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I noted that multiple articles cite using dichloromethane after essential oil extraction to separate oil from aqueous phase, I wanted to know why is it used while there are protocols that note separation through an essential Oil Separator integrated into the Clevenger apparatus while hydro distillation process is ongoing?
Thanks
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Oil viscosity could be too high so dissolving in DCM makes it easier to retrieve all of it.
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the plant I'm trying to extract essential oil from have very tiny leaves which seep through the neck of the reservoir flask to the bottom flask where the distillation solvent is supposed to be
is there any solution to this problem please and thank you
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try to use that condenser above the funnel not next to like this photo
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I made a biological test to my essential oil as well as to the major compounds presents, and I found that my essential oil expressed a better activity than the pure compounds. I wanted to reproduce this activity with combining only the 4 major compounds.
Below is the percentage of the major compounds:
A. carvacrol: 24 %
B. fenchone: 18 %
C. sabinene: 13 %
D. terpinolene: 7 %
The total of major compounds represents 62% , and totaly I identified 95%
Could you suggest any help or article treating this question ?And thank you,
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How do I quantitate the amount of essential oil in a sample? I have a sample which has different oils and also some other compounds, how can I say how much of each oil is in there if oil consists of different compounds itself? Can i just pick some particular unique compound from a composition of each oil and quantitate the whole oil in a sample based on that somehow? Or what would be the best way?
I run oils sepparatelly to see the composition of each, but when i run the mixture, i did not see all those peaks i saw in individual oils. And, obviously, some compounds were present in more than one oil resulting in peaks which could originate from different oils.
I am using GC-MS.
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Check this article, might this will be helpful to you !
Godefroot, M., Sandra, P., & Verzele, M. (1981). New method for quantitative essential oil analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 203, 325-335.
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I have this situation when I am running a sample containing different esseantial oils. Some of the compounds (same) are contained in different essential oils. As a result, I get a peak for a particul compound which is contained in more than one oil, how can i quantitate the contribution of each oil to the same peak? Some of those compounds were also added to the mixture as pure standards, also contributing to the same peak.
I am using GC-MS.
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The way you put it, it is very difficult to know the contribution of each oil to the peak of each compound, since you mention that more than one oil has the same compound. What I suggest is that you quantify what each oil contains separately and then estimate the ratio of each oil.
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I extracted essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus using hydro-distillation. Since the apparatus size is small I collected essential oil by adding diethyl ether along the valve side of clevenger. I got mixture of oil+water+diethyl ether. I added little amount of sodium sulfate , after dissolving it I got some white matter at the bottom.
How should I use anhydrous sodium sulfate to dry the oil? How this dried essential oil is used for further analysis?
I tried watching videos and going through papers. I couldn't get clarification.
Looking forward for answers.
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You directly put the powder in the essential oil you have to leave for a day to adsorbed all the droplets of water by sodium sulfate.I did this test last week.
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Please provide the protocol for dehydration with sodium sulphate
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1- place (adapt) a filter paper in a small funnel
2- put some amount of sodium sulfate in the filter paper
3- pour the extracted essential oil through the anhydrous sodium sulphate in the filter paper
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I need to determinate the concentration of Camphene and bornyl acetate into a essential oil.
The wavelenght for Bornyl acetate is 225-290 nm?
and how about Camphene?
Thanks.
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hello Azizeh Rezaei
you can start by tracing a spectrum in the UV region ( 200-400 nm ; don't forget the quartz cuvets) and select the required wavelength. If you don't have a solid method or reference you need to be very careful with interferents, make sure that you have appropriated sample blanks and standards.
hope to have helped.
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It is known that essential oil yielding plants belong to some specific families such as Lamiaceae, Lauraceae and so on. Is there any specific criteria to identify such oil yielding plants in field without chemical analysis? For survey of such plants?
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Oil-yielding plants can be identified in the field by their aroma. One can rub a plant's leaves or flowers in his/her hands and sense if they have any kind of fragrance. If yes, then it must be an aromatic plant. To confirm it further, try Google Lens. If you identify the plant's name, then the answer is clear. To obtain oil yield, plant material can be hydro distilled or other methods can be done as per convenience to extract essential oil.
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Is absolute Ethanol has any effect on essential oil efficacy while used as solvent for essential oil dilution.
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I have worked on acaricidal resistance trials using essential oils. Ethanol alone cannot be used for preparation of stock solution. A proper diluent is required for preparation of SS of EO
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Hello everyone. I need a little help here.
can we use essential oils to reduce chlorinous odor in a hypochlorous acid solution without decreasing free chlorine or pH value? any toughts and propositions are much appreciated
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What is your purpose? Hypochlorus acid will certainly react with essential oil components. Be aware of the safety of such chlorinated organic compounds.
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The GC/MS analysis of essential oil shows the presence of compounds like glycidyl palmitate, Vitamin E and other fatty acid derivatives and steroids like beta sitosterol. These compounds are non volatiles and are difficult to be volatalized with hydrodistillation, however the essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation. How can this be possible?
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You would be better served using a more advanced technique, Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE). Wolfgang might still be making them by hand.
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I did an Soxhlet extraction of black pepper using hexane and ethanol. Now I am confused onto what I really got after recovering the solvent using rotavap. Can anyone educate me? I did nothing to the extract after recovering the solvent.
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Dear Raphaelle, have a good day!
Using Soxhlet extraction followed by rotary evaporation you will get the plant crude extract containing salts, polar and non polar secondary plant constituents depending on the solvent polarity.
In case of essential oil, you need to extract the same using Steam Distillation set up. Moreover, extraction using steam distillation you should only get volatile aroma compounds.
Please check my work below,
Regards,
Aloke purkait
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Our goal is to encapsulate Essential Oil nanoparticles with antibacterial properties to make the application on textiles (fibers).
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The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora is usually rectified to reduce or remove the Saffrole content and concentrate the linalool. I have found that nearly all the commercial samples of this essential oil have a measurable amount of Plinol C. I am curious about the idea of the rectification process causing the formation of the Plinol by pyrolysis of the Linalool.
Plinols are usually considered a marker for adulteration with synthetic Linalool, but may not be in the case of rectified Cinnamomum camphora essential oil.
Thoughts?
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Hello Jesse - that makes sense. Since plinol and linalool have the same molecular formula, it is reasonable to imagine that a rearrangement reaction can take place in which linalool is converted into plinol. I don't know if this rearrangement is energetically favorable under those conditions. Plinol also occurs naturally in some plants and it may serve as a precursor and/or metabolite.
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rendement , huile essentiel .
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I think it is due to environmental factors, the variety (genetic factor), and the plant's geographical location. In addition to spraying the plant with a natural growth regulator.
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After extracting my essential oil i did not want to use rotary vapor some one told me i can use distillation to get better result so is that possible without losing quantity of the E.O or should i use the rotary vap ??
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When we change the column of GC-MS the Kovats indices get changed too.
for example, The α-Pinene having KI= 982 in HP-5 and KI= 1027 in DB-Wax.
The Limonene having KI= 1031 in HP-5 and KI= 1234 in DB-Wax.
The α-Pinene will go out from the column before the Limonene.
Can we find the inverse If we use another column than those known?
Or always the α-Pinene will be detected before the limonene regardless the type of column and the active phase?
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I think there is a certain order in which different volatiles appear on a GCMS column, their order is related to the column type and the properties of the compounds themselves, and their RI values are very different from the column type. These are my views, hope they can help you. Maybe we can also learn from each other.
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dear all, i need pdf of this bookidentification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.robert p. adams?
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Dear Amin Lotfi,
Did you finally found the ADAM´s book in pdf ?? I would also be interested in having it if you could share it ?
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I want to use the essential oil of the plant in diluted form for a topical application.. but I want to know what I can use as a thinner.
And which should not be toxic and dangerous on the skin
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I am extracting betel essential oil from fresh leaf and the essential oil is less in amount which is floating above water. How could I separate the oil and collect the same from oil water mixture. Kindly suggest.
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Bidisha Mondal The most common method for the isolation of eugenol is steam distillation. In the extraction and isolation process of eugenol, firstly essential oil is extracted from the plants. the hydrodistillation method can be used.
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Greetings,
My question is very simple. We all know that essential oil does not mix with water and will just float on the water surface. So, let say I want to test its corrosion inhibitive property for a steel that is immersed in 3.5% NaCl, if I just simply added the essential oil, I do not think it will be in contact with the steel.. Not to mention its dispersibility in the water will be not so good. But, I have seen quite a number articles published to highlight the corrosion inhibitive nature of essential oils. So, can someone enlighten me on how to make this possible? (Do I need an emulsifier or not?)
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in addition to what Dr. Yuri Mirgorod has already said, you could create an essential oil layer on your metal sample in different ways, as if it were a normal coatings ... dipping, spraying, spreading a film ... the doubt that arises , having never worked directly with essential oils - even if I have worked on the protection of materials using particular lubricating oils that can be used as "temporary corrosion inhibitors" in the marine environment - characterize the surface layer, after preparation and after immersion in solution of NaCl (for different periods of time ...). To determine its presence, especially after exposure, I used IR spectrophotometry (with a suitable FT-IR instrument equipped with an accessory for specular reflectance). The quantity of inhibitor in contact with the sample could be determined before the immersion tests in a gravimetric way but if the compound is poorly adherent and the situation becomes more complicated ...
If you need, let me know any details ...
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Hello everyone, I have GCMS and IR spectra and bioactivity results of essential oil. Can anyone tell me the the computional software for further work?
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According to the nature of the essential oil it could be used the existence spectra library in the apparatus (GC-MS or IR Spectroscopy). There are so many software about that and as i said the nature of the essential oil is very important.
Good luck.
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Hydrodistllation was used to erxtract essential oil from a natural product. What are the possible simple laboratory methods to isolate the essential oil from the distillate without loosing the oil through evaporation?
Thanks
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Hi Dr Lawrence Olusegun Ajala . The new technique is called Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction: It allows for extraction of essential oils from plants when steam distillation is impossible, this method consists of passing a stream of CO2 at high pressure through aromatic plant materials to burst the essence pockets and extract the aromatic substances. See the link: https://www.pranarom.fr/en/content/15-the-distillation-of-essential-oils
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Hi. We were extracting juniper berries' essential oil using water as a solvent. After extraction we wanted to evaporate solvent in a flask using rotavapor. I guess we should be left with crude essential oil and a bit of other juniper compounds. But we got ember-brown wax-like thing after rotavaporing.
1. Was this really essential oil or not? There was distinctive smell of juniper in flask before using rotavapor but not after it. Did we "burn" the oil?
2. When should we stop rotavaporing? I guess essential oil should be liquid, not waxy.
3. How to empty 2 L flask with only few drops of essential oil as effectively as possible? We don't want to use solvents again.
Thank you.
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Does anyone know any simple and inexpensive proof that with the help of a spectrophotometer allows me to evaluate the biological activity of several components of an essential oil on the same enzyme?I am trying to correlate computational models (docking)(see attached document) and biological activity of compounds of essential oils
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I think you are asking about how to tell if two or more different inhibitors in the essential oil are binding to the enzyme simultaneously in different sites.
To answer this question, you will have to fractionate the oil to purify the individual inhibitory components. This would probably be done using some type of chromatography. Individual fractions from the chromatography would then be tested for inhibition of the enzyme in an enzyme activity assay.
Once you have the individual inhibitors purified, you will be able to use steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding, and/or structural biology to determine whether any pair of inhibitors can bind at the same time.
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As M. arvensis is majorly cultivated in India for its essential oil what are the drawbacks of M. piperata that farmers do not as much prefer the commercial cultivation of peppermint when compared to menthol mint?
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after doing a GCMS analysis i didn't get any informations about the compositions of the essential oil i'm working with,
so i think that my essential oil still mixed with the solvent so what are the best methods to make sure that the essential is pure??!
i mean how to eliminate the rest of the DCM solvent without losing a quantity of the essnetial oil
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In protocols reported in literature, we add Na2SO4 ( drying agent) to remove the water traces from the essential oil.
If some water traces stay with essential oil. What can we have after a long period of time? The chemical reaction between traces of water and essential oil? How the essential oil can get adulterated?
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If we don't dry our essential oil by Na2SO4 then it may slowly hydrolyzed by water slowly on storage.
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Hi all,
I have a very stable colloidal particles indicated by zeta potential value (Zeta Potential (mV): -62.9), Z-Average (d.nm): 101.7, and PdI: 0.049. Because it is very stable so I think it is possible to load the essential oil into the single/each particles. I found that Pickering Emulsion method can be used for the encapsulation because it is biocompatible and no surfactants needed. Is it correct? or is there any other more suitable method?
Thank you
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I think it depends on your goal. If you are looking for long-term shelf life stability as a commercial product, I would say look at the examples of Pickering emulsions successfully used in industrial products. There are hardly any. To me, they are still academic curiosities and have yet to overcome challenges faced in becoming viable commercial products.
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I extracted the essential oil and I found that my major compound represent 95 % of the mixture and only less than 5 % as minor constituents ( 20 constituents).
I'm I allowed to take my major constituent as starting material to perform chemical reactions?
Do the minor constituents representing only 5 % will not disturb the obtention of the desired compound?
I would like to insert some functional groups to increase bioactivity.
Any help in this regard will be appreciated.
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Dear Alexander Sinko, well done ! 95% !!!, as dear Dr Erdal mentioned , I advise you to be careful to remained 5% ( 20 components), you can use Column Chromatography or Solvent extraction........
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I would like to determine the proportion of every constituent of my essential oil.
I made GC MS and the the qualitative analysis by recognising the different constituents presents using n-alkanes series. And now I'm looking for a way to determine the proportion of my constituents.
Any help in this regard will be appreciated.
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It is usually, the area below of the absorption peak is calculated based on the mathematical relations and the programming algorithm of the device software and the relevant value is reported based on percent, too. In order to find the accurate value of each compound/analyt should be used from the calibration curve coupled with determining the retention index of each unknown compound (the isometrical analysis).
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why kovats index is used to detect a particular compound in a essential oil sample while we can use GC-MS library?!
What is the advantage of kovats index?
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Kovats indices should be used ONLY for isothermal analyses.
If you use a temperature program you should use the linear retention indices (LRI) using the modified formula according to Van den Dool and Kratz (van Den Dool, H., and P. Dec Kratz. "A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas—liquid partition chromatography." Journal of Chromatography A 11 (1963): 463-471.)
You can find useful info and refs here: https://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/gc-ri/
For EO the calculation of LRI is very useful, because it helps to correctly identify compounds with similar structures and molecular weight, which can have close retention times and similar match, R-match and probability from the libraries (terpenes are a good example).
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Suggestions Would Be Appreciated!
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Dear Bochra Kouide Elouahed, the following documents may bring additional help. My Regards
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#essential oils
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I recommend to use filter for sterilization.
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Dear all, I have extracted lemongrass essential oil by Soxhlet extraction using hexane and methanol as the solvent. The problem is the waxy fraction that solidified in room temperature. Any suggestions? I will be using GC to determine the essential oil concentration.
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Which method of extraction is preferred for aromatic plants like Cymbopogon? The target of extraction is to acheive highest yield, and maximum chemical constituents, for animal study. We do not intend to extract essential oil, but ethanolic extract, or aqueous, or hydroalcoholic extract. Pls suggest if cold maceration, soxhlet extraction, reflux or any other method is preferrable. The extract is to be used for animal study.
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I think the protocol found in this article (in attached) is suitable for you research, especially to prepare ethanolic extract from species of the genus cymbopogon.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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how to prepare a stock solution of commercially available essential oil for checking invitro acaricidal activity ,
and how to make working solutions from that stock solution. plz guide .
what is most common percentage of essential oil stock solution we use in acaricidal activity test.
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I'm researching secondary metabolites of plants in essential oils and extracts from various rhizomes. Will the composition and components change as the rhizomes age? what is the ideal age of rhizomes for tracing essential oil composition and other related works?
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Dear Swagat,
In this article (attached), the researchers actually investigated the variation and composition in secondary metabolite of leaf, but also rhizomes parts at different age of the plant until complete maturation, that's why i strongly believe this article may actually help you.
Best wishes
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I dried the leaves of basil in the oven at 70 ° C. Can I use them for essential oils extraction?
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I want to perform the antidiabetic activity of my essential oil as an application to valorize it, and to enrich my paper. And I'm looking for a protocol that doesn't require a lot of reagents and materials.
Any suggestion or reference will be valued and appreciated.
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After the extraction by hydrodistillation Clevenger apparatus, we recover essential oil ( volatile constituents) and we throw non-volatiles constituents found in water as a residue and waste.
This by-product containing interesting phytochemicals and bioactive compounds.
Could we valorize this residue by recovering the polar and heavy compounds?
Are we allowed to consider it as aqueous extract?
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It must be considered that the hydrodistillation extractions are quite long and at a temperature that allows us to evaporate the part we want to separate, so it is very likely that the other compounds of interest are also in the plant have been degraded. To know if there are compounds of interest in that waste you must analyze it.
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An on-going research is aimed at evaluation of essential oil in the diets of goats on the body thermoregulation, oxidative stress, immune response, semen quality, libido, testicular parameters, etc. The study will require previous publications so as to comprehend the materials and methods as well as discussion of findings of the assay.
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El-Zaher, H., Eid, S., Shaaban, M., Ahmed-Farid, O., Abd El Tawab, A., & Khattab, M. (2021). Ovarian activity and antioxidant indices during estrous cycle of Barki ewes under effect of thyme, celery and salinomycin as feed additives. Zygote, 29(2), 155-160. doi:10.1017/S0967199420000611
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While quantifying a single constituent in essential oil through GC-MS, how to calculate the response factor?
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@Debasis - read some basic tutorial on quantification in chromatographic techniques.
Regards
GB
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Can we give a little bit whether an explanation or interpretation of the potential played by essential oil against free radicals for example without saying only the synergistic effect?
Is there any in-depth way or theoretical study to confirm which compounds, in particular, are responsible for the activity?
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Steam distillation produces essential oils, which are made up of volatile, typically fragrant chemicals. Extracts are made by immersing plant matter in a solvent and are commonly stated to include polyphenols, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and other chemicals. However, the majority of papers fail to specify if the extracted extracts include the volatile components present in essential oils.Will extracts include volatile essential oil components, or can they only be extracted from plant debris by steam distillation?
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The bio active compounds are usually in the volatile oils of medicinal plants. That depend to the goals of study and the type of the secondary metabolites considered. In fact, there are some well-known analytical techniques for the isolating and identifying them.
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I am having problems extracting essential oils (in order to check for terpenes) from only one plant. I am using Clevenger apparatus and it functions normally for every plant but one (of genus Encephalartos). When I try do hydrodistillation, some sort of pressure forms and makes it impossible for the process to happen. Stem does not go much higher than the connection point of the flask and glassware apparatus and very soon there are drops coming outside at the connection point.
The machine itself works perfectly for every plant species besides this one. What could be the potential reason for this?
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So I understand that essential oils are formed by steam distillation, and contain volatile, usually aromatic, compounds.
Extracts are formed by immersion of plant matter in a solvent, and are usually reported to contain compounds such as polyphenols, anthraquinones, flavonoids and the like.
Practically every report I have read does not mention whether obtained extracts contain the volatile compounds found in essential oils though. Will there be volatile essential oil compounds in extracts, or can they ONLY be taken out of plant matter by steam distillation?
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essential oil and volatiles are similar, but not the same! Plants, extracts (except Citrus sp peel oil) by definition DO NOT contain essential oils but volatiles! this is totaly technical description. only distillations are accepted for the production of essential oils.. Also CO2 extracts are NOT essential oils even they may contain volatile compounds!!!!
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I am looking for a specific sort of Valerian root essential oil for application in food.
Is it only for aromatherapy?
Thank you.
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Hi dear Azizeh
I think you can use that according to their MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet).
Also, you can check the following link to get more information:
Best regards
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I am trying to make liposomes using soy lecithin and load essential oil and a hydrophilic drug. I mix the soy lecithin, CTAB, cholesterol and essential oil in chloroform to form a thin film. Then add water containing the hydrophilic drug. However, I see clumps forming which do not go away even after sonication. The hydration step is performed above the phase transition temperature. Please suggest what can be done to improve the hydration. (Attached is the picture for reference)
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Hi,
I am surprised by seeing that your supervisors at McGill University were not able to help you with this fundamental issue.
Anyway, I advise you check the following parameters:
1. Your Lecithin composition; is it suitable for making stable bilayered vesicles?
2. How was your lecithin stored? (if exposed to oxygen for long time you have lyso phospholipids - short tail molecules - instead of intact PL's);
3. Why you need to use CTAB?
4. What is the ratio of your Chol?
5. ... same for essential oil?
6. Try other preparation methods ...
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In a lot of studies, they consider essential oil as non-toxic, whereas it contains a significant amount of ketones and those are toxic!
for example, in absinthe we find thujone. And this plant is toxic.
Are we allowed to say that essential oils are natural and non-toxic than synthetic products?
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Hi@Alexander Sinko
I agree with the answer added by Dr. Kakuyou Ogawa, that there is a toxicity dose for every compound. Hence, LD50 assays are recommended to evaluate the toxicity of test compounds.
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We dry the plant in order to remove water and moisture, whereas we immerse it in water to launch the hydrodistillation!
What will happen if we don't dry the plant? I examined so much plant without drying and the yield of essential oil was more interesting than this which is dried!
What is the role of drying plant before runing up the extraction of essential oil?
What happens to the plant and specifically the volatiles compounds during the drying process biologically and chemically?
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Moisture is reduced. Besides, drying of plant materials facilitates the free bonding in between the phytochemicals and the slovents used for the extraction. This will yield Essential Oil enriched with more phytochemicals from plants.
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If we have to process the pine cones through steam distillation process, how much processing time, steam pressure and steam temperature is preferred for quality product?
Can you please share the previous research for pine cone essential oil processing and it's method?
Please share your valuable knowledge related to it.
Kind regards.
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Dear Sandeep Kumar thank you very much for your interesting technical question. Steam distillation is the best process to recover the essential oil from one cones. This is normally done under normal pressure. Of course the processing time depends on the amount of material you have. In this case I strongly suggest that you use the "Search" function of RG to find and access relevant research articles in this field. Just search e.g. for the topics "steam distillation" and "pine cone oil" and then click on "Publications". This will provide you with a large number of useful links. Many of them are certainly available as public full texts and can be downloaded as pdf files.
Here is for example a very useful article which has been posted as public full text
Essential Oils from Pines: Chemistry and Application
Also please have a look at the following Open Access article which should be helpful answering your question:
Essential oil yields of cones from Pinaceae
Also please see:
How to distill essential oils from Pine and Spruce sap-Part 1
I hope this helps! 👍
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I need to dilute an oil derived from a plant to use in "invitro" experiments. Thank you!
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Thank you Md. Atikul Islam !!
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After obtaining essential oil by the extraction, we need to save it at 4°C for ulterior use and keep it from the light.
What can we have if our essential oil stays exposed to the light?
Does the sunlight and artificial light having the same effect in terms of the chemical reaction of oxidation joining this phenomenon of transformation into oxidized components?
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I have extracted essential oil from a plant species (Rutaceae) which will only dissolve in hexane. My current research requires me to carry out larvicidal assay. Since hexane would not dissolve in water, is there a way for me to carry out this experiment? Thank you.
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Essential oils ?
Antibacterial?
Natural?
Edibles
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Starch , the most abundant edible biopolymer. Starch can be processed into Nanoparticles. The second category would include edible oils , such as corn oil or canola processed to form nanoemulsions
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I made a GC-MS analysis of essential oil without injection of any standard ( Alkanes) and I Identified the different compounds based on the NIST library.
I worked with the HP-5 MS column, but I didn't find enough results concerning this column, consequently, I recovered the values of KI ( Retention indices) of DB-5!
I don't know if what I did is feasible or not!
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We protect the essential oil from light so as not to oxidize by the insertion of oxygen and obtaining oxygenated components and especially if it contains a huge amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons because they have double bonds and those are very sensitive to be oxidized. I joined you at this point.
But, essential oils containing oxygenated constituents are very potent and having good biological activities than those containing an important amount of only hydrocarbons monoterpenes!
Example: Limonene after the auto-oxidation becomes a carveol, and the carveol enhances the antioxidant capacity.
What about protecting essential from oxidation, whereas we need oxygenated constituents?
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Dear Alexander Sinko thank you for this very interesting technical question. The answer to your question depends on what you want the oxygenated monoterpenes to use for. For example, various oxygenated monoterpenes were shown to exhibit antibacterial activity:
Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Twenty-One Oxygenated Monoterpenes
This article is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate.
Also please have a look at the following relevant article entitled:
Access to Oxygenated Monoterpenes via the Biotransformation of (R)‑Limonene by Trichoderma harzianum and Saccharamyces cerevisiae
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I harvested a plant and dry it under shade, but mold has been procured. Thereby, I find new constituents after extraction of essential oil and performing GC-MS analysis.
How can I interpret this phenomenon of transformation?
I need in-depth what is happened chemically?
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Dear Alexander Sinko thank you for your interesting technical question. For a potentially overview about secondary metabolites of plants please gave a look at the following useful article:
Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions
The article is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate.
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I'm preparing a table of composition of my essential oil. And I see in so much papers that we have to put retention indice (Kovats indice) than the retention time.
Are we allowed to put Retention time in the table?
Because the results that I recovered from the GC-MS device are in retention time!
Secondly, can we compare retention time with the data library?
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This is a very critical and useful question for the analyst. I do agree with Md. Atikul Islam. I want to add something:
Retention indices are retention times normalized to adjacently eluting n-alkanes. Usually, for multi residue analysis, it is used. You may also visit the following link:
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I'm using an HP-5MS column with a length of 60 m, but in the literature I find so many papers using 30 m!
Firstly, what is the best column ( HP-5MS, HP-5, DB-5, ...) for characterizing essential oil?
Secondly, How we can choose the appropriate library (Nist, ...) to extract Kovats indices and make the comparison?
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Actually, there are several columns are available for the analysis of essential oils. I think, the best one is: DB-5, it is a very good column for determination of essential oils.
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The boiling point of α-Pinene surrounding 155 °C and that of β-Pinene surrounding 166 °C.
And we find always the α-Pinene before the β-Pinene.
Does the boiling point go necessarily with the retention time?
Because I have linalool and Nonanal in my essential oil but the retention time of linalool is superior to that of Nonanal ! Rt ( Nonanal) > Rt ( Linalool)
  • Rt ( Linalool) = 24,116 min ( boiling point = 198 °C)
  • Rt ( Nonanal) = 24,283 min ( boiling point = 195 °C)
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Dear Alexander Sinko,
from my experience I can say that in gas chromatography a separation is not performed by boiling points but by polarity.
The boiling point certainly follows the polarity of a substance , but the polarity is also structure-dependent. Therefore, branching of the C-sting or changing the position of the functional group can influence the separation in such a way that it no longer corresponds to the boiling points.
According to my observations, the correspondence between retention time and boiling point is greatest for very apolar separation phases. If the phase polarity becomes higher, this agreement increasingly fades.
Since you are probably running GC-MS with a universal moderately polar column, typical would be an HP5-MS, Factor Four 5 MS, RTX5-MS or comparable, this column polarity will limit the separation by boiling point.
With much more polar separation columns like DB1701, FFAP, Carbowax, this effect will be intensified.
I hope to have helped with this explanation.
Many greetings and stay healthy
Joachim Horst
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I obtained the GC-MS report of my essential oil containing ( Compound name, CAS, REV, for ).
I don't have any standards to calculate Kovats Indice from the following relation :
I= 100[n + (N - n) x (Log tr (unknown) - logtr (n))/ logtr(N) - logtr(n))
Can I put the Kovats Indice written in the NIST and Wiley database in my table of composition?
Attached you will find an example of my GC-MS Data Report.
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Dear Sinko. Thank you so much for this magnificent question.
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As we know, an essential oil is a mixture of components playing a pivot role in various domains.
I'm carrying out the antioxidant activity using in vitro tests.
Before doing this task, can we predict the activity of my essential oil only from the compounds found in my sample?
Is there any software to make a theoretical study?
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Can done by molecular docking using computer program but it will take long time
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After extraction of the essential oil, I found a high percentage of limonene presenting more than 90%.
Can I separate the pure limonene from the minority that presents less than 10%?
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Use separating funnel and confirm its purity with GCMS.
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Sometimes we find a problem with plants containing a very tiny amount of essential oil (yield=0.08%). What we do is making consecutive extraction by changing the flask containing the plant by a new one and keeping the other part containing the essential oil with hydrolat until obtaining a respectful amount of essential oil which we can recover.
But, the problem is it might take 3 days doing extraction in succession (sequentially).
Does the water has an impact on the quality of essential oil? Because essential oil stays with water a long time! I think that it might have the hydrolysis phenomenon!
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Yes of course. Do you have "hydrolizeables" e.g. ester that could hydrolize. Or do you have enzymes that could catatlize some reaction. Maybe you should fractionate your extract and then separate each fraction in its components
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The technique of hydrodistillation allows us to obtain volatiles constituents (essential oil) and non-volatile constituents (hydrolat, floral water).
Can we valorize the hydrolat by concentrating it? Because it contains interesting compounds.
Usually, we throw it!
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Dear Dr. Alexander Sinko ,
the common misconception is that hydrolats are ‘just’ a by-product of the essential oil production process. This is wrong: pure hydrolats are also produced as they have their own unique purpose and are valuable therapeutic products in their own right!
Our bodies are made up of mostly water, so it makes sense that hydrolats have a great affinity for supporting us. In other natural therapies, such as homeopathy - which argues that the more diluted a substance is, the more therapeutic it can be - there is support for the idea that ‘less is more,’ which highlights just how impactful hydrolats can be! Likewise, often, the higher the dilution, the gentler the action, making hydrolats particularly suited to sensitive situations that require gentle care.
But, hydrolats aren’t just a gentler alternative to essential oils, and they don’t have to be used in isolation – the two complement each other well. Mixing hydrolats and essential oils can add flexibility to your blend and enhance its therapeutic value.
Alternatively, having a perfect pH, and because they are already diluted (unlike essential oils), you can simply use them as they come, and even apply them direct on the skin – though that’s not to say you can’t dilute them even further!
For more details, please see the interesting source:
What are hydrolats / hydrosols & how to use them by Nicole Barton – Base Formula (2018)
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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We use either tween 80 or tween 20 to mix the essential oil with acid while we are preparing the stock solution in order to carry out the test of anticorrosion activity in an acidic medium.
I'm enquiring whether the blender agent ( surfactant, emulsifier) contributing also to the activity with some proportion or not!
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Dear Dr. Alexander Sinko ,
at the moment, the most commonly surfactants used are: sucrose esters, sorbitan fatty acid esters, glycerolfatty acid esters (polyglycerols), polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters (polysorbates) and polyoxyethylene ether. The two most used surfactants for the formulation of EOs-based colloidal systems are the polysorbates Tween 80 and Tween 20, since they have been demonstrated to give stable formulations without the need of a co-surfactant. This is an advantageous aspect both from the formulation and toxicological point of view. In fact, this aspect allows the reduction Tween 80 on the achievement of eugenol NEs in terms of droplet diameter and stability. Although both of them showed a great impact on droplet size, size distribution and PDI value, Tween 80 was the most effective.
In fact, at the SOR 1, NEs with a medium diameter of 190 nm and 95 nm were obtained with Tween 20 and Tween 80, respectively. This could be ascribed to the different structure of the non-polar tail that is saturated and linear for Tween 20 while unsaturated and bended for Tween 80. The presence of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain was able to give smaller droplets representing an important feature of the surfactants. Some Authors reported the use of Cremophor EL (polyoxyethylene ether surfactants family) in the formulation of finger citron EO. It showed an emulsifying behaviour comparable or even better with respect to that of Tween 80; in fact, it formed a stable interfacial film at a lower concentration. Mixed with the co-surfactants ethanol, 1, 2-propanediol, glycerol, butanol and PEG-400, Cremophor EL was able to give stable NEs along time.
For more details, please see the source:
- An Overview of Micro- and Nanoemulsions asVehicles for Essential Oils: Formulation, Preparationand Stability
Lucia Pavoni, Diego Romano Perinelli, Giulia Bonacucina, Marco Cespi and Giovanni Filippo Palmieri
Nanomaterials,10, 135; (2020) - doi:10.3390
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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what are common strategies for the synthesis of Nanoliposome
containing Essential Oil and investigation of their Physicochemical Characteristics?
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Hi,
We have used "Mozafari method" for the encapsulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inside lipid vesicles. In summary:
Empty and encapsulated-PUFA liposomes were prepared according to the procedure used by Colas et al. (2007). Briefly, the mixture of the liposomal ingredients including soybean-PLs (Table 1) (preheated to 30 °C) and PUFAs (DHA and EPA; 2:3, w/w) (2:0.4, mass ratio), were hydrated by adding deionised water and glycerol (final concentration 2%, v/v) (preheated to 30 °C) and stirred at 1000 rpm (MAXIMA Digital, Fisher Scientific, Shah Alam, Malaysia) on a hotplate (IKA®C-MAG HS 10, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia) at 30 °C for 60 min. The preparation process was carried out in a six-baffled glass vessel. Compared to the conventional method, in this method liposomes prepared by direct hydration and without solving the PL and FAs in organic solvents. The liposomal samples were kept at 25 °C (ambient temperature) under nitrogen for at least 1 h after preparation to anneal and stabilise them.
Full article available online.
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Also, have a look at these manuscripts:
Rasti, B., Jinap, S., Mozafari, M. R., & Yazid, A. M. (2012). Comparative study of the oxidative and physical stability of liposomal and nanoliposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids prepared with conventional and Mozafari methods. Food chemistry, 135(4), 2761-2770.
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Rasti, B., Jinap, S., Mozafari, M. R., & Abd-Manap, M. Y. (2014). Optimization on preparation condition of polyunsaturated fatty acids nanoliposome prepared by Mozafari method. Journal of liposome research, 24(2), 99-105.
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The temperature has a major effect on the decreasing anticorrosion activity of an inhibitor( organic component, essential oil...).
What is the mechanism happening between my substrate (mild steel) and my inhibitor (essential oil) in an aggressive medium (acid) with increasing the temperature effect?
I want to know what happens exactly on the surface of the substrate (interaction, mechanism, chemical reaction,...).
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Dear Dr. Alexander Sinko ,
the inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing temperature can be due to increased rate of dissolution process of mild steel and partial desorption of the inhibitor from the metal surface with temperature (Blaedel and Meloche, 1963).
For more details, please see the source:
- Inhibitory Action of Nicotiana tabacum Extracts on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl: Adsorption and Thermodynamics Study
Emmanuel Olasehinde, Sunday J. Olusegun, AS Adesina, SA Omogbehin, Habibat Faith Chahul
Nature and Science of Sleep 11(1):83-90 (2012)
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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As we know essential oils don't contain heavy molecules and significant active chemical compounds as polyphenols, alkaloids...Furthermore, when we extract the essential oil, we obtain a tiny amount of volatile constituents and we spend a lot of interesting constituents in water. They are not yielded good (0.2 %- 3%...). On the other side, we recover an important amount and yield of botanical extract when we use polar solvents (Methanol, water...).
Don't you notice that essential oils are a waste of time!
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It is like comparing a chair with a table and calling a chair a waste of time if you do not want to sit down. It looks like your interest is medicine and essential oils have application for medicine, but their primary application is elsewhere and have lots of benefits to humans as with those who produce them. You will have a lot to learn in the field and a starting point is not to call them a waste. Yield is important but having polyphenols or alkaloids in plants does not mean that they are drugs.
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I'm working on the chemical profile of essential oil using only the GC-MS without any other support. I recovered 20 hits for each peak, how can I select from those, the more appropriate one belonging to a chemical family of essential oil ( monoterpene, sesquiterpene, oxygenated monoterpenes ...) ??? I don't have either standards or RMN ...
Only, GC-MS report with 20 hits for every peak!
Any suggestions please or any kind of help to perform a good chemical profile?
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You can filter out your results based on the peak area
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Recently, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay) is not accepted by some journals for the investigation of the antioxidant power of a sample like essential oil!
I don't know the reason behind this refusal!
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The performance antioxidant activity of essential oil (EOs) is the result of a complex interplay between components and the oxidizable tested material. ABTS and DPPH are antioxidant assays to measure the activity of the compounds to scavenge free radicals. The essential oil especially terpenoid groups containing phenolic skeleton can react rapidly with peroxyl radical, therefore could protect oxidation by those radicals. Most of the phenolic compounds capable of scavenging free radicals by donating their electrons or H (from a hydroxyl (—OH) in the benzene ring) to the radicals. On the other hand, non-phenolic terpenoids can not protect lipid from oxidation due to (for example alpha-pinene or its similar compounds) undergo auto-oxidation. Furthermore, not all EOs have the ability to reduce reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ (as measured in FRAP assay), even the phenolic structure with ortho-dihydroxy moiety (ex. hydroxytyrosol) could chelate Fe2+ whereas the tyrasol that has only one OH does not show that ability.
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I'm performing the antioxidant activity of essential oil by DPPH manner, and I was wondering about the value of IC50 it seems so high because that of reference which is ascorbic acid is around 0.018 mg/ml, whereas that of my sample is 2 mg/ml. There is a big difference!
When we can consider an essential oil as an antioxidant agent? Is there any intervale of IC50?
Is there any interest to say that this essential oil having an antioxidant activity?
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