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Dear all,
the EU is currently in its greatest crisis: Brexit, Euro-crisis, migration-crisis, populism and rising nationalism...
The EU has grown to 28 EU-member states and many are blaming a brussels dictatorship, many southern member states are having rather bad economic data and a high unemployment...
What are the benefits of the EU? Will it survive? Will nationalists and populists win and will there be new tensions in Europe? Will the EU break up? The EU must undergo some reforms? Which, how and why? Let us discuss with our history, knowledge and wisdom in a common EU forum on necessary reforms, options and outcomes. All views are welcome - but let us try to exchange our views in friendly arguments and not accusations...
Keyworts: Europe, European Union, EU, European History, European Politics, European Economics, European Reform, European Future.
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It is highly unlikely that the majority of EU citizens want a single political union. The desire for regional autonomy and self rule is very strong all over Europe and there is still far too much cultural diversity for a one size fits all model of politics.
A confederacy of nation states is far more realistic. It may be that such a confederation would eventually eveolve into something like a single nation but it would take many decades, even centuries. Driving this too fast is causing the wave of nationalism that is now blighting many countries in Europe.
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Good day.
To make sure I am on the right path, would anyone care to chime in on what they consider to be the major historiographic issues associated with Romantic era historical scholarship in western Europe. So far I have been focusing on Germany and Denmark - but, I would appreciate any and all input, suggestions, direction etc. that you can provide as regionality is not an issue.
Thanks and keep well.
Kat
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You should read first some books by Isiah Berlin on the topic.
The key issue in Romanticism is the shift of priority from Reason to Feeling. You can observe this trend in art, politics, and history of historiography. If you want more precise information, please ask.
Best regards.
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Preferably speaking Portuguese and English, Spanish or German.
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If you have not done so yet, I suggest getting in touch with Dr. Ramón Gutiérrez via CEDODAL. In addition to having edited a book on the Jesuit missions of South America, he can get you in touch with more specialized authors.
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Archduke Leopold-Willem of Habsbourg, emperor Ferdinand III's brother, lived from 1647 to 1656 in Brussels, where he was general governor of the Low Countries.  He was a great collector of paintings; he bought no less than 1400 paintings of, among others, Holbein, Bruegel the Elder, Van Eyck, Mantegna,Giorgione, Veronese.
On May 6th, 1656, Léopold-Willem goes back from Antwerp to Vienna, bringing with him his collection of paintings, which he made install in 1657, partly in the Stallburg, in the Hofburg palace, partly in the Neue Burg.  He makes the Flemish painter Jan Anton van den Baren his manager of his collection.  In this collection, stands the Tower of Babel, as testifies the inventory written in 1659.  
In this inventory, the painting is described as follows : «581. Ein grosses Stückh von Öhlfarb auf Holz, warin der babilonische Thurn.  In einer alter Ramen mit verguldten Leisten, 6 Spann 4 Finger hoch, vnndt 8 ½ Spann braith.  Original vom älten Brögel.» (f° 255)
My question is : which was the value (in cm) of a Spann in this time ?  I didn't find a more recent book about the ancient measures than this (a bit old) one : Horace DOURSTHER : Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, contenant des tables des monnaies de tous les pays, Bruxelles : M. Hayez, 1840.  But the author says nothing about the Spann.  Can anyone help me ?  I would be very glad, and thankful.
(Please, forgive me my bad english; I do my best, but it is not my mother language.)
Xavier de COSTER
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Xavier,
maybe the link, that I used in my last comment, does not work right in your computer without the cookies saved in my computer.
One of the searched citations is the book Palma Vechchio by Annemarie Spahn (1932). She also mentions the inventory of the collections of archduke Leopold Wilhelm from 1659 and she supposes the length of the Spann 20,8 cm (see page 110). The same length mention also other publications (e. g. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, 1911-1912 - page 70, footnote 4 - see http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/jbksak1911_1912/0082 - I hope that this link will work better).
I cannot be sure that the authors are certainly right, but I suppose that they have some good reasons for their statements.
Good luck with your research!
Jakub
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Good afternoon Ms. Farkas,
my name is Eva Brnušáková, I am a master student of Masaryk University in Brno (Czech Republic) at Faculty of Social Studies with a field of Environmental Studies. I have been working on my master thesis with a title: "Influence of totalitarian regime on the phenomenon of building intentional communities in the Eastern Europe: a case studies of ecovillages within the V4 countries." I am just at the beginning of my research and searching for a appropriate resources in literature. My supervisor (Mgr. Ing. Jan Blazek) recommended me to contact you via two english articles of yours (which I already downloaded). I am interested in a history of ecovillage movement in Hungary, before and after 89 ( comparative with Czechoslovakian situation of the falling regime) as well as recent situation. I would be pleased, if you pass me some other possible contacts, who I may ask for a collaboration such as some of the oldest (or well-going) hungarian ecovillages, which I may use as the example - a case study of Hungarian ecovillage. In addition If you have other researchers, articles or studies written in English related to this phenomenon in Hungary, please do not hesitate to let me know. I would be very grateful for that. Hopefully I will hear soon from you. 
Here is my gmail contact: eva.brnusakova@gmail.com
Best Regards 
   Bc. Eva Brnušáková
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Dear Ms. Farkas, 
thank you very much for your reply. I will eagerly wait for your e-mail and your translated articles.
Best wishes
Eva Brnusakova
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A must-see film addressing a sensitive topic: " Je ne suis pas votre nègre " (I Am Not Your Negro).
First, let’s give a big round of applause to the Haitian filmmaker Raoul Peck, for his Oscar-nominated film I Am Not Your Negro. The film is coming soon to theaters near you, probably in February 2017.
This post is rather an attempt to create an analysis of the film – in order to help audiences decipher the anagrams and thus discover the central message behind the film. 
In this film analysis, the term “America” is used to collectively refer to the Americas — encompassing the totality of the continents of North America and South America (including the Caribbean).
James Baldwin was an American novelist and an outspoken advocate on the topic of “The Negro And The American Promise.” In 1948, he left the USA and moved to France, due to American prejudice and harassment.
On the other hand, Raoul Peck was only 8 years old when he fled post-colonial dictatorship in Haiti. He then landed in the colony of Congo during its decolonization. Peck studied various subjects and resided in different countries, including Haiti, Congo, Belgium, and France. In the end, he settled in Germany where he studied industrial engineering, economics and filmmaking.  His company Velvet Film is also based in Germany.
I Am Not Your Negro was an unfinished piece written by James Baldwin. In 1987, Baldwin died of stomach Cancer. Raoul Peck finished the screenplay and made the film in 2016.
I Am Not Your Negro is, without doubt, a mesmerizing collation of artwork created by the revered director Raoul Peck:
Following is a transcript of Baldwin's voice in the film I Am Not Your Negro:
 “The future of the Negro in this country is precisely as bright or as dark as the future of the country — it is entirely up to the American people whether or not they are going to try and find out in their own hearts why it was necessary to have a nigger in the first place, because I’m not a nigger, I’m a man, but if you think I’m a nigger, it means you need it. Then you’ve got to find out why. And the future of the country depends on that.”
It appeared that Raoul Peck rewrote and/or finished Baldwin’s manuscript with a brush of another story that has not been told.
In terms of previous achievements, cultural and historical background, the Haitian director was a perfect match for the direction of the film.
Due to the controversial sensibility of the topic, Peck presented the film — as if he was neither for, nor against “skin-color privilege” in the world.
Naïve audiences might have a difficult time to understand this movie, due to untold or hidden histories. The de-colonialists were afraid of so-called “fear of blaming.” Therefore, a huge part of history has been deleted in the textbooks and not taught in school... The new generation is therefore in a state of blackout and repeats the past in different forms. Not giving the new generation a chance to learn from its past caused the world to preserve and perpetuate the systems of abuse and victimization of the victims. It is probably the most powerful contributor to racial profiling, stigma/prejudice, and the police-brutality that we see today, especially against people of African descent. The act had already caused an incredible amount of deaths in the USA alone, in the 21st century.
To perceived the central message hidden in the film, it could be helpful to know a bit about American history:
- The 15th century was a century of change. Christopher Columbus arrived in America. The amount of “PACTOLE” (gold, sugar and other precious resources) found or produced on the island of Hispaniola made it become known as the “BIG APPLE” of America. The lucrative discoveries on Hispaniola attracted pirates from all over the world.
- The American inhabitants of Hispaniola were nearly exterminated. New slaves were needed to put food on the table of the colonists.
- In 1516, Bartolomé de las Casas, a priest of the Catholic Church, advocated the use of African slaves instead of the natives in America. He succeeded in selling his ideas to the European Great Powers (monarchies) of the era.
- Bartolomé de las Casas is infamously credited for the ideology behind the Atlantic Slave Trade, the largest deportation of mankind, to this date.
- Then the French colonists wanted the best and strongest African slaves to generate an extraordinary production of wealth to outcompete the Kingdom of England. The French empire purchased and/or captured gladiators from Dahomey,  and enslaved them on Hispaniola.
- 1685: The Code Noir (The Black Code) was introduced in America by king Louis XIV. It taught the African slaves arrogance and violence.
- On Hispaniola started pseudo-scientific research for “fabrication” or “manufacture” of human beings in America: selective breeding of human beings and the development of ideas of race. Joseph Arthur (Comte de Gobineau) wrote An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, in which he claimed that aristocrats were superior to commoners and that they possessed more Aryan genetic traits because of less inbreeding with inferior races (Alpines and Mediterraneans).
- As a result: Chevalier de Saint-Georges, the favorite American of Queen Marie Antoinette, was born as the son of an aristocrat and an African slave woman. Saint-Georges was privileged and considered superior to even some White noblemen in Europe. Saint-Georges was the first African descent to ascend to the rank of colonel in a European army. On behalf of King Louis XVI, Saint-Georges negotiated with Haitian rebellion leader Toussaint Louverture. Saint-Georges then urged the conscience of France to give the slaves hope for a better life, after centuries of extremely-hard labor to put food on the table of Europe. The absolute monarch somewhat listened... Saint-Georges actual dream was to be in the performance arts, not in the royal army. Further promotion of Saint-Georges quickly became a scandal and an embarrassment for the French kingdom.
- In 1779, Louis XVI abolished serfdom on all land under royal territories.
- In 1784, Louis XVI signed an ordinance allowing slaves to trial their owners for abuses.
- In 1791, Louis XVI abolished slavery on all French territories.
- In 1792, Louis XVI was overthrown.
- During the revolution, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were both decapitated by guillotine.
Napoleon’s dream was to conquer the entire world. He wasted the precious wealth of France...and needed more wealth to capture Russia and defeat the British naval blockade.
In 1802, Napoleon reestablished slavery in all the French territories, including Hispaniola, in order to generate more wealth to boost his army.
Indeed, France succeeded in conquering world commerce with a single piece of land in America (i.e. Hispaniola). At one point, France owned almost the entire North American continent (including the Caribbean). England and its allied nations raged wars after wars against France to sabotage Hispaniola. England’s Royal Family nearly became bankrupt. France flourished and became the world’s superpower. The French strategy was long regarded as a smart idea — until Haiti led the greatest slave uprising in the history of mankind, since the Spartacus slave uprising against the Roman Empire.
When a smart idea — that was already known to be a mistake —  is repeated, it is no longer a mistake but a decision.
The Haitian revolution seemed to be an evidence for further dehumanization of the people of African descent in America.
In 1865, the US Congress sign the 13th amendment to formally abolished slavery in the USA.
Even though the film is set in the USA, the original intent seemed to actually explore the people of African descent within America and beyond — from pre-colonialism... colonialism... decolonization… to... post-colonialism… neocolonialism.
The central message seems to be: Was it really the last stage of colonialism? To this date, is it?
Please share your thoughts.
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Have not seen it....
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I am interested in studying narratives from Latin America (esp. Mexico) focusing on topics such as money, precarity, debt, esp. from the years from the external debt crisis to present.  I am very familiar with recent literature and film from Spain, but not so much from Latin America.  I know novels such as Piglia’s Plata quemada, Gumucio’s La deuda, Ortuño’s Recursos Humanos and films such as Amores perros, El baño del Papa, 7 cajas, La deuda (Oliver's Deal)...
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Dear Sirs/ madams 
kindly, i am looking for names and contacts of scientific journals and revues in field languages, linguistics, and translation studies in particular. 
Place: Jordan and Algeria 
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After a PhD about the public land registries from the rural spaces of medieval and early modern Southern France, I am beginning new researches about the role of the surveyors in the same region.
I am very interested in improving our knowledge of this underestimated microcosme, which inserts between the masses and the notables of the countryside, whether these last ones were noble persons or commoners.
I will take with pleasure any bibliographical information or archives references.
Thanks !
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Dear Mr. Jaudon and Mr. Pizzati
It's a lecturer from Department of Economics in University of AJK Pakistan.
I would like to invite you in the class to give 30-60 Minutes Skype lecture about European History in undergraduate course class of History of Economic Thought.
In response to that we can volunteer for your students in any affordable virtual activity. 
The class will be every Monday to Wednessday at 11am (Pakistan time)
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Could you please speak a little more about the volume on the subaltern? I am currently researching on this very topic, both on its theoretical and fictional representations.
Regards.
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Specifically I am looking for lists that may be able to identify anonymous contributors to The Edinburgh Magazine and The European Magazine and London Review during the 1820s and early 1830s. I have consulted The Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, 1824-1900, but it didn't return the desired info on Thomas Richards (1800-1877). It lists some contributions to other magazines, but the ones I'm looking for.
Thanks in advance for any leads.
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Update
It seems most of the periodicals I am working with haven't been indexed yet, but the Wellesley Index has been really helpful in establishing first leads in tracking down a good number of Thomas Richards's contributions to the periodical press in Wales, Scotland and England during the 1820s. There are some articles that cannot be authenticated (yet), some look like collaborations, but on the whole it is a much fuller picture at this point than what I had (next to nothing) a few weeks back.
Again, thanks all around for your suggestions!
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In spite of an apparant invasion plan and a list of individuals to be rounded up following an invasion there is little to indicate that Hitler intended a full blown invasion and occupation of Britain in the early stages of WW2.
Hitler did however have a pathological obsession with destroying the Soviet Union and openly talked of expanding the Reich into Soviet territory.
Would, or more likely could Hitler have ever occupied Britain in 1940?  
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Dear Dr Turner
I agree with Lewis, Hitler had plans to invade Britain but he cancelled it for two reasons: First the courageous resistance of the British people and their withstand of the German air attacks, secondly, he thought that the million of tones of bombs will prevent Britain for effective contribution in the war against him. He was wrong as the history said .
Regards
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In spite of clear tendencies of Alexander III the Great to build an empire that would unite number of nations, it is not quite clear how far he practiced the “brotherhood of nations”, i.e. homonoia. (See below Tarn, and de Mauriac  as well as the use of the term by Aristotle, that I gave later). His empire and later Diadochi states were apparently not quite compatible with the idea “of being of one mind together”, what the word “homonoia” probably should mean. Was the reality quite opposite?
Were the political and administrative structure of the Macedonian states, the empire of Alexander of Macedonia, Egypt of Ptolemy’s and the Hellenistic Diadochi states, while its citizens were of mixed national origins, prominently “nationalistic states”?
What kind of state was the empire of the Alexander of Macedonia? Was it a Macedonian nationalistic state, where all high administrative and military positions as well as core military units were occupied by the Macedonians; or did its political structures mirrored the mixed multi-national population that constituted the empire? How many of Alexander’s generals and high officials were Greek and how many Macedonian? Did Alexander chose for satraps in the occupied territories some Geeks or exclusively Macedonians and local dignitaries? What was the national structure of the core military units that were left in the occupied regions?
I am also interested in the political system of the Ancient Egypt at the end of the 4th century BC. Was the Egyptian Ptolemy dynasty an Egyptian, Macedonian or Greek dynasty? Did the Ptolemy family mix with the Greek families or with local Egyptian families or it remained “racially clean” Macedonian?
What kind of states were Hellenistic states? Were they by their political and national structure Macedonian or Greek? How many generals in those states were Greeks and how many still Macedonians? Did they rely exclusively on high military or state officials that were Greeks or they were mostly Macedonians; did “nationalism” lose its power with time and when?
* When the commentators would advance significant affirmation, I would encourage them to put the most relevant and direct reference, if possible avoiding popular reviews and other non scholarly publications.
** Please avoid discussing the side issues. The particular aspects of the concepts of "nation", "state", "polis", "citizenship", "ethnicism" and related concepts, could be discussed here:
____________________________________________
Tarn, WW: Alexander the Grat, Vol II, Sources and Studies, Chapter 25, Cambridge University Press, 2002 (1948).
Henry M. de Mauriac: Alexander the Great and the Politics of "Homonoia", Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Jan., 1949), pp. 104-114, Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2707202
Additional information.
The expression “homonoia” in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (EN) was translated by Crisp, Reckham and Thomson by “concord”. Here below are some parallel translations of some connected Greek espressions from the classical and more recent translators of the EN (in the following order: Bartlett-Collins, Crisp; Reckham; Ross; Thomson). This list may help make clear some points that get easily confused.
Homonoia = like-mindedness; concord; concord; unanimity; concord
1155a24 (Book 8, VIII, 1)
1167a22 (Book 9, IX, 6)
Eunoia = goodwill; goodwill; goodwill : goodwill; goodwill
1166b30 (Book 9, IX, 5)
Koinonia = community ; community; partnership; community; community
1159b27 (Book 8, VIII, 9)
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I recommend using those bibliographies below. There are certainly, other sublime lists of works related to the subject. Please avoid too popular works, although some of them may be excellent.
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To go back to your original question, Dragan, I would say that the “prominent feature” of Alexander’s empire was Alexander’s own ego.  Macedonian nationalism and pan-Hellenic ideals were simply tools to his own ambitions, not ends in themselves.
Early in his campaign, Alexander decided to use the Persian satrapy system to govern his newly conquered territories (Bosworth, Conquest and Empire, p. 229 citing Arr. 1.17.1 – 8, along with epigraphic evidence).
Which brings me to my second point.  As someone who has undertaken academic research on Alexander, I agree with you on the need to read the surviving literary sources but with a number of cautions.
 Firstly, the only biography is Plutarch’s Life of Alexander.  Arrian, Curtius and Diodorus were writing Histories according to their own understanding of what that term meant at that time.  And Diodurus’ account of Philip and Alexander was only a small part of his grand history that went all the way back to the Trojan War.  Justin’s contribution was an epitome of a similar grand history by Pompeius Trogus (Philippic Histories and Origins of the Entire World and Locations of the Earth (Historiae Philippicae et Totius Mundi Origines et Terrae Situs)).
Each of these sources has to be approached with caution, paying due consideration to the author’s own biases and the likely biases of their sources.  This is why historiographic analysis is so important.  (See in particular, Hammond, N.G.L., Three Historians of Alexander the Great, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, “The Sources of Justin on Macedonia to the Death of Philip”, CQ, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1991, pp. 496 – 508, and Sources for Alexander the Great, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.)  A point you concede in your allusion to Lionel Pearson’s, The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great.
Then you have to look for corroborative evidence through other means such as passing references in other ancient written works, inscriptions such as Barry has cited (epigraphy), archaeology, coins (numismatics) and Prosopography – “the study of individual persons in a larger context.  Although no agreed definition exists, in classics and ancient history it is often used to give a name to a lexicon or a study that includes all persons considered relevant to a specific and fixed period, or to a political structure or other entity.  Prosopography is also used to denote the prosopographical method, which arranges and discusses persons according to their names and aims to establish the social contexts of groups, such as their ethnic and regional origin, family connections and careers.”  M. Horster, ‘The Prosopographia Imperii Romani (PIR) and New Trends and Projects in Roman Prosopography”, Prosopography Approaches and Applications: A Handbook, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Oxford, 2007), pp. 231 – 240 (p. 231).
The other issue to bear in mind is that all historians, ancient and modern, bring their own interests, focuses and biases to their work.  For myself, my focus has been on Alexander’s strategy and tactics, and the Macedonian military, together with the issue of his father’s assassination.
The issues that you appear to be concerned with, are outside the focus of my own attention, but as a suggestion, you might have it useful to see if anyone has done any analysis of the ethnic composition of the many colonies Alexander established.
 You might also find it helpful to approach Rolf Strootman who is on RG and has done a lot of work on the Hellenistic kingdoms after Alexander.
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The image below represents my (crude) drawing of what is likely a personal coat-of-arms that appears inscribed on an artifact excavated in Texas; although currently undated, most-likely from a mid-16th-thru-early-17th century context.
I have provided my interpretations (labels in the image), so far, as to possible identities (whereas the 13-stars undoubtedly represent the Salazar lineage, I am far-from-certain of the two-headed eagle [aguila bicefala], which was a very ancient heraldic symbol [e.g., reputed to have been Julius Caesar's], but likely here the imperial icon of a Holy Roman Emperor, perhaps Charles V ... or possibly the Estrada lineage, who were [along with Hernando Cortes, as another early example] among the earliest non-royals granted the imperial privilege of using this symbol in their armorial bearings ... though, so far, I have found no record indicating any prominent Estrada ever did actually use it).
Any hints as to whom this escudo may have belonged [or how I may further research this] will be greatly appreciated!
I suspect it MAY have belonged to Gonzalo de Salazar (Charles V's imperial Factor in Mexico ca 1524-1540s); or one of his sons, sons-in-law or a nephew; the Factor was known derisively as "El Gordo" ... but I have not located an image (or description) of his personal coat-of-arms, although I have recently seen a reference indicating that it was among the exhibits of Mexico at a national celebration in Madrid ca. 1920s.
PS - I have already searched-through THOUSANDS of historic (late-15th-thru-17th-c) printed armorials (and archival sources), to no avail ... so, please, do not bother recommending more of that ... I've more-than-likely seen them all!
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Bob,
My point was that there were a lot of people from various countries involved in New Spain. For that reason I could not say 100% that the heraldic shield was Spanish.
JAG
I watched from afar. There were several things that worried me about his speech, but the main one was "a total allegiance to the United States of America" , which sounds so fascist?
Compound that with an earlier CBS interview when he was asked if he understood that the president of the United States was not a CEO, but that Congress and the Supreme Court had a say in how the country was run, he replied "We'll see."
I will now give him a chance and I will wait and see.
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For instance, the Stahlhof and the Walzstahlhaus in Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westfalia) are of such kind. These syndicates resp. their buildings, I am searching for, may have existed pre WW II.
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There are a few in Greece, nineteenth and early twentieth century mainly. In Aegion (Northern Peloponnese) the warehouses connected to raisin export, and in Eastern Macedonia the tobacco warehouses of Drama, Kavala and Xanthi. Worth a look I think. 
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Many young British people are against Brexit, but on June,20 a group of the young "True Finns" started their new campaign for exit. Last time they have gathered only 30,000 signs. Now the situation is the following: https://www.kansalaisaloite.fi/fi/aloite/2058 .
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Thanks to Prof. Laguta and all participants for this very interesting and timely discussion thread! Is there a deadline for the required number of signs?
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A hypothesis with narrative attributions:
We have a catholic-identity-conservative (or reconstructing) government in Poland. An identity-reconstructing government in Hungary. And differently strong post-liberal or (back to) pre-liberal parties and ideologies/movements in many European societies.
Is there (rather) a similar pattern of events and contextual identity and conflict constructions like in former European times? Or is it rather that we, in a maybe Derrida-sense, make (up) these/such analogies - but maybe based on rational validity/empirical signs. Or based on our structural urgence to create (narratives of) sense/meaning.
In the above sense:
Is the European Union somehow similar to/reminding of the Congressional Europe after 1815? Trying to keep national states/national state movements from nationalising their politics.
Or is it (also/rather) somehow like the Inter-World-War period when there was a lack of meaning and meta-narratives in a post-monarchical and post-classical-bourgeois world? So that this lack/"vacuum" is filled with new meta-narratives, like then Sovyet socialism, different forms of fascism, etc. Do we experience such a lack/vacuum, and the different ideologies trying to fill it, in the current situation of Europe too?
Is there a pattern or are there similarities? Or is it somehow similar but also qualitatively different? Or is it qualitatively and/or structurally completely different?
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Dear Sebastian,
Thank you for your upvote.
Do not be disappointed if this important discussion will not generate great interest. I experienced the same with some of my questions related to both world wars. Somehow, elapsed time of very relevant human events diminishes the interest for further analysis of eventual lessons we could extract from the past.
So allow me to go further in my previous comments.
It was Alexander Dumas (father) who coined the expression "cherchez la femme" to denote that in most crimes, no matter what the mystery is, a woman (read sex) is often the root cause. 
I paraphrase this outstanding writer by stating that "cherchez la cupidité" (seek human greed) to explain the causes of most wars.
Let me offer two pertinent examples:
The real cause for WWI was not the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. In the words of Boris Johnson (a British politician, and journalist) "It is a sad but undeniable fact that the First World War – in all its murderous horror – was overwhelmingly the result of German expansionism and aggression".
Surprised? Well don't be, because it is fair to say that the real cause of WWII was the expansionist program conceived by Hitler, called the "seek for Lebensraum."
Why am I presenting this thesis? Because the real cause of an eventual world-wide deflagration will most likely be the financial markets and the armaments industries hunger for more and more profits at the expense of millions (maybe billions) of human deaths.
In the turbulent times we live, what the Muslim terrorist may not realize - given their religious believes - is that they could easily become the triggers (and excuse) for WWIII.
As you see, history may not repeat itself - an issue you well raise in your questioning - but humans always commit the same mistakes. Nowadays, technology advances at exponential rates, but historically and sadly humanism and reason remained almost at a flat plateau.
And it is with human emotions, not reasoning, that warmongers play their games. Remember, it was Hitler who detected that the destroyed (in WWI) German industry was ready to sponsor his mad plan to conquer Europe.
Be well
Tom
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This would have been funded by the Prague YMCA, for a trip for Slovaks from Tótkomlós (Slovenský Komlóš) and elsewhere around Békéscsaba (Békešská Čaba) in southern Hungary (possibly also for Slovaks in Yugoslavia then). My guess is that fundraising was done in 1927. Information on anything at all on this, in any language, would be wonderful.
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Still trying to help Eric :-)
This is not exactly what you are looking for but could be a paper that offers to you the great picture about the relations between the Czechoslovaks and the ethnic Hungarians this state inherited after Trianon.
Botlik, József. "Czechoslovakia’s ethnic policy in Subcarpathia."
Regards
Tom
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I would like a summary of major studies of stratification, class and mobility conducted in Poland and/or Central and Eastern Europe since 1989. What has been written on this subject?
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On Poland, you might want to look at the work of Polish soiologist Prof. Henryk Domański, also of social psychologist Prof. Janusz Czapiński. Do you speak Polish?
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I am in need of authentic literature on the subject of the historically occurred land enclosures in Europe. I will be thankful for your help with regard to any information, document, resource, source, opinion, reference etc.
Your views and opinions on the subject are also very humbly anticipated.
With kind regards to all.
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As far as Britain is concerned I recommend Kemp's book on the industrial revolution.
The British industrial revolution relied on huge supplies of labour displaced from the 'enclosure' of previously common lands by the landed aristocracy.  'Common' lands had previously been widely used by both landless labourers and the few peasants that Britain still had in the 18th Century to rear cattle and therefore survive.  When the artistocrats simply decided that this land could be 'enclosed' so that only they could use it, they created poverty and at the same time a new and quite large social group that could be used in the new factories.  It was cheap labour because it was desperate.
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Dear colleagues, dear friends
I need information about the first wife of Franz Brentano (1838-1917), i.e. Ida Lieben (1852-1984, Austria, Vienna). Can you help me please?
Many thanks
Antonio Russo
University of Trieste, Italy
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Hi Tom
Many thanks for your answer. I am just checking these texts. I found more info and published them at
Ida Brentano (Lieben)
Birth:
May 17, 1852
Vienna, Austria
Death:
March 17, 1894 (41)
Immediate Family:
Daughter of Ignaz Isak Lieben and Elise (Elka) Lieben
Wife of Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano
Mother of Johann Michael (Giovanni) BRENTANO
Sister of Rosa Lieben; Leopold von Lieben; Dr. Adolf Lieben; Johanna Helene Auspitz and Richard Lieben
Added by:
Randy Schoenberg on February 8, 2009
Managed by:
Randy Schoenberg
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Of course I already have some literature, for example
Zwischen Isolation und Sprachkontakt: Der romanische Wortschatz der Vorarlberger Walser: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40503977
Alessio Boattini, Clio Griso & Davide Pettener. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Journal of Anthropological Sciences. Vol. 89 (2011), pp. 161-173. 
Mathieu Petite. A new perspective on the Walser community.
But I can not find an article with the results of the research.
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About Walser in Italy, there are may books edited by Enrico Rizzi, Proceedings of Walser Annual Meetings
Several essays by Pier Paolo Viazzo on Alagna Valsesia
Mantenimento, variazione e morte della lingua nel Walser di Formazza by Silvia Dal Negro
Pomatt : una storia, una comunità, una lingua (formazza) by Angela Bacher
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The WWII co-operation of exiled political representations assembled in London counts to my research subjects. Hardly a revelation: the picture is complicated, probably little more disappointing than one is likely to expect when entering the ground. In a manuscript which I hope to publish soon I conclude:
"The story sketched in this article documents how difficult it was for small European nations, despite a common enemy and a shared meeting-place, to find solid ground for mutual understanding. ...The activities of the exiles were first and foremost directed to the preservation of their threatened nationsʼ identity, state, cultural or other. Thus, much of the communication between them was condemned to fail or to get lost ʻin translationʼ of cultural codes."
Intercultural communication is no doubt the issue I address here. Unfortunately, most literature I came across studies communication between "Great Cultures". This is still useful but my issue - intercultural communication within one (European, Western) culture - seems to lay pretty below the prevalent level of analysis.
Any reading suggestions? 1900-1950 scope will be appreciated.
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Figuring out foreigners by Craig Storti.
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We are trying to analyze the changing "recognition" of the Norwegian merchant war sailors during/after war.
The philosophy of recognition is a interdisciplinary field of knowledge and we are looking for studies within a historical perspective. 
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or here at ResearchGate: 
if you read Russian, I'll give more references.
There is one paper in English too, partly dealing with the same approach, but it is rather clumsy. Nevertheless:
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There are some awar age archaeological sites in Karpathian-basin, where this special objects came from, but their contemporary origin place should had been in Merowingian-Bajuwar territory.
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I would also recommend looking at Anglo-Saxon strap ends in England. Gabor Thomas has done a fair amount of research on these, and some can be silvered or gilt and also include niello inlay. If I recall correctly, his type B or C has a similar form, though the decorative motif can vary from your example.
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I need for example:
The Program of the NSDAP.
Anti- Jewish Plans of the Nazis published before their rise to power.
Repors Einzatzgruppen on extermination of Jews in Soviet Union.
Inner and official documents of RSHA.
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There is a Russian-German project for digitalization of documents of the German secret services (1912-1945) that were confiscated during the war and transferred to the Russian archives (Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI, Fond 458, Series 9).
422 documents are available here:
Best wishes,
Svetlana
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I am interested in any book or paper about the Lombards, especially about their art. 
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Dear Josef,
there was an exhebition "Die Langobarden. Das Ende der Völkerwanderung" at Landesmuseum Bonn in 2008, with a catalogue of 416 pages:
Landschaftsverband Rheinland; Rheinisches LandesMuseum Bonn (eds.), Die Langobarden. Das Ende der Völkerwanderung. Katalog zur Ausstellung im Rheinischen LandesMuseum Bonn 22. 8. 2008 – 11. 1. 2009. Darmstadt: Primus Verlag 2008. ISBN: 978-3-89678-385-1
The table of contents of this catalogue is online at Deutsche Nationalbibliothek:
A review of this volume is here:
There was also a conference volume of 691 pages:
Jan Bemmann / Michael Schmauder (eds.), Kulturwandel in Mitteleuropa.
Langobarden – Awaren – Slawen. Akten der Internationalen Tagung in Bonn vom 25. bis 28. Februar 2008. Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 11 (Bonn 2008).
Best regards,
Stefan
PS: Some articles which are online:
Kurt W. Alt / Corina Knipper / Daniel Peters / Wolfgang Müller / Anne-France Maurer / Isabelle Kollig / Nicole Nicklisch / Christiane Müller / Sarah Karimnia / Guido Brand / Christina Roth / Martin Rosner / Balász Mende / Bernd R. Schöne / Tivadar Vida / Uta von Freeden, Lombards on the Move – An Integrative Study of the Migration Period Cemetery at Szólád, Hungary. PLoS ONE 9(11): e110793. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110793
Peter Stadler / Herwig Friesinger / Walter Kutschera / Alfred Priller / Peter Steier / Eva Maria Wild, Ein Beitrag zur absoluten Chronologie der Langobarden auf Grund von 14C-Datierungen und ein Versuch zur Datierung der Beraubung langobardischer Gräber. Archaeologia Austriaca 87, 2003 (2005), 265-278.
Jaroslav Tejral, Abriss der Entwicklung in Mähren während der Völkerwanderungszeit. Alt Thüringen 14, 1977, 244-256.
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These items were supposed to be 'liquidated' under Allied Control Council Directive No. 30 but is there any surviving evidence as to how this was carried out in practice?  Any correspondence, memos, photos etc would be of great interest!  My research project explores burial practices and commemorative culture during and after the Third Reich. 
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Great topic! I know a lot of Nazi monuments that remained untouched, but there are some prominent examples that were torn down or repurposed: Nuremberg rally grounds & the "Ehrentempel" in Munich next to the Braunes Haus for instance. Others lasted for decades: one in Wuppertal (I think)--a bulky male statue that was cut off at the ankles one night in the 1980s, the famous 76er monument in Hamburg that was bombed and paint-bombed in the early 1980s before receiving a 'Gegendenkmal'. Bismark tower in Weimar-Buchenwald replaced by the camp memorial bell tower. Do you read German? If so, there's a bibliography on this page: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/publications/sda/pages/steine00cov3.htm. Check out esp. Nicolai and Pollack, but also Lurz, who published a monograph Kriegerdenkmaeler in 1987. Helmut Scharf's Kleine Kunstgeschichte des dt. Denkmals (1984) has a chapter on Nazi monuments whose fate you could track down. The Nazis didn't have that much time to build stuff, and the Allies weren't that keen on tearing them down unless they were very prominent. "Gegendenkmal" and Demontage are two terms associated with what you're looking for (the latter used more for post-1989 though).
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Try to do some background reading for my dissertation and want to get a basic understanding of the scholarship available. 
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Judith Walkowitz's work on prostitution.
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Attempting to explore a how influential Jacobinism was outside of France, mainly as a new political framework. 
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There is a PhD piece of research which I am the supervisor. Some of its results are going to be published soon, I hope. The final timetable to end this thesis is March of 2016. The PhD candidate's name is Sabrina Areco Miranda. Her e-mail is sabrinaareeco@gmail.com
Her research deals with Antonio Gramsci´s thought and Italian reception on jacobinism. Her analysis deals with French authors who worte on the theme, such as Mathiez. There is a little text of her on Gramsci and jacobinism in the following link:
It is written in Portuguese but it can be understood with Google translator.
If there are any doubts, you can send me a message.
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Mainly looking at background research for the causes of the Revolutions that swept over Europe in 1848, and articles detailing key groups involved in the Revolutions.  
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for a more profound analysis into the labour problem and the identities i can propose you the work fo Samuel Hayat, you can fin his work in academia.edu and most of his articles are free to download
good luck with your research
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While the IMF estimates public debt at over 55 tn dollars, private debt is much more in the USA private debt is twice the public debt.  Academics and financial analysts alike have been treating debt as an asset for decades and this attitude has contributed to instability.  In the 16th century under the leadership of Jacob II, the Fuggers expanded their loans across Europe loaning to kings and popes.  This allowed them to manipulate the election of Charles V among other political coups, but by the early 17th century defaults had bankrupted the firm.  Are we seeing a reproduction of this today?
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left Latvia for better life. I was writting about it in my book "Socio-economic factors of consumer`s behaviour. Regional aspect. Summary of the doctoral thesis. “Globe Edit”. 2014, 62 p. ISBN 978-3-639-65565-0-1"
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Foreign Ministry Archives of Turkey are closed for all researchers, and the Republican Archives of the Prime Ministry of Turkey (Ankara) doesn't have a goog relationship the Turkish Foreign Ministry.
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Well, I too hope it won't take a couple of years. Until that time comes, I will change my interests in that topic. I hope that our constant inquiry in this situation and public interest will speed up the process.
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After Rawls British political theory is not in its best mode.  Although we have got theorists like John Gray, Michael Oakeshott and Roger Scruton, surely, one should take into account other authors and oeuvres as well.. How would you sketch a meta-narrative of contemporary British political philosophy?
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Philadelphia, PA
Dear all, 
I am still wondering about Professor Horcher's proposals on recent developments in political theory in GB and in Europe generally, and I hope we will see some further contributions along those lines. 
I came across the following short "cartoon" analysis of the European debt crisis, which I hope may be of interest to readers of this thread:
I thought this worth a look, if only as providing some talking points. I'm sure that elements of the account may be disputed. In spite of that, the piece may be useful in getting at some features of the economic problems in Europe and their relation to political questions and problems. I want to see Europe growing again. 
This "cartoon" analysis places considerable emphasis on the idea of the need for a unified fiscal policy among the members of the Euro zone. The idea seems to be that the ECB provides a single monetary policy, but that low interest rates and political pressure brought on excessive borrowing leading to very significant economic problems for countries needing to service very high levels of debt. The connected austerity policies have proved very burdensome in several European countries. In the past, Euro zone constraints upon national fiscal policies have prove ineffective, but these have been insisted upon as a condition of debt bailouts. 
An alternative to unification of fiscal policies across the Euro zone might be very significant banking regulation at the level of the Euro zone. In any case, it seems that all the proposed solutions have various political difficulties. (There are very significant political pressures to keep interest rates very low.) So, one might say, that there is a problem of "governability" in the Euro zone. As is emphasized by various Euro-skeptics, and which I take to be true, there has never been a successful monetary union which did not involve very significant political union. Still Europe wants to have its monetary union (and I don't think that "the Euro has failed") without sufficient political union. Certainly, the theme of European federalism has been widely resisted in recent years.  We may recall the time when "ever closer union" was a unifying goal of the E.U. 
My own sympathizes rest with the gigantic efforts and achievements of the E.U., and emphasis on problems here do not put this in doubt for me at least. 
H.G. Callaway
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A small lutheran community coming from Germany exists in Lyon from the 16 century. This group owned a church, settled in Geneva from 1707.It was mostly composed of traders who went to Geneva four times a year for the holy communion. But, from 1770 onward, when the Calvinists from Lyons got their priest, the Lutherans went more and more to that church, letting down Geneva. For about 75 years, the Lutherans disappeared from Lyons. At the turn of the eighteen and nineteen centuries, the community spent her life in the shade of the Calvinist church. Between 1800 and 1850, the immigration movement of swiss, germans and Alsatians was quickening. In 1851, after multiples fruitless tries during the last fifty years, the Lutheran reverend Georges Mayer create an evangelic german church which is quickly linked with the Augsburg Confession. The german community managed the church for nearly 30 years until the arrival of the first French vicar in Lyons .For another 30 years, the relations were stormies between the two communities. The first world war marked the death of the german parish. The French church survived with difficulties during the twenties and thirties. The “renaissance” was due to two extraordinary personalities: André Desbaumes and Henry Bruston The Lutheran church became an inescapable part of the Lyons’s oecumenism and opened itself to the world.2007 marked the beginning of the merger between the Calvinist and Lutheran churches.
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Dear Stephen,
Thanks for your answer.
I wish you a happy new year 2015
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I am trying to understand who the people in this procession are. Thank you if you can help. 
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Erika,
there is an even higher resolution coloring of the 1576 embassy on the Russian Wikipedia page. The caption lists the main people in the embassy and identifies them by their clothing, starting with (I'm following the original spelling) "Der Obriste abgesandte Knesch oder Fürst: Zachary Iwanwitsch Sugursky, hof Juncker und Stadthalter zum Weissen Sehe..." Hope this helps.
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Neither the commission, nor the parliament (or Eurostat) are providing this information in a comprehensive way.
So I would rather need information for the elections before 2004. Thank your for your support!
Torben
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Bear in mind that any such information is always based on survey evaluation and not actual electoral roll data. As a result, different surveys can come up with fairly different estimates of participation by age groups (on some election types, differences can easily reach 10 percentage points). This is especially the case to the extent that turnout is a "socially desirable" behaviour and we do not always agree on the specific extent to which different types of individuals are likely to lie about their vote. This is still the best we can get so it is fine to use it ,but the distinction is important to bear in mind.
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I am writing an essay on the development and possible impact of operations research (OR) on defence planning in different European countries. Finding secondary sources on OR-development in different countries is, however, not that easy. Does anyone have some suggestions? 
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Check out
European Journal of Operational Research, an Elsevier publication
This may also be a source:
Journal of the Operational Research Society, a Palgrave-Macmillan publication
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Was it the second world war, disagreement with Bretton woods with US Dollar dominance or the aftermath of 1929 great depression? 
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All these events were significant. Even before World War II it was noted that competition in this area does not result in anything good (currency wars). Bretton Woods system also had its own weaknesses (periods of suspended convertibility) ... Europe sought to rebuild after the war so monetary collaboration was essential for this reason as well...