Science topics: PhysiologyExercise
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Exercise - Science topic

Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment.
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Hello, good time
In the past, for my master's thesis, I worked with children with learning disorder and used exercises based on balance and coordination. I observed these exercises' positive effect on these children's executive functions. Currently, for my Ph.D. thesis, I plan to work with these children again and also re-measure executive functions in addition to motor components.
What is your suggestion regarding the choice of the independent variable for working with children with learning disorder? What kind of movement exercises or innovative tools or devices should I use?
Thank you for your advice.
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Steiner's eurythmics and HeartMath meditation may be interesting independent variables
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Greetings!
I, Darshan Prakashbhai Parmar, MPT student, from Government Physiotherapy College Jamnagar, am conducting a survey on 'EFFICACY OF PELVIC PNF TO IMPROVE TRUNK CONTROL, BALANCE AND GAIT PATTERN IN NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS' as a part of my Evidence Based Study(EBS) under the supervision of my Guide, Dr. Karishma Jagad (MPT-NEURO), Sr. Lecturer at Government Physiotherapy College Jamnagar.
We therefore request physiotherapists practicing in India to kindly fill this questionnaire, which will hardly take around 10-15 minutes. The link for the survey is provided below. The responses will be kept anonymous.
I further request you to forward the link to your friends or colleagues.
*(In case the link does not open, please copy and paste the link in your web browser or you can whatsapp me on +917984377793, I will share the form link there.)*
Thank you for your time and participation.
Take care and stay safe
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answer submitted
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During exercise shear stress is increased. The mode and duration of exercise also has an effect over shear stress. Pathological high shear stress (>10,000 s-1) and low shear rate (<1,000 s-1) are two sides that I wish to measure.
I will be using volunteers, who will be exercising, and I am interested how can I measure shear stress during the exercise as well as before and after.
All help is welcomed, thank you
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Thank you either way!
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During my studies at the Berlin University of Applied Sciences, I had the topic of design thinking as part of product management. That was real interesting for all of us. Now I'm writing my bachelor's thesis on the question of how design thinking can be used in future projects and exercises.
What experiences have you gained with design thinking that can be used sensibly at a university? What advantages and disadvantages do you see?
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Design thinking develops. There are dimensions such as framing the problem, envisioning solutions, specifying materials and techniques, preparing, implementing, and querying within all other dimensions. But as I learned by conducting developmental interviews with 80 faculty members from the Savannah College of Art and Design in 20 departments ranging from architecture to interactive design and game development. These dimensions can be divided into more detailed dimensions and each dimension goes through four increasingly complex modes of practice, which we identified as the beginning, exploring, sustaining, and inspiring modes. Each mode is imbedded in the next resulting in a new scale of development and time to establish. I used a computerized text analysis based on pairs of keywords to group the faculty answers into dimensions and define the modes within each.
The methods and results are detailed in my book Teachers, Learners, Modes of Practice: Theory and Methodology for Identifying Knowledge Development. Routledge, 2017. See especially, Chapter 5 and the 20 pages of appendices on the Design Praxosystem.
To help make the results easily accessible, I wrote a novel where the SCAD results were applied to the development of artificially intelligent robots. The novel is called How they designed my kind: The Autobiography of the First Artificially Intelligent, Conscious Being and is available free at changingwisdoms.net/Joshua.
A disadvantage of design thinking lies in people’s narrow conceptions of what it is and where to use it. Both sources above show ways that people’s narrow conception of design thinking can be overcome. Design thinking applies way beyond products. Education, social services, personal relationships, emergency responding, political activity, writing, drawing, conducting research are a few of the areas I have seen people apply it.
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Correctional program includes stretching, strengthening, plyometric and intensity and duration of training exercises to correct the genovarum deformity.
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Hello,
I've recently found in my study that with the intensity increased, the correlation between RPE and HR and VO2 strengthened. This phenomenon was also observed in previous studies, e.g., The increase of perceived exertion, aches and pain in the legs, heart rate and blood lactate during exercise on a bicycle ergometer.
However, what's the mechanism behind this? Could you please help me with this puzzle if any one happened to see this question here and know the answer.
Thanks very much!
Best regards,
YONG
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There is also emergent evidence on the correlation between RPE & breathing pattern (especially respiratory frequency) showing a very close association at high relative exercise intensities. The work of Andrea Nicolò and colleagues demonstrated that central command is the primary driver or Rf especially above the RCP. Since central command activity mediates Rf and RPE, this could explain this relationship across many contexts.
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I am from Bangladesh and willing to conduct an exercise or workshop to assess or evaluate the quality of the postgrad education in my University. I need some sponsors and international experts to support my endeavor.
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The Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk (JEOCT) publishes original research articles and reviews describing relevant new observations on molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms involved in human physiology after exercise training. All areas of the cellular & molecular exercise physiology are covered. In other word, the journal focus on mechanisms through which exercise can prevent or treat chronic-degenerative disease, contributing to prevention and personalized treatment of specific diseases and health maintenance with a translational perspective.
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I'm an applied exercise physiologist in Bozeman, MT (USA), and I have a need to borrow or rent someone's Cosmed K5 portable metabolic system for several research projects in my lab. I've been using portable systems for the last 20+ years, but my current system (Oxycon Mobile) is unserviceable (i.e., can't get a replacement O2 cell, or SBx module, because of supposed pandemic-related shipping delays). As such, my lab has effectively been shut down for months and I'm hoping to complete a research project that was supposed to be completed already.
The Cosmed K5 seems to be only serviceable portable system in relatively common use in the USA so I'm hoping to borrow or rent a K5 from someone's lab or clinic. I can also offer the possibility of a research collaboration as part of K5 loan agreement.
Dan Heil, PhD, FACSM
Professor, Montana State University- Bozeman
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Dear Dan Heil, PhD,
I am very eager to work with you, but unfortunately, our laboratory facilities are limited.
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E.g. effect of aerobic exercise cycle on cardiac remodeling start to dissapear app. 2 weeks after ending the training cycle. However, I could not find info on VOmax.
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The VO2 max begins also to decrease fairly quickly after detraining. Significant reductions in VO2 max occur within 2 to 4 weeks of detraining. The highly-trained individuals may lose 4-14% of their VO2 max, while beginners' VO2 max declines to a lesser level. One key factor contributing to this drop is the decline in the stroke volume. Other factors include, but are not limited to, decreased capillary density, amount of mitochondria, and oxidative enzyme activity, all of which reduce the muscles' ability to utilize oxygen.
See below, a few classic references reporting on the effects of detraining on cardiovascular responses to exercise.
Good luck!
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What are foot shortening exercises for correction of medial arch of foot.
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As far as I learned, foot shortening exercises (also referred to as short foot exercises) are a form of sensory-motor training that activates the intrinsic muscles of the foot and actively forms/supports the longitudinal arch and the horizontal arch.
According to the principle of progressive overload, short foot exercises can be performed in a sitting position (with the hips, knees, and ankle at 90º of flexion) and subsequently performed in standing positions (a single-leg stance, thereby providing bodyweight resistance).
Patients are required to pull the head of the first metatarsal bone toward the heel without bending the toes and maintain the state for 10-20 sec (note: the forefoot and the heel should e prevented from being lifted off the ground and smoothly induce the flexion of the head of the metatarsal bone). Patients may need to perform 10-15 repetitions/set, three sets/session. Sessions should be repeated thrice/week in a 5-8-week program.
For more details, take a peek at the studies below:
Good luck!
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Hello,
For my recent project, I am looking into the effects of TENS therapy and a home exercise program compared with just a home exercise program alone in pelvic girdle pain. Is this research question 2 experiments ( so I would thus have 2 independent variables ) or is it an experiment and control? E.g. the experiment is TENS and control is the exercise program? In both cases what are the appropriate statistical tests?
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From what I understand, you have two groups, i.e., one getting home exercise alone and the other getting home exercise plus TENS. Thus, you are only examining the effect of TENS (when added to home exercise). A t-test is appropriate if the data are normally distributed and you have equal variance. If you do not meet the assumptions for a parametric statistical test, you should run a Mann-Whitney test.
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Hi dears colleague;
I'm looking for an efficient procedure to determine fundamental learning outcomes for undergraduate students at university.
we have just: course, course exercises, exams and a knowledge descriptive.
thank you for your help.
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THE STANDARD-BASED APPROACH
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Textbooks about the managerial aspects of Digital Transformation and Industry 4.0 for academic teaching with exercises and case studies.
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Perhaps look to good articles … for a book it is not yet the time
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Hi ,
I am designing exercise protocol for athlete and would like conduct a pilot study so looking to find out Exercise Satisfaction along athlete
could any one one help me in finding a Scale/ Questioner ?
thank you .
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I recommend Dr. Stephen's article
Best regards 🌷
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I have just recently started a new "weekend project" in addition to my master's studies and I am looking for a data-set. I would like to use some Operations Research to design an optimal gym schedule that conforms to a specific set of constraints.
The idea is to create a daily gym schedule that conforms to a set of constraints (e.g. time, target muscles etc) as well as a set of physiological constraints. The physiological constraints are things such as do not exercise muscle-x and muscle-y together or do not do abdominal exercises for two consecutive days etc.
However the problem I face is data, specifically a data-set (or data-sets).
Are there any open-source datasets which list an exercise, as well as all the muscles targeted? Preferably one that lists as much of the physiological data as possible. E.g. which stabilizers are activated, which secondary muscle is also activated, is it an extension or flexion. I am also looking for datasets which could help me with some of the physiological constraints, such as muscle recovery times, which muscles not to exercise together etc?
My goal is to algorithmically capture an OR model which I can provide with input data such as muscle group target and time and the model must output a schedule of exercises which targets all the muscles in that muscle group, is not physiologically harmful and is within the time constraint.
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I don't have a specific data set or study in mind, but the US Army should have some data sets from recent studies. They recently transitioned to a new physical fitness plan developed with the physiological aspects of job performance in different areas, instead of a generalized physical fitness plan for all soldiers. Also, it should be fairly varied with categories ranging from 18 to 40 years old, various Heights, body fat content, sex, ethnicity, and race. Not to mention most soldiers are in good physical condition, healthy with proper nutrition and hydration.
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In case of keto diet and intermitting fasting should the control group not be an optimal scientific diet?
Keto does not work. Moreover, if this is controlled to a group that has healthy diet and does exercise and/or resistance training the results will be even more in against keto.
The same with intermitting fasting.
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Interesting
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Hyperuricemia is increasing prevalence around the world, which known as a condition which can lead to other illnesses such as gout, chronic disease of kidney and cardiovascular disease. avoiding extreme exercise was suggested , the reason is that anerobic exercise which can produce lactic may result in limiting uric acid excretion and increasing the risk of gout flare. strength training as a typical anerobic exercise has lots of benefits for improving quality of life of people with chronic disease such as diabetes, cancer, hypertension. so as to the hyperuricemia and/ or gout, how should we prescribe resistance training program, should we stop resistance training? or we can train with light to moderate intensity, or only avoiding hight intensity resistance training?
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Interesting
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Hamstring strain injuries are very common in sport at all levels .They lead to significant costs, as well as an increased future risk of other injuries. So, it is important to realize which exercises are the most beneficial ones.
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Well Done!
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This seems like a relatively simple question that I cannot find a published answer to. What is the average degree of increase in VO2max in response to voluntary exercise training in C57/BL6 mice? I have seen maximal exercise tests that report distance run, or average running speed, but not VO2max.
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Depends on your athletes
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Hi
I am carrying out a PHD investigating ‘The efficacy of Probiotic Supplementation on key neurotransmitters involved in Endurance Performance via manipulation of the Gut Brain Axis’.
As part of my research I aim to investigate the cause of perceived fatigue in endurance athletes. Potentially levels of plasma Tryptophan to establish Serotonin levels, I was also hoping to measure dopamine levels after a exercise protocol as a decrease would indicate fatigue.
My question therefore, is if there is biomarker to test for dopamine, was thinking tyrosine but can not seem to find papers on this.
Potentially an increase in adenosine would also indicate a decrease in dopamine
Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated?
Kind regards
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What types of exercises and training variables (volume, intensity, repetitions, frequency, exercise selection, exercise order, and rest) are recommended for patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS)?
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Dear Hamidreza Khalounejad , there are various types of modalities that can be beneficial for persons with MS.
I have explained all types with detailed information such as volume, repetitions, exercise selection, etc particularly during COVID-19 in my latest article, which you can find it here:
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I'm working with a significant number of rasters (.tiff) as part of a landscape classification exercise. First I want to generate a dendrogram from the rasters (maximum of 7 different rasters) to assess the optimal number of classes for my classification. I would use Wards linkage and the square of the Euclidian distance. My preference is to use a hierarchy so that cluster membership (class) can be displayed as a series of 'maps' containing different levels of complexity (observational or phenon levels) that are still genetically related.
Can anyone recommend an R script (python, matlab) that allows a dendrogram to be generated from multiple rasters and then enables HCA to be performed on the rasters to produce a classified image?
Thank you.
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Clinton Rissmann I hope that this message finds you well, I am facing the same situation/problem that you report in your question, thus, were you able to solve the problem? If your answer is yes, please, help me... Regards, Gonzalo
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In the context of my studies, i got to answer to this question. And i don't have a lot of information. So i ask about it here.
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Hello Nathan Cazard I share with Eduardo Freitas that in your question some background is missing, such as; the type of intense exercise, the type of sport that athletes practice, the age of the athletes, the conditions in which the maximum effort is executed, etc. and of course, what do you consider as intense?
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What types of exercise and training variables (volume, intensity, repetitions, frequency, exercise selection, exercise order, and rest) are recommended for patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS)?
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The best MS exercises are aerobic exercises, stretching, and progressive strength training. Aerobic exercise is any activity that increases your heart rate, like walking, jogging, or swimming. You just don't want to overdo it—it should be done at a moderate level. https://www.pennmedicine.org/updates/blogs/neuroscience-blog/2017/may/multiple-sclerosis-and-exercise
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It is known that the adaptive response to effort depends on several factors, including duration, intensity, frequency, type of exercise, type of muscle contraction, etc. However, physical intervention programs many times, these variables are not presented, cannot be compared, cannot be reproduced or replicated, by other authors
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Yes of course
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Hello everyone,
I am preparing two courses, one for Master students (semiconductors) and another about solid-state physics (PhD students)
Do you have any complete book references with exercises and corrections to prepare for such courses?
I ll have students with different backgrounds so I ll have to do some introductions
Thank you in advance
Joseph
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In addition to the previous post, this old USSR course might help. It is free to read, and a really good reference for the theoretical part:
Best Regards.
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People have to eat and drink because of hunger, thirst and basic requirement to live. People rest and sleep because it's also a requirement to continue living. Both eating and sleeping come naturally and instinctively. Exercise, however, requires work and motivation and does not have the same natural instinctive behavior to stay alive as eating and sleeping.
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As the holiday season comes into full gear and the year comes to an end, many people may be thinking about starting regular physical exercise as a new activity for the new year whether to keep fit or maintain ideal body weight. Throughout the years, there have been so many commercially well-known products from gym membership to home gadgets that people can do at home. Whether the gyms are used for exercises or for socializing, the lure to get new members to replace the members that quit is pretty much constant. Why do people quit the gym? As for home gadgets are concerned, they lure people with all kinds of gimmicks. They even make gadgets that require no actual conscious muscle contractions. The gadgets have electrodes to actually stimulate and contract the muscle fibers for you. People can buy a very expensive stationary bicycle and have a coach appear on a monitor screen cheering you on while exercising. Whether it's the gym or home gadgets to do exercises, most have failed and do not have much staying power. People eventually quit the gym for whatever reason, and the gadgets end up collecting dust or parts of a garage sale. Physical exercise to keep fit and to spend the extra calories consumed requires both work and commitment. One form of natural activity that people forget and underestimate that can still be used as an exercise to keep fit and healthy is "walking". The long lower limbs are perfectly made and have evolved to be used so we can be mobile and independent to move from one place to another and not only from the couch to a dining chair or inside the house to a driver's seat of a car.
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Hi, I am going to conduct online research on effect of physical activity in Parkinson disease patients. So for that reason I need help with questions.
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Hello, Shin Murakami . There are several tools that have already been developed and validated so I suggest you use one of those. Here's a good review article with many relevant references for you to check out.
Helmerhorst HJ, Brage S, Warren J, Besson H, Ekelund U. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:103.
Best of luck to you!
Brooke
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Example
Dominant Biceps Strength = 70%
Non-dominate Biceps Strength = 50%
Estimated loading prescription
for dominant Biceps as following :
1kg/ 8 times of Rep/ 30s/ 5 Sets/ 3m/ 3 sessions/week. Strengthening exercises
Kindly find out the loading prescription of non-dominate Biceps and the reason for choosing this loading ?
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It would be uncommon to prescribe a lower relative load to the weaker muscle. Why don't you do 1-RM testing on each arm and then prescribe the same training load (% 1RM) for each arm based on it's own 1-RM... the weaker arm will ultimately have a lower absolute load, but same relative load...
The National Strength and Conditioning Association uses the following RepMax table:
1 repetition max = 100% of 1RM
2 repetition max = 95% of 1RM
4 repetition max = 90% of 1RM
6 repetition max = 85% of 1RM
8 repetition max = 80% of 1RM
This would be a good starting point.... but remember that these are repetition max estimates and therefore training should be slightly below that for repeated sets. Also, it looks like you are just doing as many repetitions as possible during each 30 sec work bout, if I am reading it correctly. You may want to go on the lower end of the relative load, but 50-70% seems like a reasonable range. It depends on how many repetitions you want them to complete.... there is no prescribed load for your proposed protocol. Try it out on a few people and see where their repetition ranges fall and let that guide your decision!
Good luck!
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Has anyone seen any interesting gaps in the literature related to cardiovascular exercise physiology and could suggest any potential topic? Would be greatly appreciated
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I recommend that you identify a topic that both you and your advisor are interested in. If your advisor is interested in your topic, he/she can provide more insightful advice and he/she will be more motivated to help you. I recommend setting up a meeting with your advisor to see if he/she has some research questions that might be of interest to you. Showing interest in your advisor's research is never a bad thing.
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In his book Black Swan, Taleb (2010) believes that the human mind is subject to many blind spots, illusions and biases and that: “The right strategy for inventors and entrepreneurs is to rely less on detailed plans and to focus as much as possible on creative thinking and recognizing opportunities when they arise. Excessive attention to what we know results in yet another similar weakness: we tend to learn the details instead of adopting general laws.” Resistance to change has long been cited as one of the key reasons why companies do not adapt to change on time. One of the approaches is exercise "How to destroy a company". Employees and stakeholders can be divided into groups to find the most effective ways to destroy a company. Lisa Bodell, founder and CEO of the company “Futurethink”, uses simple techniques to help organizations embrace change and increase their ability to innovate, such as Google, Novartis, and HBO: “The first time the HBO team performed this exercise, it created three tactics that a top competitor could use to destroy HBO. The American mining company regularly conducts this exercise in order to protect itself from both competitive and market forces.” Modern management has always existed for “best practices”. In trainings, managers use role models to encourage and direct change. New researches suggest a method better than the previous one. Scientists from the Kellogg School of Management in the USA conducted a series of experiments, and in one such experiment managers were gathered in small teams to create unusual creative purposes for a cardboard box. Before the brainstorming, half of the group was given the task to share the unpleasant stories from the past six months, and the other half was given the task to share the stories they are proud of. According to the results of the experiment, the teams that shared unpleasant stories generated 26 percent more ideas than the groups that shared proud stories.
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Thank you very much for your valuable overview. Yes, human being is complex in his/her nature. There are many challanges in front of us to learn more about specific behavior. Best regards
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Hello, I'm conducting an educational experiment that lasts one and a half months with two groups (control and experimental), collecting their learning performance during the course.
However, throughout the experiment, I have a significant number of dropouts in both groups (almost equally), at different stages of the study. For example, some students never engaged, but there are others who completed 40-50% of the exercises but did not conclude the course.
I would like to ask what should I do in my statistics with the data of the aforementioned students.
Thank you in advance.
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Use Non-parametric Test (Mann-Whitney U-Test) with the students who complete all the measures
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There are two possible factors in swimming: first could be a vigorous exercise which decreases the pressure and the second would be possible hyperventilation which ?? increases the pressure. So the answer is two: which factor is more and how do you differentiate.
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Three points are implicated in this question:
1 If shunt is patent and optimized, patent and not optimized or is blocked. Effects are different.
2 Differentiation between hypotensive headache and increased CSF pressure is difficult.
3 Effects of vigorous exercise and hyperventilation on valve. Could it be damaged?
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I am currently choosing a device to monitor the heart rate continuously in group during an aquatic exercise. I was informed about both devices named as Suunto Team and the Polar Team. There is anyone who uses one of these devices or have already had any experience with one or both of them? I would like to have any information about it, mainly regarding the use of the device, the app needed to be used, the costs etc.
Kind regards!
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Thom Rieck Yes, exactly. They will be pedalling on a stationary bike. The only thing is that we don't usually work with iOS so we don't have the iPad. That is why I was wondering if it could be ran on Windows/Android. I contacted yesterday Polar and Firstbeat to see if I can have somebody on the phone to answer my questions. I will check the Garmin and Zephry proposals as well. Thanks a lot!!
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Hi there,
I'm currently writing my dissertation and very stuck on the statistics. I aim to examine the change in carbohydrate oxidation experienced in men and women at high altitude and sea level. I aim to do this for 2 time points during exercise in each condition. I assume I am to perform a 2-way repeated measure ANOVA (in SPSS 26). Please can someone help me how to perform and interpret this statistical test? Thank you in advance.
What I am currently doing:
Adding each time point separately so for the first hour I am adding "time" as the within subject factor name and adding 2 levels, then clicking define. I then add the sea level 1 hour" and "hypoxia 1 hour" data in the within subjects variables box and add "gender" into the between subjects factors. Is this correct??
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I am looking to investigate the impact of mindfulness exercises on posture and I was wondering if anyone can recommend or suggest any tools or scales they know of that can be used to measure posture?
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Dear Hannah, the following papers may help you: Singla D, Veqar Z. Methods of postural assessment used for sports persons. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(4):LE01-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064851/pdf/jcdr-8-LE01.pdf
Paillard T, Noé F. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:891390. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/891390/
Best wishes from Germany, Martin
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This was first published almost 10 years ago.
Now almost a decade later, has there been any progress? Chronic workplace inactivity has been a pandemic in developed societies for much longer than a decade. The healthcare and productivity costs of workplace inactivity are all increasingly well documented. Unfortunately, this sentence from 2012 probably still applies: "Employers often provide break time and specific areas for smoking, yet to do this for exercise may be considered distracting, counterproductive, and/or too expensive." .
Thank you for considering this discussion.
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Donald E. Watenpaugh Such a nice concern about working communities or individuals. Everybody have information about obesity but sitting for long can lead to muscle atrophy that observed in long bed rest patients or the astronauts. While sitting, anti-gravity bones and muscles relaxed and gravity influences decreases, similar phenomenon observed in space. As per the literature, bad lifestyle decreases bone density by 10% per 3-6 months. 6-9 hour sitting is playing havoc with workers life. Govt or company should provide compulsory walk or stretching sessions.
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Dear all experts,
I has calculated the fat oxidation during exercise every 5 minute till 60 minutes, and found the negative fat oxidation when the RER is reached up more than 1.00 (using the Perronet's equation). How should I do with the negative result? Should I cut that result before calculating the total fat oxidation or calculate the total fat oxidation by using all results which are positive and negative?
Best regards,
Parimon.K
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Hi Parinom.
I am not familiar with Perronet's equation and I would recommend Frayn's stoichiometric formulae for calculating the oxidation of these energy substrates, as they are the most widely used in the literature.
With regard to the negative values in lipolysis when RER>1 is reached, this is due to the total dependence on carbohydrates from this point, so that fat oxidation is non-existent or 0. Therefore, although the formula shows a negative value, this will be 0 whenever the RER is greater than 1, as Frayn himself explains in his article ( ).
Best regards.
Jordi Monferrer-Marín
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Hello! I have an exercise to do and I am struggling with it for a week ago. I have a 2D flow with the initial velocity at the inlet=0.01m/s. And I want to calculate the numerical results of the velocity which is the function of x and y direction (U(x,y)) in the domain of the water flow. For example if I want to calculate the velocity at the distance x1 and x2 (as in the figure) in the function of x and y., how can I calculate it? Please note that it is incompressible flow. It is fully developed after it passed the entrance length. The height of the domain is 0.02 m and the length is 1 m. Please help me! You can see the following figure. Thank You in advance! I will appreciate your help !
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Finally, I did it after I know how to use 1st Simpson Rule to apply this problem!
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It is claimed by many that calorie restriction and exercise can reverse Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. What is the opinion of experts such as diabetologists and scientists ? Is there any scientific data to support this ?
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Dear Vishwas, the following paper may help you: Hallberg SJ, Gershuni VM, Hazbun TL, Athinarayanan SJ. Reversing Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):766. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/4/766
Best wishes from Germany, Martin
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Hello,
I am teaching a class on biostatistics this semester and want to introduce an exercise where students critically evaluate the methods section of scientific literature. So, I am looking for examples of published papers with problematic experimental design or statistics (e.g. non random sampling, pseudo-replication, violation of assumptions, type 1 error, etc.). If you are not comfortable calling out scientists in public, please feel free to send me suggestions in a direct message. I'll keep a list for anyone who would find this useful in the future. Thanks for your help!
-Claire
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Your exercise time can be divided into three sections, starting in the first five minutes with warm-up exercise until your body muscles are activated, and then you start walking at relatively fast steps. In the last five minutes, walking should be slow to restore your heartbeat to normal.
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Walking is very good for human health it will protect us from many bad disease, it is better to do it with partner at morning.
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Exercise is one of the safest ways to improve health. Due to reduced physical ability due to aging and disturbances that are more common among the elderly, elderly people may benefit from exercise
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I agree with the professor's opinion عبد الحي
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Some patients show that after an aerobic session, especially the first times of exercise's programme, glycemia is higher. How can I explain this?
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In people with type 2 diabetes, exercise can improve peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as enhance insulin binding. Exercise also decreases abdominal fat, reduces free fatty acids, and increases insulin-sensitive skeletal muscle, which may result in improved glycemic control https://www.consultant360.com/Exercise-Improve-Glycemic-Control-diabetes-Get-Patients-Started
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The reform in the education sector includes shifting accountability for student learning to schools and having periodic school evaluations. As inspection is mostly for accountability purposes, my research will be on how school staff perceive internal review and whether this exercise has the potential to contribute to capacity building which will help sustain school improvement. My query is on the research questions and the conceptual and theoretical framework as well as the gaps in the literature that I might explore.
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Edited: 4/22/21 - Updated description and a more precise question.
Setup:
One needs to analyze the effectiveness of a learning game compared to a traditional lesson. For that, one collected data from two groups (game, traditional lesson). Each of them did the same pre-test, post-test and had identical learning material (exercises, theories,...) through the experiment. Only the context was different (game / traditional lesson). There were no data collected in the pre- / post-test to map the results to the individual student. So the data are in random order. The collected data is mostly non-normal distribution.
Question:
How can one examine the effectiveness of the game against the traditional lesson? In other words, how can the following statement be validated: “A lesson that consists of a game can lead to the same effectiveness as one hold by a teacher.”
Thank you in advance for your help
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Blaine Tomkins : yes, it is, ultimately, a rediculous question:)
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I am given to understand that the root cause of many of the eye problems could be in some way or other, be associated with reduced blood circulation in the eyes.
Would some experts in this field throw some light on this ?
Now, if the above mentioned proposition is valid, then what could the possible ways of enhancing blood circulation in the eyes ?
Eye exercises ?
Any specific foods /diets for this ?
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@ Yoga is the best way.
With regards
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For example, foot placement during leg press machine exercise does (shoulder-width, wider than shoulder-width etc) really have a significant impact on strength development and hypertrophy?. Another example during calf raise (normal, inward and outward foot pointing). Any point of view will do. thank you so much.
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Dear Muhammad, the following papers may help you:
Lorenzetti S, Ostermann M, Zeidler F, et al. How to squat? Effects of various stance widths, foot placement angles and level of experience on knee, hip and trunk motion and loading. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2018;10:14. https://bmcsportsscimedrehabil.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13102-018-0103-7.pdf; https://bmcsportsscimedrehabil.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13102-020-0160-6
Bruijn SM, van Dieën JH. Control of human gait stability through foot placement. J R Soc Interface 2018;15(143):20170816. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030625/pdf/rsif20170816.pdf
Pliner EM, Seo NJ, Ramakrishnan V, Beschorner KE. Effects of upper body strength, hand placement and foot placement on ladder fall severity. Gait Posture 2019;68:23-29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380680/pdf/nihms-1512357.pdf
Arvin M, Hoozemans MJM, Pijnappels M, et al. Where to Step? Contributions of Stance Leg Muscle Spindle Afference to Planning of Mediolateral Foot Placement for Balance Control in Young and Old Adults. Front Physiol 2018;9:1134. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110888/pdf/fphys-09-01134.pdf
Lee TH. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling. Work 2018;59(2):243-247. https://content.iospress.com/articles/work/wor2671
Zhou J, Ning X, Hu B, Dai B. The influences of foot placement on lumbopelvic rhythm during trunk flexion motion. J Biomech 2016;49(9):1692-1697. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021929016304018?via%3Dihub
Ng SS, Kwong PW, Chau MS, Luk IC, Wan SS, Fong SS. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age. J Phys Ther Sci 2015;27(6):1755-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499977/pdf/jpts-27-1755.pdf
Kwong PW, Ng SS, Chung RC, Ng GY. Foot placement and arm position affect the five times sit-to-stand test time of individuals with chronic stroke. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:636530. https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/636530.pdf
Dean JC, Kautz SA. Foot placement control and gait instability among people with stroke. J Rehabil Res Dev 2015;52(5):577-90. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282425515_Foot_placement_control_and_gait_instability_among_people_with_stroke
Holbein MA, Chaffin DB. Stability limits in extreme postures: effects of load positioning, foot placement, and strength. Hum Factors 1997;39(3):456-68. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13834780_Stability_Limits_In_Extreme_Postures_Effects_Of_Load_Positioning_Foot_Placement_and_Strength
Best wishes from Germany, Martin
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I have a project for which it would be helpful to measure executive function (& also working memory). My goal is to determine whether a certain intervention improves the exercise of executive function in a person's life. I am interested both in reduction in impairment and in improved performance by healthy adults.
I would like some test with an objectively measured outcome. However I know that Russell Barkley found back in 2010 that most of the tests used at that time were uncorrelated with impaird function in life, as measured by self-assessment or external raters. This would imply that I ought to use a history interview or something similar. But I think it would be much harder to detect changes in execution of basic life skills in response to a brief intervention.
So are there executive function tests that correlate highly to real-world functioning that might also be able to detect small improvements, given an adequate sample size? If so, what are they?
Oh, and if there is not such a test, I wonder if anyone has come across a good instrument for a structured interview on executive function in life.
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If you are going to measure performance before and after an intervention, I recommend using multiple tests to form a construct. This is explained in detail here:
Hope this helps!
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There were two training groups. One group performed an exercise and then immersed in cold water. The other group performed the same exercise but sat on a chair. Two dependent variables were measured pre & post-exercise and also post-cold water and after 24 h in both groups. How can I compare these two groups to observe any changes in the dependent variables at those 4 times?
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Depending on if your dependent variables are correlated and to which extend, your statistical test would change. If the dependent variables are correlated (>.3 & <.8) then you want to perform a two-way repeated measures MANOVA. If they are not correlated then you want to do a two-way repeated measures ANOVA for each dependent variable separately.
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I want to measure physical activity with 6 different questions:
- How frequently do you exercise? ("Never:0" to "Almost every day:4")
- This question is only asked when the answer to the first question was not "Never": How hard do you push yourself? ("I take it easy without breaking into a sweat or losing my breath:0" to "I push myself to near-exhaustion:2")
- This question is only asked when the answer to the first question was not "Never": How long does each exercise session last? (Less than 15min:0, 15-29min:1, 30min to 1 hour:2, More than 1 hour:3)
- etc.
Can I use Cronbachs Alpha to measure the reliability of the construct, even though the scales are very different from each other?
Thanks for your help!
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You are asking to measure the reliability of a scale, i.e., a measure of internal consistency, that is, the closeness of scale items when grouped. I have seen lists such as yours that were initially used as an inventory for qualitative information. The responses were subsequently recoded for MANOVA quantitative analyses, which is often done for more powerful statistical inference. But, some things to think about:
1. You want to insure that you have a very robust sample size collected prior to analyses.
2. Just a question regarding your scoring system. Over the last 30+ years, I haven't seen any inventories with mixed Likert scales...0-4, 0-2, etc. Not to say those scales aren't out there.
3. Also, in regards to your Likert scales, '0' typically means never (as in your first question)--that's fine. But, in your second example, '0' doesn't mean never (it's now less than 15 minutes)....not good. You need to be consistent with your scoring definitions for every question/item for your inventory to have any credibility and any hope for optimal statistical inference.
4. Any opportunity to convert your raw scores to t-scores is highly recommended for others to compare. Most colleagues unfamiliar with your inventory will not know if a subsequent score of 3.2 or 1.8 is above, below, or adequate when reading your findings, because they won't know what the normatives for comparison. Developing t-scores for each of your subscales, however, will require a very large sample size.
5. There are a plethora of psychometric and physiometric inventories in the literature for you to look at for comparison and improvement. That being said, maybe you want to think about using one that has already been validated for exercise with normatives, and save yourself grief and time.
In closing, to obtain optimal outcomes, inventory development is an art as well as extensive effort. If you plan on proceeding, however, you may wish to visit with a colleague that has extensive experience in psychometric or physiometric inventory development. Good luck.
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Physical fitness is essential to allow people to carry out everyday activities. It is often particularly low in stroke survivors. It may limit their ability to perform everyday activities and also worsen any stroke-related disability. So, it is recommended that seniors do exercises in order to improve cognitive function, quality of life, and the ability to maintain physical activity. On the other hand, other researchers say that training programs increase the risk of having another stroke.
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Have a look at the following RG links.
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Hello.
What is the type of study in which data are collected two times before the intervention and one time post-intervention? It is a one-group design, the participants served as their own controls and were tested before the exercise program at week 1 (pretest 1) and week 7 (pretest 2) to establish the baseline measures, and then after the intervention.
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This is not a cross over study . This is a type of interventional study named “ before and after experiment . “
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Hey people! I'm planing to do a randomized clinical trial in which the objective is to know how does caffeine influences the age that Huntington's disease begins. It is known that Huntington's disease, it is influenced by physical activity and mental exercises like chess and sudoku. Knowing that the initial sample was constituted by 100 people, in which 50 of them were exposed were exposed to caffeine and the other 50 will be exposed to a placebo.
Do you think it is a good idea to divide each group that include 10 people that make mental exercise frequently ( 5- pratice physical activity; 5- do not pratice regurlaly) and 40 people that does not pratice any mental exercise (20-pratice some sport) and other 20 does not) making a total of eight groups.
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You'll never find enough people with Huntington's disease to make this study work and have any useful statitiscal power.
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Hello, I'm a 2nd-year undergraduate student and I'm conducting a study and would like to use Godin and Shephard's Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire to assess participants recreational activity intensity but I'm not sure if the questionnaire is free to be used for non-commercial purposes.
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Yes, it should be.
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Dear Experts,
Greetings
I am Dr. Vipul N Rajput working as Associate Professor in Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of technology. I am developing quantitative approaches to rank components and technologies for smart grid in India. As a part of my project objective, I would like to incorporate your opinions as an expert.
It is extremely useful to understand the expert stakeholder’s perspective for transforming into complex systems such smart grids due to interactive and non-hierarchical structure. The motivation of this exercise is to improve focus on silos of smart grid development by incorporating experts’ opinions. The responses will be used for ranking these silos so as to recommend synergistic development. This tool can be further used as a scientific rationale for Smart Grid policy development as well. For this exercise, I am attaching an objective questionnaire. Also, the brief introduction about the criteria mentioned in questionnaire can be found in attached document (Definitions_SmartGrid_Criteria).
Your expertise and knowledge in the development of smart grid will definitely help our project positively. You are requested to fill out the questionnaire with your kind perusal. Please attach the response document and convey suggestions, if any.
These responses will be solely used for the research and academic purpose. Your response will remain anonymous.
Once we have sufficient responses, we will share the anonymous responses collected through this discussion for the research community. If you are interested in collaborating for this work, please leave a message in this discussion or send an Email to vipulrajput16986@gmail.com.
Thank You.
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You are welcome.
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We are planning to run a study validating a commercially available product (i.e. software) and while we initially planned to do it independently of the manufacturer, they heard about our intention and got in touch saying they would provide the software. Now I am wondering if we have to sign a contract in which we state that they give us software but they do not have the access to the whole data-set and do not have any say on the final manuscript. Has anyone been in a similar situation and can provide some advice?
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if you have added value and competitive advance done it
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Should we wait for vaccine against COVID-19 or also look towards other possible options to reduce mortality rate of Corona virus. Can Physiotherapists critically analyze the effect of exercise in Corona patients as exercise has cardio-respiratory effects as well as influence on Immunity.
Need your help and suggestions please?
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Regular exercise or physical activity improves the immunity of the body thus providing protection against the infectious diseases such as COVID-19.
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What is the current evidence regarding the relationship between telomere shortening and exercise??
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I see the same activity factor (multipliers) in research papers and websites, but I cannot find where they come from. Does anyone know where these originated? I am looking for an original citation, or at least a reputable citation like an ACSM textbook.
Sedentary (little or no exercise) : Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.2
Lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week) : Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.375
Moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week) : Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.55
Very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week) : Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.725
Extra active (very hard exercise/sports & physical job or 2x training) : Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.9
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Harris JA, Benedict FG. A biometric study of human basal metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1918;4(12):370-3.
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Critically evaluate the following statement by Lester Digman (1990): ‘Since most strategic decisions are event-driven rather than programmed they are unplanned. Accordingly, they should be seen in terms of preferences, choices, and matches rather than exercises in applied logic.’
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Alaulddin B Jawad Strategic human resource management is a very important factor for the success of enterprises.
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Is it human nature to always want for more? Can health be improved further by consuming certain foods, or doing certain exercises, or following the current thinking or even craze when nobody really knows what his or her optimal health should be?
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Is there an addiction to an obsessive pursuit of a healthy lifestyle?
Does it not become mystical and irrational in many instances?
Naturally, there is for instance sports addiction, with biochemical processes involved in triggering a quantum of happiness, and a withdrawal effect when not provided.
Can, in turn, an obsessive pursuit of a healthy lifestyle lead to unhealthy shortcomings?
This should be answered by health professionals...
What do you think?
A short-cut is also known: try too hard to always be happy and you will not be that happy...
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I am trying to understand tuning the proportional gain of a robotics exercise and I can't seem to solve the equation
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You need the information about the system's transfer function if you need to calculate the exact value for 'Kp'. The example below will help you better understand it.
Another handy method is to use the siso tool of Matlab to tune the controller parameters for the desired performance.
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How do you prepare.. 1N potassium hydroxide-methanol solution (1N KOH-MeOH solution)?
1N sulfuric acid-methanol solution (1N H2SO4-MeOH solution)? My doubt is related to the fact I have two compounds but the whole solution has to have one total normality
My usual exercises are one substance with certain normality and water as solvent
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Amanda you have to calculadora the normality only on the base of KOH. It doesn't matter that you use as solvent a mixture of MeOH-water
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Dear Experts!
Greetings!
Sometimes while doing weighing exercise, we loss some material.
How could we calibrate/compensate it? Shall we need to calibrate the weighing meter every time before use?
Kindly share your valuable suggestions and details regarding weighing practices.
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Dear colleague!
It would be important to know if you use a mechanical or electronic scale.
Kind regards, Ildefonso
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Does the mindset matter? take pro athletes (ideally 1000 or more!), give them the e.g FIFA 11+ injury prevention program. Tell 500 it’s a well-researched injury prevention program and educate them on benefits. The other 500 do it as a warm-up.
Inspired by: "Mind-Set Matters Exercise and the Placebo Effect" article by Alia J. Crum and Ellen J. Langer Harvard University (2007), Sage publications.
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Hello, yes, you have hit upon an interesting nuance as its knowledge being presented not simply as education but taking advantage, so it seems, of the efficacy building properties of a placebo and getting people (Maids) to re-evaluate their behaivor in a new and more favorable light. In your last line about your study I think it would be valuable to assess the things you think are responsible for a decrease in injury.
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Dear professors,
What would be the main long-term physiological and bimolecular adaptations that could differentiate endurance and sprinters master athletes? Taking into considerations the already known outcomes discussed by Kusy and Zielinsk.
Kusy, K., & Zielinski, J. (2015). Sprinters versus long-distance runners: how to grow old healthy. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 43(1), 57-64.
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Please go through our article "Aging induces a step-like change in the motor ability structure of athletes ". If you are interested in a change in motor performance.
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An aguaje oil (considered as viscous fluid) must be pumped between two buildings in a plant
agroindustrial through an AISI 304 stainless steel pipe spread on the ground that has a
22 cm outside diameter and 110 m long. To facilitate pumping, the liquid will be heated to 40 ° C
in order to reduce its viscosity. The oil flow will be 20 Kg / s and the specific heat of
1300 J / Kg K. Determine the temperature drop that the liquid will experience along the pipe
under the following operating conditions:
Ambient air temperature = 10 ° C
Wind speed = 14 m / s
Pipe surface temperature = 37 ° C
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Use steady state heat flow equations .
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Was it right for the electoral commissioner should have conducted the new voter registration in the mist of covid 19 in Ghana.
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This is a balance between intent and timing so it is either way....Judgement can only be personal under the circumstances....
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Hi,
I have identified two things that I deem to be random noise in a hypothetical study. I just want reassurance these are sources of random error, as opposed to confounds.
The study is looking at the effect of exercise intensity (low, moderate, high) on hypomania symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder over time (before, mid-way through, and after a 12 week exercise programme, as well follow-up at 6 months and one year from baseline). We were interest in whether any conditions improved, or exacerbated hypomania symptom severity.
What I identified as random noise:
- A potential socialisation effect if participants were coming into the lab and exercising alongside other participants (BD is associated with increased social anxiety and so the experiment could increase stress, which can be a cause of hypomania symptoms). I said this was random noise as it would not affect one condition more so than any other, but it would make it harder for us to detect a significant effect.
- Time of day effects on exercise session and hypomania symptom measurement. Disruption to routine can increase the potential for manic episodes, and this would also add noise to the sample, making it harder for us to detect the effect of exercise intensity on hypomania symptom severity. Again, we did not believe that these effects would impact one condition more than others, and as such, identified it as noise.
Can anyone confirm that these factors are indeed sources of random noise, as opposed to confounds?
Thanks.
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Thank you Michael Uebel ... this was very helpful! I am trying to identify potential sources of random noise so I will have to consider other things that could be random noise instead.
Thanks again.
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Hello all,
I am in the process of writing a lab report about two lab exercises we just had at uni. The first one was a PCR of a DNA fragment, containing one of three variations of the CFTR gene, which went perfectly fine and the results from the gel electrophoresis were consistent with the expectations.
In the second lab exercise, we were tasked with determining the variation of the gene we were given through a RFLP analysis. To do that, we cut our samples from the PCR with two different restriction enzymes. My two samples are in the top right corner, beside the DNA ladder and uncut control. Since the samples were never cut, I got the mutation which removes the restriction site. My problem is that the two samples come from the same PCR product and should have the same length, but one appears to have run shorter than the other. I noticed that the DNA ladder on my side of the gel has run to one side, meaning that there was probably something wrong with the gel itself, rather than my samples. Furthermore, the uncut control (left of the top right DNA ladder) also appears to be smaller than my samples which is another throw-off for me.
Does anyone know why this could have possibly happened? How could the method be improved in that aspect?
I appreciate the help!
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Hey Yoana,
my guess based on your picture without further information about the restriction enzymes and restriction sites (and corresponding restriction products) is that there is no difference in size between your two samples and the control sample. It's just an effect of uneven migration.
I've annotated your picture below and sketched out the wavy/bowed/arched pattern in what samples seem to travel. Clear size difference is of course in samples 5, 6, and 11. Samples 2, 3, and 4 might be double bands, would require to run the gel for longer to see if they separate. Your samples 12 and 13 look just like the control 14 or the other samples 7–10.
The rest of the difference you can observe would by my guess account to uneven migration resulting from imperfect electrophoresis conditions. Maybe the agarose is uneven depth, maybe different amount of salts in the samples, maybe uneven pH, crooked table, etc...
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We’re faced with a different set of issues that we do not know about exercise after recovering from COVID-19. What is scientific background in this case? How can non-athletes apply different exercise routine to get back in good physical fitness? Where is the gap for optimal intensity and type of workout? Is there a guideline or standardized prescription with scientific approach?
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Can training in a training intensity commensurate with the person’s age. For young and middle-aged people, they are possible to start with a moderate intensity, but for the elderly, it is recommended to start with a light intensity?
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We as established researchers are often invited to review manuscripts in our field. While I think that many of us welcome this as an exercise to add to our knowledge and keep in touch with ongoing research in our field, this exercise takes a lot of time, often weeks, depending on the size of the MS. The only compensation we get is a "thank you" or rarely a reduction of about 30% in page charge costs if we publish in their journal, which I think is not enough or a exercise in touting for manuscripts. I invite discussion on this topic as I regard this practice as free consultation, which no business enterprise will give, strongly cognisant of the fact that we are not in business. However, I strongly feel that some financial compensation would be welcomed after all a good critical review adds to the quality of the paper and the prestige of the journal in which it is published. Despite the free service we researches give, we are asked to pay copyright costs, even if we reproduce material from our own publications in that journal. Is this practice, which has been going on for time immemorial, supported by current researchers?
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Dear Ahmed,
In my opinion, you are absolutely right with your criticism:
At the end of the day, we have to pay to get a paper published, our institutes have to pay for the subsciptions, so that we can access papers and researchers do most of the peer review without financial compensation.
Some people might see this as an honor, some might like to keep in touch with current reseach, but from a financial point of view reviewing papers does not bring anything. Therefore, people are idealistic when reviewing papers.
Of course, you can also give such a manuscript to a Ph.D. student and let him/her analyze it. This is a great exercise for them and afterwards you can discuss the quality of the paper, how this could be improved etc. He/she might even write a draft for the answer. This will also take some of your time, but your student will greatly benefit from it.
Kind regards,
Sebastian
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This is what I have for my hypotheses at the moment - is this an okay to write it or how should I format it (this makes sense to me but I haven't seen hypotheses written like this before)? Any advice would be appreciated!
Three hypotheses will be explored in this paper. The first null hypothesis (H1: 0) is that gamified VR does not increase adherence to exercise. The first alternate hypothesis (H1: 1) is that gamified VR increases adherence to exercise when compared to the literature (<67%). The second null hypothesis (H2: 0) is that gamified VR does not cause a lower rate of perceived exertion compared to HR. The second alternate hypothesis (H2: 1) is that gamified VR will cause a lower rate of perceived exertion compared to recorded HR. The final null hypothesis (H3: 0) is that gamified VR did not positively affect the mental health of participants. The final alternate hypothesis (H3: 1) is that gamified VR had a positive impact on the mental health of participants.
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In my experience stating null and alternate hypotheses does not extend far outside of the classroom. The idea is to state your alternate hypotheses, but then your experimental approach should be to test the null hypotheses. The more simple the hypotheses the better. Maybe something like this:
We will explore three hypotheses in this study:
1. Gamified VR will increase adherence to exercise
2. Gamified VR will result in lower rates of perceived exertion
3. Gamified VR will have a positive impact on mental health
I feel that the brief explanations/details you provide at the end of each hypothesis would not normally be included in the hypothesis itself, but rather should be elaborated on in the proceeding text.
Good luck!
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How do you fasilitate reflection in your classes? What exercises do you use in class to help the students reflect systematically over the topic they are working with? It is good if you have practical examples to share.
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Many thanks to prof. Kjartan Skogly Kversøy for opening this beneficial discussion