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As I've been researching how to improve literacy skills in middle school students, I've found a lot of fascinating work being done, including this case study of morphological skills' role in literacy development. In my view, this study is another confirmation that there are proven methods of promoting writing skills that don't rely on rote memorization or endless drilling - it's all about producing MEANING for students! What other approaches are you aware of to help students better develop their literacy skills?
#researchisrelevant #coe501Summer22 #forksup
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All that is about emergent literacy, and its practices on shared reading, vocabulary growth, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and affectives support. On writing genre there is also a very interesting work by Liliana Tolchinsky.
With more grown up chidren and youngsters: writing process by Marlene Scardamalia, writing across curriculum by Cherles Bazerman, and in university and college, academic literacy by Paula Carlino.
I think all of them are linked to the work of language in education (Douglas Barnes) and in language through interaction (Gordon Wells) in UK universities in the 1970s and 1980s.
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I need to understand how writing is a recursive process.
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To write is to re-write. There are processs that could begin with a plan, following transcription and, then revision and edition. But, if you note that something is not working, you can go back, even to make changes since the plan. That is why writing is for me a recursive process.
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As an inexperienced teacher in the field of online teaching, I have the fear of unconsciously ignoring one of the skills while focusing on not ignoring the other!
Therefore, I wish to make use of your experiences with distance learning/teaching in the field of integrating the four skills-listening, speaking, reading, and writing- in the language course.
Note: the context of teaching is Algeria, hence, some limitations exist concerning the availability of internet and computers.
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Online or distance teaching has its implications on learners. One of the direct consequences of distance learning is the type of educational platform an institution adopts and uses. Features of these platforms determine which skill is prevalent and more rapid in use. I have found interactive oral skills to be most affected followed by writing and then reading. Students listen most of the time while attending online classes with less willingness/chances to interact verbally.
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I'm doing a paper and need to find a negative or positive relationship between attitudes (5 option likert scale) and level of education (5 options). Do I do chi-squared, spearman's rho or Kendal's tau. Please help.
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The first thing to clarify is your research question.
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Since the decline of audiolingualism, there was bias towards speech in language teaching for communicative ends. Though, the stress on speaking rather than writing produces fluent but inaccurate learners (Hughes, 1983).
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Learning to speak comes first, in all evolutionary terms for the human species.
Writing (numbers included) is there and emerged to solidify our language foundation and communication.
It has factually a mental function to be precise, exact and clear=understandable over a distance. However, as we know from language archeology, it is not an easy task to re-translate a written text into spoken language, if the line of tradition got somehow lost, e.g. we can read Plato, but have no authentic phonetics. This is especially critical with sacred texts, where authorities claim to be orthodox.
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Hello everyone I hope you are all well! I just have a quick question- I am a third year BA Social Work student in the midst of writing a literature review for my dissertation. I wanted to know if anyone had any tips or help they could offer in what makes a good dissertation?
Thank you all in advance- Lucie
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For you to do a good literature review. You should first state your objectives. Once you have the objectives, search for one paper published for each objective. When having the paper, look at the methodology and look at the results and lastly the recommendations they make. This will enable you obtain the research gap. One paper is enough as it will guide you to other related works.
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Hi. I want to create a research proposal assessing the perceived level of stress among a certain group of nurses during COVID-19. (For example, I might focus on Research Nurses who were deployed to work in the wards / ICUs to directly care for patients, yet they have minimal or zero experience in directy caring for patients placing them in stressful situations).
This obviously would related to qualitative study, but I have discovered the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen which is a quantitative tool.
How can I convince my lecturers to sway to my quantitative approach to this study (because it is easy and straightforward, and they did suggest a qualitative approach)?
I am new to Research, so I am trying to keep my proposal essay as simple as possible.
Thank you for all you advice and suggestions.
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Pss is a form that is often used in quantitative research. Simply attach sample papers illustrating the successful application of the quantitative approach to stress testing
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I am writing up a project in which I used motion capture as well as heart rate monitoring and questionnaires, but I will be analyzing the motion capture data separately to this project write up - should I still include it within my methodology even though it will not be relevant to the paper?
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Please never add in your proposal irrelevant methods. It will lead examiners to create many questions.
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We, scholars, are writing a lot. The language of science today is the English, however, for many of us, English is not our mother tongue. Even though we may be fluent in English. I found grammar check programmes/applications useful. Do you have recommendations about such apps? I am using MS Office grammar check (of course) and also I started to use Grammarly. Do you think there are better programmes (apps) or which are you using?
Thank you.
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I prefer to use Grammarly service...
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I would like to write an academic essay on Depression among youth using Participatory Action Research and its applicability in our country but I dont have the idea how to make my ideas flow. Im starting to build an outline but it seems lacking and disastrous. Do u have any idea what are the essential information and data to include so that my paper will be clear and convincing? You can also include suggests readings that I could review. I highly appreciate any form of help.
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Two other articles of mine might help:
`Action research in graduate management research programs', Higher Education, vol. 23, pp. 195-208, March 1992. With O. Zuber-Skerritt.
Zuber-Skerritt, O. and Perry, C. 2002, ‘Action research within organisations and university thesis writing’ Organisational Learning, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 171-179.
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My students often make a lot of mistakes when they write essays, whether in the exams or in the exercises that are part of the curriculum. These mistakes are basically related to the mechanics of writing (spelling, punctuation, grammar, sentence structure...). Thus, I would like to get new insights from experienced teachers on how to improve students` writing skills.
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WRITING SKILLS FROM A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE IN THE CLASSROOM SETTING
Epistemological framework
From a cognitive perspective, Flower and Hayes (1981); White and Ardnt (1991) point out that academic writing involves goal setting, ideas discovery, and decision making processes that play out in the mind of the writer as well as the search for language with which to express the intended meaning. Like this manner, Swales (1990) indicates writing is a socio-culturally embedded activity, a defining characteristic of which is foregrounding of institutionally generated and valued discourse norms. Hence, Flower (1994) highlights that the successful writing of academic assignments by English Foreign Learners (EFL) students entails adopting the culture-specific discourse regularities of the English discourse community. As stated, then, by this author, in English academic communities, writing is recursive, generative, and exploratory in nature. From a cognitive perspective, instead of the prescriptive and linear view of writing, emphasis has been given on writing as a cyclical ‘process’. In that respect, Flower and Hayes (1981) emphasize that writing typically consists of planning (goal setting, idea exploration, and idea organization), translating (formulating texts), and reviewing (responding to different sources of feedback). More importantly, Tribble (1996: 160) lays emphasis on the process approach by stressing the creativity of the individual writer and by paying attention to the development of good writing practices rather than on the imitation of models”. Therefore, we could infer that this approach may result in students assuming more responsibility and autonomy. In doing so, consistent with Applebee (1986: 95), a collaborative learning environment may contribute to the establishment of an interactive relationship between teachers and students whereby the teacher would play the role of a facilitator to make possible the exercise of writing skills and to draw out students’ potential. In that regard, we would like to emphasize some authors such as Bialystok and Ryan, 1985 (cit. in O’Malley and Chamot, 1990), who suggest a way of addressing this question from a psycholinguistic perspective to us. They identify two skill components, which are involved in language acquisition:
  • Analysis of linguistic knowledge.
  • Control of linguistic processing.
They point out that different tasks tap these skills in different ways and suggests that the proficiency of learners can be described more specifically by reference to their mastery of each of the skill components. These authors propose a framework for analyzing task demands, and demonstrate how specific tasks can be mapped onto these two dimensions. It should be possible to predict how a language learner will perform on a given task if there is an assessment of the language learner’s level of analysis and control and a task analysis of the levels required by the problem. Bialystok and Ryan’s framework, which they report has already been applied successfully to reading tasks, could provide a useful starting point for investigating the processing of different language tasks.
Practical framework
From a practical perspective, the classroom setting, as stated by McDonough and Shaw (1993), may provide us with an environment for writing at each of the three main stages of (1) gathering ideas: pre-writing and planning, (2) working on drafts, and (3) preparing the final version. To this end, we could give the following example:
(1) Pre-writing and planning. The teacher, after learners have worked individually on vocabulary according to the Universal Grammar Model by Chomsky, establishes a collaborative, interactive framework in order for learners to work together in a workshop atmosphere. Odlin (1994) emphasize that the Model of Universal Grammar by Chomsky, at the practical level, suggests that more attention must be paid by teachers to the teaching of specifically syntactic aspects of vocabulary acquisition. In this way, the universal grammar model by Chomsky is a reminder of the cognitive nature of language: language learning is the creation of language knowledge in the mind as well as the creation of the ability to interact with other people. As a result, he/she divides the classroom into small groups so that learners can all think about their task in hand at the same time to create good ideas (brainstorming), as an introduction to develop the grammar rules regarding “reported speech”, “conditionals” and “modal verbs” for a correct syntax, especially on the basis of the previously learnt vocabulary.
(2) Working on drafts. Next, each group of learners obtains a wide range of sentences, by means of which the teacher prepares the communicative interaction and engages learners in conversation through a role-play.
(3) Preparing the final version. Finally, the teacher asks students to do the final version; here, the teacher’s role of marking, commenting and giving advice acquires special relevance; for example: “This is quite a good summary, but it would have been a good idea to put your writing in a more correctly organized way. Think more carefully about clear organization and clear, appropriate layout. As for as grammar and vocabulary are concerned, your writing is well organized in terms of plot, as you have used the reported speech as a way of quoting somebody’s thoughts or words without using the exact words that were actually said. Likewise, you have used some modal verbs, some types of conditional sentence and some variations on these, and introduced a number of words and phrases used to express conditions.” In order to achieve this, students must take into account the following:
(a) Correct grammar.
(b) Appropriate vocabulary.
(c) Good spelling.
(d) Clear organization.
(e) Clear, appropriate layout.
Moreover, an important way of improving students’ writing is to have a clear idea of things that they should check before they finish their work:
First check. Check that writing makes sense.
Second check. Check that students have used the right words.
Likewise, when making up the semantic unit, which is meant to be the actual text, in a determined context (coherence), students must begin from a wide range of utterances obtained by each group of learners in a brainstorming atmosphere. Then, they should establish a continuity and connection with each other, for example, by means of the subsequent cohesion devices:
First, we adjust the text to four main paragraphs through some linkers that are used for building up an argument, such as firstly, next, then and finally; that is, these suggest that the speaker has several interesting points to make, one after the other. Second, within each paragraph we have made use of causal linkers, such as consequently used to introduce the result of previous information; furthermore, additive linker used to give extra information; however or nevertheless, adversative linkers used to introduce information which contrasts with what has been mentioned previously. And third, we put to use reported speech, conditional sentences and modal verbs in conjunction with each other.
Bibliographical references
  • Applebee, A. N. (1986). The writing report card: Writing achievement in American schools. National Assessment of Educational Progress, Educational Testing Service, Rosedale Rd., Princeton, NJ 08541-0001.
  • Flower, L. (1994). The construction of negotiated meaning: A social cognitive theory of writing. SIU Press.
  • Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College composition and communication, 32(4), 365-387.
  • McDonough, J. & Shaw, C. (1993). Materials and methods in English Language Teaching (a teacher’s guide), Cambridge University Press.
  • O’Malley, J.M. & Chamot, A. (1990). Learning strategies in Second Language Acquisition, Cambridge University Press.
  • Odlin, T. (1994). Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. (Cambridge Applied Linguistics).
  • Swales, J. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge University Press.
  • Tribble, C. (1996). Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • White, R., & Arndt, V. (1991). Process Writing. Harlow, UK. Longman. Widdowson, H.(2000) The theory and practice of critical discourse analysis. Applied Linguistics, 19(136), 51.
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In one of my present essays the best and most cutting edge work has been done in BBC history programmes involving innovative researchers, but if I was studying at universities I could not put these into my written work. When teaching business courses I have always encouraged their use if these methods add further clarification.
Is it not time for academia to welcome the modern world?
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It depends upon what you mean by conservative. Historical labels no longer wok. Conservative, liberal, etc. all mean different things today to different people. For instance, to me conservative means preserving what is best from the past so that you can use what we have learned to adjust to the present and to the future. I take liberal to mean keeping your options open. Therefore, these two ideas are not polar opposites. One can be a conservative and a liberal at the same time. The problem today is that people do not define their terms and so people assume that they mean the same thing as they define them.
A similar problem occurs with scholarship and criticism. A scholar is different than a critic although one can do both scholarship and criticism. The first deals primarily with facts, the second usually tries to develop theories, often without facts but ideal situations. For instance, Aristotle is not a scholar but a critic (at least as far as tragedy goes). His statement about what tragedy is does not fit either Aeschylos or Euripides and, as far as I'm concerned, misled people about what tragedy actually is. Aristotle's field of expertise was not drama or literature; it was biology. People forget that
You need to define your terms for your reader and establish the guidelines for your approach to whatever topic you choose. As long as your structure is coherent and you have facts that support your approach, that should be sufficient. And as I write this I realize that, if you do it as I propose, you probably will not get published. So, make sure that you know which venues will give you a chance, whatever your personal preference is.
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let’s be grateful for the effort the reviewers put in making your paper a better version of itself. Take their comments positively!
What are your feelings towards reviewers?
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I believe reviewers do a great job on our manuscripts. I always commend the work they do, especially, when the manuscript is submitted to a top journal.
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What are the Different Resume Formats? and is there a preferred format for applying for a job as academic staff member, researcher, and it professional? What Is the Difference Between a Resume and a CV?
Best regards
Sarmad.
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Dear Sarmad
RESUME
Resume is a French word meaning "summary". A resume is ideally a summary of one's education, skills and employment when applying for a new job. A resume does not list out all details of a profile, but only some specific skills customized to the target job profile. It thus, is usually 1 or at the max 2 pages long. A resume is usually written in the third person to give it an objective and formal tone.
Structure: A good resume would start with a Brief Profile of the candidate, Summary of Qualifications, followed by Industry Expertise and then Professional Experience in reverse chronological order. Focus is on the most recent experiences (with responsibilities and accomplishments), and previous experiences are only presented as a summary. This would be followed by Education details and/or Professional Affiliations and/or Voluntary Initiatives.
C.V. - CURRICULUM VITAE
Curriculum Vitae is a Latin word meaning "course of life". It is more detailed than a resume, generally 2 to 3 pages, or even longer as per the requirement. A C.V. lists out every skill, all the jobs and positions held, degrees, professional affiliations the applicant has acquired, and in chronological order. A C.V. is used to highlight the general talent of the candidate rather than specific skills for a specific position.
Regards
Almaamari
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Assessment Perspective
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My colleagues and I have used essay writing to evaluate critical thinking skills.  See the attached.
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Writting a thesis or dissertation for submission
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No, it is not appropriate. It is the always the thesis that is being judged, not the writer.
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I am about to write my first scientific paper. The results are ready. My work consists of several parts of other works and I am allowed to write my paper in 8 pages. Therefore, there are too many things to discuss about in introduction and too many results and graphs to place in the body of manuscript. So what is your advice about how to begin and then go on?
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Dear Arman,
I think if you try to put main part of your data in one paper and submit the other data at supplementary file but referring inside the main paper, it might be nice because of following reasons:
1. You'll be able to publish you paper in a well-known and high-impact journal which increase its visibility for related audiences. But it may happen by publishing several papers in less-known journals. I've seen papers in journals such as PNAS or Nature journals with tons of data in more than 30 pages as supplement. This is what prestigious researchers do.
2. It shows the respect to readers who can find the results of your study in one place and will not bother themselves to look for other pieces of the puzzle.
3. You'll not be worried about ethical issues including Salami publication or copied parts (i.e. introduction or methods).
4. Readers have not to study repeated parts in several papers and you don't have to be worry how to start or finish 8 papers.
5. One paper means gathering more citations which will be distributed and decreased in several papers and there is no quarantine the readers find all your papers.
Just in case you've decided to write more than one paper, take care not to copy any part of the papers and paraphrase any thing you want to repeat. If you use the same method, describe it well in your first paper and cite it in your other papers instead of repeating it.