Questions related to Ethnography
Has anybody done research on the possible relationship between the medieval taedium vitae, and the modern cultural fatigue? I touch upon this issue just passing by in a chapter entitled El ser para la muerte, de mi libro "Historia y Etnografía de la indumentari indígena en México"
This Summer, I'm enrolled in a doctoral research course on ethnographic methods. My team chose non-participant observation of a popular location in a large city we can observe via Webcam.
Our research questions relate to how people interact in the location now that mandated CoVid restrictions have been lifted.
I am trying to locate literature that is on-point (CoVid-related) or strongly related (post-pandemic or catastrophe) and can support our findings.
We realize the nature of ethnography means there may not have been time for publication of relevant studies. However, there could be conference presentations or scholarship under review for publication.
If anyone can provide recommendations of material for me to search out, I'd be grateful.
Hello! I'm writing my (anthropology) thesis on the taboo of the prostate and how men's sexuality is shaped by patriarchal gender norms. This means I need to conduct an ethnography on my university campus, interviewing students about their sexual practices. Since this is a delicate topic and I'm not sure how to formulate my interview questions, I was wondering if any of you know of an ethnography/book/documentary/article/interview that I could use to get inspiration from. The sources don't have to be anthropological, any help is much appreciated :)
- I am looking for an app (Android), which can facilitiate a qualitative, digital ethnography study with a main component of diary entries in form of visual, text and audio.
- I plan to work with 10-20 participants based in Tanzania over a duration of 18 months.
- I have so far primarily used WhatsApp (chat and call for both self-reporting and interview over video/phone) based on the idea of using a tool participants already are familiar with, but it is hard to structure/organise mixed data and many participants.
- I have checked out dScout, Indeemo and FlexMR, but I have different kinds of doubt (approach and budget) + this earlier thread from 2014 https://www.researchgate.net/post/Is_there_an_existing_digital_tool_for_diary_studies
Any suggestions for free apps, apps particularly directed at ethnographic research (and not marketing) are very much welcome as well as any research papers on the use of diary studies combined with digital ethnography (preferably in Africa) and/ or the use of whatsapp in qualitative research in Africa (I am familiar with https://edoc.unibas.ch/51923/1/20161216110618_5853bc9abba73.pdf)
I ask students in my methods classes to complete CITI training, this is an ethics training program supported by our university and approval is critical for anyone that will conduct human subject research. Would be interested to learn how people incorporate CITI training and ethics into their class.
For me, what started as an ethics week (many years ago) has developed into a part of the discussion throughout the semester. We focus on identifying not only ethics as defined by the university and CITI but also in terms of our roles, our connections to our respondents and so forth.
My PhD research examines the influence of pastoral leadership on community development. From a constructivist perspective, and having read scholarships to that effect, I intend to employ ethnography plus case study. Thus, the design includes observation, interviews and questionnaire.
Any thought on this methodology/method will be much appreciated.
I have moved away from asking students in a variety of classes (ethnographic methods, introductions to anthropology as well as advanced courses) to develop unique projects. I have a few reasons for these changes and am interested in learning what others think.
In place of unique projects, I give students short "experiments" where they can apply effort to specific work. For example, in methods, I give students a subject and ask them to develop questions, analyze responses, think about ethics and about what does and does not work. My goal is to teach the conduct of inquiry and it is my belief that regardless of the project, there are some basic skills that will define success. Additionally, anthropological research does not take place in the span of a few weeks--and teaching students they can successfully complete a project in a semester is problematic to say the least. So, my question is how do you manage classes where students are learning methods or applying anthropological concepts? Do you give students free reign to develop a project they are interested in? Do you give students an assigned series of exercises? Or is there an alternative that works for you that I and others can learn from?
I am studying mobility and socio-cultural interactions among palaeohistorical hunters-fishers-gatherers in the Laurentian part of the Subarctic. My main research hypothesis is that rivers and watersheds are "vectors" that had a structuring role on mobility and social interactions. Since I am interested in examples that has been documented around the world, can you recommend me ethnographies, archaeological publications or researchers that have studied watershed in order to understand cultural or sociological phenomena?
I have observed events, i wanted to know are there any specifications on how long to stay in the field? And in case of events how many events are sufficient to cover? References will be appreciated.
Hi, I am looking for research that offers an insight into how Deleuze's ontology of time is translated to methodology( ethnography). I would be grateful for your insight.
I am looking for texts on digital, virtual ethnography, and/or netnography. I accept suggestions for textbooks and materials that can be enlightening.
Good morning all,
I am in the first year of my PhD looking at entrepreneurial opportunity and collective identity construction processes in socially-orientated start-ups.
I had planned to start data collection this coming September using traditional ethnographic methods, such as non-participant observations, interviews, story-boarding and content analysis. Given the current climate and the uncertainty regarding 'normal' working practices going forward, I may not be able to secure ethical clearance to be able to undertake such research due to the high level of risk for participants and the degree of uncertainty as to how such risks can be mitigated at this stage. Of course, I need to secure ethical clearance before I undertake any research and so in order to start collecting data in September as desired, I need to look to potential alternative methods.
Does anyone have any experience of conducting an ethnography of organisational studies utilising remote technologies or able to point me in the direction of useful papers on netography/ alternative ethnographic methods when face to face is not possible? Or, if you are in a similar situation, are you able to share your approach towards your ethnography research design and ethical clearance during the current climate?
I would be grateful for any ideas and suggestions.
As part of a project on (the postcolonial aspects of) the prediction of juvenile crime in the Caribbean, we are writing about the occurrence of silence in ethnography. We are interested in how the ethnographer's own stance and manners during fieldwork hamper the voice of participants, as well as in the postcolonial dimensions of this process. We noticed for instance that in our own study at a juvenile detention centre in Willemstad (Curacao), our own conceptions of childhood (and the way we asked questions about it) stood in the way of the young detainees to speak their mind.
Who has suggestions that can help us out with (more general) literature on the production of silences in ethnography? They would help a lot, thank you.
Radboud University, the Netherlands
I am doing a research paper in which I will have to do semi-structured interviews to a group of SMEs from my hometown to analyze and define their needs and interests. Which tradition of qualitative research fits best here?
I discarded Grounded Theory because this would suit better a social research paper (mine is entrepreneurial). It is no use either to do a case study. Phenomenology might be too philosophical for my topic (circular economy: would SMEs have an interest to switch from throwing their glass bottles and recycle them to washing them?). So I'm torn between field research and ethnography. I don't know wich one is better. Does it make it more complicated to use both?
Thank you very much!
I am seaching for a software that would enable me to create a database constitued of PDF files of older ethnographies of north american indigenous peoples. Here I'm thinking of ethnographies like those produced by the Bureau of American Ethnology or by the National Museum of Man in Canada. I want to classify the ethnographies by linguistic families and to be able to seach by keywords in the text of the PDFs (most files enables keywords research nowadays). The aim of this database would be to facilitate comparative work. So, ideally, the software or the platform would allow to add another level of classification, such as a typology (X-, Y- or Z-type of conceiving a given concept). Ideally the software would also allow the database to be shared with other researchers. I know Endnote would allow this type of work, with some limits. Maybe there would be better a better way to handle this ?
I'm a bit new to these aspects of survey design and analysis. What should I read and what are some approaches to the following situation and question?
- We've a population-of-interest based on an affiliation, certain actions, or a set of ideas; (e.g., 'vegetarians' or 'tea-party conservatives)... call it the "Movement"
- There has never been a national representative survey nor a complete enumeration of this group. There is no 'gold standard'
- For several years we've advertised a survey (with a donation reward) in several outlets (web pages, forums, listserves which we call 'referrers') associated with the 'movement'
- We can track responses from each referrer. We suspect some referrers are more broadly representative of the movement as a whole than others, but of course there is no gold standard.
This is essentially a 'convenience sample', perhaps more specifically a 'river sample' (using the notation of Baker et al, 2013) or 'opt-in web-based sample'. It is probably non-representative because of
- Exclusion/coverage bias: Some members of the movement will not be aware of the survey (they don't visit any of the outlets or they don't notice it)
- Participation/non-response bias: Among those aware (through visiting the 'referrers') only a smallish share complete the survey (and these likely tend to be the more motivated and time rich individuals). Some outlets/referrers may also promote the survey more prominently than others.
We wish to measure:
- The (changing) demographics (and size) of the movement
- Measures of the demographics, beliefs, behavior, and attitudes of people in the movement (and how these have changed from year to year)
Our methodological questions
Analysis: Are there any approaches that would be better than 'reporting the unweighted raw results' (e.g., weighting, cross-validating something or other) to using this "convenience/river' sample to either:
i. Getting results (either levels or changes) likely to be more 'representative of the movement as a whole' then our unweighted raw measures of the responses in each year?
ii. Getting measures of the extent to which our reports are likely to be biased ... perhaps bounds on this bias.
Survey design: In designing future years' surveys, is there a better approach?
Brainstorming some responses...
- E.g., as we can separately measure demographics (as well as stated beliefs/attitudes) for respondents from each referrer, we could consider testing the sensitivity of the results to how we weight responses from each referrer.
- Or we might consider using the demographics derived from some weighted estimate of surveys in all previous years to re-weight the survey data in the present year to be "more representative."
- As noted we subjectively think that some referrers are more representative than others, sSo maybe we can do something with this using Bayesian tools
- We may have some measures of the demographics of participants on some of the referrers, which might be used to consider weighting to deal with differential non-response
- Would 'probability sampling' within each outlet (randomly choosing a small share within each to actively recruit/incentivize, perhaps stratifying within each outlet if the outlet itself provides us demographics) somehow be likely to lead to a more representative sample?
It's not immediately obvious to me why this would improve things. The non-response within probability samples would seem to be an approximately equivalent problem to the limited participation rate in the convenience sample. The possible advantages I see would be:
i. We could offer somewhat-stronger incentives for the probability sample, and perhaps reduce this non-response/non-participation rate and consequent biases.
ii. If we can connect to an independent measure of participant demographics from the the outlets themselves this might allow us to get a better measure of the differential rates of non-participation by different demographics, and adjust for it.
Some references (what else should I read?)
Baker, R., Brick, J.M., Bates, N.A., Battaglia, M., Couper, M.P., Dever, J.A., Gile, K.J., Tourangeau, R., 2013. Summary report of the AAPOR task force on non-probability sampling. Journal of survey statistics and methodology 1, 90–143.
Salganik, M.J., Heckathorn, D.D., 2004. Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociological methodology 34, 193–240.
Schwarcz, S., Spindler, H., Scheer, S., Valleroy, L., Lansky, A., 2007. Assessing Representativeness of Sampling Methods for Reaching Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Direct Comparison of Results Obtained from Convenience and Probability Samples. AIDS Behav 11, 596. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9232-9
I am struggling to define the methodology for the qualitative approach of my research:
I just become familiar with phenomenology-based ethnography but not sure whether is the right choice:
My research project aims to explore the sense of belonging of immigrants through their spatial practice ( perception and use of public space).
The case study (which I am also a member of) is a group of immigrants from a specific ethnic in a specific city.
The research adopts a mixed-method, quantitative, and qualitative.
For the qualitative part:
Data collection is through semi-structured interviews and field research ( due to covid is on hold)
As I am a member of the same social group that I am investigating and considering the sense of belonging as the phenomenon in this research required strategies that can reveal data regarding the understanding of how the experience of immigrants in urban space, influence their belonging.
my questions are :
Is phenomenology-based ethnography is the right choice?
And within this methodology for data collection, the “life-world analytical ethnography” (Honer and Hitzler, 2015) is the approach.
Regarding the analysis of the data, it was suggested that the hermeneutical-phenomenological analysis (Soeffner, 2004) through inductive thematic analysis of the interview transcript is suggested
As all of these methodology and analysis methods are new to me, Am I mixing so many methods and approaches all together?
And what are your thoughts on how to avoid presupposition and prejudgement as the researcher within this analysis method?
I have just completed my PhD thesis - Adapting Photovoice to Visualise and Influence Environmental Behaviour across Australia, Bangladesh, and China (Monash University - Design), exploring using photovoice methods across multiple geographic sites to facilitate dialog between and amongst these communities using various participatory techniques, specifically with innovation in audience engagement.
The journey has taken me across 17 discrete participatory-action-research cycles
spanning 4 years, where I partnered with 19 local organisations to run 80 workshops, 8 community exhibitions, and 3 community interview events across 4 separate sites spanning Australia, Bangladesh, and China. Over 700 participants attended workshops and collectively created over 500 photo-stories. I focussed on environmental behaviour, but these methods - like photovoice generally - are applicable to a wide range of themes.
Now I have finally emerged from the tunnel of my PhD, I am looking for future opportunities to use these learnings in other projects and connect with like-minded peers.
Thus I am interested to see who else / what other current and future projects are working on similar methodological adaptations in photovoice or related visual methods?
I have attached the full thesis text here if it is useful to others. I am also happy to receive feedback.
thanks and all the best,
It is much said about doing qualitative research and field study. I'm curious about your hints/experiences in doing ethnography in hostile environment touching sensitive topics (marginalized areas, communities involved in illegal activities). How you are working with researcher's positionality and emotions?
I have completed, and thematically coded over 300 survey responses. These have been screened to provide 15 interview candidates who were interviewed in their homes (semi-structured with accompanying field notes) as a second source of data. Interviews were reflective of survey responses given. Area of research is a social attitude towards a particular everyday practice.
With the Mexican Circle of Korean Studies (https://www.facebook.com/CMEC.edu/) we are looking to build a latin-american perspective of korean studies, so we are wondering about the pioneer works and classic texts which are part of the korean studies in and outside of Korea. Thank you so much!
I am MBA candidate in Japan and studying about relationship between qualitative research ( ethnography and etc ) and ideation activity (such as brainstorming, design thinking workshop).
So far there seems to be NO academic essays regarding how the fieldwork for ideation should be like. Any tips or suggestion would be much appreciated.
In the time of Pandemic, it is hard to spend a long time in field research. Carrying out ethnography is very hard in these hard times. Patchwork ethnography might be a good option but there are certain methodological issues too. One can share his/her better understanding here.
I am a PhD scholar of Humanities and my research is broadly connected to Anthropological studies and framework. I have also published with an Anthropological journal of global repute and looking forward to doing a few more. Will my PhD benefit me in Postdoc/Jobs in the field of Anthropology too? I am asking about its scope in India as well as abroad.
My colleague and I conducted 19 hours of participant observation of an ethnography stud. We had to stop our observation due to COVID. Would this be enough for publication? How many hours are generally good for publications for ethnography studies?
For example, the meaning attributed to "follow the phenomena" ¿could be deployed in relation to different places and contexts located in the same geographic space? Is it a multi-sited ethnography when we observe different and connected process, but they occur in different institutional contexts, places and involving different subjects?
COVID - 19 is spreading rapidly. The government of India has now extended lockdown. And this is the situation in most of the countries. What the anthropologists, sociologists will do as they can not go to the field due to lock down and can not conduct research at the field level among the people due to the rule of social distancing. In this situation do you think that cyber ethnography is the only alternative left with us?
This virtual workshop strives to highlight opportunities and limitations of ethnography for scholarly works on paradoxes. To meet this goal, we will first have an expert panel discussion, followed by short presentations and feedback on selected extended abstracts.
We invite you to submit an extended abstract (750-1000 words) of your ethnographic research studying paradoxes. Given the methodological focus of this workshop, themes are not restricted to a particular set of topics. Your ethnography on paradoxes might range from the study of organizational cultures, to grand challenges, to digitalization, etc. We especially encourage PhD students and junior scholars to join.
We will host two separate sessions to allow for attendance from different time zones.
Our exciting panel will vary per session and will include:
Eric Knight, Rebecca Bednarek, Tammar Zilber
09:00-10:30 (UTC+02:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Bern, Rome, Stockholm, Vienna
Mark de Rond and Natalie Slawinski
16:00-17:30 (UTC+02:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Bern, Rome, Stockholm, Vienna
You can find more information on this and other sessions at: http://leveragingtensions.com/ethnography-and-paradox/
And you can sign up and submit your abstract at:
We look forward to your submission,
Angela Greco & Katrin Heucher
Dear colleagues, I am searching for recent papers in the field of workplace studies/studies of work that cover the topics sustainability, packaging, retailing, food, plastic, technological innovations.
Thanks in andvance for any suggestions,
I'm doing an insider ethnography and using mixed method approach among disaster survivors resilience. As I belong to the same population pool as that of participants, it is said that ethnography should begin with qualitative but based on my prior observation and experience of the incident, is it acceptable to use quantitative survey first and elaborate the concepts and constructs with qualitative method later with the same participants and settings later again?
I am currently conducting a research on the use of online communities of older adults and would like to identify the themes in their community posts. I will be collecting their social media posts and is interested in using a qualitative analysis software. Any recommendations?
When we carry out qualitative research, we often mention a specific design, such as case study, narrative research, phenomenology and so forth. Do you think it is OK to design, carry out and report your study without reference to any specific qualitative research designs and just to say, "This is a qualitative study"? How appropriate is this? And are there any sources that support the use of such a study without a specific qualitative design?
I’ve come across several articles explaining Qualitative Descriptive Approach in Health Sciences specifically where the reseacher is not bound to choose GT, phenomenology, Ethnography etc.
now what I’m curious to know is that can I use QD in social sciences where I could ask participants about their views using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis as data analysis method.
I would be interested in resources that pertain to how identity or the different roles we possess in dance making (dancer, teacher, spectator, mentor, etc.) influence creative processes in creating choreography. I am particularly interested in social dance, but any dance style examined with this research question in mind is warmly welcomed!
Thank you in advance!
I'm currently doing a literature scan on the potential value of ethnographic research with regard to creating social change, primarily in the context of how an ethnography has led to specific policy changes or how it has improved business processes (e.g. related to safety). Who can point me in some direction? I'd like to know about both the ethnography itself as well as the source that explains how the ethnography has made an actual impact.
Dear colleagues and friends;
I am preparing a project of ethnography course for my graduating students, so i'm asking about the best and innovative practical and method to teach a methodological Course such as: The Ethnography?
It is believed that children may not lend necessary cooperation to an “adult childhood researcher” for various reasons. One obvious reason is that s/he belongs to a different generation and therefore is not part of the children’s culture. Such a situation may prompt the “adult childhood researcher” to engage a “child researcher“ for his/her ethnographic writings. In case of such an engagement of a “child researcher” by the “adult researcher” for gathering quality field data for writing a child-centered ethnography, what are the preparatory steps that s/he needs to complete as part of research methodology and ethics?
Do our inner narratives influence movement? If so, would movement then influence the narrative as well? What do our inner narratives reveal about culture and the world of movement around us?
Can the process of dance-making be described in ways that have utility beyond the personal narrative?
I am currently researching the role of the narrative in dancers and would be interested in resources as well!
I'm planning to do an ethnography study of male migrant workers' mental health (as part of a mixed-methods study). Any suggestions or good examples?
Observation (participant/direct) is one of the data collection methods in qualitative research (e.g.ethnographic study). I am just wondering how consent is sought in such a way that behaviors of those being observed will not be affected? What are the common requirements (or comments) of IRBs in using this method of data collection?
I am interested in research about the operational system of political decision-making and the barriers to good, longterm decisions. As to challenges like climate change, for example, it seems obvious that we would need cross-sectoral, systemic and solution-oriented collaborative processes instead of interested-based, short-term thinking (often along party lines and blocked between different ministries). Before we come up with proposals of institutional design we need to have a good empirical basis for where the barriers of good decision-making really are. Do you know of any? Perhaps research in ethnography or political anthropology?
Many thanks in advance!
where are we heading when it comes to autoethnographic research? with ethnography being very well accepted in the academic circles and autoethnography slowly but surely picking up steam since the last two decades, what are your opinions of the future of autoethnographic research in social sciences.
The current climate protests are planned for at least 107 countries this friday (24.5). My research team in planning on doing ethnographical observations and interviews at the demonstrations in Oslo, Norway. Is anyone else looking at this worldwide phenomenon?
If so, what is your focus? Would love to discuss methodologies used to investigate this!
We come from cultural, and community psychology, so thats broadly the kind of focus we would use. Planning a mixed-methods project.
I have a few students working under my guidance for their masters dissertation. They have chosen social media related subjects. I am keen that they use social media ethnography as a method and as an approach to study content on social media. I am looking for easy and simple reading material for my students so that they can understand the method and apply it to their own work. It will be helpful even if there are a few studies that they can use to check how other researchers have used this method.
I am doing online ethnography, need to analyse the content meaning, narrative and theme of people's social media posts on a specific social event.
The problem is: There are tens of thousands of posts need to collect, Simply copy them to a Word file cost too much time and I want to save all the data as soon as possible because it might be deleted suddenly due to censorship.
This social media is a Chinese one. Desperate to ask for help.
In the research methods classes I teach students may ask why bother with the small sample size ethnographic type of study that produces data that is prone to error and subjectivity when there is big data that can be accessed and SurveyMonkey, Twitter, etc., which can yield more robust data from enormous samples? What would your answer be?
Ethnography has been used in marketing and consumer research for many years. If you were designing a textbook for consumer ethnography, what chapters would you include?
I am looking for research that does not merely defend their choices of method and methodology but also describes and problematises the complexities and troubles in doing empirical work - in the ethnographic tradition of the field of "Science and Technology Studies".
Although I already finished one research project which includes visual data analysis I'm still looking for tips and tricks on visual data analysis.
How do You collect data?
How do You analyse visual data?
How do You interpret visual data?
What are your topics of visual data analysis?
And here you are piece of work which I am co-author:
It has been said that ethnographies operate a dubious alchemy by transforming gold into lead, by translating the richness of field experience into a static text. Can we imagine ethnographic writing that opens possibilities, that acts as a generator of multiple meanings and narratives rather than as a trace of an interpretive process that has already passed? Plurivocality, co-construction of knowledge, and participatory approaches might address issues of authority, but in the end the ethnographic text still often feels as an end-result. What strategies have you employed, or would like to explore, that would rather make the ethnographic text a starting point for the production of multiple meanings?
I am interested to learn about any publications and thoughts about the way indigenous knowledge systems and processes were disturbed and marginalised by the colonisation,imperialism and modernity in the colonised global periphery? What responses social scientists and other activists are taking to address the situation? I am familiar with the work of Connell, Santos, Comeroff and Comeroff (focusing on Africa), Alatas, Chen (focusing on E.Asia) but like to know about other writings as well.
I am writing an essay on different types of qualitative research methodologies such as grounded theory, phenomenology and ethnography. I have to justify my eventual use of focus groups for upcoming research but I am not actually sure where focus groups fit into all of this?
I have a question about the formulation of hypothesis in an ethnographic research? i read a couple of books and found opposing views. In her discussion of participant-observation method, Schilling Estes (2013) says that we can "consider what we observe, formulating and reformulating hypotheses, then return back to the community for more focused observations based on our ever more finely tuned hypotheses" (p. 117), whereas Eckert (2000) notes that “Rather than testing hypotheses against predetermined categories, ethnography is, among other things, a search for local categories. Thus while survey fieldwork focuses on filling in a sample, ethnographic fieldwork focuses on finding out what is worth sampling.”. I am a bit confused which one is more suitable for an ethnographic fieldwork in a sociolinguistic study? to proceed with research questions or to formulate a testable hypothesis right from the scratch?
My study is about gender and sexuality education related to LGBTIQ community where, I used critical ethnography as the research methodology but I still in dilemma on presentation, analysis and interpretation of empirical data. Is there any specific style or method of data presentation and interpretation in critical ethnography?
The ambition of "co-producing" narratives with participants in a research is omnipresent in the social sciences. However, when the final outputs of a project take the form of texts, as they often do, sharing narrative authority is often more easily said than done. Collaborative storytelling is a promising avenue, and I would certainly like to learn more about experiences you might have had with this approach. Also, any thoughts on the possibility of maintaining participants' engagement of participants right through the authoring process would be most welcome.
We conducted a research aimed at identifying patterns in the selection of images used by Digital News Media specifically in the political beat and the subsequent impact it has on the news consumers perception. We used content analysis to understand the images used in these news pieces and tried decoding a pattern and establishing themes for articles from each of the selected media houses. Further audience interviews were taken to understand the impact of these images on their perception of these news articles. Can someone throw light as to what qualitative design does this fall under amongst Ethnography, Narrative, Phenomenological, Grounded Theory and Case Study?
- Would this be a topic that is too broad for a research study?
- What conceptual design would work best? Phenomenological or ethnography?
- When you picture a "flat organization" what comes to mind?
Does the perception of AI progression cause a lack of digital congruence, "thus" intensifying fear of risk within flat organizations?
Thank you for your opinions.
At this very moment (2 September; 22h00, local time), the National Museum (MN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), one of the most important museums of natural history in the world, is burning in flames.
In addition to the exhibitions open to the public, the MN housed some of the largest and most important scientific collections existing in Brazil. The collections of biological items included thousands of types (insects, reptiles, birds, mammals, plants, etc.).
To the taxonomists (and other colleagues): You could say how many specimens (mainly types) collected or described by you were deposited in MN? And to what taxonomic groups (family or above) these specimens belonged?
[In 2016, a coup d’état turned Brazil in a country with no future. Now, in his final months at the head of the Government, the President Michel Temer wants also to ensure that the country erase its own past.]
two questions emerge:
1. can Autoethnography be done by 2 people at all?
2. are we not mutually making meanings and therefore influencing each other?
3. can we be reflexive in explaining our findings and thereby negating the effects of our influence on each other?