the development of performance-related competencies as a result of creating and launching a small school-based business. I would welcome a discussion from anyone who is doing something similar, and perhaps even a research collaboration (e.g., a comparative study of data from Canada and another country).
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Sounds great. My project is related to early entrepreneurship education. Target age is 10 to 12 years of old. We are going to investigate role mode effects on children's entrepreneurial outcomes. Did you design an experiment for your project?
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This is peripheral to my research, but I'd like to know if/how content is cemented in learners by putting it in the art forms closest to their hearts. Experiential learning and active education are some possible sources for such validation.
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continuous to get more and more learning
regards
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the Libyan educational system is characterized by using traditional methods of teaching. how can we introduce experiential learning such as service learning in the curricula?
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Ah, Yes. After I sent the answer I searched the page for more info and realized that you already were past the implementation phase and were possibly looking for more organizational approaches.
I would offer this. There MUST be an advocate for your project in the person of your Dean or University President. The person in that leadership position that is responsible for educational outcomes. If (s)he sees your vision and the possibility for successful educational outcomes that person will tend to shape policy in that direction. In addition, some of your trustees or governing board can be effective ambassadors or the idea. And don't forget alumni who give generously to the university. So, Hameda, you have to get yourself invited to those social events where you can do some of the educating of these important stakeholders that will be necessary to promote the change you seek.
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I want to empirically evaluate a conceptual model of succesful ageing and I'm wondering about it's design (mixed method). I appreciate any suggestion or comment about method and design, also challenges.
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Hi! I am a research professor in the PhD Program, evaluating a conceptual model requires an understanding of its underlying system and theory before a researcher can proceed to validation. Clarifying the rationale, objectives of the study, specific variables, and the hypothesis or assumptions may be a better ground to design a study. 
Moreover, identification and determination of the research objectives establish which research questions will be answerable by numbers (quantitative) and, or by interview, observation, focus group discussion, and, or, document analysis (qualitative).
The flow (connecting lines that shows relationship or comparative differences) of the conceptual model (including all its variables) can be the basis to draft the interview protocol, observation protocol and, or,  the      focus group discussion.
If this is establish, methods must be explicitly described the process (what), parameters to measure (how),  explain the outcomes(why) and  specific respondents for the study (who). 
Literature review can be used as a point of reference to validate claims from the participants or respondents whether to confirm or dis confirm the conceptual model.
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I am a Ph.D. research student of Texila American University. I have entered into the Thesis (Dissertation) phase and requires a Ph.D. Guide. My area of study is Ph.D. in Management with a focus on Supply Chain Management.
I will like to work on a topic related to "Integrated Clinical Samples Referral Network Design in Nigeria"
The guide should hold a Ph.D. degree with interest in SCM, with a minimum of 5 publications in peer-reviewed journals, have at least 5 years post graduate teaching experience and currently teaching P.G students, with experience in guiding Ph.D. students for their thesis work.
If anyone that meets the above criteria is willing to help me, I will be glad to be contacted for further discussion.
Warm regards
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Hello Femi,
Good evening. Thanks for your response. Sorry for my late reply. I have not opened this Texila email for a long time. The Zimbra was not working for me for a long time till today.
I eventually got my Dissertation Advisor during my Master Degree at the University of Liverpool to be my guide. He is very helpful and very amiable man residing in Greece. 
I live and work in Abuja. We could actually connect better via phone +2348033115787.
Many thanks
Theo
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Good luck!
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Thanks. I was concerned looking at the instrument as presented by the researchers. As is most commonly used when you have multiple Likert questions in a survey/questionnaire that form a scale and I wish to determine if the scale is reliable. The results could add to the advancement of the literature as my findings.
Best regards,
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Hello. I am new to this site. I am a beginning a masters student and I am interested in how organizations can assist people with disabilities to formulate positive identities via creating communities of peers similar to how other marginalized communities form communities and teach each other through modeling, affirmation etc.  Any advice on where to stat is appreciated.
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Trying to crowd source a little here.  We have used a couple different measures of text comprehension and have not felt particularly wed to either of them.  We want a reasonable measure that allows us to administer it as part of a battery in the lab and offers decent reliability and validity.  What do others see as the best options for elementary to middle school students? (I am not sharing what we have used because I want to see if one or both emerge without my bringing them up.)
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Dear Amy,
Previous answers provide you with some ways of measure text comprehension in children.
If I were you I would appeal to the following procedure:
1. To have some vignettes with sentences that contain key ideas of the text at hand. May be three vignettes.
2. To have other vignettes that contain ideas of the text, but that they are not key or central ideas of the test. May be three vignettes. 
3. To have other vignettes that have nothing to do with the text at hand. May be three vignettes.
After this, I would first put all these vignettes on a table at the reach of the child and then I would ask the child to give me (a) the vignettes s/he thinks best describe what is more important in the text and why; (b) those vignettes that refer to the text but that do not describe what is more important in the text and why; and (c) those vignettes that having nothing to do with the text at hand and why? In order to avoid an effect order, I would counterbalance (a), (b), and (c) across children. Finally, I would see how many children chose or did not choose the appropriate vignettes and if their justifications for their choices were consistent or inconsistent with the mentioned choices or answers.  
Of course the number of vignettes can vary according to the length and degree of difficulty of the focal text.
I hope that this helps you.
Best regards
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I have a datalab project looking at NEET aged people in 2015 which has education breakdown - perhaps a proxy for low skilled. We have migrant info. migrants are not a focus of the current project but may be for follow up work. I am keen to share the code and encourage others to be using our first results and building a community of enquiry. regards, Deb
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There's some good work done by MBIE in that space.
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I'm interested in knowing the methodology others have used to develop and validate a framework in general and a  framework for designing a training programme in particular.
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The following article is useful.
Using the Context, Input, Process, and  Product Evaluation Model (CIPP)  as a Comprehensive Framework to Guide the Planning, Implementation, and Assessment of Service-learning Programs.  Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 15 (4), 57-84.
 Best regards
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I adapted some measuring items from various sources to measure formal, non-formal and informal education. However, my supervisor perceived the adapted instruments are suitable for survey and not experiment. Any tips on differences and perhaps links to instruments for experiments are welcomed. Thanks in advance :)
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We calculated the ECTS credits earned from research and development project to measure the integration of research and development into education. That is important in innovation pedagogy.
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I would like to know if there is any analytical or theoretical framework for the analysis of how student-researchers monopolies language in writing dissertations. Kindly acquaint me with tools available for qualitative and quantitative evaluation. 
Research variables for which I am intending to go for analysis are 'idea development, explicitness and signposting'. 
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Hi Hafiz
I think that currently a suitable tools for creating timely framework should start from literature then use focus group technique to update the theory. Moreover, presently, many researches employed Big Data to develop factor or their framework.
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My MA thesis subject is " A comparative study on language learning through using book and software from viewpoint of language teachers and learners"
the instrument that is gonna be used is questionnaire on software and book evaluation. but unfortunately i didn't  find any reliable and valid questionnaire so far. if anybody can suggest one i will be appreciate that.
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Search " Mental Measurements Yearbook" database of instruments.
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Hi,
Entrepreneurial learning takes place in a context. What are the relevant contextual factors that may affect this learning among entrepreneurs in SMEs?
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Hi, I agree with all above answers. However, I would like to stress on 3 very important and decisive factors:
1) The legislation of the country. When we read about entrepreneurship usually we think about western business and legislation. But in an emerging economy the legislation may be quite different. The legislation can stimulate or not developing SMEs.
2) Cultural value and the way people think about future and risk acceptance. There are cultures where education and religion do not encourage making decisions in conditions of uncertainty. Or, learning in SMEs means to have the capability of learning from both success and failure. If people are afraid of assuming risks in making decisions their learning style is missing an important component.
3) Learning usually is considered as a rational process. However, learning is a complex process which integrates rational, emotional and spiritual intelligences and the result of such a process should be found in rational, emotional and spiritual knowledge.
For a new approach to understand organizational learning and organizational knowledge dynamics I suggest the following book I published recently:
Constantin Bratianu (2015). Organizational Knowledge Dynamics: Managing Knowledge Creation, Acquisition, Sharing, and Transformation. IGI Global, Hershey, USA. (I attached a short presentation of the book).
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My research project regards outdoor environmental education in natural contexts such as forests and mountains. I am researching relevant authors in order to develop a good theoretical framework.
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Hi Fabio, there was a really nice study conducted in England: 
'An ethnographic case study of a residential field study centre'
by Nicholas Gee (2010) - it's available as a free pdf through the British Library (ethos).
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Previous research has used various methodologies to study learning experiences including Interpretive phenomenology, descriptive ethnography, narrative and critical incidents etc. I am confused which one is more suitable to study for exploring the learning experiences of entrepreneurs in small and medium enterprises in terrorism struck harsh environment like Kyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and Afghanistan etc.
Response from senior colleagues will be highly appreciated.
Regards
Arif
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It seems to me, it is important that these entrepreneurs can exchange their experiences, reflect on them and get to relevant insights (maybe for some individual or common action steps which they see as wishful and possible). Such an activity (almost like a focus group or a community of practice) can be accompanied by a descriptive research concerning conditions, process, content and outcomes. Based on a sample of such kind of case-descriptions some relevant insights concerning this approach can be formulated and evaluated to improve future practice.
Maybe the model I described in the attached publication could be helpful for the exchange  process in the group settings, although you have to adopt it to your circumstances. Wishing you and the people under concern all the best in this undesirable  circumstances. 
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Do any such tests exist?
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Near and far learning depends on one's ability of understanding at a certain stage in life during teaching and learning (T&L). if today you are teaching children with different cognitive ability, some will understand whatever subject you are teaching immediately which is near and within a short term, but others will take a longer time till you get far of what you are teaching before their cognitive gain understanding. and in some instance they have to pass that stage or level before they will get the understanding of what you taught them.
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The SL placement office provides booklet on issues re security; risks; procedures; completing online time log. We are interested in developing a training tool and quiz that would encourage students to first identity presuppositions and stereotypes they may have when volunteering with diverse community partners in our city, and  learn more about potential social impacts of intersecting factors such as poverty; gender; colonialism, addiction, mental health (etc) to help foster students' empathy, active listening, communication and helping relation skills.  Thank you for your suggestions !
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There is a helpful website http://globalsl.org  which provides a wealth of resources and also pieces that stimulate critical thinking about service learning - the international / global version more than the local one, but applicable to both.
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I am currently working on a project to measure nursing students` learning outcomes. This project will be guided by ELT. Any researcher has any information about applying ELT to measure nursing students` learning outcomes?
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Here are a few articles that might help you.  
Zigmont, J.J, Kappus, L, Sudikoff, S.N. (2011) Theoretical Foundations of Learning Through Simulation. Seminars in Perinatology, April, Vol 35, Issue 2, p. 47-51 
Zigmont, J.J, Kappus, L, Sudikoff, S.N. (2011) The 3D Model of Debriefing:  Defusing, Discovering, and Deepening. Seminars in Perinatology, April 2011, Vol 35, Issue 2, p. 52-58
Zigmont, J.J., Wade, A., Edwards, T., Hayes, K., Mitchell, J., Oocumma, N., (2015) Utilization of Learning Outcomes Model Reduces RN Orientation by >35%, Clinical Simulation in Nursing Vol. 11, No 2, pp.79-94
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Grateful for your assistance.  Does anyone know of any texts which discuss how organisations fit within the Experiential Learning Cycle?  Particularly, can undertaking an activity - in this case, an emergency exercise - provide an organisation the opportunity to go through the 'active experimentation' phase, or is this restricted to individuals and teams/groups?
Many thanks,
Neil
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Ha, what a question! As you can see from the answers, many directions to go.
Not being sure of your context it is difficult to make suggestions. However I do have extensive experience in applying the Kolb model for adult experiential learning as an experiential process in organisations and in training groups. I use a concretisation of the model in a group setting followed by having participants work out their learning preferences and then get into same-style groups. This may, of itself, produce surprising results. The main focus I then use is for participants to get to know the visceral feelings that emerge when they have to listen to or work with people who have a different learning style to them. Most folks act as though learning is in the lap of the gods. When they get to know their preferences, they then believe that their preferences are given by god. And by corollary all the other learning styles are given by the devil to make their life difficult. So this effectively becomes a positive means for highlighting the negative stereotyping organisational folks have around people who learning differently to them, or are different in other ways.
Such fun.
Cheers
Peter
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I am working with the assumption that experiential learning  methodologies enable people with diverse experiences, such as different levels of education or variations in formal power, or gender to equally meet set  learning objectives in training situations. A woman member of a village leadership coalition attending a particular training situation,  for instance, observed that  she had learnt a great deal  from EASUN's training compared to many other situations where they are given a lot of papers (handouts) but end up internalizing extremely little (she used the expression: "where we end up learning nothing"). 
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Marginalized including
  1. Structural vulnerability
  2. Environmental vulnerability
In girls
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DEVELOVELOPMENT
AND
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MONITORING
FRAMEWORK
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As more exciting and innovative technologies such VR simulation, are introduced to educational and training environments, will simulation proceed to be a technology 'fad' or the future of learning??
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By learning knowledge and skill in real(ish) world contexts, students begin to understand the relevance of the material they are learning.  Science for example does not exist in a 50 minute vacuum known as science class.  It is how we come to understand our world and operate on it.  It is how scientific systems and human systems join together in real world settings that afford the development of scientific literacy.  Simulations of the integrations of these systems help ground this understanding for students - the reason why they need to know certain things with in a discipline...
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Business simulation games are widely used in business schools all over the world. However, I find few research publications about it specially from Spain. Who are the key researchers in this field. Business simulation games are part of experiential learning approach to develop higher order skills.
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At  Pompeu Fabra University we use 2jt Business Simulation.
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And if Experiential Learning is based on Constructivism, what procedures or methods have you applied to evaluate your students (in sustainability education)? Are these procedures different from traditional methods of evaluation such as (objective) exams and essays? How do you evaluate the Construction of Mental Models of your students? Best wishes and happy new year!
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Farley,
You asked, Why is Objectivism used in Blended Learning, instead of Constructivist approaches? And: "Is Teaching an Art?" I mean, do we all forgot teachers, and concentrate to learners (students)?
I will offer my humble response to all three questions by referring you to the process of developing schools as learning organizations (LO) through communities of practice (CoP). Developing CoP requires shifting the bureaucratic model to a collaborative model focused on student outcomes. Therefore the focus is turned from evaluating what teachers do to observing what students do as a result of the teaching process and within a specific organizational culture.
Next, there are barriers to developing OL, though OL is desirable because it has been shown to result in improved student outcomes.  The lack of ability, motivation, and opportunity to transfer implicit knowledge creation between units within the organization, retain it, and apply it as student outcomes have been shown to be barriers to OL (Bartsch, Ebers & Maurer, 2012).
Creating CoP in schools has been shown to be key in developing OL and building capacity.  Administrators have influence on organizational culture and can provide resources to structure the organization in ways that promote "the daily habit of working together" (Fullan, 2005, p. 69).  When individuals build intra-organizational ties it increases capacity to overcome the obstacles to Organizational Learning (Bartsch, Ebers, Maurer, 2012).
Finally, the constructivist approach has through newer research been developed further to a cognitive sociocultural approach (Vygotsky, 1962) and includes co-construction of new knowledge between the individual and social group. This occurs in OL when the new knowledge is retained in the organization. Therefore to accomplish this requires the daily opportunity to work together and produce reciprocal projections in the organizational environment. The result is the development of the organization's identity/memory and feedback to the individuals within the organization on how to behave.
In sum, Objectivism can be used as part of teaching strategies in a Blended Learning Environment if shown to successfully produce observable student outcomes of new knowledge construction that is meaningful.  Meaningful learning transfers to new situations and therefore results in the outcomes defined under Constructivist approaches that consider learner agency as key.
Whether teaching is viewed as an Art or Science is dependent upon the observer and is therefore a valid perspective to the individual. Further, I do not think the research suggests we forget about teachers, though in creating learning organizations the focus shifts from observing teachers to observing and measuring student outcomes.
Therefore, teacher behavior is less relevant than the outcomes observed by students in response to teacher behavior. The key is to develop opportunities for teachers to work together, share their practices, including expert advise and support, develop shared values, norms, vision, and goals that match the collective mind and result in student meaningful learning.
Your questions are key to the new research and approaches to educational leadership, organizational learning, and psychosocial elements included in assessment models for the development of meaningful learning in schools.
Well done Farley,
Janet
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I am starting content analysis to determine the dimensions of a construct and would love advice on coding instructions, and how to ensure reliability and validity as I will not have a team of researchers (so no inter-coder reliability or intra-coder reliability).
Any resources I should read?
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Hi, Jennifer,
to share my perspective as a single coder. Not having a team of researchers does not preclude one from being able to assess intra-rater reliability (though you would definitely need someone to help you with establishing inter-rater reliability). As Mackey and Gass (2005) explain, firstly, the researcher codes all the data. Then, after some lapse of time (few weeks or months) he or she would need to re-code the data or some part of it. The scores achieved by the same researcher but at different points of time (hence, "intra-rater") can be compared through standard inter-rater reliability check procedures.
Content analysis is a data driven process, so your data will determine your codes or labels. To ensure validity of you coding process, there are such procedures as "external audit" aka "peer checking" (Cresswell, 2012). Writing an article about your study and submitting it to a reputable scholarly journal counts as such an approach. In the article, you would need to describe your coding process (and the logic behind it) as well as your findings. Based on the feedback  you will received from the reviewers (hence, "peer checking") you can make a judgement about the validity and, if needed, improve you coding approach. The bonus is that you can get a publication too!     
Hope this helps. Good luck with your studies!    
References 
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4 ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Limited.) .
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Is there any research connecting effectuation theory with experiential learning, design thinking or adductive reasoning?
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In case of your "how" question: 
- Experiential learning is learning from experiences
- And effectuation theory emphasizes that entrepreneurs spend more time on experiments, based on what they have and know how to control (bird-in-hand principle).
Obviously, you can see they are connected, unless I am misunderstanding your question.
For research question, recently I read some papers about trust, and they mentioned to both effectuation and learning styles in trust building model. Not sure if that is something you are interested? Or you might want to limit a bit more to your interested topics? 
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Can you advise me a report or paper on Experiential Learning in (Sustainability) Higher Education? Or another evolution of this approach to education and learning? 
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kindly see the below paper for experimental learning, the author given much information.
Afida Ayob, Aini Hussain, Mohd Marzuki Mustafa, Muhd Fauzi Aminuddin Shazi Shaarani, Nurturing Creativity and Innovative Thinking through Experiential Learning, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2011.
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While it is established that previous experiential learning is worthy of acknowledgement, there is no clear insrument for measuring and classifying such learning. A lot of work have focused on portfolio buolding etc. In my view, there is a need for an internationally recognised and accepted instrument. How can such a tool be developed?
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While I agree with Mr. Umachandran's discription of what is actually happening from a global point of view I must however disagree that all we can do is accept and conform. Mr. Umachandran's pointing out of Multilateral Development Cooperation in a Changing Global Order is correct but look and the last three words (changing Global Order). These words should scare the (fill in) out of all of us. Does it remind anybody of a certain U.S. president remarks about a new world order? This begs the question are we as researchers acting as functionalists?
Mr Krug makes a valid point, and asks a very real question. By standerizing all reasearch in the social sciences are we, as researchers, capitulating to the requirments being demanded by the Changing Global Order? If so the we are in the practice of fatalism. Surrendering our collective power by conformity, and denying the responcibility of our agency in (what I hope is) the pursuit of global eguality. Not by denying past wrongs but finding equitable solutions forthose  past and ongoing issues. 
Any way just some thoughts
Douglas
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I would like to have assessment ideas for international advance pharmacy practice experiences
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We evaluate the International APPEs the same way we evaluate the US based APPEs.  Site visits, student work- daily logs and interventions to see if level of work is sufficient for an APPE.  In addition we have pre-readings and reflections as well as post survey and reflection to address quality and curricular fit.
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What should we value more, our intelligence or our experience?
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Experience without intelligence is just information or a walking encyclopedia. Intelligence without experience is knowledge and knowledge without experience is unwise.
*Experiences can be bought (and some say they are better than stuff).
*Intelligence can not be bought with MONEY (but some say it can be developed through effort and time).
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Interested in grounded theory approaches in the non therapeutic aspects of this field.
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Thanks so much Paul. I find it interesting that this was a published (single) case study.
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I am looking for information mainly focusing on outdoor learning as a tool within the youth work process
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Hi Daniel,
I recently co-authored a review of adventure programming for youth, highlighting alignments with positive youth development processes and outcomes.
The reference is: Deane, K. L. Harre, N. (2013). The youth adventure programming model. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(2), 293-308. doi: 10.1111/jora.12069
Hope it helps!