Questions related to Essential Oils
I noted that multiple articles cite using dichloromethane after essential oil extraction to separate oil from aqueous phase, I wanted to know why is it used while there are protocols that note separation through an essential Oil Separator integrated into the Clevenger apparatus while hydro distillation process is ongoing?
the plant I'm trying to extract essential oil from have very tiny leaves which seep through the neck of the reservoir flask to the bottom flask where the distillation solvent is supposed to be
is there any solution to this problem please and thank you
I made a biological test to my essential oil as well as to the major compounds presents, and I found that my essential oil expressed a better activity than the pure compounds. I wanted to reproduce this activity with combining only the 4 major compounds.
Below is the percentage of the major compounds:
A. carvacrol: 24 %
B. fenchone: 18 %
C. sabinene: 13 %
D. terpinolene: 7 %
The total of major compounds represents 62% , and totaly I identified 95%
Could you suggest any help or article treating this question ?And thank you,
How do I quantitate the amount of essential oil in a sample? I have a sample which has different oils and also some other compounds, how can I say how much of each oil is in there if oil consists of different compounds itself? Can i just pick some particular unique compound from a composition of each oil and quantitate the whole oil in a sample based on that somehow? Or what would be the best way?
I run oils sepparatelly to see the composition of each, but when i run the mixture, i did not see all those peaks i saw in individual oils. And, obviously, some compounds were present in more than one oil resulting in peaks which could originate from different oils.
I am using GC-MS.
I have this situation when I am running a sample containing different esseantial oils. Some of the compounds (same) are contained in different essential oils. As a result, I get a peak for a particul compound which is contained in more than one oil, how can i quantitate the contribution of each oil to the same peak? Some of those compounds were also added to the mixture as pure standards, also contributing to the same peak.
I am using GC-MS.
I extracted essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus using hydro-distillation. Since the apparatus size is small I collected essential oil by adding diethyl ether along the valve side of clevenger. I got mixture of oil+water+diethyl ether. I added little amount of sodium sulfate , after dissolving it I got some white matter at the bottom.
How should I use anhydrous sodium sulfate to dry the oil? How this dried essential oil is used for further analysis?
I tried watching videos and going through papers. I couldn't get clarification.
Looking forward for answers.
I need to determinate the concentration of Camphene and bornyl acetate into a essential oil.
The wavelenght for Bornyl acetate is 225-290 nm?
and how about Camphene?
It is known that essential oil yielding plants belong to some specific families such as Lamiaceae, Lauraceae and so on. Is there any specific criteria to identify such oil yielding plants in field without chemical analysis? For survey of such plants?
Is absolute Ethanol has any effect on essential oil efficacy while used as solvent for essential oil dilution.
Hello everyone. I need a little help here.
can we use essential oils to reduce chlorinous odor in a hypochlorous acid solution without decreasing free chlorine or pH value? any toughts and propositions are much appreciated
The GC/MS analysis of essential oil shows the presence of compounds like glycidyl palmitate, Vitamin E and other fatty acid derivatives and steroids like beta sitosterol. These compounds are non volatiles and are difficult to be volatalized with hydrodistillation, however the essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation. How can this be possible?
I did an Soxhlet extraction of black pepper using hexane and ethanol. Now I am confused onto what I really got after recovering the solvent using rotavap. Can anyone educate me? I did nothing to the extract after recovering the solvent.
The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora is usually rectified to reduce or remove the Saffrole content and concentrate the linalool. I have found that nearly all the commercial samples of this essential oil have a measurable amount of Plinol C. I am curious about the idea of the rectification process causing the formation of the Plinol by pyrolysis of the Linalool.
Plinols are usually considered a marker for adulteration with synthetic Linalool, but may not be in the case of rectified Cinnamomum camphora essential oil.
After extracting my essential oil i did not want to use rotary vapor some one told me i can use distillation to get better result so is that possible without losing quantity of the E.O or should i use the rotary vap ??
When we change the column of GC-MS the Kovats indices get changed too.
for example, The α-Pinene having KI= 982 in HP-5 and KI= 1027 in DB-Wax.
The Limonene having KI= 1031 in HP-5 and KI= 1234 in DB-Wax.
The α-Pinene will go out from the column before the Limonene.
Can we find the inverse If we use another column than those known?
Or always the α-Pinene will be detected before the limonene regardless the type of column and the active phase?
I am evaluating this mixture using the DPPH method, but I have not found a suitable solvent system to dissolve them. Hope anyone can give me an idea, thanks.
dear all, i need pdf of this bookidentification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.robert p. adams?
I want to use the essential oil of the plant in diluted form for a topical application.. but I want to know what I can use as a thinner.
And which should not be toxic and dangerous on the skin
I am extracting betel essential oil from fresh leaf and the essential oil is less in amount which is floating above water. How could I separate the oil and collect the same from oil water mixture. Kindly suggest.
My question is very simple. We all know that essential oil does not mix with water and will just float on the water surface. So, let say I want to test its corrosion inhibitive property for a steel that is immersed in 3.5% NaCl, if I just simply added the essential oil, I do not think it will be in contact with the steel.. Not to mention its dispersibility in the water will be not so good. But, I have seen quite a number articles published to highlight the corrosion inhibitive nature of essential oils. So, can someone enlighten me on how to make this possible? (Do I need an emulsifier or not?)
Hello everyone, I have GCMS and IR spectra and bioactivity results of essential oil. Can anyone tell me the the computional software for further work?
Hydrodistllation was used to erxtract essential oil from a natural product. What are the possible simple laboratory methods to isolate the essential oil from the distillate without loosing the oil through evaporation?
Hi. We were extracting juniper berries' essential oil using water as a solvent. After extraction we wanted to evaporate solvent in a flask using rotavapor. I guess we should be left with crude essential oil and a bit of other juniper compounds. But we got ember-brown wax-like thing after rotavaporing.
1. Was this really essential oil or not? There was distinctive smell of juniper in flask before using rotavapor but not after it. Did we "burn" the oil?
2. When should we stop rotavaporing? I guess essential oil should be liquid, not waxy.
3. How to empty 2 L flask with only few drops of essential oil as effectively as possible? We don't want to use solvents again.
Does anyone know any simple and inexpensive proof that with the help of a spectrophotometer allows me to evaluate the biological activity of several components of an essential oil on the same enzyme?I am trying to correlate computational models (docking)(see attached document) and biological activity of compounds of essential oils
As M. arvensis is majorly cultivated in India for its essential oil what are the drawbacks of M. piperata that farmers do not as much prefer the commercial cultivation of peppermint when compared to menthol mint?
after doing a GCMS analysis i didn't get any informations about the compositions of the essential oil i'm working with,
so i think that my essential oil still mixed with the solvent so what are the best methods to make sure that the essential is pure??!
i mean how to eliminate the rest of the DCM solvent without losing a quantity of the essnetial oil
In protocols reported in literature, we add Na2SO4 ( drying agent) to remove the water traces from the essential oil.
If some water traces stay with essential oil. What can we have after a long period of time? The chemical reaction between traces of water and essential oil? How the essential oil can get adulterated?
I have a very stable colloidal particles indicated by zeta potential value (Zeta Potential (mV): -62.9), Z-Average (d.nm): 101.7, and PdI: 0.049. Because it is very stable so I think it is possible to load the essential oil into the single/each particles. I found that Pickering Emulsion method can be used for the encapsulation because it is biocompatible and no surfactants needed. Is it correct? or is there any other more suitable method?
I extracted the essential oil and I found that my major compound represent 95 % of the mixture and only less than 5 % as minor constituents ( 20 constituents).
I'm I allowed to take my major constituent as starting material to perform chemical reactions?
Do the minor constituents representing only 5 % will not disturb the obtention of the desired compound?
I would like to insert some functional groups to increase bioactivity.
Any help in this regard will be appreciated.
I would like to determine the proportion of every constituent of my essential oil.
I made GC MS and the the qualitative analysis by recognising the different constituents presents using n-alkanes series. And now I'm looking for a way to determine the proportion of my constituents.
Any help in this regard will be appreciated.
why kovats index is used to detect a particular compound in a essential oil sample while we can use GC-MS library?!
What is the advantage of kovats index?
Dear all, I have extracted lemongrass essential oil by Soxhlet extraction using hexane and methanol as the solvent. The problem is the waxy fraction that solidified in room temperature. Any suggestions? I will be using GC to determine the essential oil concentration.
Which method of extraction is preferred for aromatic plants like Cymbopogon? The target of extraction is to acheive highest yield, and maximum chemical constituents, for animal study. We do not intend to extract essential oil, but ethanolic extract, or aqueous, or hydroalcoholic extract. Pls suggest if cold maceration, soxhlet extraction, reflux or any other method is preferrable. The extract is to be used for animal study.
how to prepare a stock solution of commercially available essential oil for checking invitro acaricidal activity ,
and how to make working solutions from that stock solution. plz guide .
what is most common percentage of essential oil stock solution we use in acaricidal activity test.
I'm researching secondary metabolites of plants in essential oils and extracts from various rhizomes. Will the composition and components change as the rhizomes age? what is the ideal age of rhizomes for tracing essential oil composition and other related works?
I want to perform the antidiabetic activity of my essential oil as an application to valorize it, and to enrich my paper. And I'm looking for a protocol that doesn't require a lot of reagents and materials.
Any suggestion or reference will be valued and appreciated.
After the extraction by hydrodistillation Clevenger apparatus, we recover essential oil ( volatile constituents) and we throw non-volatiles constituents found in water as a residue and waste.
This by-product containing interesting phytochemicals and bioactive compounds.
Could we valorize this residue by recovering the polar and heavy compounds?
Are we allowed to consider it as aqueous extract?
An on-going research is aimed at evaluation of essential oil in the diets of goats on the body thermoregulation, oxidative stress, immune response, semen quality, libido, testicular parameters, etc. The study will require previous publications so as to comprehend the materials and methods as well as discussion of findings of the assay.
Can we give a little bit whether an explanation or interpretation of the potential played by essential oil against free radicals for example without saying only the synergistic effect?
Is there any in-depth way or theoretical study to confirm which compounds, in particular, are responsible for the activity?
Steam distillation produces essential oils, which are made up of volatile, typically fragrant chemicals. Extracts are made by immersing plant matter in a solvent and are commonly stated to include polyphenols, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and other chemicals. However, the majority of papers fail to specify if the extracted extracts include the volatile components present in essential oils.Will extracts include volatile essential oil components, or can they only be extracted from plant debris by steam distillation?
I am having problems extracting essential oils (in order to check for terpenes) from only one plant. I am using Clevenger apparatus and it functions normally for every plant but one (of genus Encephalartos). When I try do hydrodistillation, some sort of pressure forms and makes it impossible for the process to happen. Stem does not go much higher than the connection point of the flask and glassware apparatus and very soon there are drops coming outside at the connection point.
The machine itself works perfectly for every plant species besides this one. What could be the potential reason for this?
So I understand that essential oils are formed by steam distillation, and contain volatile, usually aromatic, compounds.
Extracts are formed by immersion of plant matter in a solvent, and are usually reported to contain compounds such as polyphenols, anthraquinones, flavonoids and the like.
Practically every report I have read does not mention whether obtained extracts contain the volatile compounds found in essential oils though. Will there be volatile essential oil compounds in extracts, or can they ONLY be taken out of plant matter by steam distillation?
I am trying to make liposomes using soy lecithin and load essential oil and a hydrophilic drug. I mix the soy lecithin, CTAB, cholesterol and essential oil in chloroform to form a thin film. Then add water containing the hydrophilic drug. However, I see clumps forming which do not go away even after sonication. The hydration step is performed above the phase transition temperature. Please suggest what can be done to improve the hydration. (Attached is the picture for reference)
In a lot of studies, they consider essential oil as non-toxic, whereas it contains a significant amount of ketones and those are toxic!
for example, in absinthe we find thujone. And this plant is toxic.
Are we allowed to say that essential oils are natural and non-toxic than synthetic products?
We dry the plant in order to remove water and moisture, whereas we immerse it in water to launch the hydrodistillation!
What will happen if we don't dry the plant? I examined so much plant without drying and the yield of essential oil was more interesting than this which is dried!
What is the role of drying plant before runing up the extraction of essential oil?
What happens to the plant and specifically the volatiles compounds during the drying process biologically and chemically?
If we have to process the pine cones through steam distillation process, how much processing time, steam pressure and steam temperature is preferred for quality product?
Can you please share the previous research for pine cone essential oil processing and it's method?
Please share your valuable knowledge related to it.
After obtaining essential oil by the extraction, we need to save it at 4°C for ulterior use and keep it from the light.
What can we have if our essential oil stays exposed to the light?
Does the sunlight and artificial light having the same effect in terms of the chemical reaction of oxidation joining this phenomenon of transformation into oxidized components?
I have extracted essential oil from a plant species (Rutaceae) which will only dissolve in hexane. My current research requires me to carry out larvicidal assay. Since hexane would not dissolve in water, is there a way for me to carry out this experiment? Thank you.
I made a GC-MS analysis of essential oil without injection of any standard ( Alkanes) and I Identified the different compounds based on the NIST library.
I worked with the HP-5 MS column, but I didn't find enough results concerning this column, consequently, I recovered the values of KI ( Retention indices) of DB-5!
I don't know if what I did is feasible or not!
We protect the essential oil from light so as not to oxidize by the insertion of oxygen and obtaining oxygenated components and especially if it contains a huge amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons because they have double bonds and those are very sensitive to be oxidized. I joined you at this point.
But, essential oils containing oxygenated constituents are very potent and having good biological activities than those containing an important amount of only hydrocarbons monoterpenes!
Example: Limonene after the auto-oxidation becomes a carveol, and the carveol enhances the antioxidant capacity.
What about protecting essential from oxidation, whereas we need oxygenated constituents?
I harvested a plant and dry it under shade, but mold has been procured. Thereby, I find new constituents after extraction of essential oil and performing GC-MS analysis.
How can I interpret this phenomenon of transformation?
I need in-depth what is happened chemically?
I'm preparing a table of composition of my essential oil. And I see in so much papers that we have to put retention indice (Kovats indice) than the retention time.
Are we allowed to put Retention time in the table?
Because the results that I recovered from the GC-MS device are in retention time!
Secondly, can we compare retention time with the data library?
I'm using an HP-5MS column with a length of 60 m, but in the literature I find so many papers using 30 m!
Firstly, what is the best column ( HP-5MS, HP-5, DB-5, ...) for characterizing essential oil?
Secondly, How we can choose the appropriate library (Nist, ...) to extract Kovats indices and make the comparison?
The boiling point of α-Pinene surrounding 155 °C and that of β-Pinene surrounding 166 °C.
And we find always the α-Pinene before the β-Pinene.
Does the boiling point go necessarily with the retention time?
Because I have linalool and Nonanal in my essential oil but the retention time of linalool is superior to that of Nonanal ! Rt ( Nonanal) > Rt ( Linalool)
- Rt ( Linalool) = 24,116 min ( boiling point = 198 °C)
- Rt ( Nonanal) = 24,283 min ( boiling point = 195 °C)
I obtained the GC-MS report of my essential oil containing ( Compound name, CAS, REV, for ).
I don't have any standards to calculate Kovats Indice from the following relation :
I= 100[n + (N - n) x (Log tr (unknown) - logtr (n))/ logtr(N) - logtr(n))
Can I put the Kovats Indice written in the NIST and Wiley database in my table of composition?
Attached you will find an example of my GC-MS Data Report.
As we know, an essential oil is a mixture of components playing a pivot role in various domains.
I'm carrying out the antioxidant activity using in vitro tests.
Before doing this task, can we predict the activity of my essential oil only from the compounds found in my sample?
Is there any software to make a theoretical study?
After extraction of the essential oil, I found a high percentage of limonene presenting more than 90%.
Can I separate the pure limonene from the minority that presents less than 10%?
Sometimes we find a problem with plants containing a very tiny amount of essential oil (yield=0.08%). What we do is making consecutive extraction by changing the flask containing the plant by a new one and keeping the other part containing the essential oil with hydrolat until obtaining a respectful amount of essential oil which we can recover.
But, the problem is it might take 3 days doing extraction in succession (sequentially).
Does the water has an impact on the quality of essential oil? Because essential oil stays with water a long time! I think that it might have the hydrolysis phenomenon!
The technique of hydrodistillation allows us to obtain volatiles constituents (essential oil) and non-volatile constituents (hydrolat, floral water).
Can we valorize the hydrolat by concentrating it? Because it contains interesting compounds.
Usually, we throw it!
We use either tween 80 or tween 20 to mix the essential oil with acid while we are preparing the stock solution in order to carry out the test of anticorrosion activity in an acidic medium.
I'm enquiring whether the blender agent ( surfactant, emulsifier) contributing also to the activity with some proportion or not!
what are common strategies for the synthesis of Nanoliposome
containing Essential Oil and investigation of their Physicochemical Characteristics?
The temperature has a major effect on the decreasing anticorrosion activity of an inhibitor( organic component, essential oil...).
What is the mechanism happening between my substrate (mild steel) and my inhibitor (essential oil) in an aggressive medium (acid) with increasing the temperature effect?
I want to know what happens exactly on the surface of the substrate (interaction, mechanism, chemical reaction,...).
As we know essential oils don't contain heavy molecules and significant active chemical compounds as polyphenols, alkaloids...Furthermore, when we extract the essential oil, we obtain a tiny amount of volatile constituents and we spend a lot of interesting constituents in water. They are not yielded good (0.2 %- 3%...). On the other side, we recover an important amount and yield of botanical extract when we use polar solvents (Methanol, water...).
Don't you notice that essential oils are a waste of time!
I'm working on the chemical profile of essential oil using only the GC-MS without any other support. I recovered 20 hits for each peak, how can I select from those, the more appropriate one belonging to a chemical family of essential oil ( monoterpene, sesquiterpene, oxygenated monoterpenes ...) ??? I don't have either standards or RMN ...
Only, GC-MS report with 20 hits for every peak!
Any suggestions please or any kind of help to perform a good chemical profile?
Recently, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay) is not accepted by some journals for the investigation of the antioxidant power of a sample like essential oil!
I don't know the reason behind this refusal!
I'm performing the antioxidant activity of essential oil by DPPH manner, and I was wondering about the value of IC50 it seems so high because that of reference which is ascorbic acid is around 0.018 mg/ml, whereas that of my sample is 2 mg/ml. There is a big difference!
When we can consider an essential oil as an antioxidant agent? Is there any intervale of IC50?
Is there any interest to say that this essential oil having an antioxidant activity?