Executive Function - Science topic
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Questions related to Executive Function
As part of my Ph.D. in cognitive linguistics and bilingualism, I am aiming to measure the executive functions of children and teenagers. To do so, I would like to find digitalized versions of tests used to measure the three core executive functions: inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Examples of the tests I would be interested in are the Simon task, the N-back task, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.
I would really appreciate your feedback!
I would like to carry out a training study using gamified cognitive tasks. The main goal is to keep the training session engaging. Any suggestions? Many thanks.
I have collected two working memory and two attention control data. I am curious whether I can transform all the data and calculate the total executive function performance of the participants. (and any paper recommendations about this if possible?)
I am helping a Psychiatry resident to find research that compare ADHD symptoms to executive function. He wants to look at the symptoms of ADHD and see if there are deficits in executive functioning that match. Any source that provides information from the DSM-V online?
I want to make it clear whether we can use the same measures of executive functions such as working memory under neutral and emotionally charged situation and claim it as cool and hot executive functions?
We need to do a focal group with some students in order to know their percepcions about their executives functions. Thus, we need some advice about the method to validate the questions that we are going to ask.
Currently I am searching for some reliable and valid tools for assessing preschoolers' problem solving abilities. The specific problem solving skills I intend to assess include problem representation, planning, execution, and evaluation (based on Zelazo et al. (1997)'s framework of problem solving).
Although Zelazo et al. (1997) reviewed a set of related tools, these tools were mainly used for assessing executive functioning in the literature, rather than the problem solving skills specifically. My question is: Are there any existing validated measures assessing the problem solving skills (i.e., problem representation, planning, execution, and evaluation) among preschoolers? Thanks!
Hi For an assignment I need to critically evaluate social skills interventions and executive functions that are recommended specifically for children between 6 - 12 with FASD but I'm struggling to find evidence. Any help would be appreciated.
I'm looking for tips and tricks for efficient qualitative data coding in collaboration. We, two researchers, have data from about 8 focus groups and 3 interviews, 60-80 minutes each. We talked about what respondents do to make effective use of executive functions to solve a difficult problem or pursue a complex task. E.g.: what do you do to keep your focus when you’re studying a difficult topic for you thesis? Our goal is to make a list of 'all' possible strategies to use executive functions through coding, using Atlas.ti. So, we do have kind of a framework which consists of every executive function, but every EF can be considered as a category for which we do not have specific codes yet: these codes for ‘EF-strategies’ will emerge from the data. We aim to code in tandem or parallel. How to do this efficiently? I wonder for example: what if I'm a lumper and my partner is a splitter, while we work in the same project (Atlas.ti). We would then definitely use different codes. How can we manage this in an efficient manner? Any tips or literature are highly appreciated!
I'm developing a research action plan for a mindfulness program to be implemented in a school with children from 3-to-6-years old, with the aim to improve their self-regulation skills. I'd like to measure preschoolers' initial self-regulation skills before and after its implementation to assess their progress on this specific executive function after the implementation of the program. Maybe it would be better to assess it through a teacher questionnaire?
What is the method to compare the performances on two different cognitive tests (that measure different cognitive functions) of the same or different group(s)?
As two cognitive tests are inherently different from each other and many a times, have different parameters.
It will be helpful if anyone can direct me to some useful references.
I am doing my honors thesis on Social Skills.
The question I am trying to answer is how well do Social Skills predict Social Competence, after controlling for Personality and IQ.
For the personality measure I am using the BFI-2.
And the age range I am working on is 10-18 years old.
Can anyone suggest a measure of IQ or Executive Functioning that I could use for this age range, I am not well read on assessment as of right now.
Also, the instrument has to be available on the internet, free of cost. My thesis is not funded.
Thank you in advance.
executive functioning = working memory, attention shifting and inhibition if task.
Please suggest me scale who asses all three of them or even i am ready to go with different scales. kindly mention authors also.
I want to use these tests for my m.phil thesis which is non funded and i am unable to bear expenses of publishers.
Intruction-based learning refers to the ability to learn from the instruction rapidly. Many recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of this fundemental processes. Currently, we are interested in doing a systmatic review on this topic. Please leave your email address if you are interested.
My research is examining the relationship between language switching frequency and creative thinking.
I am looking into creative thinking performances within two bilingual groups (Korean-English and Japanese-English). I'm trying to find a control that can match my participant's executive functioning so that I make sure the performances on creative thinking is due to the language switching frequency variable not because of enhanced executive functioning.
Background info: Studies have found that bilingual people have more enhances executive functioning, and that executive functioning could impact the performance on creativity.
I found the Verbal fluency test because it is very short and convenient to implement through the Qualtrics Software. This is where you would ask participants to come up with as many words as possible if I give them a letter. However, I realized that the tip-of-tongue phenomenon might interfere with their performance because it is more relevant for bilingual participants. Does anyone know how I could solve that issue or would it still be okay to use if its not as significant?
I want to find a short executive functioning test that takes less than 10 min because of the time restriction I have for my study.
I'm working on a project that involves looking for the first editions of "Neuropsychological Assessment" by Lezak. Unfortunately, I'm having trouble finding the first and the second editions. Any clue of where to find them? It would be good to have access to the index at least.
I have come across various neuropsychological studies and found that most of the studies have used different neuropsychological tests (TMT, WCST, Stroop...etc) to measure executive function. So can we combine the results of different neuropsychological tests of executive function for a meta-analysis?
I have a project for which it would be helpful to measure executive function (& also working memory). My goal is to determine whether a certain intervention improves the exercise of executive function in a person's life. I am interested both in reduction in impairment and in improved performance by healthy adults.
I would like some test with an objectively measured outcome. However I know that Russell Barkley found back in 2010 that most of the tests used at that time were uncorrelated with impaird function in life, as measured by self-assessment or external raters. This would imply that I ought to use a history interview or something similar. But I think it would be much harder to detect changes in execution of basic life skills in response to a brief intervention.
So are there executive function tests that correlate highly to real-world functioning that might also be able to detect small improvements, given an adequate sample size? If so, what are they?
Oh, and if there is not such a test, I wonder if anyone has come across a good instrument for a structured interview on executive function in life.
Recent studies of children's tool innovation have revealed that there is variation in children's success in middle-childhood. In two individual differences studies, we sought to identify personal characteristics that might predict success on an innovation task. In Study 1, we found that although measures of divergent thinking were related to each other they did not predict innovation success. In Study 2, we measured executive functioning including: inhibition, working memory, attentional flexibility and ill-structured problem-solving. None of these measures predicted innovation, but, innovation was predicted by children's performance on a receptive vocabulary scale that may function as a proxy for general intelligence. We did not find evidence that children's innovation was predicted by specific personal characteristics.
I have two groups of participants, the High Trait Anxious (HTA) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) patients who run one executive function task. The patients were not currently depressed and do not have any other anxiety or physiological condition. I ran BDI 2 and GAD 7 also as a measure. When I run ANCOVA with depression score as covariate variable, group as the independent variable and RT/Error on task as the dependent variable, the independence of IV and Covariate variable is violated.
What analysis or step should I do next?
Will Linear Mixed Model be good for such data?
Hi. I am collaborating in a study that investigates the effects of stress in the executive functions in a longitudinal study. I have two independents variables: stress score (perceived stress scale) and salivary cortisol. And, three dependent variables (executive function measures): a working memory task, inhibitory control task, and cognitive flexibility task. Also, I have age and sex variables (covariates). In this study, I will measure the I.Vs and D.Vs in three moments (for example, three different days).
I am thinking of running a multiple regression analysis for each executive function measure. But I do not know if I should instead use MANOVA.
Please, could someone suggest a better analysis for this longitudinal study with two I.V. and three D.V.?
I am working on a meta-analysis about executive function in ADHD and I have found that some papers use different measures for the same outcome, for example, they report the mean and SD for Digit Span for working memory and in the same paper they also report the mean and SD for number and letters task for working memory too. My question is ¿How do I decide which measure to use for? or ¿How di I do to take into account both measures? Thanks for your help.
I hope to soon have a ridiculous amount of data from about 80 hours of 16 channel EEG recordings. I will also have 160 productivity/performance indicators along several dimensions, each associated with half an hour of recorded EEG signal. Note that the frequency of aggregate data generation is about five orders of magnitude higher than the frequency of the productivity/performance data.
Is there any halfway plausible way to extract, from this vast amount of data, features of these waveform time series that have the strongest relationship to my productivity/performance measures, without imposing strong priors on the nature of those feature? Like, I could do spectral power by electrode, but if the I impose that structure and the real best predictor is anticorrelation between two regions, I’ll never catch it. Maybe some kind of two-phase unsupervised/supervised learning structure? Or if anyone knows of a catalog of features that had been found to discriminate between those with high vs. average to low productivity, self-discipline, etc., I’d be interested in that. I have looked for, and failed to find, such a catalog in the past. (I am more interested in executive function than intelligence for this purpose).
My ultimate goal is to create a neurofeedback filter for personalized productivity enhancement. Against the desire for weak or unspecified priors, I also have a bias toward filters which are not pure black boxes; which is to say, if I am to train my one and only brain against some measurement, and maybe offer others an opportunity to do likewise, I’d like to know what that measurement is.
If I succeed in doing this, I will almost certainly be doing the data analysis with R.
I am a Speech Language Pathologist. What is the best Executive Function test- that I could administer to an adult who suffered head injury?
Dana Merritt MS CCC
Speech Language Pathologist and Vision Therapist
I have a working hypothesis that I am not sure is possible to accurately measure.
Currently, the EDI (Early Development Index) measures whether or not children ages 4 to 6 are considered "developmentally at risk" for specific domains. My hypothesis is that a low score (i.e., a score with indicates being developmentally at risk) in the COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS AND GENERAL KNOWLEDGE or EMOTIONAL MATURITY sub scales could predict a later in life (i.e., age 6 to 12) difficulties with executive functioning (which are typically measured with a WISC test or the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBLC), and the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC).
All of these measures a reliable, valid, and research based for measuring their designed construct...the EDI has not yet been linked to executive functioning (predictive or otherwise) because children ages 4 to 6 are simply too young for that to be measured reliably due to brain development.
Given that the age 4 to 6 metric is entirely different than the age 6 to 12 metrics, what statistically tests do I need to run in order to say with statistically significant confidence that low performance on the EDI may be predictive of later in childhood difficulties with executive functioning?
Patients with damage to the brain in areas that contain executive functions can often struggle with getting in to action and handeling a lot of information at the same time. How can these patiens best start training alternative ways of functioning?
- My study is going to compare ASD and TD group on their performance in different linguistic items. Do I need to match them on EF? Why or why not?
I'm currently trying to make the statistical analysis of my experiment and i'm facing some troubles.
My experiment is a 2x2 repeated design in wich i'm looking to the frequency of ocular movement while subjects mentaly time travel in the past or in the future. The distance in which they can travel can either close or remote.
To looking at it i've ran a multiple linear regression with the frequency of ocular movements as my dependant variable and the Temporality(past / future)*Distance(close / remote) as my predictive variables.
Now i would like to look a this interaction in regard to the score of a third variable that is a score of executive functions. More precisely, i would like to look how this interaction behave for subjetcs who have a low score in EF and for those who have a high score in EF.
An intuitive way to to this could be to split the subject in two groups with a groupe in which subjects have a score below the median of EF score and another one in which thay have a score above the median. However, this method seems to have a lot of inconvenients (like the loss of subject who have a median score)
Someone told me to enter the EF score in my regression model and to try something like this :
Temporality + Distance*EFscore.
However, i'm not sure if this equation resolve my problem, and if it resolved it, i don't understand how.
As you can see, i'm a little bit lost, so could you help me? Do you think this last model is correct? Otherwise, could help me to find the correct solution?
Thank you very much,
I performed a neuro-psychological battery consisting of 6 tests that measures different aspects of executive function. Each test has between 3 to 15 subscores. There is no consensus on whether one test or subscore is better than the other. There are a total of 64 subscores which are all non-normally distributed.
In this condition, is it appropriate to compare patients and controls using 64 univariate comparison using Mann whitney U and then perform Bonferroni correction or is there a more appropriate statistical model that I can use?
Professional-school student with extensive ACE (child adverse events) history along with severe depression and anxiety diagnosed over previous year, presented with recent severe ADHD (I-Type) diagnosis at age 26.
Documentation confirmed maximum dose step therapy for various Amphetamine-based stimulants was completed but still not found to be fully affective.
Unexpectedly, they are currently prescribed daily 50mg Mydayis (Mixed salts of single-entity amphetamine product) along with 80mg Prozac, and consumming 300-400mg of caffeine.
Due to initial medication-only use producing very minimal stabilizing effects, but found to increase at re-introduction of SSRI and further increase with Caffeine reintroduction.
No adverse effects (cardiac, neuromuscular, neurocognitive) have been reported/measured in 4 months of aforementioned therapeutic combination.
NOTE: Adverse reaction to methylphenidate-based medications were identified early on.
Assessment of (remaining) presenting symptoms seems to overlap with tentatively defined SCT Criteria.
NOTE: Student has never been prescribed Strattera (only presently confirmed SCT-symptom relief medication)
Recent research has shown SCT + ADHD to correlate with much greater impairment in adults, do you think a combination of severe ADHD + SCT may result in required use of excess pharmacotherapy dosages that surpass established safe therapeutic/combination parameters?
A 70 YOF with a hx of ulcerative colitis, lupus, anemia, chronic kidney disease, gastro-esophageal reflux disease w/ esophagitis & hyperprolactinemia, is presenting with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bladder incontinence, rapid fine motor decline, memory loss, apathy, depression, loss of appetite, weight loss & executive functioning & cognitive impairment. It is determined that the pt has normal pressure hydrocephalus through MRI.
The pt undergoes ventriculo-peritoneal/lumbo-peritoneal shunt procedure. Initially, her symptoms improve, but 11 days later, the nursing home staff report she has a fever of 101.9 & all of her symptoms reappear (vomiting, diarrhea, no appetite, apathy, etc.). She is brought to the ER & a CT scan is done. The CT scan is unremarkable. Blood panels are ran & her stool sample is tested for c-diff & the results are negative.
Are her symptoms caused by a shunt malfunction, infection, obstruction, etc.?
Hello. I am looking for parent-reported measures of executive functions that are freely available. This is for a student project so BRIEF and CEFI are not an option due to associated cost. Are there any such questionnaires that you can recommend? Many thanks for your advice.
I am currently looking to do a study on executive functions (e.g. IC, shifting) and parenting style. Does anyone know if the Children’s behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) or BIS/BAS are available online?
Also need advice on alternative questionnaires on EF that is completed by the parents/ teachers of children participant.
In the attachment there is a paper by Zhu, where the author tries to distinguish the concept of intention from that of volition. I found this paper interesting but at the same time not very convincing. I did not find any biological grounding to this idea. What is your opinion about this topic?
Hello RG community,
I was wondering if there is a test to assess children' working memory in a group setting (class room). The sample is composed by 3rd-to-5th grade italian children.
Thank you in advance for your help,
Hello! I am working on a study where we are measuring executive functions in 6-7 yr old children. We would like a measure of selective attention, but I am having trouble finding a free Cancellation task. Both the Bell Cancellation Task and the WISC Cancellation are beyond our budget, but we are hoping to find something like this.
I am curious to know is there a way to behaviorally disassociate processing speed and executive function in a single task.
I have found one study (
Using the above mentioned rationale can be manipulate timing in a stroop task and expect more accuracy on longer presentation time than on lower presentation time?
Also can we apply the same principle to other executive function tasks??
Would be grate if someone could share their views on this
Are cognitive control and cognitive effort the same thing?
I am confused. In the neuroscientific literature on second language learning, the neural organization of cognitive control and cognitive effort seems to overlap (e.g., the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal regions). At the same time, I have come across some results that make me think that cognitive control and cognitive effort are not the same thing.
For instance, I have found fMRI studies that reported increased "cognitive effort" (and therefore more widespread fMRI activation) in less proficient speakers of a second language (e.g., Abutalebi et al. 2018). At the same time, several ERP studies have suggested more "cognitive/language control" in highly proficient second language users. For example, Fernandez et al. (2013) have shown that higher second language proficiency was associated with a greater mean N2 amplitude (greater inhibition) on an executive function test. Another example: Rossi et al (2018) concluded that individuals with high second language proficiency require more cognitive/language control for their first language, even before they speak their second language.
I will greatly appreciate your help.
With my best wishes,
Are you familiar with neuroimaging studies or/and do you have any predictions about executive control in implicit/informal versus explicit/formal second language learning? Which type of language learning requires more executive control?
I will greatly appreciate your opinions/suggestions.
All the best,
I am currently wrapping up a chapter on 'Working memory as language aptitude: the Phonological/Executive Model', in which I develop the argument based on previous research that phonological WM (PWM) is a language acquisition device that subserves L2 knowledge of vocabulary, formulaic sequences (formula), and morpho-syntactic constructions; while executive WM is a language processing device that regulates and coordinates attentional resources during L2 comprehension and production activities (esp. online and offline processes during the four sub-skills of L2 listening, speaking, reading, and writing) (more can be seen in Wen, 2015, 2016)..
Meanwhile, I also argue that it is better to implement separate WM span tasks for PWM and EWM, such that, the simple (storage-only) version of memory span tasks (e.g., the digit span, nonword span etc.), while complex (storage plus processing) span tasks (e.g., reading span task, operation span task...) should be used to measure EWM (Wen, 2012 & 2014).
These are old stuff, I am also arguing that future EWM tests should focus on more fine-grained (secondary) mechanisms and executive functions of WM. In this case, following Miyake & Friedman (2012), EWM can be demarcated into information updating, task switching, and inhibitory control. I wonder, if anyone can give me more insights, if we want to adopt well-established tasks to measure each of these executive functions in a second language/bilingualism contexts. In other words, what might be the most well-established tasks? The recent paper by Indrarathne & Kormos (2018) has provided a nice reference and a good example. Still, I wish to check if there are other key references that I can refer to (esp from cognitive psychology or psycholinguistics). For now, I am arguing for adopting the 'Running memory span' task (Bunting et al., 2006) or the 'Keep track task' for measuring updating; Task switching numbers (Linck et al., 2013) or the 'Plus minus task' for measuring task switching; Antisacade or the Stroop task for measuring inhibitory control. How would these sound (advantages and disadvantages?).
Shall be very grateful if anyone can offer me some insights or refer me to some key references (I've got some in my own repertoire of references provided in other projects, which is available for all to download), but still wish to hear more for my consideration.
Thanks in advance for your input!
As luck would have it, I am a 25 year survivor of a cerebellar medulloblastoma and have some executive function deficits and some cognitive issues.
I'm encouraged by your work and, though I am the wrong side of the lab bench, I'd love to help in your research if possible.
If the EF is linked with brain function where it can control working memory and the cognitive ability. Then, what is the connection between EF and ADHD behaviour? And how EF and ADHD are linked?
The difficulty to form and execute plans of action is diagnostic of large prefrontal lesions. The expectancy of reward activates many neurons, especially in orbital prefrontal cortex. All four major executive functions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (planning, executive attention, working memory, and decision-making) are prospective, “look” to a more or less distant future. The prefrontal cortex is rightfully called the “organ of creativity,” as it is capable of organizing novel actions and speech (it has “memory of the future,” Ingvar 1985). It is also capable of “imagining” what’s to come, and to estimate future risks and benefits. The stock market is moved up or down by the collective prefrontal cortex of countless investors. In sum, here is a brain structure that is literally driven by the future, eminently teleological. Many seem to ignore such an obvious fact. A bit of reflection is here in order, however.
For the self-respecting scientist, teleology is anathema and intolerable absurdity, because it reverses the natural temporal order between cause and effect. That reversal in the prefrontal cortex is only apparent, however, because for that cortex, as for the rest of nature, there is “nothing entirely new under the sun.” Thus, all new planning, all new creation, all new imagination, and all new decisions are based on history and prior experience. All of them are simply re-creations of the past.
Thus the absurdity is gone. But think of how dull, how witless, how plain and how barren would be a world without the prefrontal cortex!
J.M. Fuster and S.L Bressler – Past makes future: Role of pFC in prediction. J. Cogni. Neuroscience, 27: 639-654, 2015.
I would be thankful for any piece of literature introducing short, accessible and uncomputerised psychological tests for executive functioning and visual-motor processing. I am most interested in assessment of spatial and hierarchical planning.
Hi guys! I'm intended to measure the relationship between poverty and brain executive functioning. I have read few article but still unable to comprehend how to do the test and analyze it..
My grad student and I are conducting a study examining the relationship between executive functions and spatial memory/visualization. We are also looking for eprime scripts for executive function tasks: the letter memory task, color shape task, and antisaccade task (tasks often used by Friedman and Miyake)
We are conducting a meta-analysis of experimental studies looking at the impact of media form (e.g., pace) on executive function (tested post and/or pre media exposure) in children. There seems to be a limited number of studies, at present we have only identified those in the list below, if you know of any studies (including unpublished studies from your own lab) please get in touch.
Anderson, D. R., Levin, S. R., & Lorch, E. P. (1977). The effects of TV program pacing on the behavior of preschool children. Educational Technology Research and Development, 25, 159-166.
Cooper, N. R., Uller, C., Pettifer, J., & Stolc, F. (2009). Conditioning attentional skills: examining the effects of the pace of television editing on children’s attention. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 1651-1655.
Geist, E. A., & Gibson, M. (2000). The effect of network and public television programs on four and five year olds ability to attend to educational tasks. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 250-261.
Kostyrka‐Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., Gossmann, A. M., Barber, K. J., & Simpson, A. (2017). Differential effects of film on preschool children's behaviour dependent on editing pace. Acta Paediatrica, 106, 831-836.
Lillard, A. S., Drell, M. B., Richey, E. M., Boguszewski, K., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Further examination of the immediate impact of television on children’s executive function. Developmental Psychology, 51, 792-805.
Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The immediate impact of different types of television on young children's executive function. Pediatrics, 128, 644-649.
My hypothesis is that practicing yoga provides body and mind consciousness and therefore improves the ability of regulating one's emotions and behaviours by acting on the inhibitory control.
I plan to set an experiment with children aged 5 as this is the best age for acting on the development of their executive functions, but in reality this will depend on the class level I will be affected to.
Therefore, I am looking for any research made on this subject (no matter the age of the subjects).
This notion or belief, and THAT is all it is, no matter what BIG impacts on thinking it has, and no matter what big effects such beliefs have in creating firm limitations on thinking (not even allowing people to think of certain phenomenon). [ In effect such false closures and thinking (and they are there) is a clear sign that something is wrong. ] This all-innate-at-birth-or-in-infancy notion of THE innate factors -- resulting in no real innate guidance thought to come up later in childhood -- and related beliefs (used as "assumptions") is from philosophy and not from ANY good observation and not related good understanding. 'Learning' explanations are given which have NO clearly related direct evidence at all, yet researchers and theorists are satisfied with what they basically just make up (and then attribute to such "self"-functioning of the organism), e.g. the fictions of 'executive' functions and all the "meta's" (a "man" within "the man") OR wild (unsupported and unsupportable) ideas about 'social learning' AND/OR the fictions of literal-supposed "EMBODIMENT" of 'action' giving us our thought -- such pure garbage being a big part of 'explanations'). [
[ Apparently, for higher learning, logic can just pop-up and pop-out when the time/circumstances are right (when earlier learnings have been well-processed); this is apparently where developmental maturation factors ORIGINATE INTERNALLY (!!???), no matter how not-environmentally based the POP-UP logic seems to be in its origin, i.e. NON-EMBEDDED. It is basically hocus-pocus. ]
Old-time philosophers can't "cut it" nowadays.
Because of these 'garbage' beliefs, we cannot differentiate different [levels of] learning -- this resulting in not defining or understanding learning well at all.
So many things work better and are seen in more understandable ways IFF one can see fundamental qualitative shifts in behavioral [response] patterns occurring (even if the beginnings of such behavior pattern changes are kind of simple and caused by seemingly simple CHANGES in VERY basic behavior patterns -- that works!). I am at the point where I basically do not need to listen much to people that think learnings are all basically the same and completely ubiquitous, operating in an "uninterrupted" way. (And, don't talk to me about "social" and "cultural" factors BECAUSE the individual organism clearly remains the "unit of analysis" and center of ALL true understanding -- if there is no account with the individual, there is NO accounting at all.)
Hey, graduate students: if you buy all the "crap", you are "tools".
[ P.S. Note how "innate action patterns" (or anything meaning that) are not even topics here on researchgate. Come on, people ]
Convergence insufficiency is often mistakenly diagnosed as dyslexia and if the right magnocellular area of the parietal lobe does not assume an executive role due to developmental delay, the child appears to have attention deficit as they are compelled to look at every movement occurring in the peripheral visual fields. Visual inattention needs to be taken into consideration before looking at such areas as the anterior cingulate, which when under functioning, can lead to mental inattention.
It is my belief that all the so-called learning and behavioural issues of childhood are not conditions in their own right but no more than symptoms of a developmental delay, itself probably due to a stressor impacting upon the epigenome causing a glitch in development.
I am working on an RCT where we hope to measure 5-6-yr-old children's executive functioning (memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, attention, etc... exact domains not exactly nailed down yet) 3 times, 2 months apart (baseline, end of month 2, and end of month 4). I'm not finding much literature on the test re-test reliability of such tests, nor am I finding anything addressing testing effects. I know many tests (such as DCCS) have ways to change the task to avoid such effects (e.g., switch which rule you start with), but only for two measurements, not three. If anyone can point to any resources regarding this, I would be most appreciative. Also important to note; we are conducting these tests in West Africa, so would prefer to avoid screen based measures (as they might be too far out of the realm of kids' normal experiences).
Thank you in advance!
Hello the scientific community,
I would like to know if the type of activity (collective sport vs. individual sport) influences the executive functions.
Thanks you in advance for your answers.
I am planning a study on Hypothyroidism and executive function. In this regard I am searching for tasks that asses executive function particulaly self monitoring, planning and organization? Tower of London task involves planning but does it assess other functions that are mentioned above?
I am doing a review paper, and I am looking for nonpublished but acepted papers about theory of mind, executive functiona and ADHD, if you know anyone or you are one of them, I appreciate the contact.
I'm looking to run an online version of a cognitive psychology study involving executive functioning tasks and a questionnaire.
I'm happy to code the tasks myself (part of the tasks are written for DMDX but I can also use another language or program), but am not sure about how to actually get them online so that I could just send participants a link to the tasks without them needing to download anything.
The intention is to include some of these various cognitive measures alongside other survey measures that will be administered to first-year college students (at a campus where every student has a university-issued iPad, hence the need for Apple iPad compatibility).
I would like to have more information on executive function of bilingual children who have some problems in cognitive performance such as reading difficulties. I'll appreciate your comments, knowledge or any recommendation of what to follow or study.
It is well known that executive functions are impaired in individuals with anxiety and mood disorders, and that such impairments remain even after successful treatments for such these disorders. Results from some studies suggest that executive function difficulties may even be present before the onset of anxiety and mood disorders and play a role in their development and maintenance. Moreover, complete remission of anxiety and depressive symptoms is not always observed after treatment, and performance on tests that measure executive functions is influenced by one's affective state (stress, fatigue, etc.).
On the other hand, other conditions are typically associated with executive dysfunction and/or can lead to such impairments (e.g. ADHD, autism, traumatic brain injury, and medical conditions such as phenylketonuria (PKU), MS, diabetes, etc.) To complicate matters even more, psychiatric disorders (e.g. anxiety, depression) and general stress, fatigue, etc. are often comorbid to such medical conditions.
That being said, are there measures, specific executive dysfunctions or deficit patterns that can help differentiate executive function difficulties primarily related to psychiatric disorders/affective state from executive function difficulties that are more primarily related to another medical and/or neurological conditions (especially in individuals who present (or may present) with such comorbidity)?
Thank you in advance!
I am trying to desing an experiment to establish the relationship between Inhibitory Control and Theory of Mind, and I would like to know if somebody has used similr experiments. My hypothesis is that Inhibitory Control modulate the expression of theory of mind. Your help will be valuable for me.
I am trying to create several executive function tasks on E-Prime and wondering if anyone has created either the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task or the Tower of London? Any help on these scrips or tips of where to look for some fundamentals for using E-Prime to help create these tasks would be really helpful.
Searching for an instrument to measure EF and cognitive development school success examining the cultural practices that facilitates the development of Executive Function.
I am interested in whether I should expect different interference effects (both behaviorally and in the EEG) when using 2 flankers surrounding the target compared to 4 flankers. I have found papers on different types of stimuli (arrows versus letters and so on), but I had no luck regarding the number of flankers presented.
Does anyone know of such a study, or has experience in presenting different number of flankers?