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I am looking for several biological/medical etymologies.
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Hi there,
come accross the survivors of Ragnarök "Lif and Lifthrasir" and was wondering if it is actually the source of the English word "life"? Could not find a clear explanation anywhere.
What was first the name Lif or the Scandinavian Liv?
Cherish your feedback.
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My dictionary says that the word "Life" originated in Middle English, from Old English "libban" which is related to Old High German "lebēn," to live.
But "Liv" is a Nordic female given name derived from the Old Norse "hlíf", which means "shelter" or "protection" so it is not the same wors as the word for Live.
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Why do organic anion transporters (OAT) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) have such names? What is the etymological difference?
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Here is a good explanation:
Megan Roth, Amanda Obaidat, Bruno Hagenbuch
OATPs, OATs and OCTs: the organic anion and cation transporters of the SLCO and SLC22A gene superfamilies
Br. J. Pharmacol. 2012, 165, 1260-87
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I googled a lot and found some journals but I decided to ask my question here to get the most accurate answer.
can someone please introduce some Q1 free-to-publish linguistic journals (cognitive & etymology related) ?
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You can also search the Scopus/WoS websites (listed below) for the most recent Q1 journals, but you must check each journal's website to see if there are any publication fees.
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 any methods/ lure to overcome females of fruit  flies? Fruit flies are the major pest globally?
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Yes there is cue lure but very expensive, upto 70000/litre/kg
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Portugal/Brazilian Portuguese- Negociação
French - Négociation
Spanish -Negociación
Italian - Negoziacione
English Negotiation.
It means "deny" "leisure" - see Latin etymology below(*)
However, how about non-Latin Languages?
What is the equivalent in your country? What about the etymology?
(*) Latin Etymology: negotiation (n.)
early 15c., negotiacioun, "a dealing with people, trafficking," from Old French negociacion "business, trade," and directly from Latin negotiationem (nominative negotiatio) "business, traffic," noun of action from past participle stem of negotiari "carry on business, do business, act as a banker," from negotium "a business, employment, occupation, affair (public or private)," also "difficulty, pains, trouble, labor," literally "lack of leisure," from neg- "not" (from PIE root *ne- "not") + otium "ease, leisure," a word of unknown origin.
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From Google translator (I do not speak Turkish): Müzakare, negotiation , meaning the exchange of ideas. Thanks for the contribution!
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We know the etymological meaning of the words, but I do not find much data, which reveals, how did the man went from eating, per se, to eating a group meal?
When does he stop being a Lone hunter and realize the importance of group hunting? Would hunting have been a major factor in social transformation, or would it have been the search/need for reproduction that produced changes? When hunting an animal, Did he shared and ate in groups, or isolated and ate alone focused on the amount of food he needed for his survival.
When he hunted, did he share with his kins? How are family ties established? Are these ties innate impulses?
Has he always been a social being?
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Old English mǣl (also in the sense ‘measure’, surviving in words such as piecemeal ‘measure taken at one time’), of Germanic origin. The early sense of meal involved a notion of ‘fixed time’; compare with Dutch maal ‘meal, (portion of) time’ and German Mal ‘time’, Mahl ‘meal’, from an Indo-European root meaning ‘to measure’. https://www.google.com/search?q=etymology+of+meal&client=ucweb-b&channel=sb
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In trying to set out the perameters of "social class" in the introduction of a text I am editing upon "social class' and "literature" for Routledge, I fell into a Lewis Carroll rabbit hole of wondrous conflicted definitions and claims about the fabulous Snarkish creature--class!
"
A granfalloon, in the fictional religion of Bokononism (created by Kurt Vonnegut in his 1963 novel Cat's Cradle), is defined as a "false karass." That is, it is a group of people who affect a shared identity or purpose, but whose mutual association is meaningless.
(“Granfalloon,” Wikipedia)
Vonnegut’s definition of a “granfalloon,” seems to fit the problematic semiotic state of the term “class,” as well. Northwestern University Sociologist Gary Fine suggested to me that what Wikipedia offered about “class” was as comprehensive as any other overview of this highly contentious, voluminous, multifaceted concept. Published definitions of social class, reveal a plethora of conflicting and overlapping traits and attributes that may suggest to some that class” is, in fact, a granfalloon. Yet the same may be said of all sociology’s categories to some degree. Granfalloon or not, we feel and experience very real class struggles that create pain in macro-level, full-scale armed conflicts. Micro-level class struggles go on daily, more or less peacefully, if annoyingly."
Would anybody like to shed more light, darkness, and chaos theory on this highly confusing topic? I am all ears and really need some expert opinion.
Thanks and looking forward to comments.
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Navigating paradox does not only entail a solution to the problems that we are struggling with nowadays because of it or not, but it changes the nature of these problems that we had, have and/or having yet involve us in a thinking that is apart from the one we are used to. it takes us to a place where experience and reason coopete to deliver an answer that converges the divergent goals of a paradoxical tension along the way, we notice a change in our behaviour, a new sharpe and honed culture in our organizations and whole new set of problems that we did not even know they existed arise as we exploit more and more of paradox powers.
Hope you will meditate with me on my little small thought and help me get it as right as it can be for my second publication.
Best regards
Maci
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Dear
Ben Levin
Your reasoning is impeccable, also it is well aligned with the era when the brain was considered to be what it is and never change which is by the way not along ago. Developments in brain plasticity have given more insights than we could have ever imagined. I would recommend my introductory paper published on my profile. the question is not the question of utility nor the question of already existing means. the questions here above all are: : can we ignite and shape our brain plasticity to suit the requirements of given tensions of paradox. Can we develop an organization culture where an answer that does not satisfy two divergent goals is considered not enough? can we think and act on different level than the one we know? from this point onward the issues you brought become dependent on the bigger picture which allows us to even push harder taking in consideration that the nature of the paradoxes is abound and last but not least some paradoxes are not meant to be solved they just replaced.
I hope that would help with some new insights and i believe that once i am done with my research and finally some university grants me a chance to graduate everyone will have the chance to apply paradox tensions to their advantage.
please stay tuned i will publish my next article on the above concept very soon and i will upload it here right away.
my best regards,
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How are names given to drugs? Is there any online site where i can get to know the origin of name of the drugs?
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I’ve researched drug etymologies for the last five years. I am publishing a book titled “Drug Etymologies: Where Medications get their name January 2020. ISBN 9781078485777. I have about 440 medications in the book with the origin of the generic name and one of the trade names. If there is any specific medication you would like to know the etymology, right now, let me know.
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Dr. Mann.
So glad you are working in a school! Your research about morphology and literacy has been an important influence.
While I continue to publish, my main focus is working directly with schools and educators to help them understand English orthography so that they can target that understanding in literacy instruction from the beginning of formal instruction. My 2018 article with my brother, Jeff Bowers (https://tinyurl.com/y9gh6l8e) addresses this issue. Morphology is key, of course, but it's really about the interrelation of morphology, etymology and phonology. The evidence from meta-analyses of morphological instruction is that it brings the greatest benefits to younger and less able students.
However, few have an image of what morphology instruction can look like in early literacy instruction let alone orthographic instruction. I thought you might be interested in
Some practical examples from schools I've been working with. This recent piece shares examples from pre-school to Gr. 2 that may interest you. https://tinyurl.com/y7oan9wz.
If you find that useful, I'd be delighted to discuss any aspect of this kind of instruction further with you. I'm not good at Research Gate. Feel free to email me at peterbowers1@mac.com
You can see the practical work I'm doing at my website www.wordworkskingston.com
Regardless, I'm always excited to see researchers diving into schools!
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Texting in Arabic is called Franco-Arabic. Can anyone let me know its etymology? Thank you very much indeed!
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I don't think that franco-arabe means texting someone in Arabic. As hyphenation suggests, it is a mixture of Arabic and French, a case of code-mixing in the dialects of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia as a result of French cultural colonization. True, most often in texting people French is transliterated in Arabic, but that does not make such texting franco-arabe.
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Dear community,
since my trip to the EAA in Barcelona the similarity between "Catalunya" and the "Catalaunian" fields/Chalons-sur-Marne is circulating in my mind.
The internet does not seem to be informed, and I can't spend time for extensive research, as I am only curious.
Is this more than an incidence, or ist there some idea About a historical connection?
Thanks for getting this out of my brain,
Eva
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Hi! The place name Catalunya has received a lot of attention by onomasticians, who have formulated different explanations regarding the lexical origin and motivation of the toponym. Authors link it to Latin, Arabic, Gothic or Celtic etymons. The first mention of the toponym dates from the XII century, which is comparatively late - especially if a Celtic origin of the name is contemplated. However, a possible link with the tribal name Catalaunes has recently been discussed again by Jörg Timmermann (2015). ¿Cataluña - una etimología céltica? Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 131(3), 605-631. Not many authors seem to align with this theory though. So, nothing definitive. I hope this helps anyway!
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Democracy emerged in ancient Greece as a form of government based on the participation of all citizens in assembly with the aim of jointly taking government decisions. In its etymology, the word democracy means literally "government of the people," but its meaning is complex and has been transformed since the time of the Greeks. Today, democracy has become the dominant political regime in most Western countries. Follow below the differences between representative democracy and participatory democracy.
Actually it became a political party’s profession and career for mandatory participation to gain the power in elections. Should we reconsider the old definition and reformulate it to research if still is possible to exist a direct democracy?
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Artur, not really-my concern is with understanding the nature of democracy. My attempt was to place a corrective against attempts at idealisation, certainly of its earliest form. Do I have only one layer to my argument, one string to my bow-No.
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'Blue Lotus's(Neelambuj,Nilambuj),is mentioned in Ancient Indian literature,as one of the most sacred flowers.
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Reply from Dr Gandhi:
Re: Blue lotus
Gandhi, Kanchi Natarajan <gandhi@oeb.harvard.edu>
To Subir Bandyopadhyay <subirbandyopadhyay@yahoo.com>
Saturday, April 21, 2018 5:08 PM
Sometimes, one should not literally translate terms.
In English, there are various color terms, but color terms in Indian languages may be limited.
In Nelumbo, the “Nelum” (“e” as long vowel) may not treated as blue; may apply to light blue, purple, or pink.
Anyway, ultimately the genus name came from Egyptian language to Greek.
We all can speculate, but unless someone is a scholar in ancient Egyptian language, what new info one can produce?
Best,
KNG
Hi, Subir Ban…
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I would like to find out if German speakers of English tend to use the /w/ sound too often (e.g. in words like victim, valley or Vienna) if they try to avoid pronouncing /w/ as /v/ which is a typical mistake for German speakers.
Thank you very much for your help!
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Thank you for your recommendations!
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I am in search  numeral data sets for different languages. I already have the famous data sets used in recent research papers for Arabic, English, Persian/Farsi. However, for other languages even though there is some published research, yet the authors never made the data sets readily available online...
If anyone can help in this issue...
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Same answer, yes, as Conor Snoek's. Follow the link given there. TB
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What is Vespa minima Poda, 1760?
Poda collected this species probably around Graz (Austria). Type or the originla collection lost..
Nobody registers it as synonym name but no one may find this species in the Austrian list of Aculeata either. Per moment it is uncertain name. 
Probably it is a small Vespoidea (Eumenidae?) or Sphecoidea.
Please, find the original decription attached.
Probably somebody who is competent in European Vespoidea or Sphecoidea could recognise it.
Let's try it. Please, check the description attached.
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I have a search engine based on Apache Solr, and i want to use stem of words. What is the best Arabic stemmer in order to use in search engines?
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You may look at a JAVA Arabic stemmer that is based on Shereen Khoja algorithm. This java class offers a function called stemWrod which takes an arabic word and return the stem of it.
You may also review other Arabic  stemmers @ https://sites.google.com/site/nlp4arabic/
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"Building Bridges" is a very likable metaphor, one of the most vivid, in my opinion, within Cold War, especially Detente rhetoric. Yet the roots of an idea that certain nations are suited to become intermediaries between East and West are older. I can trace aspirations for such a role in my research, concerning WWII governments-in-exile, in 1943, 1944. There I got curious: Who was the first to employ the metaphor in the said context? "Oxford English Dictionary" lists NYT´s W. Safire in 1967 which looks pretty late to me. I also count on possibility that the concept predates the coinage.
Any ideas? Research available?
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Very old: pontifex maximus.
Julius Caesar once was the pontifex maximus.
And lawyer.
Regards,
Joachim
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Looking for the origin of the word anxiety in Spanish language
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Thank you very much for the useful information. It is so kind of you. Best wishes and thanks again
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Does someone known the meaning of "phrudus" in this Molossidae species? Handley (1956) wrote: "With allusion to their type locality, the 'Lost City' of Machu Picchu', they are here named (...)".
From what language does this "phrudus" comes from, and how it alludes to Machu Picchu?
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Apparently from Greek phroudos = "removed from the way".
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Take any word, for ex.:
a branch - a plant, a branch of a nerve/ blood vessel, a branch of organization/ family,  a branch of a river, a branchof a road,,,
How is it correlated with language - speech division?
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I would largely agree with Ulrike, that the distinction between "homonym" and "polyseme" is an artificial one, but the distinction is most often one made, not by linguists, but by dictionary makers (or their editorial staff, most of whom have no special training in linguistics), often based on purely economic concerns -- how many pages should be in a dictionary  for the publisher to make a profit. The fewer headwords, the more definitions that can be packed into a space. There is thus an economic incentive to have as few separate "homonyms" as possible. The criterion of "context of use", as in the bank - bank example, may often be employed. At other times, historical alterations in spelling, as in flour - flower may impel a decision. But I have occasionally been surprised to realize that a term I learned in one context was actually a metaphorical extension of a term I had known all along from another context.  Speakers of a language are for the most part totally unaware of the etymology of words, so this could only be an equally artificial criterion invented by linguists who are familiar with the history of the language.
  --Rudy
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Earlier in my studies of Historical Linguistics and Classical Latin I hypothesized of Common-Slavic *muži "man" (alongside with Lithuanian žmuo, Latin homo, -inis, Old-English guma) to have descended from PIE root for "earth" *dhegh'- in the form of *dhgh'-m-ón "earthling" contradicting the contemporary explanation reasoning that the Common Slavic word was a borrowing from Germanic *man- but failing to explain the /ž/ element in it /ref. Machek: Slovak and Czech Etymological Dictionary, 1975/.
Now, I wonder what the modern PIE etymology has to say about this, whether it's been resolved for good in the meantime, and what is the current state of affairs. Was I right back then?
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Hello Wolfgang,
are there any analogies where we have -u- stems with -(s)yo-suffix becoming voiced in Common Slavic? And is that related to PIE *man- (Lat. manus, OldNorse mund "hand, protection"?
To sum up, there are two possible etymologies:
1) *dhgm-on-yo- an -n- stem from *dheg- "earth" as pointed out by Caka and myself. This needs ž to be explained by metathesis. There's also the Matasovic law of g lost before m issue. Lithuanian etymology would be helpful.
Possible cognates: Lat. homo, Germ. guma, Lith. žmuo
2) *man-u-syo- originally a derivative from *man- "hand" (?) as in Machek, which needs ž to be explained through voicing.
Possible cognates: OldInd. manusya, Germ. manwaz, Lat. manus
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I feel certain that the term was applied only in a certain type of landscape, perhaps referring to a type of "sticky" or "pole-like" [palo-verde ?] vegetation, although I've seen it used OUTSIDE the range of growth of palo-verde, but seemingly ALWAYS there is some other type of distinctive sticky type of growth (and on plains, too) in the area of this placename. Could it be a diminutive for little-trancas, as some dictionaries suggest? I probably NEED to know what was in the MIND of the Spanish fathers who doled-out the names (largely in the 18th century), rather than what some later etymologists thought (think) about the term :(
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Gracia a ti
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Derivate and Derive. Why is the noun form of derive not derival (like arrive-arrival, survive-survival, )? Are derivation, derivative related to derivate or derive? Is derivation the noun form of derive or derivate? Moreover, derivative should be related to derivate and not derive.
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Dear Glen
Shall I try? It needs some discourse; bear with me.
When milk (or buttermilk) is churned with a churner (a sort of ladle), after some time, the butter separates out. The churning causes separation of the butter ‘particles’ which then agglutinate. Here you derive the butter from the milk, the churning is how you derivate it, and the butter is the derivative (a product of the derivation) , and the ladle or churner is the ‘derivator’, ie that which ‘derivates’ the butter separating it from the fluid part. How I got the idea? Well derivate is ultimately from the Latin verb derivare. Latin is an IE language. In Sanskrit and Malayalam (Malayalam is a fusion of two Languages, Dravidian and Sanskrit, 80% of them derived from Sanskrit; but I think a good many entered Sanskrit from Latin through Malayalam; this one of my pet topics). In both Malayalam and Sanskrit, there is a word -darva- which means a ladle, and this, I believe, is the root of the Latin derivare . This is what set me off. I think English (and probably Latin Linguists) forgot the true meaning of this, but Malayalam and Sanksrit, the borrowers retained the root itself.
Am I logical and right?
Narayanan
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Can anyone explain the relation, in meaning, morphology and etymology, between berate, liberate and deliberate/de-liberate. Also, that between librate, abrate, de-librate (if there can be such a word) and celebrate. Can one both nominate and denominate a person for a position? And what is the relation of denominator to the above nominates? What are the meanings of the prefix de- and which of them are applicable in the above instances? And how did the top become numerator and the bottom the denominator?
Narayanan
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Berate, however, is from the English be- tagged on to the obsolete verb to rate, meaning to scold, akin to the Swedish rata, to upbraid.
Ultimately it's all Indo-European, closely akin to Sanskrit and most European language families.
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The English words, Turkish, Turkic, Turk are derived from the common source 'türk' either directly or through some other language. But I would like to know the etymological source and the meaning of it in the Turkish language.
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According to Bozkurt (1992), the name "Türk" first appears as "t'ou-kiue" in Chinese sources in the 6th Century. This transliteration must have originated from "türküt" in Turkish, which meant "powerful", but later on gained other meanings such as "maturity", "youth", "brave", "hard" in Diwan poetry. Another hypothesis is that the word goes back to "türük", a derivative of "türe", which meant something like law, cultural norm and tradition (Modern Turkish "töre"). So, "türük" was probably used to denominate people who abide by customs and traditions. Indeed, the word "tüzük" still exists in Modern Turkish and means "law" or "regulation". The /r/-/z/ sound change, which is also attested in other forms, is probably the reason how "türük" became "tüzük". As such, this latter explanation sounds more plausible. Naturally, the word must have gained other meanings throughout history such as "powerful", "brave", "youthful" in Diwan poetry, as mentioned above.
Sources:
Fuat Bozkurt (1992). Türklerin Dili. 5. Baskı. Kapı Yayınları.
M. Sadık Acar. Türk sözcüğü. http://kisi.deu.edu.tr/sadik.acar/dosyalar/TS.pdf
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To use a language as a scientific lingua franca can give advantages and disadvantages for the members of the scientific community on the basis of their culture and mother tongue. The status of a scientific or international language developed historically and not according to logical ideas and decisions on equal opportunity. I have tried to classify former scientific languages and some present candidates. I - as a European with my own experiences and preconceptions - have found Italian and German languages as the best fits. I am waiting for your opinion and reasons.
Characteristics of the ideal international scientific language
Grammar: easy
Vocabulary: well known
Script: easy
Pronunciation: easy
Giving equal opportunity: perfect = dead language
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: none (= economy and politics do not influence the choice)
Characteristics of historical international scientific languages and candidates
Greek
Grammar: not easy
Vocabulary: well known
Script: not easy
Pronunciation: not easy
Giving equal opportunity? yes, one mother country
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: historically yes
Strong economic/political background: none
Latin
Grammar: difficult
Vocabulary: well known
Script: easy
Pronunciation: relatively easy
Giving equal opportunity? perfect
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: historically yes
Strong economic/political background: none
Arabic
Grammar: very difficult
Vocabulary: very difficult
Script: very difficult
Pronunciation: very difficult
Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: historically yes
Strong economic/political background: too many countries
Chinese
Grammar: I do not know
Vocabulary: very difficult (for Europeans at least)
Script: very difficult
Pronunciation: very difficult
Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: world power
English
Grammar: at the beginning easy, then difficult
Vocabulary: well known
Script: OK
Pronunciation: difficult
Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: world power
French
Grammar: difficult
Vocabulary: well known
Script: OK
Pronunciation: difficult
Giving equal opportunity? one mother country
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: none
German
Grammar: relatively easy
Vocabulary: well known
Script: easy
Pronunciation: easy
Giving equal opportunity? two mother countries (Switzerland has four official languages)
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: none
Russian
Grammar: difficult
Vocabulary: not so easy
Script: easy
Pronunciation: easy
Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: world power
Italian
Grammar: easy
Vocabulary: well known
Script: easy
Pronunciation: easy
Giving equal opportunity? one country
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: none
Spanish
Grammar: not so easy
Vocabulary: well known
Script: easy
Pronunciation: not so easy
Giving equal opportunity? too many native speakers
Strong cultural background: yes
Strong scientific background: yes
Strong economic/political background: too many countries
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Language creates scientific isolation. I would involve even more competent science translaters, e.g. not only to translate books (which is frequently done), but also well appreciated review papers that were published in top journals (which is rarely or not done).
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Does anyone know who the first (systems-, software-, ...) engineer was to coin this term? Merriam-Webster says the term has been around since 1662.
I will soon be looking at the paper titled “Conceptual models for determining information requirements” by J. C. Miller, 1964, but I don't know if this is a match yet.
The first software engineering paper to implicitly define the term was presented by Royce in 1970.
W. W. Royce, “Managing the development of large software systems,” presented at the IEEE WESCON, 1970, pp. 1–9.
The first software engineering paper to dedicate a section to the term was the one by Bell and Thayer of 1976.
T. E. Bell and T. A. Thayer, “Software requirements: Are they really a problem?,” presented at the 2nd international conference on Software engineering, San Francisco, California, United States, 1976, pp. 61–68.
Do you know earlier ones?
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I found a new citation:
"The final element in a data processing problem is the set of operational requirements of the system. These are the requirements that are not related to the logic of the problem [...]"
J. W. Young Jr. and H. K. Kent, “Abstract formulation of data processing problems,” Journal of Industrial Engineering, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 471–479, November-December 1958.