Science topic

# Exercise Performance - Science topic

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My research group is currently investigating the effects of active time on maximal exercise performance. We have 7 subjects that did both the intervention and control test. This meant they had 1 test day with more active time (woke up at 6.00 and did a max test at 16.00) and one with less active time (woke up at 10.00 and did a max test at 16.00). To measure performance, we did a treadmill exercise and measured heart rates at base (before test) , during warm up, during phase 1, phase 2, 3, and 4 and their heart rates right before complete exhaustion was achieved.
Meaning: we have 2 sets of data per subject (early/late) with 7 different measures of Heart rate. My question is: Which statistical test is best suited for this type of data?
We want to know if active time has had an effect on any or all of the heart rate variables measured. I've tried doing a paired t -test for each measurement phase but with certain phases, the heart rates remain constant over the final 10 secs of BPM (The last 10 seconds BPM was gathered as the values for heart rate of each phase. With some of the later phases, these 10 values are the same amount of BPM). Because of this, when doing a paired t -test of e.g. participant 1 phase 4, SPSS cannot compute a t-test table because the means have no standard deviation or standard error of difference.
How do I go about comparing the measurement between these final phases. Is a repeated measures Anova the option to go for? Is there a different test for this type of data?
Where is the "crossover"?
You should consider the correlation of measrements between phases of the same patient.
Have you thought about a resonable distributionmodelfor the heart rates? I would think that a Gamma model would possibly be more appropriate than a normal model.
You might think if it makes sense just to analyze the integral of the heart rates as a measure for the total blood low.
There are surely many more things to think about. I strongly suggest meeting with a local statistician (possible via web-conference if you cannot meet personally) and discuss your project.
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Hello,
I would like to know whether there is any comparison of the ATP levels pre, during, and after exercise of different methods, intensity and duration.
Is there any research about the kinetics of ATP?
Also, what is considered as the gold-standard for measuring ATP?
Does Venous or Capillary testing more appropriate and what are the limitations?
Would love to read anything available.
Thanks alot!
Duration Classification Energy Supplied By
1 to 4 seconds Anaerobic ATP (in muscles)
4 to 10 seconds Anaerobic ATP + CP
10 to 45 seconds Anaerobic ATP + CP + Muscle glycogen
45 to 120 seconds Anaerobic, Lactic Muscle glycogen
120 to 240 seconds Aerobic + Anaerobic Muscle glycogen + lactic acid
240 to 600 seconds Aerobic Muscle glycogen + fatty acids
The Venous testing is more appropriate
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Food matrix refer to other components in the food that could synergic effect with macronutrient or micronutrient in food. One review had shown that whole milk had more effect than low fat milk or iso-milk protein for muscle protein synthesis regardless of reach to leucine threshold after exercise. This effect was without reaching to leucine threshold, due to exist of food matrix in whole milk. So I would like to plan this discuss about coffee component. The one of component in coffee that very application in exercise is caffeine and many research discussed about of different dose of caffeine for effectiveness during exercise. But many researches used the caffeine individually and in form of supplement (for example: pills, gum, and etc). Now I want to express this issue, does all of coffee component with together had more synergic effect than individually form of each component? Does synergic effect of coffee component more important than quantities of each components in individually form? For example maybe food matrix of coffee for effectiveness of caffeine more important than dose of caffeine? What’s your idea about food matrix for exercise performance?
Thank you, Henry Wolfe for the excellent references. So many ways to improve performance and recovery inexpensively. Too many products developed for the bottom line, not necessarily the the elite athlete or the regular exercise Joe.
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Hi guy,
Could you help me please. I have conducted a randomised study on 2 supplement that are double blinded on 8 participants and I am trying to find their effect on exercise performance. I have collected the data from all the participants. (which SPSS test is most suitable for this study and which test retest) please advice. Many thanks in advance
We need more details, but probably the Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures is suitable...
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heat acclimatization can increase performance of athlete and occupational for physical activity in heat condition.
for this purpose we have to train for adaptation in heat condition regularly. but I have some question about chronic heat stress.
does living in heat climate can lead to chronic fatigue?
does hyperthermia and heat illness occur without any symptom chronically?
Dear Seyyed,
Qian S, Li M, Li G, Liu K, Li B, Jiang Q, Li L, Yang Z, Sun G. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study. Behav Brain Res 2015;280:6-15. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432814007724?via%3Dihub
PUSPITA N, KURNIAWIDJAJA M, HIKMAT RAMDHAN D. Health Effect Symptoms Due to Heat Stress Among Gong Factory Workers in Bogor, Indonesia. In The 2nd International Meeting of Public Health 2016 with theme “Public Health Perspective of Sustainable Development Goals: The Challenges and Opportunities in Asia-Pacific Region”. KnE Life Sciences 2018;469-475. https://www.knepublishing.com/index.php/Kne-Life/article/view/2308/5104
Vargas N, Marino F. Heat stress, gastrointestinal permeability and interleukin-6 signaling - Implications for exercise performance and fatigue. Temperature (Austin) 2016;3(2):240-251. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964994/pdf/ktmp-03-02-1179380.pdf
Otani H, Kaya M, Tamaki A, Watson P. Separate and combined effects of exposure to heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol 2017;117(1):119-129. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-016-3504-x
Robertson CV, Marino FE. Cerebral responses to exercise and the influence of heat stress in human fatigue. J Therm Biol 2017;63:10-15. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306456516301668?via%3Dihub
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
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It is known that the insulin level drops during sports in healthy people, despite a much higher glucose demand of skeletal muscles. Is this important for glucagon regulation and fat burn? How would a high continuing glucose ingestion during activity influence performance and fat burn utilisation?
After consumption of CHO, there is an increased uptake of the ingested glucose into the active muscle. If insulin concentration also increases there is a reduction of lipolysis and as a result of these two actions fat oxidation is decreased. This suppression of fat oxidation following CHO ingestion can last for several hours .Consequently, an individual consuming CHO before and/or during exercise will likely oxidize less fat and more CHO during and after the exercise session
References
1. Horowitz JF, Mora-Rodriguez R, Byerley LO and Coyle EF. Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 273: E768-E775, 1997. 22.
2. Howley ET, Bassett DR and Welch HG. Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27: 1292-1301, 1995.
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I intend to use the Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire (PCDEQ), developed and validated by MacNamara & Collins (2011, 2013), in a study in Portugal. In order to apply the questionnaire I tried to find one already translated to Portuguese or Spanish, but I didn't find available. If anyone have that document, please send me.
Dear Luís ,
Ruiz-Barquín R, de la Vega Marcos R, García Carrión I. Spanish adaptation of "Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence Questionnaire" (PCDEQ). May 2014. Conference: XIV Congreso Nacional y I Internacional de Psicología de la Actividad Física y el Deporte., At Complejo Cultural San Francisco, Cáceres., Volume: ISBN: 978-84-7723-612-2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262493092_Spanish_adaptation_of_Psychological_Characteristics_of_Developing_Excellence_Questionnaire_PCDEQ
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
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With changing pedaling technique, or with forced supramax training, or mental training, or changing seat position, etc.?
How can you improove your top speed? What is the most efficient method to be faster?
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I'm doing a study on the acute effect of 3 pilates based exercises on dynamic balance and motor performance of limbs in healthy young adults. The hypothesis is that working central stability will make possible an increase in the limits of stability and motor performance. For this population and exercise, which would be the best tests for motor performance/bahavior of the upper and lower limbs?
Complex
Hability tests must be associated with endurance tests
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I want to know the suitable recovery duration when I use the interval training method for improving the speed or special endurance abilities which depend on anaerobic system of energy?
The recovery between sets should be longer than between repetitions. A set of repetitions are to targetted to be at a certain intensity. There will be times when that intensity can not be maintained unless the recovery between the sets in allowed.
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Various studies have shown that intensified training results in reduced EMG activity performing a standard assessment. But why is that so at the same power output? If cycling @ 200W then EMG activity is lowered in VL for example in an overreached scenario.
Which Parameters are reduced? Amplitude, time (contraction), Area under curve...Specify your data (if it is yours), so one can get a better understanding
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I’m pretty familiar with CrossFit, having once been a Level 2 CrossFit trainer and CrossFit Kids trainer but no longer associated with CrossFit, so I’m quite interested in your project. I read the two articles derived from that data collected during the “CrossFit Teens randomized control trial” and have a few questions. This is the first.
Thanks so much for your time.
Para el crossFit en mi concepto resulta interesante revisar la planificación ondulatoria que propone Kramer y la metodología por carácter del esfuerzo, donde se podría mejorar la velocidad de las ejecuciones en el entrenamiento en aras de transferir desde tal forma de entrenar una mayor velocidad de ejecución que apunte a la eficiencia en la competencia
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Good day all ,
Has anyone conducted or does anyone know of any studies that have validated popular wearable technologies such as jawbone,fitbit etc against PSG (Kripke method) or any method. In particular for performance or industrial settings.
Many thanks
Ian D
Several validation studies can be found here https://www.fitabase.com/research-library/
Good luck!
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Does anybody know a method to repeatedly quantify the force produced during an isometric barbell squat as well as an isometric bench press? Since the subjects' force production will be measured at least 5 times in roughly 75 minutes it is impossible to conduct a 1RM - test each time. I was thinking about a Kistler plate / multi - press setup in regard to the squat but I am clueless concerning the bench press. Is there a more elegant, uncomplicated way (integrated force sensors maybe) to achieve this?
Dear Rouven,
assessing the MIVC during bench-press, you could simply fix the bar at a certain height (probably to the subjects optimum) and put the bench itself on the force plate. Be sure the subject and the bench are completely on the force plate (if not you need an addtional construction). If the subjects now performs an isometric bench, you will get this force in addition to the gravitational force of his body weight. The similar procedure could be done for the barbell squat, however you should again fix the bar. The best heigth for the bar is dependent on your research question.
Pleas consider: 1RM is not a force measurement, so this should not be an alternative anyway.
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I am thankful for any kind of literature to that topic.
Thank you
Vorontsov A.R. (2010) Strength and power training in swimming. In: Seifert L., Cholett D. & Mujika I. (eds.) World Book of Swimming: From science to performance. Chapter 16. Nova Science Publishers.
Vorontsov A., Popov O., Binevsky D., Dyrko V. (2006) The assessment of specific strength in well-trained athletes during tethered swimming in the swimming flume. In “Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X”. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, 21-24 June 2006, Porto, Portugal, pp. 275-277.
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We are looking at anticipation of effort for an upcoming bout of exercise/physical activity.
You are looking for a RPE scale pre-exercise?
It is so interesting! I dont find nothing about.
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I am looking to see what factors influence strength performance as it relates to 1RM strength expression in back squat, bench press and deadlift.
A quite comprehensive summary of factors influencing muscle strength by Jonathan Folland: http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00007256-200737020-00004
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I am looking to purchase a reliable heart rate monitor for research use. Despite the obvious quality of Polar HR equipment (I used Polar team in my previous institution), the majority of the new monitors appear only to have software for use on a mobile phone (e.g. Polar H7). I am concerned about the limitation of this software to allow detailed analysis of the data collected.
I would be keen to hear opinions on good (i.e. valid, reliable) heart rate monitors that connect to software that allows detailed analysis of a session (i.e. mean HR, peak HR, analysis of HR within different time periods).
I have already had a trawl around Research Gate and seen some interesting information, but these mainly relate to HR monitors for specific HRV measurements. I would be using the device to record HR during short and long duration exercise tests (i.e. max tests, performance tests).
Thanks!
Hi Bryan,
We now use FirstBeat for our Team stuff. They have been excellent (much better than Polar). May be worth checking out their website for individual monitoring solutions.
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Someone using Polar Team Pro?
Can you tell me about your experience (pros and cons) with that device in elite team sport environment?
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I am trying to determine which portable lactate monitor is the best to use for research. Since it will be used in exercise testing, it needs to be accurate and reliable at both low (<5 mmol/L) and high (>10 mmol/L) concentrations.
There are many on the market with several papers detailing supposed reliability so it is not the most straight forward decision.
Any information or recommendations would be greatly appreciated.
I have been measuring lactate for 20 years and have used the YSI (1500 and 2300 models) which has been the gold standard. Dr. Lange and Diaglobal are great small photometers but time consuming. In the past 5 years I have moved to Lactate Plus and Lactate Pro. Have run many comparisons with YSI and photometers and both Lactate Plus and Lactate Pro are very reliable (r=0.99). They give you results in 12 seconds which is really fast.
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Perhaps with the POWERbreathe K5
I recommend you look at publications by Alison McConnell,
and check out her blog, see links below.
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Hi,
I am interested in analyzing the rehab exercise data (say from cycling exercise regime for 3-6 months) and correlate it with recovery assessment scores (FIM / NIHSS or modified Rankin Scale) for a stroke patient.
• Does anyone know of such work?
• Is there any dataset available with exercise regime and recovery assessment scores?
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- Which systems (central nervous, hormonal, muscular, ...) need to be measured?
- Which monitoring tools are useful for which system?
- Which interventions are useful to regenerate which system?
- Which interventions are no-gos in case of overload of each system?
Hi, Christian. In addition to what has been mentioned above, the following articles may be of assistance. Of particular interest is a recent systematic review which demonstrated that keeping it simple is best in terms of monitoring athletes' subjective reports in regards to loading/training response.
I've also attached a link to a recent systematic review detailing the changes in different heart rate measures in response to training/loading. Hopefully these are of help!
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I'm trying to find some test to asses knee stability different to Star Excursion Balance Test. I'm interested in any test which can be proved with athletes who have been undergone to a ACL operation and can be performed at field.
Thanks so much
Hi Olga
I think cross over hop test is the best choice (depending on our experiences).
regard
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Could cerebral hipercapnia with normoxia serve as the trigger for epileptic seizure in maximal voluntary breath hold in epileptic freedivers? If not, are you aware of any known physiological associates that would increase risk of getting epileptic attack during static and dynamic breath hold? Due to diving reflex there is hipercapnia with hypoxia present in the entire body except brain where there is hypercapnia with normoxia.
Kind regards
First of all, epileptics fail fitness for diving in most cases including freediving or apnea diving. Only when for long time free of seizures without anticonvulsants, normal EEG and without cerebral MRT-lesions, fitness for diving can be achieved.
Secondly, regardless of CO2-content, apnea/breathhold diving can lead to hypoxia what can be followed by sudden acute symptomatic loss of consciousness and motor controll also known as "Samba", which is self-limited in length.
For this kind of hypoxia, two mechanisms are responsible:
a) In deep diving, returning to surface is alsways associated with reduction of environmental pressure, what is followed by a reduction of oxygen-partial pressure in the lungs, what leads to redistribution of oxygen from bloodstream to alveoli and cerebral hypoxia - ascent black out.
b) In pool diving for distance, hyperventilation is performed for postponing inspiratory reflexes. If stimulus to breathe in again comes too late, hypoxia ocurrs and leads to sudden shallow water black out.
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Aerobic capacity of an individual differs from person to person. An endurance runner who performed TMT (Age: 39 yrs; 4th stage of Bruce Protocol for 12:00 min:s; 13.30 METS,  HR rest = 54 bpm; rose to a HR max = 171 bpm which is 94 % of the maximal age predicted heart rate), but the test was stopped due to safety of the athletes. How do we calculate his maximal aerobic capacity from sub-maximal exercise?
You can use ACSM metabolic equations to calculate a predicted VO2max from any speed and grade on the treadmill.  The only problem is usually submaximal testing assumes a steady state heart rate during the exercise so pick a stage where the heart rate seemed to steady state.   It would probably be somewhere in the 3rd stage of the Bruce test if this is a healthy person.  The client should be walking at this stage.  If an athlete you could use the running equation which would be the speed and grade at the 4th stage. See the ACSM guidelines for the procedure to use these equations.  Hope this helps
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I want to see the effect of a balance training intervention on dynamic balance control in DCD children. so this is important for me that I could see changes of dynamic balance through training.
What protocols do you recommended for this? Dose walking (gate) on force plate is a suitable for analysis of dynamic balance or not?
This would probably relate closer though:
Fong, S. S., Lee, V. Y., & Pang, M. Y. (2011). Sensory organization of balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in developmental disabilities, 32(6), 2376-2382.
Fong, S. S., Guo, X., Liu, K. P., Ki, W. Y., Louie, L. H., Chung, R. C., & Macfarlane, D. J. (2016). Task-Specific Balance Training Improves the Sensory Organisation of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Scientific reports, 6.
Jelsma, D., Ferguson, G. D., Smits-Engelsman, B. C., & Geuze, R. H. (2015). Short-term motor learning of dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder. Research in developmental disabilities, 38, 213-222.
Menz, S. M., Hatten, K., & Grant-Beuttler, M. (2013). Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 25(2), 214-223.
I hope this helps. and if you need the files, just buzz me.
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I just want to have an idea how this centers are structure, and what is the conception of athlete life and career that support this kind of facility. What is the scientic literature that supports the conception of Sports Performance Centers?
Olá Ana,
It's a large question, interesting but and I think that a little complicated it. However, I will try to reply it. In any case, I recommend a book, which deal with your question: Sport Development in the United States: High Performance and Mass Participation.
So,  I found it, however, only a little presentation. In this way, I recommend also you look mainly the research and studies which are developped in the USA Universities, I'm sure there are many centers of excellence in trainning for athletes in these Universities. Indeed, independently of sports modality. They apply a model of trainning that we know it's efficient, and many other countries apply successfully it .
I hope this helps.
Sinecerely yours.
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How much water are we able to absorb in given amount of time in rest or during exercise? I have came across different values and can't really figure out what is to be advised to ultra endurance athletes performing in the heat, as accumulation of unabsorbed fluid can cause gastrointestinal problems ...
The water needs are important and often overlooked, of about 3.5 liters per day 1.75 liter of beverage, the remainder being included in the diet.
However, sweat losses may be higher (the above 4 in a few hours) in hot environments. During the year, the water intake should be supplemented with minerals to avoid hemodilution, especially during long-term exercise
In team sports (during the half-time) or in individual sports (in the rest) contributed approximately 200 ml of water containing 20 g of glucose, 1 g of sodium chloride and 1 g potassium gluconate seems desirable.
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A pilot study in my university, we are searching information about muscular strength in a multiforce for leg extension.
Thank you.
The 5-7 repetition option will provide the most accurate representation of maximal voluntary strength/1RM. The greater the number of repetitions used, the more factors are involved in order to sustain adequate force production to lift a given load. A study by Reynolds, Gordon & Robergs (2006) found 5RM testing to be significantly more accurate when predicting 1RM strength when compared to 10 and 20RM testing groups.
Prediction of one repetition maximum strength from multiple repetition maximum testing and anthropometry - This should help.
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I've had some difficulty to conduct such assessments in teenagers. If somebody has tips, it will be valuable. Thanks.
I am a contracted clinical instructor for Biodex. Training or testing using eccentric muscle actions is frequently referred to in the literature. Yet there are rules for eccentric muscle actions. Most of the studies have used isokinetic dynamometers, like the Biodex, or devices fabricated by the research team. While it is known that in studies of in vitro muscle preparations force increases above maximal isometric levels, exact velocities of movement in in vivo studies of eccentric muscle actions are an unknown quantity, therefore most have used relatively low velocities of movement. With the Biodex under passive and eccentric conditions the selection of velocities above 60 deg/sec results in a prompt asking if you really want to use the “HIGH” velocity you have selected.
We have used the S-4 to good effect in training and testing a number of joint systems and movements with eccentric muscle actions. If you go to my profile page on Research Gate you will find an abstract of a Case Study presented at ACSM’s Annual Meeting in San Diego in May, 2015. (Harding FV, R Ghatan, C Chaney, KW Mengel, J Chen, J Loyo. Clinical Case Study: Shoulder Injury – Senior Tennis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 47(5S): S16, S17, 2015. Harding FV, R Ghatan, C Chaney, KW Mengel, J Chen, J Loyo (2015). Clinical Case Study: Shoulder Injury – Senior Tennis. American College of Sports Medicine 62nd Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, May.)
When testing or training using the S-4, the best results will be achieved in Passive Mode. The Eccentric Mode is called Reactive Eccentric. The problem with the Reactive Eccentric Mode is the requirement for the subject to produce a percentage of the Torque causing the eccentric muscle action to trigger the dynamometer to begin the “eccentric” movement. Since a true eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle is attempting to shorten against an overwhelming force that actually causes the muscle to be forcibly lengthened, this is not always the case in Reactive Eccentric Mode, in fact, the torque produced is generally less than a maximal isometric torque. In the Reactive Eccentric Mode, the limiting torque in the direction of movement is either too great for the subject to successfully initiate the movement, or too small to allow for the dynamometer to overcome the muscle torque created by the subject, causing the device to stop.
The answer to the problem is to use the Passive Mode. In Passive Mode, you have the ability to set the velocity of movement (as previously stated velocities of 60 deg/sec or higher cause a warning prompt to appear), and the maximum torque that must be overcome to stop the device. Velocities of 30 to 60 deg/sec are what have usually been reported in the literature; we have found that persons may have a problem developing torque initially with speeds above 60 deg/sec. However, after exposure to the exercise most can utilize velocities above 120 deg/sec. The problem with high velocities with movements having small ranges of motion is that the person becomes confused about which way they are supposed to be exerting effort. In the passive mode, the machine will move through the full range of motion set by the investigator, at the pre-set velocity, and the subject must attempt to “STOP THE MACHINE”. If you have set the Torque limit high enough to attain a true Eccentric Muscle action for the entire movement they will not be able to stop the machine and it will move at the pre-selected velocity for the desired number of repetitions.
When using subjects who have learned to use the device with eccentric muscle actions we have observed the requisite increase in torque producing capabilities across the range of 10 – 120 deg/sec. Some people experience the loss of torque producing capabilities at lower velocities, some at velocities in excess of 120 deg/sec. We hypothesized, and it has been substantiated by experience, that the loss of torque producing ability at higher velocities is a sign we have reached the physiological limit of eccentric muscle actions observed in the force – velocity curve for that individual, or it is a function of a combination of innate athletic ability and learning.
When setting up the S-4 for eccentric testing or training, go to the protocol screen. Select Add and name your protocol. Select Test or Exercise (the test set up screen for ROM has the gravity correction factor at the bottom of the screen below the calibrate position button, exercise does not). Select Bilateral or Unilateral. Select Passive Mode, the joint system, and movement to be trained or tested. With shoulder IR/ER you have two choices – Modified Neutral and 90/90. Modified Neutral is the “safest,” 90/90 is most appropriate for individuals involved in throwing and over-head/over-hand striking activities. For purposes of stabilization it is best to use a seated position, though a standing position can be utilized. Select the number of sets and set the different velocities for each set and direction of movement, THEN SET the TORQUE, we use at least 250 ft-lbs (340 Nm) for IR/ER to insure no one can stop the machine. When setting contraction type use CON/CON, any use of ECC whether CON/ECC, ECC/ECC, or ECC/CON will result in the use of the Reactive Eccentric Mode of operation.
Normative data for IR/ER is available on-line at Biodex, is in the database manager on the computer with the S-4, and in the manual. The velocities reported for IR/ER suggest they are for concentric isokinetic tests. You will be developing the normative data for you study population since to my knowledge, no normative data exists for eccentric movements. If you have further questions I am here on Research Gate.
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Greetings
In Karvonen formula (Target HR zone=((max HR - resting HR) * %intensity) + resting HR example)
I need to know how to measure and define the %intensity which is equivalent to the exorcise intensity!
Also I need to know the unit of measurement.
Thanks a lot
In Karvonen Formula you will get the target heart rate depending on the heart rate reserve. From the heart rate reserve you can determine, for instance 60% which is moderate or 80% which is sever exercise, then add to the resting heart rate which will provide target heart rate. For example a subjects resting heart rate let us take 100 and his age is 20 and we want him to moderately exercise for 20 minutes. Then his maximum heart rate is 220 minus 20 is 200. Now to find his heart rate reserve 200 minus 100 which will give us 100 which is heart rate reserve and 60% of the hear rate reserve (since we want the subject to exercise at moderate intensity) would be 60 bpm. Adding this with the resting heart rate (100 plus 60) will give the target heart rate 160 which the subject has to exercise for 20 minutes which is our aim. Heart rate is directly proportion to the intensity of the exercise.
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To clarify these aspects I suggest two papers to read:
Optimizing the "priming" effect: influence of prior exercise intensity and recovery duration on O2 uptake kinetics and severe-intensity exercise tolerance.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Dec;107(6):1743-56.
Effects of priming exercise on VO2 kinetics and the power-duration relationship.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Nov;43(11):2171-9.
I did some (still) unpublished research on VO2 uptake kinetics (i.e. mean response time - MRT) on runs above CS (i.e. severe intensity exercise domain). Participants performed three runs of different speeds (all in the severe exercise Domain) interspersed by 30 min passive rest. We found apparently faster MRTs with ongoing testing. As faster MRTs have a positive influence on the O2-deficit, it is believed that faster MRTs improve performance.
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If I have allometrically scaled (body mass) data from a performance test is it possible to use the scaling component to track changes longitundinally?
If I scaled data from a baseline measure (fitness test) from a full squad/cohort of players, and want to assess a number of specific players longitudinally (across a season) do I still use the original scaling component from baseline to assess changes?
For example if a player has a large increase in body mass across a season but maintains performance of a fitness test, does the original scaling component apply as I am assessing the individual against themselves?
Thanks
Josh
Allometric scaling provides a method for examining the structural and functional consequences of changes in size and scale among organisms.
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I look for good equation for simply anthropometric method. Maybe someone could suggest good source in literature?
Dear Pawel Posluszny.
Several of our colleagues have suggested interesting solutions to solve your problem. Therefore, any additional information would be repeating what has already been said so I send you two references, one for appendicular mass calculation of old and the other for general use.
Martin, A.D.; Spenst, L.F.; Drinkwater, D.T.; Clary, J.P. Anthropometic estimation of muscle mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990; 22:729-33.
Piettra Moura Pereira Galvão, Danny Alcantara da Silva, Gilberto Moreira Santos, Luiz andAmandio Petroski Edition Aristides Rihan Gallagher. Development and validation of anthropometric equations to estimate appendicular muscle mass in elderly women. Nutrition Journal. 2013; http: www.nutritionj.comcontentpdf1475-2891-12-92.pdf
Additionally, I suggest reading the chapter: Estimation of Muscle Mass.In: Human Body Composition. Roche, A.F.; Heynsfield, S.B.; Lohman, T.G.
Good luck
Amandio Geraldes
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I'm assessing the effect of fluid on exercise performance.  In order to do that I am measuring intestinal temperature at several time points,and time to exhaustion. I am using a repeated measures design, once with fluid ingestion and once without.
Currently, I performed an ANOVA on the temperatures and a ttest on the time to exhaustion, however one showed a significant difference where as the other did not.
Is this the right test for my design?
If so, how do I accept or reject either hypothesis?
thanks
You mentioned measuring temperatures at several time points. Exactly how many is several? Because each measure is another DV (t1, t2,....t10 = 10 levels of the DV) and another cell you'll need an adequate n for In your statistical design to meet assumptions.
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Dear all,
Will be happy to know about the performance analysis (the areas to be looked into) in archery and Shooting to improve performance. Have planned for a 2D video analysis (3 Cameras, aerial, Lateral and posterior) and force distribution Center of Pressure (COP) between the foot using AMTI Force plates. However, need more literature support on this and any possibilities of incorporating 3D Mocap technology and any other additional available technology to this?
Available normative data and any further guidance will be of great support.
Hope some of this can help. Especially work of Mr.Ertan.
You can also look for unpublished doctoral thesis "The analysis of shooting dynamics in archery" by Tinazci C.  and  "Total Archery" book (Samick Sports) by Lee K. and Bondt R.
I hope You will find some of this information helpful.
Kind regards,
Jan Homolak
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Seeing them more and more, I began to wonder if there is any benefit to actually wearing these? I would love to know what the scientific community thinks, but am having a hard time actually finding papers regarding such things.
Any input would be nice.
Thank you,
Kristin
Although Elevation Mask Training simply can not produce the effect of "elevation training" because it just makes it hard to breathe without the change in partial pressure of oxygen this or similar Masks ( eg. gas mask) and other equipment that put greater load on accessory muscles of respiration may be very beneficial in athletic training.
First of all, the importance of oxygen delivery and all of its components are often overlooked as factor for maximal perforrmance because a lot of sport physiology textbooks highlight the importance of cardiac output and lessen the importance of respiration providing wrong background for understanding of performance limitations.
Although heart (and not lungs) is a limiting factor in maximal performance it is usually overlooked potential time body can function on that level. Maximal "use" of the lungs have greater capacity than heart but it can only last for short period of time because a lot of power comes from accessory inspiratory muscles. (eg. swimming - EMG shows 100% serratus anterior activation during 100m race ) When the accessory muscles become "tired" maximal breathing capacity is drastically lowered and delivery of oxygen to blood, not heart output can become limiting factor.
All this can therefore outline the importance of accesory muscle training such as the one you mentioned with "Elevation training mask". There are of course other types of training (eg. Power Lung, Power Breathe, .. )
Some literature:
Also some on potenial pulmonary limit of exercise performance:
All in all, I believe benefit exists  but not altitude training kind of benefit.
Best regards,
Jan Homolak
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I am looking to produce a dissertation study based on the effects of plyometric training on sand to see if it can be used as an additional training program in footballers seasons to increase power output, agility, vertical jump height and speed. Whilst have minimal effect on muscle soreness and fatigue.
Thompson, W.R., Gordon, N.F. & Pescatello, L.S., eds., 2010. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. China: Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
This can be a very good support for your study, I used it for my research while at Teesside
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I am using likert scales to quantify perceptual changes in junior athletes.
For all of my nominal data, I have been comparing changes using magnitude-based-inferences based off the standardised smallest worthwhile change (0.2 x between athletes SD). I have also been looking at SWC as a percentage from this data which is easy to calculate from the raw SD. However, I was wondering if there is there an appropriate way of calculating the SWC as a percentage for ordinal data? Is this appropriate?
For calculating magnitude-based-inferences, it is possible to rank transform ordinal data using Hopkin's spreadsheets and look at standardised effects from this. To calculate the SWC, is it appropriate to use the the rank transformed mean and SD or from the back transformed mean and SD? Both yield very different SWC's.
Any help would be greatly appreciated
Greg
This may not answer your question, but meaningful effect often isn't about this or that statistical calculation ... and as pointed out, adjusting absolute change by some measure of group variability can be spurious if the group you are investigating is unusually homogeneous (though "meaningful difference" is often different for different populations - a change of X points in an individual or group that is in the middle of the distribution may be more/less meaningful than the same size change for an individual/group that is towards the extreme of the distribution). A change of X on the Beck Depression Inventory may mean little in mentally healthy individuals, but be critical in patients with high levels of depression, for example. I recommend the paper by Andersen on "What do the numbers really tell us?" (Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2007, 29, 664-672) that address the whole issue of interpreting "meaningful" in the context of ordinal questionnaire data.
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anyone who expert in this field
Continuous exercise for one hour could range in exercise intensity from as low as 10% to as high as 80% of maximal VO2. The intensity that you choose depends on your research question. The intensity you choose would also be affected by the training status of your subjects as well as whether they are heat acclimated or not. Rehydration, as you might expect, would be more important at higher intensities than at lower intensities. For rehydration guidelines, I refer you to the reviews below.
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Hi everyone,
Is there any group working on Autonomic Profiles and extreme Hypoxia conditions (over 3500m).
Thanks a lot,
Santi
Hi Alan, I read this today (sorry).
I´m in the middle of my research right now!!! I will collaborate with some studies. It would be awesome!!!
Thanks,
Santi
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I would like to know anything about mechanism of hypoxic training especially 'live low - train high' method on anaerobic performance improvement. How about pathway of this mechanism?
Hi Pattarawut,
The potential for 'live low - train high', so called intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), to increase high-intensity, anaerobic performance has recently been highlighted in an excellent review by McLean et al. (Sports Med 2014).
There is evidence in literature to indicate that IHT enhances glycolytic enzymes, glucose transport and pH-handling (Vogt et al., JAP 2001; Zoll et al., JAP 2006, Faiss et al., PLoS ONE 2013; Puype et al., MSSE 2013).
The major mechanisms involved are thought to be HIF-1 activation and greater glycolytic energy turnover during IHT.
Only few studies also evaluated high-intensity or anaerobic performance following IHT. Yet, there is some evidence to support that IHT induces greater improvements in anaerobic power, RSA and YO-YO Intemittent Recovery Test performance than the same training at sea-level (Hendriksen et al., EJAP 2003; Hamlin et al., SJMSS 2010; Faiss et al., PLoS ONE 2013; Galvin et al., BJSM 2013).
Cheers,
Stefan
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Remedial Program Biomechanical corrections for the illegal bowling action (Chucking), any research or evidence based support is appreciated.
Thers plenty on the measurement on illegal bowling actions, and retests etc.
Rene Ferdinads work is useful in that area.  As for empiricially supported protocols for correction, I've yet to find any - but now I will search also!
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I am looking for normative data of the joint angles during rowing action (Sculling) using Concept 2 and Vicon nexus system. Any evidences will be appreciated. Please do suggest me previous studies. Many thanks.
Before the propulsive phase, the angles of the ankle, knee and hip are at maximum flexion in the cycle, ie ~ 70 ° of dorsiflexion to the ankle (0 ° = foot fully extended) ~ 120 ° of flexion in the knee (0 ° = fully extended) and ~ 40 ° of flexion in the hip (Janshen et al. 2009). The angular amplitudes for the knees, ankles and hips during the propulsive phase are approximately of 110 °, 70 ° and 100 ° (Janshen et al. 2009). The extension of the legs is more or less complete depending on the level of the rowers (Hase et al. 2004). See also Soper and Hume 2004 and  Rodriguez et al. 1990.
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I am researching how elevated expectations can affect performance in a repetitive golf putting task and want to measure how and if it has any derogatory effects on efficacy.
Hi Richard,
You may wish to look at Feltz and Chase's Outcome Expectancies scale here and adapt the way it is used slightly to fit your research design.
Many Thanks
John
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I'm in search of a commonly-used graded exercise test for an upper-body ergometer that determines maximal oxygen consumption.
Hi Guys.
I would like to know if you have experience with arm-crank exercise tests in patients with vascular disease, such as Peripheral Artery Disease patients.
Thanks
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Actually I have a Bodymedia Armband that is quite useful. Any other device?
Hi we have sued the Actiheart which uses a branched equation model to estimate energy expenditure. The device is quite expensive but has generates data comparable to indirect calorimetry in variety of intermittent and continuous activities
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There are many high caliber athletes with the exact same training program and passion as an Olympian, but fail to make the cut. Is there something in an Olympian's DNA (build, genetics, mental state, etc.) that make them a cut above the rest? If you ask an Olympian, they may say, "I work really hard and I love the game." But, lots of people work hard and love the game. Is natural ability and build a big part of being a successful athlete? I'm looking for a researcher who may know about this topic and would be willing to answer some of my questions.
It's a very interesting topic. You will really find a lot of knowledge about the genetic polymosphisms candidate to influence sports performance in Pubmed. However, you have to consider that, at the present days, we haven't a complete answer about the genetics influence on athletes. In a practical viewpoint, as you mentioned, is easy to observe suggestions of a genetic determination. However, the mechanisms and magnitudes that it happens remains not absolutely clear. Should you interpret the studies with caution and to stablish a logical link between genetics, environment and performance. Further, keep in mind: undoubtedly, there is a need for more clear statements before practical conclusions.
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When we perform a collection of data obtained from gas analysis in hypoxia, do we need to conduct some special adaptations in the gas analysers? What is the best gas analyser to do this kind of evaluation? And finally, must we do some treatment in the data obtained, because the analyzers are setting to read in a FiO2 in normabaric enviroment?
We have used the Metamax 3x gas analysis system extensively in our research studies. As the above answers suggest you need to calibrate with different gases than you would normally use. We use our normobaric hypoxic chamber at FIO2:0.12 a great deal and subsequently we calibrate with gas mixture of 7%O2, 5%CO2 and 15%O2, 3%CO2. We have compared the validity and reproducibility of these measures to the gold standard douglas bag method with the Haldane transformation. Due to ventilatroy increases the CoV tends to be a little larger than you would expect in a normobaric normoxia.
Hope this helps
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I'm looking for other options in the absence of a metabolic cart for submaximal VO2 testing. There's one method I've found (http://www.brianmac.co.uk/treadmill.htm) but I question it's validity/practicality. Has anyone done similar tests without a true exercise lab?
Dear Dan,
The method of determination of VO2max during submaximal treadmill test can be found also here:
Ebbeling, C.B.; Ward, A.; Puleo, E.M.; Widrick, J.; Rippe, J.M. Development of a single-stage submaximal treadmill walking test. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991, 23, 966-973.
regards,
Marcin
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How to pressure, when, how many times during the start and after the first 30-40m? How to breath, how many times etc. during the mentioned section?
You can make special video filming for researching breathing during the start.
Diaphragm pressing? ... It is difficult! :)
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Still in the early stages of research but plan on looking at the effects of consuming various amounts of CHO, and fasted state prior to HIIT, examining power output pre and post exercise intervention along with metabolic changes that occur. Sample will be based around female university athletes
Aim is to try and find an appropriate recommendation of pre HIIT CHO consumption that will allow increased performance e.g. power output and induce metabolic changes.
Any contributions or critiques are more than welcome
Dr Gareth Wallis (at Birmingham as I'm sure you know) has done work on male/female differences with CHO and fat metabolism:
In terms of pre exercise CHO ingestion - good paper by Dr Stuart Galloway on some research we did at Stirling:
Seems like a good place to start developing your question.
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I am looking at test-retest reliability of gait measures. However, within each test, the same gait exercises are performed twice to look for learning effects. We found systematic better outcomes the second time the exercise was performed within each test compared to the first time, both in test 1 and in test 2. Does anyone know which attempt is adviced to look at when you now want to look at reliability between the 2 tests? Do you take the best attempt (to account for learning effects), or do you average the different attempts (to have a measure of original performance and learning effect)?
Hi Carolien,
let me follow up from ricardo's point. A study before the one you describe may have informed you of the number of tests required for the response to settle. That your systematically find a better response on the second attempt may mean that you could get a great score on the third, possibly fourth, etc, response. I suggest you look into measures of absolute vs relative reliability in the literature (isokinetic testing is a good entry point too) to think beyond the simple test-retest procedure.
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Hi,
Can changes in urine leukocytes, pH, proteins etc., content obtained from a urine stick sample of the first morning urination provide a measure of physiological immune function and/or inflammation or would this only provide an indication of renal function? For example, athletes under high training stress can demonstrate significant increases in leukocytes in blood, but would this be reflected in urine if renal function was normal? Thanks for any thoughts - evidence based answers are preferred so please feel free to suggest any relevant publications. I notice that work from Mike Gleeson suggests blood markers should be used to monitor immune function.
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I am using an exercise diary to evaluate the effectiveness of my intervention. Now, I am looking for information on how valid this method is, and on how I can check validity of the information given. We know that people cheat (positively to please the researcher) or negatively (they might forget to fill up the diary). I would be glad to receive some references as well.
We tend to see 'objective' measures as a gold standard at the moment but we also need to be aware of the pitfalls in all measurement techniques. Bear in mind that if you attempt to 'validate' a self-report measure with an 'objective' measure such as accelerometry or pedometry that such validation will never be perfect as all these measures do not assess physical activity in exactly the same way, they each measure a different aspect of physical activity. So accelerometers would not be able to assess the type of physical activity or anything contextual, as a diary would, and would miss out certain forms of activity depending on the placement of the device on the body. So for example an accelerometer placed on the hip would miss any upper body motion, such as lifting weights or carrying shopping bags. Many accelerometers would have to be taken off to swim. A pedometer merely counts steps but says nothing about the frequency, intensity or duration of physical activity. Like self-report measures, these devices rely on the participant engaging with them appropriately. Also, be aware that physical activity guidelines (e.g. 5 x 30 mins per week) were developed on the basis of self-reported physical activity; guidelines based on accelerometry, when they emerge, may well require less of people. These are a few things I discovered when I undertook a rapid scoping review of literature on physical activity measurement in the spring of this year - please let me know if you want references for these points.
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These authors wrote an excellent book in the '80s, is there any textbook or manual with similar content?
I've the book and is an excellent work, actually you can found two excellent papers from Martin Buccheit: HIT, Solutions to the Programming Puzzle (part 1, and part 2). Regrads
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Can anyone suggest some studies looking at cross-education method?
Look at the works of:
Carroll TJ (e.g. Contralateral effects of unilateral strength training... J Appl Physiol 101(5):1514-1522, 2006)
Farthing J (e.g. Strength training the free limb attenuates strength loss during unilateral immobilization... J Appl Physiol 106(3):830-6, 2009)
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Specifically looking at strength based athletes
We examined this in the study I've linked below. At the time we examined global field power but we might have seen differences if we had analyzed for a different outcome variable. This is something I may follow up on this in the future.
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I have seen the 400 and 700 series probes from YSI, but only the skin and rectal thermistors. I haven't been able to get much information about the readout unit for those thermistors. Plus, a wireless system would be more ideal, if I can get it for less then \$6000-\$7000 or so. Anyone who can provide insight and personal experience with various systems would be much appreciated.
We have had successful rests in measuring core body temperature via heat flux double sensor.
It's seen use on board the international space station, Antarctic winter crews, as well as the operating room. Also, it has been recently field tested during centrifuge runs. The data is promising.
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Re-setting and moving to a new lab.
Mohd, the basic devices could be:
- Cycle ergometer (mechanical Monark or an eletromagnetic with accurate load adjustments);
- Cardiorespiratory acquirement system (Pulmonary Gas analyser);
- Blood lactate analyser (Yellow Spring are very accurate);
- Equipments to blood sample (tubes, capillary, solutions etc);
I think this is the basic to use both in teaching and researching. The difference between both are in quantity of ergometers and metabolic devices. For teach purpose you will need more than one.
Hope to help.
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Start. Speed up phase. Coordination phase. "Resting phase". Curve phase. How to run the curve "exit", the straight section. How and when can be reserved the runner? Etc..
Dear Béres
Take a look at this link. If you cannot open the full text just contact me
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Running uphill and downhill, slope and speed run... how to define?
Dear Kao
1) Running speed and maximal oxygen uptake in rats and mice: practical implications for exercise training.
Høydal MA, Wisløff U, Kemi OJ, Ellingsen O.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Dec;14(6):753-60.
2) Downhill treadmill running trains the rat spinotrapezius muscle.
Hahn SA, Ferreira LF, Williams JB, Jansson KP, Behnke BJ, Musch TI, Poole DC.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Jan;102(1):412-6.
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In November, I will defend my doctoral thesis entitled "nutritional analysis and its relation with psycho-physical stress and muscle damage in professional players of volleyball throughout a season". Besides I finished in 2011 the master degree in nutrition and health at Basque County University (Spain) and I'm also finished a Master in Kinanthropometry and Sports Nutrition at the University of Valencia (Spain).
I would like to know a research group in nutrition and/or sport physiology for a post-doctorate in this area.
In july 2014 a national confernce about kinanthropometry and nutrition be held in murcia of spain
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Is there any difference in effectiveness between these forms in the case of starting to a sound sign (race or training) or starting independently (training)?
Is there any reason for the existence the 0.1sec rule? (The sprinter have to disqualify if the block sensor measured lower value than 0.1s reaction time.) Colin Jackson once said that he could break this time. Is it possible?
Dear Paolo,
I have been training for almost 30 years as an athlete (long jump, 400m hurdle, 60m, 100m, 200m, 400m and decathlon). I have never been in world class just in national upper class. (100m - 10.61s, 200m - 21.70s, long jump 7.60m). My experience is – to run a short distance (from 30m - to 200m) from standing start always bring better result than from block start (independent start – no sound, clap or starter gun, stopper stared for the movement of the leg). Always! There is something strange in it, because this is not logical from biomechanical point of view. This one is tell us that the block start is a very complicated, massive technical question. For example the question of the swinging arms (the question of the arm swinging backward), and/or the question of the role of the head (6kg part CG) raising etc.
But. To start to a sound sign is much more different. The blocks counteract the energy loss (backward movement) if the block angles, hip highness, knee angles, CG positioning are adjusted correctly. While the runner starting from block (to a sound sign) push her/himself forward, the runner starting from standing position will not help any “equipment” to support the heel (it true that you don’t need to raise your CG and there is no such weight on quadriceps).
So. Is the standing or block start a more effective at track and field sprint events, from a point of view of performance and biomechanically? It depend on the starting procedure (to a sound sign – like in race circumstances, or to independently – like in training circumstances) or it depend on technical, power, experience level of the sprinter or …? I think this is not so obvious.
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Allometric scale is usually used for VO2max data normalization. What about anaerobic power (peak power)? Any references or experiences? What is your opinion?
Thank you for your answers. I want to compare persons with different body composition and/or overweight vs. normal.
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In 2006, a complete warm-up programme called the “11+” was created by F-MARC (Medical Assessment and Research Centre) with the support of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) in order to reduce the risk of injury among football players and provide an injury-prevention model for other sports authorities.
I agree with Carles. The FIFA 11+ is well established and there is enough evidence that it works on levels below professionals. However, as there is no other program that has been studied in professionals and there is no research that it will not work on pros, I wonder why the value of such a program for highest level athetes is that heavily negated.
I agree that there is a trend in professionals (also in the highest youth and women´s leagues) to individualization (regarding fitness, recovery, injury prevention). But programs like the 11+ can serve as an evidence-based blue-print for the highest level, too. At least, as long as no other research is available (and that means that people who are active on the highest level must allow, support and initialize research in these athletes).
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We are planning to conduct a study where we are searching for effective and low cost rehabilitation intervention for patients with CLBP and long-lasting neck pain referred to physiotherapy. At the same time we wish to see if it is possible to find some good and easy ways to measure strength in the upper body strength without the need for much equipment.
I would recommend use of a hand-held dynamometer, that is a dynamometer held by the examiner and applied against the patient. Hand-held dynamometers are portable and lightweight. More than 500 articles have been published that report their use. I have used them to measure the strength of the shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, medial rotators and lateral rotators, elbow flexors and extensors, forearm pronators and supinators, and wrist extensors. Normative values are available for some of the aforementioned muscle actions.
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I'm trying to track down sources of information that offer some values of acceptable variations in oxygen consumption, particularly the on-kinetics. Does anyone have or know of any peer reviewed material?
Kim, look at the work by Brian Whipp, Sue Ward and more lately Harry Rossiter (UCLA) they spent a large amount of effort in refining the measurement and analysis of gas kinetics.
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It is because I am researching for information for my Masters about inspiratory muscles.
She also offers a webinar via Human Kinetics that you can get for free
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I read the abstract of the article attached to this message. Interesting findings and an eye opener for everybody involved in talent ID.
However, I have some additional questions related to the observations reported:
1. How long underperformed the athlete during their development. Was this for only 1 season or multiple seasons?
2. Was the temporary decrease in performance related to the shift in competition category? Eg from junior level to U23 level, or U23 to elite level? Any other possible explanations for the observations? eg coaching quality?
Though no expert on statistics, I think there are two populations that could be studied. First is, among all juniors (high school aged kids in the US) who join a sports team, how many will become elites. It starts with a very large group and is narrowed down to a very small group over the time course of 7-10 years. In my example above, it was 7 years (meeting the definition of a gold medal at U23 World Championships as putting an athlete into the elite status). The second population to be studied is among a group of elites, how did those elites get to that status. That's a much smaller group to study..
My athletes are in the first group- hundreds of kids who became high school rowers, two of whom went on to elite status (gold medals at U23 world championships). Along the way, some of my very gifted athletes left the ranks of rowing. The reasons are many, often related to money and college.
One study is not the inverse of the other. They are very different populations.
I scan the literature and search for articles but haven't found much that offers insight into the first group. A detailed look at the second group is in the book "Developing Talent in Young People" by Dr. Benjamin Bloom in which his group studied 120 very talented "elites" and detailed how they group achieved that status. It is available on Amazon.
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Shin pain is experienced by most of the runners. How to reduce the pain without giving complete rest from practice? Are there any alternatives?
Dear Srinivasa,
Medial tibial stress syndrome is associated with an imbalance of foot pressure (greater on the medial foot), excessive pronation, sudden increase in intensity and/or duration of training, and an uneven training terrain. These factors increase soleus strain by eccentric contraction to resist pronation. In a separate study, decreased hip internal rotation, increased ankle plantar flexion, and positive navicular drop were associated with medial tibial stress syndrome.(References:. Pell RFt, Khanuja HS, Cooley GR. Leg pain in the running athlete. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2004;12:396-404. [PubMed]. Sharma J, Golby J, Greeves J, Spears IR. Biomechanical and lifestyle risk factors for medial tibia stress syndrome in army recruits: a prospective study. Gait Posture. 2011;33:361-365. [PubMed]. . Moen MH, Bongers T, Bakker EW, et al. Risk factors and prognostic indicators for medial tibial stress syndrome. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2012;22:34-39. [PubMed].)
Treatment strategies for medial tibial stress syndrome frequently include rest and cross-training using low-impact activities such as stationary biking and underwater running. Once symptoms resolve, training should slowly accelerate (10% to 25% every 3 to 6 weeks). (REFERENCES :. Kortebein PM, Kaufman KR, Basford JR, Stuart MJ. Medial tibial stress syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:S27-S33. [PubMed]. Edwards PH, Jr, Wright ML, Hartman JF. A practical approach for the differential diagnosis of chronic leg pain in the athlete. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:1241-1249. )The most effective surgical procedures involve release of the deep posterior compartment, including the soleus sling and removal of a strip of posteromedial tibia periosteum (REFERENCES : Detmer DE. Chronic shin splints: classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome. Sports Med. 1986;3:436-446. [PubMed] .Yates B, Allen MJ, Barnes MR. Outcome of surgical treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85:1974-1980.) Also surgeon must adress the etiology of the disease if any malalignment (imbalance of foot pressure (greater on the medial foot), excessive pronation,decreased hip internal rotation, increased ankle plantar flexion, and positive navicular drop ) detected .surgeon must focus on to solve these pronblems first.
Yours respectfully
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I'm involved in a multi-venue project that is working with young (11 years +) overweight/obese children/adolescents. I'm after a quick and easy field test that requires minimal resources that can monitor changes over time. I was thinking of the Rockport walk test but in all honesty, I think a mile is going to be too long time wise and potentially too difficult for some of the participants. Any help/advice would be most appreciated. Thanks
It depends on what you see as your outcome variable. If you plan to estimate VO2max, bear in mind that many equations or conversion tables incorporate body mass, and if the intervention program is successful at reducing body mass, changes in estimated VO2max may result from the role of body mass in calculating the VO2max estimate. For obese children, "functional fitness" may be a more reasonable outcome - so whatever standardised test you use, it may be more appropriate to use the raw performance score (time to completion, distance covered, laps completed). Also consider safety issues with maximal effort tests (such as the 20-m shuttle). Risk screening and ethics screening in many countries make maximal testing either a lot of bother, or not possible (because participants are screened out of maximal performance tests). For that reason, a walk test or submaximal cycle test maybe more practical and safer. From previous work with obese children, they tend to like cycle exercise and cycle testing (because it is less impact on joints, and they tend to be quite good at cycling). A cycle test is also less weigh-dependent (so you would obtain a purer measure of improvement in fitness, rather than reduction in body mass). Sounds like you want something more straightforward, equipment-wise, so this may not be feasible. If you use the 20-m shuttle, consider using the raw performance score (laps) as suggested. If you really want to estimate VO2max, maybe search for a lap-dependent equation, rather than use the Leger equation (which I think uses stages completed, rather than laps).
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Currently looking at high level footballers who are going through, or about to experience a career transition within their sport. I am wanting to see what suggestions others have regarding interventions to ease these transitions.
What kind of transition are we talking about here? A transition from one team to another? Or a transition from junior level to senior level? Etc. That probably makes quite some difference with regard to the interventions that could be put in place. I am not sure whether this concept would be completely applicable to professional football players, but you may want to look at the concept of career adaptability. Jessie Koen has published about an intervention with regard to career adaptability of young individuals with regard to the school-to-work transition. Not sure whether this helps in your particular case, but maybe you could look into it. I have also developed an intevention myself which is aimed at developing career competencies of young workers. This is mainly about reflective, communicative and behavior career competencies. Again though, I am not sure whether this can be applied to your specific context.
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In recent times, Australian media reports have provided us with coverage of several high-profile AFL clubs undertaking training camps at altitude in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. The majority of the current research investigating the potential benefits of altitude training on sea-level performance has been conducted on endurance athletes with limited research involving team sport athletes and performance measures that related to the physiological demands of team-sport match play. Furthermore, the weight of evidence suggests that altitude training may only provide modest (1-2%) superior benefits, compared to training at sea-level, which are highly individualized and may not be highly repeatable.
However, the ability of an overseas travel and training camp to build group camaraderie, establish close relationships and unite a team, are factors that go largely unmeasured and may be "more important" to team sport success than a potential 1-2% improvement in physiological variables or performance measures. I would be interested in the opinions of fellow sport scientists on the validity of altitude camps for team sports.
Dear Philip,
You should check the last special issue of British Journal of Sports Medicine focusing on altitude training for team sports.
In addition to undeniable team building effects, the small physiological benefits may help to make the difference on the field (winning depends on details). For that, new methods such as repeated sprinting in hypoxia may be very promising... see the last papers from our research group but also the one of Galvin or Puype.
However, more studies are still needed to confirm possible anaerobic/neuromuscular benefits from team sports' hypoxic training.
Regards,
Franck
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Question
Close chain exercise is a type of isotonic one, where the end of the chain is fixed or, in other explanation, the proximal part of the segment moves to the distal one. For open chain exercise it is evident that the end of the chain is not fixed or, for the other comment, the distal part of the segment moves to the proximal.
According to these definitions there ares conflict existing for identifying leg press sort of exercise.
Although I myself found in literature that leg press is classifyed in both forms of exercise.