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Exercise Intervention - Science topic

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I have to run a pearson correlation analysis between HPA axis markers- cortisol , ACTH and inflammatory marker IL-6(analysed through ELISA) and Depression anxiety questionnaires which were recorded at baseline and post interventions. I also need check the data for normality before running the analysis. If someone can provide an appropriate suggestion.
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Thank you so much Anna. Would like to ask when running a correlation analysis between hormones and questionnaire data for post-intervention do you correlate it directly with the post scores or first calculate the change score and then correlate it with hormones concentration ?
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Hello everyone
Please, based on the research and experience you have gained, please answer the following question.
"What are the best modalities for low and high -both- physiological responses to resistance training in rats?"
Thank you
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There is no "best" modality. You have limited options. Weighted wheel running is probably your best option. In this setup, you use a rodent running wheel and resistance is provided by hanging a strap with weight over the wheel. The degree of resistance is controlled by the amount of weight hung from the strap. The more the weight, the greater the friction applied by the strap to the wheel. An alternative would be to use steep uphill running on a rodent treadmill. The exercise in both of these setups is not pure resistance training. They also provide an aerobic training component. Training effects will be primarily to the plantarflexor and knee extensor muscle groups.
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I conducted a big research project looking into a few different aspects of a virtual reality programme. I used 3D motion capture, heart rate monitoring and questionnaires to investigate, mental health benefits, physical health benefits and adherence. This project effectively looked into 2/3 different research questions at once. Would it be right to split these up into different papers under different titles or should I try to come up with a title that includes all aspects of this study and write it up in one paper?
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It all lies in the length and complexity of the research project.
You must determine the study variables. If you intend to study several or multiple variables, you can build a number of articles, the product of a broad general work
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Hi,
If someone wants to do independent research (e.g. they design a questionnaire and ask people to take part, or they are a personal trainer and they collect data from their patients for a new exercise intervention etc) how do they publish the results if all journals require approvals from ethics committees and compliance with the Helsinki declaration?
I've heard to obtain ethics clearance from an independent ethics committee costs a few thousand dollars.
Is research publishing in a way "locked" for academic institutions only?
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Я также занимаюсь Альтернативным разрешением споров (медиация). И у меня много работ в сфере медиации: спортивная, медицинская, третейская и другие формы посредничества. Очень перспективная тема и направление. Присоединяйтесь к моей лаборатории. Сергей Марков из Хабаровска (Дальний Восток; Россия).
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Their is need to understand the safety and efficacy of exercise therapy on cancer treatment–induced cardiovascular toxicity and tumor progression and metastasis in oncology practice, this can be achieved by having a fundamental knowledge of exercise prescription, dosing and personalization with regards to cancer treatment and according to global best practices.
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Melancholic depression is a form of depression that should be considered separately from other forms of depression. I'm interested in why this is the case? How are the mechanisms different from other forms of depression? In addition, considering the severity of the symptoms (e.g. psychomotor, psychosis (in some cases), poor concentration, slowed speech, lack of concentration) is it worth increasing physical activity levels or altering diet? Anyone performed research in this area?
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You might want to refine your question by looking at how treatments differ for male versus female clientele. Causes for dysthymia in males tend to come from struggles with identity and gender role and as such should be treated with those factors in mind. Physical activity is often effective; particularly when combined with other males suffering from similar disorders.
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Hi all
Thank you all in advance for your valuable comments.
I’ve analyzed my data using Repeated-Measures ANOVA but there is an issue that I can’t get.. In my study, I had two different groups (exercise and control) and also exercise intervention (pre and post). Shortly, in the study, I tried to reveal the effects of an exercise model on fat oxidation during exercise. To analyze my data, I’ve used Repeated-Measures ANOVA. But once analyzing the data, Repeated-Measures ANOVA shows that there is a significant difference in time (p=.025) but no differences in between the groups (time*gruops). But when I want to see which group has significant difference compared to baseline using Paired Samples T-test, there is no difference in either group. So how should I write my results or should I analyze my date with another statistical method?
Thank you
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"non-significant" is not implying "no difference".
This is the "absence of evidence is taken as evidence of absence" fallacy.
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Hi,
I have a data set which has a within subjects variable of time, and a between subject variable of condition. My data set contains a baseline measure, followed by a repeat of this baseline measures for 7 consecutive days following an exercise intervention. However, my baseline values are different between groups so I would like to account for these when performing my repeated measures ANOVA. Therefore, is it possible to perform a repeated measures ANCOVA instead, with the baseline value as the covariate?
Thanks.
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A repeated measures anova on the differences with the baseline, and the same anova on the residuals --over groups and times-- against the baseline, both yield about the same results. Yet, both yield quite different results from a repeated measures anova on all times (including the baseline).
See attached R script.
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I am trying to find a practical way to organise the information that I have about the medication that my participants have been and are currently taking. Our study is looking at the effects that a weekly community-based exercise class has on Parkinson's disease. Every 10-12 weeks we assess our participants (different health, functional, cognitive tests and plasma/saliva samples). In order to control for the effect that medication can have, I ask our participants to report the different drugs that they are currently taking and any medication changes. However, I am finding it quite difficult to organise this data in an efficient way in excel or to track for changes and analyse it.
Is there anyone with experience in running similar longitudinal intervention trials that could suggest me a way to do it?
Many thanks
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Sorry for my late reply. Thank you so much for the article that you have shared with me. It is definitely very useful.
Best wishes,
Anna
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Are there any effects of methylcellulose ingestion on metabolism in humans? If so, is there a specific dosage at which these effects are observed? Is anyone aware of an exercise intervention study where methylcellulose was ingested prior to exercise? Any help would be greatly appreciated.
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According to Finch and Roberts, 1985. P. Finch, S.C. Roberts. T.P. Nevell, S.H. Zeronian (Eds.), “Cellulose Chemistry and its Applications”, Ellis Horwood, Chichester (1985) +
Knight H. F.., et al., Studies on single oral doses of a high gel point methylcellulose. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1952. 41(8): p. 427-429.
cellulose and cellulose derivatives are not metabolized in humans and therefore do not provide any metabolic energy or calories. MC + HPMC food gum products do not contain any protein, fat or digestible carbohydrate. The human body do not have encymes to degrade the polymer chain, like some animals have.
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I am reaching the end of my deadline and would really appreciate some guidance -
I have one sample of subjects split in to two groups -
All participants in both groups take an outcome measure questionnaire prior to the intervention
Each group (same sample) completes a different exercise intervention -
At the end of the intervention all participants repeat the outcome measure questionnaire.
I want to see if there is a significant / statistical difference between the results of the two groups...
Please help.
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Hi John,
as far as I see there are two common approaches to your problem:
1st: two-way repeated measures ANOVA
2nd: ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) with prescores as covariates
Read the implications of these two methods carefully.
You may also consult the following discussion which, however, refers to randomized trials:
Vickers AJ: Analysis of variance is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials: A critique and discussion of alternative statistical approaches. Psychosom Med 2005;67:652-655;
Van Breukelen, G.J.P. (2006). ANCOVA versus change from baseline: More power in randomized studies, more bias in nonrandomized studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 59, 920–925
Cheers
Christian
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I am designing an exercise intervention and this outcome will help to estimate the power needed for significance.
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There appears to be limited research in this area. However, you could expect to find an effect size roughly equal to 0.336 based on Savucu et al.
A previous review from 2010 may be able to give you a little more guidance. But this looks like an area that could benefit greatly from additional research.
Good Luck!
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Let's say recruitment period is X months after which randomization to exercise intervention groups occurs. The outcome is changes in depression. What are some methodological and ethical issues in choosing to defer treatment until after the recruitment period. The other option would be randomization and start of intervention as participants are recruited, but I can think of many reasons why this would be tough to do.
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Dear Spencer:
 May I say that your question leaves out details that would enable one to provide a cogent response to you.  However, let’s assume that all subjects are already undergoing treatment with standard of care for depression and will remain on such treatment(s) during the study.  If that is the case, then it will depend on what it is you are doing during the intervening period between recruitment and randomization.  Another consideration or question is when you consent subjects and what you tell them this period is to be used for.  There are a number of other points of consideration that come to mind, but in deference to pithiness in this forum I shall stop with the ones I’ve highlighted above.  Good luck
 Cheers,
Chuke
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I have been involved in a 12 week long training program; we have some individuals who have trained with us for 6 or more 12 week cycles. We have had 0 drop-out, but loss of a 3rd+ visit due to manpower/timing. Unfortunately, some subjects only trained 2 cycles, and some 6.  Any suggestions on how to disseminate some of the repeated measures information?
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Keyword: Multilevel/Hierarchical model
Book recommendation: Gelman & Hill: Data analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models.
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both exercise and addiction are able to activate the rewarding system in brain. I it possible to use exercise therapy to quit addiction?
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Regular and non-excessive exercise habits will result in above-average fitness, and with exercise will result in a higher level of physical fitness. Increased physical fitness will affect the mind. So negative thoughts such as addiction to drugs will be reduced. Besides the desire to stay healthy and strong and impact on the increase of life expectancy causes a person to keep exercising regularly and slowly reduce the addiction and eventually stop. Remember "in a healthy body there is a healthy mind"
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I’m currently investigating changes of miRNAs expression due to an exercise intervention. I analyzed a total number of 187 different miRNAs. Now I have a problem with non detected samples and their statistical evaluation. Some of the selected miRNAs showed signals only in a smaller number of samples (patients) (e.g. 35 instead of 40). Some samples showed signals only at one time point but not in the other and therefore fold change calculations are not possible.
What would be the better option for such samples, to use only the detectable values for statistics or filling in anything for the missing values?
I would be very pleased if someone can give me suggestions, how to cope with this problem.
Kind regards
Barbara Mayr
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Dear Barbara,
It usually happens that same miRNA expressed at one time point but not at other time points. You may get upregulation at one time point and downregulation at different time point. You need not to worry about that and sometimes if endogenous level is very low then it is very difficult to do real time PCR. You just repeat your experiment to be sure about the results you are getting are OK.
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Research question: Evaluate and synthesize randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs that investigated the effects of physical activity on working memory performance in healthy individuals.
Main inclusion criteria stipulated (1) a healthy sample population, (2) a physical activity intervention, (3) a working memory outcome measured, and (4) a randomized control trial design.
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(I graduated since submitting this journal and my ability to contact my research adviser is intermittent as she is on sabbatical, so I was hoping to get some additional insight from this thread--hope that is permissible)
Questions:
1) One reviewer commented that including acute and chronic exercise interventions must be separately analyzed to which I now realize and fully agree. My question is that I only have 11 studies and 5 are acute exercise interventions. Should I simply exclude them (per reviewer's recommendation), or perhaps attempt to conduct a separate meta-analysis of the 5 acute exercise-based studies? Doing so, however, may be problematic as each of the 5 studies used different working memory measurement tools (my initial meta-analysis has subgroups where identical tests are analyzed together).
2) This question is also directly relates to my #1: by removing the 5 studies from my initial meta-analyses, some subgroups, which initially had 4 studies (3 of which were acute, for instance) now become 1 study in said subgroup. So, is there a way to resolve this new problem? Looking at previous reviews, it seems one review in particular employed a Hedges' g test that seemingly allowed for the mixing of different working memory tests (again my understanding of what Hedges' g actually is is poor to say the least).
3) Does having just 6 studies in my review (if I in fact simply exclude acute exercise intervention) limit its appeal or worthiness to the scientific community (my search strategy was very specific to begin with as I only found 11 articles over a six year span to begin with)? Currently, I do not want to exclude them, rather try to perform separate analyses.
4) Difference between moderator and mediator variables? Online sources are confusing me. I want to measure the effect of age on my variables (which is defined as a mediator) and also duration (which is defined by some as a moderator).
5) Do I utilize a sensitivity analysis for #4 or a correlational analysis or even a regression meta analysis? I used RevMan, and such additional tests would require further reading on my end.
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Azeem,
I think you need a face-to-face consultation with an expert on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. I often get similar questions from my students and the only way I can fully answer them is after a back-and-forth verbal exchange. And I usually have to see the studies that the students are including in their meta-analysis. I think for many of your questions there is no one right answer.
I am sorry that I can't be of more help.
Gordon
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I'm looking at using TSS in a case study intervention for a recreational triathlete.  Aiming to enhance performance through a nutritional and exercise intervention.
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Jamie,
If you are referring specifically to the Training Peaks TSS here is a link to describe it as it applies to their training and tracking methodology.
I and many other coaches use TSS as a way to track training load in cycling clients workouts.
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Dear experts,
which method is recommended to inducing diabetes type 2 in mice for studying mitochondrial dysfunction?
Drug (streptozotocin) or high fat diet?
and also any other useful information about the type and age of mice?
After inducing diabetes, 8 week exercise training will be conducted.
Thanks in advance.
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I am in agree with you. for this reason, we are going to use combination of high fat diet and STZ administration. Thanks again.
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We are working with primary care physiotherapy teams to evaluate exercise in thecommunity programmes that are in conjunciton with local gyms. We are looking for an ICF Participation level measure that is validated for use with stroke, PD and MS and that considers either impact of the condition or quality of life, or participation in everyday activities/interaction with family and community. Would be grateful for any suggestions of suitable measures.
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 Dear Lode,
Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA) is a self- report outcome instrument that describes participation and autonomy from the perspective of the participant.  The questionnaire consists of 39 items that measure participation in accordance with the definition to ICF.  The response options in the IPA are: 0=very good, 1=good, 2=fair, 3=poor and 4=very poor. The results can be analyzed both regarding the assessments of the five domains (autonomy outdoors, autonomy indoors, family role, social relations, paid work and education) and the nine areas of different aspects of participation (mobility, self-care, activities in and around the house, looking after our money, leisure, social life and relationship, paid or voluntary work, helping and supporting other people and education/training). 
Cardol, M., de Haan, R.J., van den Bos, G.A., de Jong, B.A. and de Groot, I.J. (1999) The development of a handicap assessment questionnaire: The impact on participation and autonomy (IPA). Clin. Rehabil. 13, 411-419
In the article below we used the IPA which we can recommend.
Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.
Larsson J, Björkdahl A, Esbjörnsson E, Sunnerhagen KS.
J Rehabil Med. 2013 Sep;45(8):765-70. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1184.
ABSTRACT
 Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n = 129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years.
Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression.
Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation.
Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role.
Best wishes, Eva
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Accelerometer cut points for obese populations.
Does anyone have experience in measuring physical activity by accelerometer in obese individuals?
Due to a greater body mass the energy cost of movement is greater in obese individuals. There is a clear argument for using specific cut points in obese individuals. However, there is very little in the literature on this subject.
If anyone has got experience in this, what cut points did you use and what was your rational for using these cut points?
Any thoughts or discussion on this is much appreciated 
Nils
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We are working in this question since the last two years with different accelerometers and different intensity but, at the moment, we don't have any publication.
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(Smaller scores mean improvement, so negative value is beneficial)
Mean(SD)TxPre=19.2(4.1) Mean(SD)TxPost=15.4(2.8) 
Mean(SD)ConPre=20.0(4.7), Mean(SD)ConPost=17.4(3.9)
n size both groups 14
My calculation is cohen d -1.08 for treatment, and -0.6 for control.
My conclusion would be a very large effect for treatment and 1.8x more effective than control (1.08/0.6). 
Is there another way of calculating or reporting the overall effect of the treatment compared to control?
I've seen others calculate overall effect by comparing the means of the post-test group, using the change in each group and the SD of the post-tests. Is that appropriate? I calculated pooled SD of post-test at 3.39. In that scenario, the overall effect would be: (1.08-.6) / 3.39 = .14..... A trivial effect?
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Hi Phil,
We have traditionally concluded that if a CI crosses 0 that there is no effect.  But like everything else, it is likely on a continuum.  A p value indicates the probability of that groups differ but we always default to a binary response at p=0.05.  But if a 90% CI does not cross zero, then I am 90% confident that my treatment had an effect.  If that is the case, then why should I completely dismiss my treatment just because I am not 95% confident.  Thats the end of my rant :)
Interpretation of the values comes from Hedge's book Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis.
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I recently conducted a study that demonstrated great results regarding Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) on college athletes diagnosed with Exercise Induced Asthma. One of the findings is that is potentially reduced pain in the lower back. My next study is to 'activate' sedentary people with a fear of exercise, by initially prescribing RMT. Does anyone or has anyone worked or know of any studies in this area.
Many thanks in advance
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  • Please read below. I have been involved in a several studies related to inspiratory training. However, here is an article that I have read that seems to be of high quality and that may be of interest to you. Please see below.
Spine:
April 2001 - Volume 26 - Issue 7 - pp 724-730
Biomechanics
Impaired Postural Control of the Lumbar Spine Is Associated With Delayed Muscle Response Times in Patients With Chronic Idiopathic Low Back Pain
Radebold, Andrea MD; Cholewicki, Jacek PhD; Polzhofer, Gert K. BA; Greene, Hunter S. MD
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can QOL improve after exercise intervention in children with cardiomyopathy 
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In my opinion this depends on which cardiomyopathy and its severity in each individual (i.e. there is a lot of phenotypic variation). Although, for a number of patients with cardiomyopathy the risks of sudden death are increased, in most cases, exercise is deemed to be a good thing as it reduces the risks of secondary health conditions in the medium to long term. There is no such thing as a risk-free life and so I believe we should attempt to optimise quality of life by engaging in exercise. For children this means being encouraged to play, and engage in daily physical activity and exercise. These are important aspects of their lives that should be encouraged, not only for maintaining and improving function and limiting the generation of secondary health concerns but also, importantly, because it improves socialisation and well-being, but also, very importantly, because it is fun!
So, accepting that physical activity of some form SHOULD be encouraged, the risks of engaging in exercise have to assessed against the known risks associated with the individual's specific circumstances and the presentation (/severity) of their condition, i.e. an attempt to take a view on 'acceptable risk', including the views of the family and child if possible and appropriate. For some this will involve no more than low intensity exercise but, at the other end of the spectrum, some patients could benefit from and enjoy high intensity interval exercise (although, for most, a range of intensities and durations; i.e. a range of stimuli, would be best). Exercise prescription should be left to well-qualified, knowledgeable and experienced health care professionals (who also have excellent knowledge and training in sport and exercise science). They too will be able to judge if an individual is safe to exercise alone or under supervision.
As a final point, for health benefits, everybody on the planet should be engaging in physical activity. If you have pathology, then you should exercise within the limits imposed by your condition. If you are without pathology people should be seeking to do more.  In the 21st Century there are very few conditions where absolutely no physical activity can be justified on the basis of health!
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Can TRX training with the elderly?How do I measure that resistance?
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Women have the most to gain from strength training, but due to societal and sociological biases they are the last to know. Strength is the answer to a myriad of problems related to activities of daily living observed in women, especially as they age. Because of societal and sociological biases against strength training for girls and young women the average young woman begins her adult life at high risk of osteoporosis because the amount of bone and her bone mineral density are at their peak in the early twenties, but the average 20 year old woman's level of strength is below the 50th percentile. Female athletes are less likely to be influenced by the societal and sociological biases against strength training due to their participation in sports and the requirement for strength training in most sports.
Women are human beings and while the influence of hormonal activity on the body is significant, the basics of training remain largely unchanged. Loads of 1 - 4 repetition maximum (RM) produce strength, loads of 4 - 8 RM produce strength with some hypertrophy, and loads of 8 - 12 RM produce muscular hypertrophy. Exercises should be performed with proper technique and a loss of proper technique means the maximum number of repetitions has been reached. Movements should be purposeful and brisk, faster velocities of movement improve the ability to generate muscular power (an increasingly important factor in maintaining independent living status for older women). Exercises should be performed in sets, with 3 to 6 sets of an exercise being performed in each workout. Each workout should contain 10 - 12 exercises for the various joint systems and the whole body, so that an exercise session would involve between 30 - 36 sets of 10 - 12 exercises and 60 - 72 sets of 10 - 12 exercises.
The American College of Sports Medicine and the National Strength and Conditioning Association (ACSM, NSCA) are the foremost sources of information about these topics in the world, and can be accessed through the web at ACSM.org and NSCA-Lift.org. They have position papers that are generally available to the public, but someone in your position would be strongly advised to join both to obtain access to the wealth of information in the form of peer reviewed scientific papers related to you area of interest.  
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need evidence for the assessment of radicular symptoms in particular for sciatic nerve..
the purpose it to measure the difference in radicular symptoms before and after manual therapy intervention.  
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I take that the radiculopathy is the result of either disc disease (bulging or herniated) or degeneration of the facet joints. Other pathologies are excluded after the pre-intervention screening. The objective measurement has to be performed using a device before and after the given treatment. The questionnaire scales are subjective and not objective (even those that are validated from institutions). In my experience there is no device to measure radicular pain and give a quantitative reading. The pain score table for disability can be used, but it is subjective. It is validated by the Societies and Social Security Agencies and used to assess disability of back pain sufferers in general.
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Our group are completing a 2015 update of our Cochrane Review titled 'Physical Fitness Training for Stroke Patients'. If you are aware of any ONGOING or UNPUBLISHED randomised trials of exercise interventions please could you let me know?
The exercise interventions we are interested in are cardiorespiratory ('endurance') training, resistance ('strength') training or a combination of both.
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We are currently doing an ongoing RCT on exercise post stroke where patients are randomised into an exercise programme of preference for18 months post stroke. It is a multicenter study.Inclusion time is at 3 months follow -up after first time ever stroke. The programme of Choice needs to be focused on high intensity (Borgs scale 15-16),type of exercise : strength and / or endurance training; time: 45 minutes-60 minutes; frequency: 1/w and so be physically active 7/w for 30 minutes. The patients set goals and Write exercise diaries. They have their own "Coach" that visit them each month.
See: clintrials.gov NCT 01467206
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The only grades I can find are for cohort and case-control studies?
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here you can find all informations you need about all kind of studies.
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I am unable to find published clinical studies regarding:  In the female older adult (65 & older) will aerobic versus anaerobic activities increase cognitive function?  Aerobic act- meaning cardio exercises (aerobic exercises, running, step-machine, bicycling)  Anaerobic act. - meaning yoga, stretching exercises (tai-chi), playing cards, Sudoku.
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All 'anaerobic' activities listed ('...Anaerobic act. - meaning yoga, stretching exercises (tai-chi), playing cards, Sudoku...') are not anaerobic, some cannot even be regarded as physical activity. To be classified as anaerobic, the intensity of the activity should be high enough to activate predominantly anaerobic metabolic pathways (phosphagen/alactic, glycolitic/lactic), i.e. above the anaerobic threshold (above max lactate steady state). I am not aware of any studies on this topic...
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Over the period of time; one may get into what is called Therapeutic Automatism a kind of behavior where we tend to work like a robot or mechanically so the interesting part is how to make Physical Therapists aware about this stuff and minimize the same if possible!
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Dear Khatri, 
                                Its an interesting question, so called therapeutic automatism is  there in experienced therapist working on the one area for a long time, periodically they have to change their area of practice and learning can be the solution and even if they can't change their area of work ,following evidence based practice and involving in small small clinical trials can overcome the problem i guess.
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Hey, let's start a physical activity program for children (age 6-13 years). I have read several articles on intervention programs, but missing information on how they have carried out.
Does anyone if there is a document supported by scientific evidence to recommend various physical activities? I need practical examples and these activities should be fun and appropriate for children.
In line with the ACSM, the objective of the program is: aerobic exercise / muscle strengthening exercise / bone strengthening exercise.
Thank You!
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Dear Esther Myers,
Thanks for your help, I will send a email.
Regards.
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1. In our study we are going submit top Taekwondo athletes (National team) to a very high intensity intermittent intervention Taekwondo training programme (4 weeks) combined with resistant strength training and to assess the response of the organism by using physical, physiological and biochemical tests, in order to improve their individual physical performance.
2. The design of the experiment is as follows: The athletes will be used as control of themselves. They will be tested before and after the implementation of the intervention programme at the National training camp. The testing set of 40 parameters includes anthropometric, physiological measurements, physical tests, blood biomarkers and hormones. In addition a structured specific Taekwondo techniques exercise test will be employed to assess the acute response and 24 hours post-exercise blood biomarkers recovery before and after the implementation of the intervention programme. Computerised individual score charts will be implemented for assessment of the physical performance of each athlete before and after the experiment. The individual charts will be used to provide advice to the coaches for Individual adjustment aimed at improving the performance.
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Hi Trayana,
You may find useful the attached article. It uses other competitors as control and in that sense you can evaluate your intervention.
All the best luck with your study.
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I would like to know the effects on the brain/quality of life/symptoms/cognition of short term exercise interventions.
I am only aware of interventions lasting 4+ weeks and I'm surprised that there is no research between acute bouts of exercise and long term interventions.
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The Cervical Overview Group (COG), the group that publishes series of Cochrane systematic reviews, has created a knowledge translation tool kit for clinicians to help move the evidence on neck pain care into practice. Have a look at the following website in Physiopaedia for an evidence based solution.
Anita Gross
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Considering the variability in the V'o2response (regarding age, sex, genetics, etc.), is there any minimal percent value of improvement which one can consider significant for a successful intervention?
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Dear Julian, this is an interesting question. Others have responded in relation to determining a statistically significant change (or real change) using VO2max assessment to evaluate the impact of an exercise intervention. Depending on the cohort and the context you are working within, a statistically significant change may not be clinically important; the clinically significant change following an intervention might be quite different. For example, Myers et al. (2002) report that an increase in 1 MET (3.5 mL.min-1.kg-1) was associated with a 12% improvement in survival. The study (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11469274_Exercise_capacity_and_mortality_among_men_referred_for_exercise_testing) includes an informative discussion on clinically significant MET (and VO2) values, which may be of interest.
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Still in the early stages of research but plan on looking at the effects of consuming various amounts of CHO, and fasted state prior to HIIT, examining power output pre and post exercise intervention along with metabolic changes that occur. Sample will be based around female university athletes
Aim is to try and find an appropriate recommendation of pre HIIT CHO consumption that will allow increased performance e.g. power output and induce metabolic changes.
Any contributions or critiques are more than welcome
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Dr Gareth Wallis (at Birmingham as I'm sure you know) has done work on male/female differences with CHO and fat metabolism: 
In terms of pre exercise CHO ingestion - good paper by Dr Stuart Galloway on some research we did at Stirling: 
Seems like a good place to start developing your question.  
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Lab studies show how MSC respond to the dynamic physical environment.
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thanks
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I am using an exercise diary to evaluate the effectiveness of my intervention. Now, I am looking for information on how valid this method is, and on how I can check validity of the information given. We know that people cheat (positively to please the researcher) or negatively (they might forget to fill up the diary). I would be glad to receive some references as well.
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We tend to see 'objective' measures as a gold standard at the moment but we also need to be aware of the pitfalls in all measurement techniques. Bear in mind that if you attempt to 'validate' a self-report measure with an 'objective' measure such as accelerometry or pedometry that such validation will never be perfect as all these measures do not assess physical activity in exactly the same way, they each measure a different aspect of physical activity. So accelerometers would not be able to assess the type of physical activity or anything contextual, as a diary would, and would miss out certain forms of activity depending on the placement of the device on the body. So for example an accelerometer placed on the hip would miss any upper body motion, such as lifting weights or carrying shopping bags. Many accelerometers would have to be taken off to swim. A pedometer merely counts steps but says nothing about the frequency, intensity or duration of physical activity. Like self-report measures, these devices rely on the participant engaging with them appropriately. Also, be aware that physical activity guidelines (e.g. 5 x 30 mins per week) were developed on the basis of self-reported physical activity; guidelines based on accelerometry, when they emerge, may well require less of people. These are a few things I discovered when I undertook a rapid scoping review of literature on physical activity measurement in the spring of this year - please let me know if you want references for these points.
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Please support with evidence
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Please support with evidence
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Depends on the patients' condition, problem. In General, it is reliable but it has a seilling effect. In critical ill patients, things become more complicated.
Clinical predictive value of manual muscle strength testing during critical illness: an observational cohort study.Crit Care. 2013 Oct 10;17(5):R229.Connolly BA1, Jones GD, Curtis AA, Murphy PB, Douiri A, Hopkinson NS, Polkey MI, Moxham J, Hart N.
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Please support with evidence if possible.
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If the fracture is consolidated one may assume that the DHS completed its role. So you should not bother about loosening of the screw. Loose or not it does not matter any more. Here one should have concerns about an eventual development of a vascular osteonecrosis of the head. In such cases the screw may seem to be loose but the trouble is with the destruction of femoral head. Anyway, you are right that osteoporosis is a factor that makes the osteosynthesis less stable. However, the grade of the fracture , timing of surgery, quality of surgical technique are important factors which influence the stability of osteosynthesis.
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With co-morbidities, alcohol dependence and depression.
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Hi Roses,
Try this paper:
Bischoff‐Ferrari, H. A., Lingard, E. A., Losina, E., Baron, J. A., Roos, E. M., Phillips, C. B., ... & Katz, J. N. (2004). Psychosocial and geriatric correlates of functional status after total hip replacement. Arthritis Care & Research, 51(5), 829-835.
This studyindicates that other measures of function are more important than the purely psychological factors, suggesting that if we manage pain, and complex medical interactions associated with age, the psychology does not tend to be the main limiting factor in recovery.
Here is a quote from the abstract:
"Results
Ten percent of subjects had poor functional status. In a logistic regression model controlling for sex and age, the following factors were associated with an increased risk for poor functional status (in order of importance): pain in the back or lower extremity, severe pain in the operated hip, poor mental health, more than 1 common geriatric problem, obesity, and less than college education.
Conclusion
Pain in the operated hip was strongly associated with poor functional status 3 years after THR. However, other factors associated with poor functional status were not related to the hip. Our results suggest that a comprehensive assessment of functional status in elderly THR patients should include assessment of common geriatric problems, mental health status, and weight."
Regards,
Jeremy
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I am looking for evidence to prove or disprove the theory that being a member of a gym has a positive effect on physical activity and/or physical fitness, but am struggling to find appropriate terms for searching the literature. Does anyone have any references that may be a good starting point?
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Hello Julie
A good starting point to get a first answer to your question might be the following article in pubmed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16355081 [J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2005 Jun;45(2):199-207]. Using this article as a starting point (e.g., by checking the references they used) and by checking the "Related citations in PubMed"-bar you should be able to find additional appropriate/relevant articles. From these you can then derive important key words to start building a well founded terminology for a more systematic search of the literature. You can compare these terms with the MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), which is the NLM controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles for PubMed to improve your search even more.
Good luck and best wishes,
Eling de Bruin
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I have used the IPAQ-A to measure domain-specific physical activity in one intervention (n=700 approx) and one control school (n=600 approx) pre and post intervention. There was 12 months between surveys. I'm unsure about the most suitable statistical test to use. I've considered Ancova controlling for differences between groups at baseline and over time but fear that this may be inappropriate. Any help would be much appreciated.
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In my opinion you will need to find out if there is a significant intra class correlation between grades and classes on the two schools, if there are you need to use multilevel analyzes, if not I would use Generalized Estimating Equations.
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I would like to include a patient in my walking program. However, he has fibromyalgia and experiences pain in his legs. Can he still gets benefits from walking? What training recommendations would you make?
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Hi,
We tested a FM school that included exercise in group of patients with different clinical tableau and found that, as stated by dr Rey here, that starting slowly and increasing the intensity at a slow pace is working very well. Most of the patient had a persistent pain reduction at the end of the program. We also realized that the type of exercise doesn't seem to be important as long as it fit with the patient interest.
Serge
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I am using the french version of the Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire (AQAP, 22 items) and have difficulty calculating the scores. I would like to know how you use this questionnaire, and to get an idea of scores are obtained in different studies.
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Dear Alexandra
The Sport Index is divided into four categories (<1 h; 1–2 hrs; 2–3 hrs; 3–4 hrs and > 4 hrs) and each of these categories has an appropriate coefficient (0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5) Usual daily activity and leisure activity are scored in a range of from 0 to 5. Global PA will be the sum of 3 indexes.
Maybe this article will be helpful for You.
Kind Regards
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Looking for research assistant.
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The University of Pittsburgh is replete with research in neuroscience. I am not presently aware of specific work in the area of neuroplasticity associated with exercise; however, searching at health.pitt.edu under medicine will provide access to potentially relevant centers and programs with listings of faculty research, e.g,, http://www.neurobio.pitt.edu/research_programs.html
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A patient admitted in alcohol misuse treatment has lower limb arteritis and will do anything to avoid walking. Can one reduce pain throughout an adapted physical activity program? Is it worth promoting walking activities?
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Thank you for your advice!
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I am planning an exercise program where intensity will be set at ventilatory threshold, for alcoholic outpatients. I hope to find significant effects on exercise tolerance, physical self worth, urges to drink and regular physical activity. Any information/cases/recommendations?
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Sounds like you might be setting the intensity too high for naive exercisers whi are likely Deconditioned. Consider instead following recommendations for exercise for healthy adults particularly taking consideration for conditioning level and pleasantness of the exercise to and to enhance adherence.
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Long ago known that training to failure is less effective than training without muscle failure.
I wonder if anyone can recommend me literature that compare bodybuilding training methods with current training methods using bodybuilders as study sample.
Obviously this type of training (bodybuilding) is not suitable for athletic performance (improvement in strength and power is lower than other training methods that use a lower training volume ). It is also true that a bodybuilding training is not suitable for people who want to improve their health.
It is easy to compare training methods on sedentary people (all people offer improvements in strength, power and endurance ) but I have not found such research using bodybuilders study sample undergoing training methods with different training volumes .
A bodybuilder has a very high level of training and perhaps requires large training volumes and intensity to improve. Maybe that level of training required of such high training volume.
I would like to know your opinion and if you know of recent research?
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Thank you very much. I agree with you. But I would like to know research using a study sample of professional bodybuilders.
I want to know if there is direct relacción between muscle hypertrophy and training volume on this type of athletes.
Are you familiar with any research?
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Given the known health benefits of dieting and regular physical activity, it seems strange that the Look AHEAD intervention was ineffective. One possible reason is that the participants were almost beyond the point of no-return, so to speak - in that they all had established type 2 Diabetes.
It strikes me that promoting healthy eating and regular physical activity is still worthwhile among those who are relatively healthy, as a means of maintaining health.
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In contrast to LookAhead showing no CV benefit of sustained modest weight loss among those with T2D, the PREDIMED study showed that among those at high risk of CVD (50% of participants had either T2D, or atleast 3 other RF: smoking, HT, dyslipidemia, overweight-90%, fam history of prem IHD), they achieved 30% risk reduction in major CVE from the addition of either olive oil or nuts to their diet with recommendations to follow a Med diet, rather than the control group who received advice to reduce dietary fat.
However, there were some important differences in the characteristics of the patients studied in LookAhead vs PREDIMED:
PREDIMED had 97% European vs LOOK AHEAD 63%
PREDIMED had BMI 30 vs LOOK AHEAD 36
PREDIMED age 67 vs LA age 58
PREDIMED smokers 16% vs LA 4%
LOOK AHEAD had longer duration of diabetes based on % on insulin ( 16% vs 4%)
LOOK AHEAD enrolled 14% with cardiovascular disease vs 0% in PREDIMED
Medication use differed
LA statin use 65% cf PM 40%
LA antihypertensive 80% vs 30%
La insulin use 30% by end of study vs 5%
So in summary LOOKAHEAD although younger were more co-morbid, more obese, and with a longer history of diabetes, and less likely to be white, and more heavily medicated
Suggests (1) diet quality might matter more than body mass achieved (2) there might be a window of opportunity for lifestyle intervention that is not so much age related but stage of disease related?
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Should Physical Education play a significant role in contributing to a child's daily physical activity? If so, should our children have more time dedicated to PE?
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A lot more than is standard procedure in many countries.
Children love to research and play, making this possible by challenging the children to move more is something that can be/ and often has been intergrated into school life.
We all know the benefits.....
see 1.research positive outcome linking physical activity, attention and academic achievement. in 9 year olds.
2. health related fitness in middle school students
Michigan State University (2012, December 6). Fit kids finish first in the classroom. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 19, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2012/12/121206131830.htm
3. Sport and physical activity enhance children’s learning
Dr Karen Martin, School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia
I was lucky to grow up in Australia, we had more than enough opportunity to move in and around our high school. Many teachers stayed on to train us after school hours. Wonderful mix of movement and academic skill training.
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Study to measure the effects of music on the stage of "brain fatigue"(during the transmission from carbohydrate based energy source to a predominantly fat based energy source which may possibly lead to depressed availability of blood glucose for optimal central nervous system functioning).
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Matt, your question sounds like the discussion around the central fatigue hypothesis that was proposed 10 years ago on the NEFA to tryptophan binding to albumin and the potential link to central fatigue (look at the work of Maughan and Strachan and Maughan and Wilson). In answering your question you could adopt one of two approaches; one is prolonged fatigue where the limited CHO stores result in a shift to fat oxidation with potential complication of inducing hypoglycaemia, alternatively you could perform a bout of exhaustive exercise to deplete endogenous CHO stores and the following day perform a second bout of exercise where the predominant fuel should be fat ( providing the volunteers consume a low-CHO meal after your initial bout of exercise).
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I have data from a fatigue test with 4 series of exercises in the arm curl and squat.
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I was referring to processing the signal (e.g. filtering, averaging, rectifying). My biggest problem is I have experience with continuous signs of exercises with bicycle, and I know not treat the signs interspersed with peaks of different muscle recruitment between repetitions. Yes, i did a reference contraction, with a maximum voluntary contraction. I need to know if using average signal or have to do another scan. My signals were collected with a Noraxon equipment.
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We're thinking about an incremental test where the speed will be kept the same throughout the whole test. The intensity will be increased by increasing the slope every minute until exhaustion.
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I thind 1 % elevation each minute is to little. I would definitely have chosen 2 %, and instead reduce the speed from the start. Uphill walking have never been any problem in our lung-cancer- and heart patients except for exhaustion, which is the main goal here.
Stoping the test: You stop the test when the patient reach exhaustion despite loudly encouragement from the testleader. Heart patients, which have reduced cardiac output, will have no problem with reaching RER > 1.10 to 1.15, and no problem reaching anaerobic threshold, which is low. Lung patients may have difficulties reaching anaerobic threshold because of reduced ventilatory capacity. Unfortunately, I have no experience with stroke patients.
You should expect to see a rise in sys BP and a constant or lower dia BP during the test. Fall in sys BT indicate servere cardiac limitation, which is a absolute criteria for stopping the test. Good luck!
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Aerobic and resistance training has shown to increase brain derived growth factor and serum IGF-1 which helps in synaptic plasticity and thereby influences cognition. I want to know the specific details of exercise like intensity and duration in which BDGF and IGF-1 is increased and how long it is maintained in the blood.
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Regarding BDNF there is a great meta-analysis by Knaepen et al. (Sports Med, 2010) that focuses somewhat on your first question: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20726622. Peripheral BDNF is increased transiently following exercise is their main conclusion. I'm not sure though that the FIT principles (frequency, intensity, time/duration) have been systematically looked at in any of the studies mentioned in that meta-analysis. In terms of exercise and resistance training on cognition see, for example, the review by Hillman et al. (Nat Rev Neurosci 2008): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18094706. The field is currently emerging, especially exercise and cognitive neuroscience and the role of neurotrophins as a mediator. At least in humans, IGF-1 is not as well studied as BDNF.
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If a person has a peak workload with 200W in CPET, what weight is adequate for strength training for this man?
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Pantelis is correct that aerobic fitness cannot be converted to a strength measure. However, there are health considerations when asking some one to perform a one repetition max (1-RM) due to the increased intrathoracic pressure as a result of the breath hold (valsalva manoeuvre) during lifting. It may be preferable (at least initially) to determine an appropriate weight by asking the client / patient for their rating of effort.
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Diabetic neuropathy
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I suggest you contact Professor Clare Bradley at Royal Holloway (C.Bradley@rhul.ac.uk)