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Evolutionary Psychology - Science topic

Evolutionary Psychology is an applying sound evolutionary reasoning as a means of enhancing our understanding of human behavior.
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Hi, I'm writing a research proposal for evolutionary psychology. I want to test the effects of menstrual cycles and pregnancy on females facial preferences for masculinity in male faces. My study will be longitudinal testing females at three times points, 1st when they're in the non-ovulating phase of their menstrual cycle, 2nd when they're in the ovulating phase and 3rd when they are in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. At these three time points participants will complete a facial preference task where they choose whether they are more attracted to masculinised or feminine male faces.
Am I right in thinking that this is a quasi-experimental longitudinal design with the IV being the body phase of the female and the DV being females facial preferences? Or is this a correlational longitudinal design?
Thank you in advance
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Just looking at the content of your study, I assume you are aware to be cautious of the Garden of Forking Paths (http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/research/unpublished/p_hacking.pdf).
And why are you worried about a label? Do you think the statistical procedure correlation can't be done with a quasi-experiment. It would be better be better if you wrote the statistical model you plan to estimate and/or show a graph of the variables and their hypothesized influences on each other.
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What content should be include while making notes for MBA students for -Heredity and Behavior - Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology topic
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Since none has answered the question, may I suggest a Brittanica link?
Sorry in adavance if it can't be of any help to you?:)
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I have an article on energy metabolism that I want to publish, and I'm not sure what journal would be appropriate for it. The article presents a new theory based on data from existing studies. It is not really a review, because it doesn't address a question that these previous studies asked. Can anyone suggest a journal that might publish such an article?
I am primarily interested in getting this idea into the medical databases. Getting a large amount of exposure is not that important.
If you want to know about the theory, it concerns "weight cycling" -- the strong tendency of dieters to regain the weight they have lost. My theory is that weight cycling is an evolutionary adaptation to seasonal food shortages.
Thank you,
J. S. Shapiro
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I'm just reading about the scandal too. Many thanks and best wishes.
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Dear ladies and Gentlemen;
I would be grateful if anyone can recommend a link offer the titles mentioned below for free.
1. Crenshaw, M. (2000). The psychology of terrorism: An agenda for the 21st century. Political psychology, 21(2), 405-420.
2. Horgan, J. G., & Horgan, J. (2004). The psychology of terrorism. Routledge.
3. Horgan, J. G. (2017). Psychology of terrorism: Introduction to the special issue. American Psychologist, 72(3), 199.
4. Post, J. M. (2007). The Mind of the Terrorist: The Psychology of Terrorism from the IRA to al-Qaeda. St. Martin's Press.
5. Taylor, M., Roach, J., & Pease, K. (Eds.). (2015). Evolutionary psychology and terrorism. Routledge.
6. Walls, C. (2016). Beyond fear: The psychology of terrorism. Scientific American Mind, 27(3), 32-49.
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Hi what exactly is your question about terrorism
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I want to measure the perceived size of my participants' mating pool (i.e., how many potential partners that surround them in everyday life). Is anyone familiar with validated/previously used measures for this?
Thanks in advance!
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Not really. But you might get an idea how to measure that through a paper from Baumeister & Vohs 2004 (Sexual Economics: Sex as Female Resource for Social Exchange in Heterosexual Interactions).
Good luck!
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I have found the spiral dynamics value systems model (Beck & Cowan 2005) an interesting heuristic model but I was struggling to find scientific evidence for its validity. [e.g. The Inglehart-Welzel model (Inglehart & Wezel 2010) from traditional to secular/rational societies seems to correlate the blue to orange value system shift in spiral dynamics but no formal connection has been establised.]
Would you know studies which would back the spiral dynamics model?
If not, would you know better models of human value systems and how they evolve?
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Hi Nicolas,
There is a book that in my view backs up the spiral dynamics model, but maybe not in a strictly empirical way (if that's what you are looking for) by 'proving' that the model is historically accurate and that evolution 'in fact' happened this way. (The assumption of an 'objective truth' that could be discovered by empirical evidence is itself problematic.) The book is :
Chapman, Kelly (2015). Complexity and Creative Capacity. Rethinking knowledge transfer, adaptive management and wicked environmental problems. New York – London: Routledge.
It shows in general terms that the current global system evolves towards a higher (emergent) level of complexity and that we reach a point in which all previous (more stable, linear) systems are converging into a planetary interconnected complex (non-linear) flow of subsystems, leading to a new, specifically global dynamics.
In terms of system dynamics this may be the same as stating that the first tier systems converge and we enter a phase of 'second tier' dynamics. Chapman describes the process ontology and cocreative epistemology that will allow us to deal with complex challenges (incorporating e.g. 'indigenous knowledge'). The book does not literally refer to system dynamics, but as a reader I found it useful to link both approaches and explore similarities.
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If one accepts the broad truths of ethical error theory, what comes next in figuring out how to live? What still matters (pace Parfit), and how much ? Are we simply left with a subjective 'desirism' to pursue our own goals and pleasure...? with widely shared, if non-objective, values we pursue as we choose? Can we sign on, without contradiction, to a pragmatic utilitarianism that seems to promote mostly common goals...and, if so, how do we reckon with the exceptions we may desire, e.g., not torturing one to save many? How much of this is a matter of psychology vs philosophical principles we may choose (and how does that sit with a deterministic or at most compatabilist view of free will)...? And what about change? What changes would it make sense to work towards given what we decide does or doesn't matter? This includes both societal change and individual change. Should I work to modify my presumably innate and sometimes satisfactory vengeful implulses? How about competitiveness...or excessive self-interest (but what is excessive)...? What about sex and love? Camus has sometimes been flatteringly described as a rakish womanizer who told a woman he loves her before going on to the next and professing the same, and meaning both. Deception was presumably part of this. What philosophical or psychological judgments should we apply to someone acting that way? [Note: I have started a similar discussion group at philpapers.org. We can decide later if one or the other should be merged/eliminated.]
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It is always repeating the same in different way
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It seems that some people can't stop themselves from crying when the see somebody in distress. What evolutionary benefits may crying provide?
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Interesting answers.
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AWAY ! Unfortunately.
Nowadays, proximate explanations are, at least almost always, in terms that are neurobiological, endocrinological, or molecular-genetic . There usually appears to be absolutely no concept of a behavioral pattern or change in a behavioral pattern (either, of course, in response to aspects of the current environment) AS themselves a proximate cause of a new behavior pattern [change] -- I.E. a true observable behavior pattern phenomenon proceeding, and needed for, the key subsequent behavior pattern change. I believe there is a BIAS there , due to our philosophical cultural traditional-beliefs.
And, this is a problem.
THIS PROBLEM HAS NOT ALWAYS BEEN THE CASE, and certainly has not always been the case in ethology. The ethology Tinbergen and Lorenz were given a Nobel prize for often did have one behavior pattern as a proximate cause for certain behavior pattern(s) that followed. This is what needs to be re-learned and abided by or real ethology may be lost. Such a relationship between behavior patterns was a hallmark of classical ethology.
Modern ethologists failed to have the "backbone" to maintain that which was most distinctive and best about ETHOLOGY. They basically "caved in" to how others characterized them. (Now, the field is indistinguishable from comparative psychology and/or evolutionary psychology.)
Listen up, International Society for Human Ethology !
Real science, real biological science, the real biology of behavior DEPENDS on behavioral pattern(s), themselves, being seen as a major proximate cause of new behavior patterning [and of behavior pattern change]. Ethology must return to what it uniquely was OR THERE IS NO CHANCE OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE. I am sure, if I were a analytic philosopher, I could argue this. It really is logically and scientifically irrefutable. Behavioral sciences, of all "stripes", have been becoming more and more stupid -- there is no better word (since they defy biology and defy science). (Simply look for the lack of the words "behavior pattern" and you are on the way to seeing the whole problem.)
P.S. Consider this a big "kiss ...." to our philosophical cultural heritage; certainly the stupidity is a "love letter" to those arm-chair thinkers.
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I agree with Mr.MacGregor
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My research is in social and evolutionary psychology, so I would be interested in websites used by researchers in these areas.
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Hey Zhi-Teng! Thanks for your reply! To explain myself a little better: I was thinking in terms of websites that are focused on project collaboration, rather than more general networking and work-sharing sites
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Sexual research shows that the sexual arousal of a male from a teenage girl is entirely normal. Is normal also hebephilia (persistent and dominant sexual interest by adults in pubescent children), as indirectly indicated by evolutionary psychology, by stating that the sexual contact with reproductively mature woman - even when in pubertal age - is an evolutionary advantage as it can guarantee reproductive success.
What do you think about it?
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How is a male's persistent and dominant sexual interest in female children an evolutionary advantage? First of all, "persistent and dominant" implies that somewhat older females are of lesser or even no interest, which limits opportunities for potential reproductive partners. Secondly, a restriction to partners of pubertal age has less chance for reproductive success because of a higher incidence of mortality for both mother and child at or shortly after a birth. Moreover, puberty does not coincide with full reproductive maturity: the females are not fully grown and intercourse can result in physical injury, and those females that do have "successful" pregnancies may produce less milk, their newborns may be underweight, less robust, etc.
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Example: For my PhD, I am constructing a narrative of racial classification of the Philippines within the perimeter of anthropological and colonial situational contexts. Which best, on an introductory level, can be identified as my (would be) research expertise? 
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I feel like my area is neither here nor there. I'll stick to what I have. Thank you Eleanor. 
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Basically, I'm looking for methods that, instead of running detailed Interviews with few people, aggregate similar answers by asking many people few very basic questions.
Is there something established in Sociology, Psychology?
Thanks,
Florian
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OK, seems like pretty basic stuff I'm going to get back to. Thanks for your help.
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i need help to find some experimental studies conducted in south east asian popluation.
Also, is it easier to conduct and be able to control extraneous variables?
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There are several guidelines and recommendations on how to conduct clinical experiments. I think that it is not necessary/reasonable to restrict your search on Southeast Asians, there is probably no need to use/develop unique guidelines when working with these samples. Standard guidlines for clinical research on humans should be sufficient.
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Both current and old data or places to look would be greatly appreciated! I speak German, so the information needn't be in English. 
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I think it's possible because, it could be important for survival in the past (e.g. To not fight against animals stronger than us). Unfortunately, I haven't found any article about this kind of discussion...
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Rafael: sugiro-lhe fazer a sua busca utilizando antes a expressão «social anxiety», ou eventualmente «anxiety disorders», que são expressões mais abrangentes e sobre as quais existe alguma (mas não muita) literatura numa perspectiva evolucionista. Eu evitaria o termo «timidez» («shyness»), visto que é sobretudo utilizado pelo senso comum, o que o conduzirá a artigos de vulgarização, sem dúvida interessantes, mas não necessariamente rigorosos de um ponto de vista científico. (Por exemplo: o editorial de opinião de Susan Cain, no The New York Times de Junho de 2011, intitulado «Shyness: Evolutionary Tactic?»)
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Hi,
I'm performing research investigating the relationship between actual strength, acoustic characteristics of the voice, and rated strength. Participants produced roars and screams, and as participants varied in their ability to produce realistic vocalisations, I obtained realism ratings from listeners of these vocalisations.
As realism ratings and strength ratings share variance (correlate at around r = .4), I don't want to include realism as a random covariate in a regression, as it will arbitrarily remove variance from the model that could be explained by strength. Instead, I would like to perform a weighted least squares regression, with realism ratings as the weighting variable (scores ranging from 1-7), where the least realistic vocalisations are given less weight in estimating the relationship between actual strength (IV) and an acoustic variable (DV), and an acoustic variable (IV) and rated strength (DV).
I have never performed weighted least squares regression before, and all I can find on the internet is that you use the weighting variable to control for unequal variability across a range of scores. So I was wondering if anyone might be able to answer a couple of questions:
1. Is it appropriate to use weighted least squares regression in this manner, and if so, should I convert the realism scores (1-7 likert scale) into a different form of weighting?
2. Am I correctly assuming that it doesn't matter if a weighting variable is correlated with an IV/DV? If higher scores on a measurement are more variable and thus given less weighting, the weighting variable and the DV would correlate, but I'm using WLS in a different context so I'm not sure if its still okay.
3. The actual strength score was calculated as a z-score (composite z-score of z-scored performance on 3 strength measurement devices) - am I right in thinking that this z-score doesn't need to be re-estimated using weighted means/SDs, because doing that would already control for the variance in realism, rendering WLS needless?
Thanks, and if anything is unclear I am more than happy to clarify!
Does it matter if the weighting variable and the predictor/DV are correlated?
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To elaborate point 2 of my initial post:
Say, we have a movie-rating going from 1 to 10. Looking at some example ratings of two movies, we see one, saying a mean rating of 7.5 (movie A), an other rating says its 8.2 (movie B). But while 2704 users rated movie A, only 7 rated movie B. Obviously, the second movie (B) has a stronger vulnerability to outliers. A bad rating of 1 point, added to the mean, would hardly change the rating of movie A but will surely change the rating of movie B.
Weighing the rating by the ammount of users ratings, gives the rating of movie A a greater credibility but there is no (real) correlation between the weight and the rating.
There is a negative correlation of the weight with the error of the mean but that should be obvious.
When the weight has (let's say a positive) correlation to the dependent variable (rating) then it would mean that the stronger the weight, the better the score. This should be easily refutable by finding two movies (a good and a bad one) that are very prominent (thus having great number of ratings and thus as strong weight) and those two movies ratings not moving closer to each other by increasing their numbers of ratings.
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so far I found scales developed by chauduri et al. 2011 and by eastman et al. 1999.
is that all or are there other suitable scales / measures?
thanks in advance for your hints!
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The Chaudhuri et al. paper reference is as follows:
Conspicuous consumption orientation: Conceptualisation, scale development and validation
H Roy Chaudhuri, S Mazumdar, A Ghoshal
Journal of Consumer Behaviour 10 (4), 216-224
The scale seems somewhat culturally specific, would be interesting to explore / adapt to different societal settings..
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Mackie’s moral “error theory” seems committed to a view of objectivity that takes ‘objective’ as coeval with ‘intelligible apart from human sensibility’. That's certainly one way of cashing out 'objective'. But isn’t McDowell’s description of objectivity as “there to be experienced” (i.e., regardless of whether the experience is actually instantiated by any given agent) at least equally coherent? If not, why? And are there still other ways to cash out the notion of objectivity in moral judgment (perhaps in the case of evolutionary utility to sentient beings, such as we are)?
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I feel the same Luca Valera. You're assuming the theme of "phenomenal experience of objectivity" as a presupposition of moral judgments ....
An approach to "People, rationality and time" Parfit in chapter "Rationality and reason" would be nice. Although if your preocupaación is indeed by demarcate the issue of objectivity of moral judgments, the recommendation is "The idea of Justice" A.Sen 2nd part. "Forms of reasoning"
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Dear Colleague,
We would like to invite you to our new, large-scale cross-cultural research project.
Our previous research projects, conducted in 53 study sites, turned out to be a great success. One of our manuscripts (from a first project) was published in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, other from the new project is currently under review in the same journal, one will soon be submitted to the Journal of Marriage and Family, and three more papers are in the final stages of preparations. Thanks to our efficient team work we now collaborate with, e.g., David Buss.
We would like to continue the research in the area of cross-cultural/evolutionary psychology. This time, we plan to conduct six studies.
a) Sexual Morality Project
b) Comparison of daily life touch between countries
c) Creativity study
d) Love study
e) Mate study
f) Facebook study
Now, we have collaborators from 60 countries.  Algieria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Rep, Estonia, Etiopia, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong, Hugary, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Salvador, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,  UK, Ukraine, Uruguay, USA.
New collaborators from other countries are WELCOME!
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We completed recruitment, thank you for all answers,
Piotr
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IsIs there any research - in psychology, evolutionary psychology, the cognitive sciences - on the pleasure human beings experience when a) understanding something or b) realising that they understand more/better than others?  the The broader issue underpinning my question is the pheonomenon of "dramatic irony" - that is, the awareness of a member of an audience (in a play), a reader of a text or a viewer of a film/TV programm that he/she knows more about the situation depicted than the characters involved. Literary scholars tend to assume that we get quite a kick out of such constellations and I'm wondering whether there is any research on humans' awareness of their own knowledgeability that would support that claim.
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As to (a), useful literature may be found using "Aha-erlebnis" or "Eureka effect" as key terms. As to (b), literature on metarepresentational processes, particularly the interpretation of narratives, may be relevant (e.g., studies by Gerrig, Rapp, and perhaps also Gilbert: see references  in attached article). The focus may not be on the experience of pleasure, but it seems plausible that the processes involved may imply Aha experiences.
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I cannot remember the term for a construct that describes our tendency to prioritize negative memories. Evolutionary psychology (I think) says that we risk manage: danger affects our lives more than reward, so we prioritize avoiding negatives and remember them more. Not to crowdsource research, but I seriously cannot remember this or find it.
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Except that is an oversimplified view of what and how people remember. I think what you are trying to say is that memories of certain events have greater psychological/physiological impact than others, which is true. However, Valence (positive vs negative), is only one dimension of events and their memories. Arousal, recency, centrality of event for one's identity, and current mood, are all factors that determine what memories are more easily accessed. Being at risk of being eaten by a sabertooth is a life-threatening situation. Thus differing markedly from other negative, non traumatic experiences. In our times the situation would be analogue to be put a gun in front of your face during a robbery. Thus, this event is unique, highly stressful/arousing , not "simply" negative. And it activated a fear response that becomes conditioned. It is different from other negative events (ie., finding that the ATM is broken) in a number of dimensions. I think what you are trying to say is that memories of certain events have greater impact than others, and this is only partly determined by their valance. Negative events have greater likelihood to provoke higher arousal, but that does not mean we are bombarded by  memories of these events later on (only you suffer from a psych disorder such as PTSD). Memories of positive events are easily remembered in healthy populations.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.838  Highly emotional memories might be easily accessed when the memory becomes relevant for your current context, regardless of their valence.   The 1:5 ratio is an incomplete explanation of real cognitive activity. It is like the magic number 7  + - 2 for chuncking....It is true, but only a partial truth
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For several years some scholars have accepted the engraved pieces of ochre from Blombos cave in South Africa, at least one of which has a geometric cross-hatched pattern, as evidence of early modern human aesthetic creation (ca. 70,000 BP). See: Henshilwood, Christopher S.; d’Errico, Francesco; et al., “Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa,” in Science, new series, vol. 295, no. 5558, February 15, 2002, pp. 1278-1280 (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/295/5558/1278.abstract?sid=da7c3755-b2bc-4ced-93da-2c024c50b1fd, access: March 14, 2015).
The recent discovery of similar engravings on shells on Java, from ca. 500,000 BP -that is, long before the emergence of modern Homo sapiens-, suggests that aesthetic creation evolved gradually. See: Joordans, Josephine C. A.; d’Errico, Francesco; et al., “Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving,” in Nature, December 3, 2014 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13962.html, access: March 14, 2015).
Suggestions that chimpanzees make aesthetic decisions while painting are intriguing. See the following texts and video:
Can anybody point me toward additional studies on aesthetic creation by nonhuman primates, either in the archaeological record or among our contemporary primate cousins?
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Hi Louis,
I live in Australia, and so am quite familiar with Bower birds, (although there aren't any on the west coast, where I currently live).
Interestingly, some Bower birds do more than accumulate brightly coloured objects to decorate their love nests.
Many use a sophisticated artistic technique called "forced perspective" and, ranking the objects they collect by size, they create an optical illusion so that to the potential mates observing them, they appear larger, and so (presumably) more attractive. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forced_perspective
The males that do this most effectively appear to be more successful in securing mates.
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Obviously spending all this time and effort making and decorating a gorgeous display ground, unconsciously incorporating optical illusions, and then dancing and singing in the resulting love-nest, does not contribute to the survival of the male bird's offspring at all.
It just attracts mates that allow him to have offspring in the first place.
It is not necessary for the bird to consciously understand what he is doing. The male birds that make the best use of design, colour and perspective have the most offspring, and selection pressures ensure those birds end up dominating the population. It's a Darwinian basis to art! (But let me say, I don't assume it explains ALL artistic endeavor).
In fact this is a classic example of sexual selection, where males make costly sacrifices to demonstrate their fitness to any females who are prospective mates and who happen to be listening.
Like a peacock's tail, all this effort is most likely an example of Zahavi's "Handicap principle",
Male Australian Lyre birds have extravagant tails, and build dancing/display grounds for themselves, and they also imitate other bird songs (or anything else they happen to hear) to impress the lady Lyre birds...
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In an earlier comment you mentioned dance. I suspect that this sort of movement may have been very significant in human evolution.
Animals frequently expend energy unnecessarily, and typically this is done to signal their fitness to other animals,. Zahavi's famous example was certain species of antelope that jump high in the air, on the spot, (rather than fleeing) when they see or smell a lion or other predator.
The exuberant jumping tells the lion that;
a) this antelope already knows the lion is there, and
b) not to bother chasing this particular antelope, as it obviously has plenty of energy to spare, and could run all day if it wanted.
(If you think this has little to do with humans, I'd recommend you deeply consider the contemporary meanings of the word "swagger").
Animals frequently waste time, energy and other resources to signal messages  to their potential predators, rivals of their own species, or possible mates. 
To anthropomorphise, the message pretty much every time is "Hey, look how fit I am, I can do this for no reason!"
The signal is either, "I am not an easy victim, go and bother someone else ", or else it is "I am a supremely healthy individual, you should mate with me". And the more costly a signal such as this is, the more valid it appears to the target.
If the signal is effective, the apparent "waste" of energy is actually highly adaptive and so it will be selected for and the behaviour will become more common. . 
In a similar fashion, many male animals engage in some form of unnecessary ritualised movement to attract the attention of potential mates. Various species of Birds of Paradise have males that not only display costly and extravagant plumage (just like peacocks and Lyre birds) but that also engage in extremely complex mating dances.
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Here's a male Bower bird doing his love-dance (apologies for the cheesy voice over);
Louis, I suspect that you have pointed to something crucial in human evolution by mentioning dance.
Raising a human child is a collaborative effort.
The ability to dance fluidly with a partner is not just a demonstration of your personal physical ability, it is also a demonstration of your ability to cooperate and synchronize movements, and more importantly to empathise, to compromise and make allowances, and then to act in concert with your partner.
In early human societies I would suggest that males who could dance well with you were quite possibly damn-good prospective mates. They either cared about you deeply, or were capable of acting as though you were equal partners even if they didn't. 
I can imagine this sort of sexual selection encouraging rapidly and increasingly complex ritual, musical expression, decoration and display.
So (from an evolutionary psychologist's point of view), it might appear that art, ( or aesthetic endeavor of any kind), is just  a ploy (when enacted by us males of the species)  to get laid. Please discuss.
:)
Kind regards,
Paul, (yeah, I got swag) Dessauer.
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I am interested in whether arrogance is useful or detrimental in an evolutionary sense. It seems that the answer may depend on the outcome of interest (short-term or long-term reproductive situations, with arrogance potentially being more attractive in short-term reproductive situations). What other factors play into the evolutionary benefits or costs of arrogance?
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Arrogance could at least be some kind of threatening gesture / display behaviour against others.
"Psychometric Note: Arrogance has been operationally defined, for better or worse, using a facet of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, so arrogance is not the same as narcissism..."
Well... OK... personality factors... and obviously it is not the same like narcissism. However... evolutionary fitness...
Let's assume it is a threating gesture. And let's furthermore assume it  maybe has something to do with group behavior. Why then not assume it could be some kind of in-group thing dependend on ones status one wants to reach. In that case: The lower ones status and the higher the status one wants to reach the more arrogance is shown torwards other group members.
Cost-benefit: Reaching a high status without investing in stuff like self-improvment (skills, education etc.). Protection against downward social movement. Which could (if this is right) explain why there is always some trouble with self-esteem. Arrogant people could indeed be less competent dependend on the dimension they compare themself with people with a status they want to reach.
Arrogant people could for example also show a higher tendency when it comes to free riding (not really interested, rather passiv). However torwards authority they could be more active.
"You would have to differentiate between self-ascribed arrogance and perceived arrogance."
Could be a problem one could somehow solve... When it comes to perceived arrogance I would rather ask something like if a person was perceived as most nonprototypal... less the leader... Because the trouble with arrogant people is indeed that their behaviour is perceived as bothersome and unpleasent.
In that case: The higher a persons status compared to other group members and the less input the more arrogant a person is perceived.
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There are some measures for slow LHS (alhb, mini-k, hkss), but I could not find a scale for measuring fast life history strategy in humans. Does such a scale exist? Will it make sense to develop such a scale (since I don't think that fast LHS could be accurately measured with K-strategy scales, for example by just inverting it)? Thanks in advance for your hints!
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The lack of an r-scale has been a sore spot for some in our research group for some time. I know of no such measure. I would also be careful of mixing proximate psychological processes with less proximate LH outcomes. The Copping et al. (2014) criticism, makes a valid point regarding the relationship between psychometric measures and biometric indicators (I think that the outright dismissal of self-report measures is simply wrong, but I can see how one can have that approach ).
I know that AJ's preferred method is using the MiniK, TIPI, SF36, and HKSS to create a "SuperK" factor, but that doesn't address your question. Unfortunately, most of the research on r/K is done on college student or volunteers, which will tend toward being slower almost by definition. 
I'm kind of rambling, so I'll stop. I do think the question is a great one and someone should definitely get on it (benchmarking it against the K measures).
 As an aside, you can find a recent meta analysis of the Mini-K in the attached link. 
 Raf
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For my master thesis purposes I need a couple of standarized photograpies of masculine faces with diverse level of attractiveness. Does anyone know some open source where I could find them, or should I create the stimuli by myself?
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I would contact Alexander Todorov, Department of Psychology, Princeton University. He has daabases of faces varying on many dimensions including attractiveness. See: http://tlab.princeton.edu/
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Psychology is developing with dizzying pace. Almost every day psychologists discover a new fact about human cognition, emotion, behavior etc. Can we ask questions about rule-following behavior without any reference to psychological studies? Can legal theorists study law and do not take a psychological perspective (among others, I agree)? Can we discuss a relation between law and morality and at the same time ignore studies conducted in moral or evolutionary psychology?
Is this development of psychology a chance for legal studies or a threat to the very nature of research on law?
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Though trained in traditional philosophy of law, I find your question to be perfectly appropriate.  The explosion in studies of brain function have identified the ability of humans to think in an "as-if" mode, which in effect gives them the ability to postulate alternative realities.  If that is what happens when humans create legal systems, the findings of psychology in this realm may turn out to be of great importance, and traditional legal philosophy may have to rethink itself.  Your previous question about anthropological studies may not go far enough. 
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I am looking for literature that uses sexual strategies theory and/or evolutionary psychology to examine the association between weight and dating status among high school and/or college age African Americans.  So far I am finding very few studies.  Before I give up, I want to post to the community and ask for suggestions.  Thanks very much! 
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Atracttivity involve physical and mental characteristics. Some articles can help you about you question, i´ll send, saving better opinion.
I hope I helped you.
Kind regards.
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It's true that mental illness stigma is quiet prevalence in the United States, and I'm curious whether it happens to the animals as well. However, I do not have a background in psychology, and I'd really appreciate it if someone could give me some references.
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The topic is very interesting and complex. An example that might be useful, concerns one of the first experiments conducted by Harry Harlow on maternal deprivation in rhesus monkeys (around 1958). Some of the monkeys used in this experiment, once grown, developed character disorders and, once introducted (or re-introducted) in the peer group, were marginalized and - sometimes - physically abused by the other monkeys. In addition, recent studies underlines how monkeys with character disorders are driven away their group, most of the times before puberty.
Maybe this articles might be useful (at least for a “first step”):
- Harlow H.F., Dodsworth R.O., Harlow M.K. (1965), Total social isolation in monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Jul 1965; 54(1): 90–97. (you can find it here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC285801/)
- Gabbard, G..O. (2005), Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 162:648-655. (here: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=177446)
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How does the cognitive ability to distinguish reality and fiction help conecptualise the reception of scripted/sculptured reality formats?
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By process of perception
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Is happiness based on our individual choices, and the way we think about things, or on inherited predispositions?
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Neuroscience has superceded the earlier initiatives to create objective metrics of happiness (e..g, Ekman's facial expression of emotion) with complex neuroimaging techniques. Nevertheless we still have a challenge in operationalizing the constructs of well-being, positive affect and happiness. Conceptual argument is required to ensure clarity in our further investigations of these topics. Arguably, psychology is still limited in the level of conceptual analysis that is pursued, at least in the published discourse (see Toward a richer view of the scientific method: The role of conceptual analysis. (Machado, Armando; Silva, Francisco J.
American Psychologist, Vol 62(7), Oct 2007, 671-681. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.7.671).
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Is there any data or texts which mention the suicide rates in ancient times?
Was suicide common around, say, 500-1000-2000 years ago?
What were the reasons for people to commit suicide in those times?
Or is suicide a recent phenomena?
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Particularly a bio-psycho-social model/perspective would be of interest. But any other valuable information considering this topic are very welcome, too.
Thank you!
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I am a living case in point... When I was unwell my hospital notes show me stating many times that the water had made me sick, this was seen evidence of psychosis. 6 weeks later it was discovered I was physically run down due to giardia which I had contracted during the last part of my pregnancy. Night sweats and teeth grinding had caused broken sleep and broken teeth (hence mercury exposure). While disrupted digestion probably had caused poor nutrition absorption and depletion, especially after a c-section and two weeks of feeding baby.
Not once did a doctor or family member apologize for not picking up the prenatal distress, not believing me while in hospital or even acknowledge I was correct after the fact. The impact of the m/h diagnosis was a year where I could hardly remember my own name, breastfeed or enjoy my baby due to medication, negative power shifts in my marriage, loss of self esteem and self belief as well as career. I am sharing this not for pity but to give mental health professionals an idea of the cascade of impact when a simple organic cause is overlooked. I was lucky it was 20 years ago or I could probably add obesity, diabetes and heart failure to the impact list. Huge prices to pay for a small amoeba that could have been sorted with a single dose of medication.
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I wonder whether one of the greatest specificity we developed is the knowledge of our ultimate finitude and how it could account for differentiating us from other animals.
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Perhaps we ponder death more than other species or at least some of us do. Elephants often return to touch the bones of their deceased, ultimately we have no idea what they are thinking as they touch the bones.
@Frans 'The essential difference between human beings and all other species is that we can communicate about things that are not perceivable on the spot.'
Animals and insects can communicate about things not perceivable on the spot, Bees being the best example that I can think of, they communicate to others how to find a flower patch they have just visited when they return to the hive.
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The breadth of research in psychology is rapidly expanding in the absence of an effective system for comprehensively organizing this research. One consequence of this lack of organization is that it is becoming progressively more difficult for psychologists to conduct thorough, efficient literature reviews on any given topic. This is because: (a) many topics in psychology span a wide variety of different areas within the discipline of psychology and also extend beyond the discipline to include those such as medicine, biology, ecology, etc.; (b) operational definitions of the same variable can often vary across these different research areas and disciplines; and (c) the measures used to assess these variables also vary as a function of research area or discipline. As a result of this lack of information about the status of research on a given topic, many researchers are conducting research that has already been done. The end result of all of this is that research in psychology is not nearly as efficient as it could be.
The following are just my initial thoughts about a possible solution to this problem. My hope is that others can/will expand on and refine it:
I propose some type of centralized online registration system where each researcher in psychology registers his or her study by identifying his or her (1) independent variables(s), (2) dependent variables, (3) measures used, (4) primary hypotheses, and (5) secondary hypotheses (if applicable).
The results or outcomes of each study are not relevant to this registration process, since (a) study registration would take place before the study is even conducted and (b) the main purpose of the registration system would be to help researchers identify studies that have already been completed, or are currently being completed, and that involve the specific variables in which they are interested, as well as the measures used to assess them.
In effect, this centralized online system would be a comprehensive database of all the studies in psychology (both published and unpublished) that have already been conducted. Similar to how the Cochrane Collaboration requires systematic reviewers to register their studies prior to conducting them, this system would make it possible for ALL psychologists to register their studies by including information on the five elements listed above. Perhaps this system could piggyback on an existing online system or various research databases (e.g., PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus) could be modified to accommodate such a system.
The benefits of having such a research registration system include: more simplified and comprehensive literature searches; fewer, if any, redundant studies on the same topic (this, of course, does not refer to replications); more efficient systematic reviews and meta-analyses; less-biased systematic reviews and meta-analyses (through identification of grey literature); a more efficient psychological science!
Does anyone have any thoughts/comments/questions on psychology developing such a study registration system?
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If you already register your intended study before it is carried out, you run the risk that someone else steals your idea and is the quickest of the two. Apart from that risk (which could be avoided, I think), it seems a good idea for empirical studies. For reviews and theoretical studies a different set of identifying features seems necessary.
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In what way do you think sociohistorical context may have influenced the investigation of creativity?
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Van Gogh had a poor social life because of his lack of social intelligence.Picasso had a great number of social relationships and a wide area of social influence because of his social intelligence (S.I).Dali was a remarkable self-advertiser because of his S.I.So...you cand link S.I to creativity and you will have an artist promoting his art end enoying the benefits or u can leave only the creativity, without the S.I and u will have an artist unable to promote himself, isolating himself and with small chances of being recognized during his lifetime, who will eventualy die poor and lonely.
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Hi there,
Does anybody have any information on recent experimental studies on memetics and cultural evolution? Happy to hear any interesting references..
Best,
Marco
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Hi Gunjan,
Thanks for replying and the references, I'll check them out.
On RFT, could you tell me what 'good links to evotionairy psychology' are, keeping in mind RFT is a functional contextual theory? Same for 'good' mathematical models and so on? Are they needed to explain, predict and influence human behavior (the main goal of RFT)? IMHO cognitive theories are pseudoscientific: their mechanistic background leads to the creation of theoretical models that lack independent variables, and can therefore not be transformed into testable hypotheses.... RFT on the other hand has a steady growing body of empirical evidence comming from true experimental designs.
Also, RFT takes an a-ontological stance, the questions eliminatvism and representationalism deal with are, in terms of radical behaviorism and behavior analysis, pseudoproblems (see Churchland's Matter and Consiousness) because they deal with ontology. IMHO RFT is not stuck between elimn or repres, but it's just something completely different. :-)
But......I do agree that a better link between RFT and evolutionairy psychology is there but we've just haven't found it yet. That's why I asked the question regarding empirical evidence on memetics, I think RFT can explain the psychological mechanism of memetics (an idea has more infectuous power when it leads to more transformation of stimulusfunction, and when it applies more relational frames, or something like that).
Best,
Marco