Science topics: PhilosophyEpistemology
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Epistemology - Science topic

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.
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Publications related to Epistemology (10,000)
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Indian Science Fiction evolves distinct epistemologies of engagement and entanglement with history, mythology, folklore-and with different scientific traditions and knowledge(s). This chapter delves into these negotiations and locates how (21 st century) Indian Science Fiction in English-language negotiates with the nation's "golden past narrative....
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In this introductory essay to The Oxford handbook of cognitive archaeology, we present and define the field, distinguishing it within the broader discipline as the branch concerned with human cognition and typically adopting cognitive paradigms as the basis for its interpretations. We discuss the two main investigatory branches, the Evolutionary Co...
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Message from the Guest Editor For centuries, numerous are the contributions on the nature, goals and methods of Islamic education. This rich heritage provides an indispensable foundation and orientation for further research in this field. In addition to the genuine questions, in view of the current plural and (post-) secular context, new Islamic ed...
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In his essay Down to Earth (2018), the French philosopher Bruno Latour proposes a hypothesis that connects a number of contemporary issues, ranging from climate denialism to deregulation and growing inequality. While his hypothesis, that the elites act as if they live in another world and are leaving the rest of the world behind, might seem like a...
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Why Sámi Sing is an anthropological inquiry into a singing practice found among the Indigenous Sámi people, living in the northernmost part of Europe. It inquires how the performance of melodies, with or without lyrics, may be a way of altering perception, relating to human and non-human presences, or engaging with the past. According to its practi...
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The chapter argues for a people-oriented perspective to social innovation, viewing that as the only genuine way to ensure equality in research relations and the legitimacy and sustainability of change processes. It follows that such an approach holds the promise of critically reflective intellectual work, something often claimed by researchers and...
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Researchers strategically assess youth mental health by soliciting reports from multiple informants. Typically, these informants (e.g., parents, teachers, youth themselves) vary in the social contexts where they observe youth. Decades of research reveal that the most common data conditions produced with this approach consist of discrepancies across...
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Epistemological and methodological reflections are at the heart of feminist standpoint theories. These critical theories are questioning the dogmatic spirit that reigns in modern science. These theories call into question a science that would like to be objective, universal, neutral and with a positivist anchoring, and which may only be a patriarch...
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This article discusses translanguaging methodologies from a decolonial perspective. Drawing on tangsing, I have argued that the research methodologies to investigate translanguaging should not only push linguistic boundaries but also question the relevance of Western/colonial research methods that reproduce linguistic insecurity and epistemic inequ...
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Gaining an insight on how the human perceptive apparatus has the ability to discern between the worlds, physical, divine and demonic, has intrigued many theological minds throughout the history. The concept of ‘spiritual senses’, developed in the patristic period, offers a platform for the debate on the intricate role that sensorial, psychological...
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This article argues the thesis that rigorous, strongly reasoned psychotherapeutic practice rests, not only (and not always) on outcome research, but on many further equally, and in some cases more, secure epistemic foundations. In part 1 of the article, based on currently well-established epistemological thinking, a ranking of the degree of certain...
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Psychoanalysis is largely overlooked in mathematics education, yet is relevant to many aspects of the field, such as the institution of the school, curriculum and instruction, and content. Specifically, one content area where psychoanalysis is both exceedingly relevant and absent is that of probability education. In this critical literature review,...
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In 2012, the European Commission (EC) introduced the new bio-based economy or bioeconomy policy project, since adopted by about 50 countries. Alongside politicians, various research and other interest groups have promoted the bioeconomy as inevitable, apolitical, and a triple-win strategy for nature, people, and the economy. Recently, bioeconomy is...
Research Proposal
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Dear Colleagues, You may be interested in the call for papers for a Special Issue of the International Journal of Web Engineering and Technology on "New Trends and Challenges in Knowledge Management in Organisations". The journal has been published by Inderscience for 16 years. As Guest Editor, I cordially invite you to submit a manuscript for cons...
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The present work intends to make a decolonial critique of the national state model and its effects on environmental and climate policies. The central problem that is investigated in this work consists in questioning the existence of legal-institutional mechanisms of the State aimed at combating the consequences of climate change and which are in li...
Preprint
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Resumo: Considerando a relevância social da produção de conhecimentos em pesquisa e formação docente para uma sociedade antirracista, propõe-se, neste artigo, uma análise discursiva de textos acadêmicos produzidos por discentes de curso de Pós-Graduação lato sensu em Relações Étnico-Raciais e Educação, no intuito de observar modos de produção de su...
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Clinical trials play a prominent role today in medicine, but are not without controversy. These issues start from the day physicians begin their specialization process in medical school and continues onto their day-to-day practice as attendings with referral patterns and resulting financial incentives. This combined with the lack of training in bas...
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The National Police Investigator of the Republic of Indonesia, based on Article 7 paragraph (1) of the Criminal Procedure Code, has the authority to determine someone as a suspect for a criminal offense. The implementation of this authority is not absolutely; however, there are several restrictions and parameters, as established both through the Cr...
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RESUMEN El siguiente artículo analiza mediante diversos autores de la filosofía contemporánea, el concepto de inclusión como un concepto polisémico y problemático que tiene al menos tres nudos conceptuales: el reconocimiento del otro como núcleo básico, la diversidad identitaria que debe ser asumida como proliferación continua de diferencias y la p...
Conference Paper
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Pragmatist philosophy teaches that there is no 'criterion of truth', and Rorty claims that it follows that we lack any useful notion of truth. I argue that this second step is too hasty. An important question for our current world moment is how we can ride out arguably necessary 'epistemic trust-busting' (Steven Fuller's term) without ending up in...
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Questioning gender – by understanding that questions about gender are political - is one of the core implications of feminist epistemologies. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to how a gender perspective can question some dominant framings on citizenship education, and to discuss different ways in which feminist theory can help us to...
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Epistemologi merupakan cabang dari filsafat yang membahas pengetahuan dari asal usul, struktur, metode-metode, dan kebenarannya. Epistemologi dikaji dalam bidang filsafat berkenaan dengan bagaimana cara memperoleh ilmu pengetahuan. Dalam perkembangannya, pendidikan islam di Indonesia masih terfokus pada aspek kognitif (pengetahuan) saja. Padahal, s...
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Across the world, planning and decision-making for urban forests increasingly seeks to include diverse perspectives. Yet, research on people’s perceptions of urban forests and urban trees is fragmented. To integrate and critically analyse this body of research, we conducted a review of empirical studies about people’s perceptions of urban forests a...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we discuss epistemologies of Critical Applied Linguistics (CAL), articulated to the studies of Paulo Freire (1970/1987, 1992/2019), to deal with coloniality concerning issues of racism, in the Brazilian scenario. We argue that the praxiology of hope can contribute to the (re) signification of an antiracist stance. First, we present...
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This study aims to analyze the types and causes of learning obstacles experienced by elementary school class students on the material of folding symmetry and rotational symmetry. The approach used is a qualitative approach with descriptive research methods. Data collection techniques used in this study were tests, interviews, observation, and docum...
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Alcohol consumption takes place in society and because of society. The "social" aspect of this phenomenon gives a meaning that manifests itself in the framework of interaction. This paper discusses basic problems of previous sociological approaches to alcohol consumption: (1) focus on a problem-oriented approach-drinking and alcoholism, (2) abstrac...
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In the article we have discussed the concept of scientific inquiry, its nature, following an epistemological perspective
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Since Darwin’s theory of evolution, adaptationism is frequently invoked to explain cognition and cultural processes. Adaptationism can be described as a prescriptive view, as phenotypes that do not optimize fitness should not be selected by natural selection. From an epistemological perspective, the principle of a prescriptive definition of adaptat...
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Conventional literature reviews, as well as more developed systematic reviews, have been a central focus in evaluating any field’s epistemological progress. Nonetheless, research evaluating the types and characteristics of systematic literature review (SLR) journal articles produced in the digital marketing literature is limited. This study examine...
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Research questions in mainstream epistemology often take for granted a cognitive internalist picture of the mind. Perhaps this is unsurprising given the seemingly safe presumptions that (i) knowledge entails belief (viz. the entailment thesis ) and that (ii) the kind of belief that knowledge entails supervenes exclusively on brainbound cognition. I...
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Utopians organized space, nature and society to perfection, including land and water governance – rescuing society from deep-rooted crisis: “The happiest basis for a civilized community, to be universally adopted” (Thomas More, 1516). These days, similarly, well-intended utopian water governance regimes suggest radical transformations to combat the...
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The concept of the future, its prognostications and its applications increasingly shapes present social worlds. From government policy to architectural design, from preemptive everyday practices to interventionist counter-cultural projects, imaginations of the future take concrete form and enjoy a powerful purpose. In this intervention we ask: How...
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This paper offers a critical examination of the foundations of Hans Kelsen's democratic theory in neo-Kantian epistemology. It argues that, while such an epistemological framework provides coherence to his intellectual endeavor by reconciling his monistic legal theory with a pluralist democratic theory, it weakens the theoretical fertility and anal...
Conference Paper
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Computer Science today spans an increasing range of theoretical and practical disciplines in its exploration of what can and cannot be automated, which is giving rise to a greater diversity of disciplinary collaboration. Where collaboration is between individuals from different disciplines then accommodations are needed in agreeing a research philo...
Research
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Supplementary Material to Physics Essentials Enable Deeper Understanding in Signaling and Crosstalk of the Carcinogenesis Paradigm “Epistemology of the Origin of Cancer”
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For those troubled by environmental harm on a global scale and its deeply unequal effects, this book explains how international law structures ecological degradation and environmental injustice while claiming to protect the environment. It identifies how central legal concepts such as sovereignty, jurisdiction, territory, development, environment,...
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The concept of education is changing and that of the environment is also becoming different. Is environmental education: (1) a type of education to improve the environment; (2) education to improve the environment of education; or (3) a type of education to improve the education of people? In this chapter we focus on the ontology of the environment...
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This article discusses the epistemological challenges of contending with hegemonic norms while ‘studying up’. In particular, I discuss the challenges that I faced in following feminist and queer approaches to gender while conducting fieldwork on the gendered norms and values produced through undergraduate computer science education in Singapore. Th...
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Developments in the realm of formal sciences and math foundations during the twentieth century were marked by important methodological advances. Such new approaches partialy owe their appearance to the abandonment of the previous paradigm. To identify how this transition occured, in this essay we observe some aspects regarding the works of Gödel an...
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The poverty problem is one of the main focuses of social work profession and discipline. Critical Theory and Anti-Oppressive Approach which are frequently addressed in social work theory and practice have already developed various forms of practice regarding poverty. The harmonization of these forms of practice to the area of poverty with their phi...
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Radioactivity and radiation-induced mutations are believed to be primary causal examples of cancer-initiating events (stimulus). The assumption that an increase in cancer risk develops from any amount of radiation gave rise to the linear no-threshold model. This also led to the assumption that cancer is caused by somatic mutations as described by t...
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Con motivo del centenario de la revista Estudios Eclesiásticos, se ha diseñado un número doble donde se recorren los desafíos teológicos más destacados del siglo XXI en estas áreas: afinar la epistemología teológica, dialogar con las ciencias, afirmarse en el contexto religioso plural, responder a inquietudes eclesiales arraigadas, desplegar la sus...
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It is increasingly common in cognitive science and philosophy of perception to regard perceptual processing as a probabilistic engine, taking into account uncertainty in computing representations of the distal environment. Models of this kind often postulate probabilistic representations, or what we will call probabilistic states,. These are states...
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This paper brings forth a theory of complex problems, distinguishing when and why a problem can be said to be complex, and when and why not. A world of non-zero sum, highly intertwined, with multiple sensitivities, with systemic and systematic crises requires a theory of complex systems, which does not exist today. Negatively said, analytical under...
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This essay explores Michel Serres’s “poetic dream of another epistemology” connected to an anti-Cartesian, sensorial view of knowledge. The philosopher alludes to empirical studies from the field of cognitive neuroscience, which have demonstrated that the mind and body are interwoven as part of one integrated entity, in order to propose an alternat...
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The molecular revolution could lead drug discovery from chance observation to the rational design of new classes of drugs that could simultaneously be more effective and less toxic. Unfortunately, we are witnessing some failure in this sense, and the causes of the crisis involve a wide range of epistemological and scientific aspects. In pharmacolog...
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Traditional interpretations of Nietzsche’s The Genealogy of Morals (GM) argue that the work is a treatise on, or a straightforward account of, Nietzsche’s moral thinking. This is typically contrasted with what has become known as the postmodern reading, which holds that the core of GM is an attack on the very notion of the truth itself. These two i...
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Tulisan ini membahas mengenai ilmu hukum dilihat dari sisi filsafat ilmu, selama ini terdapat keraguan dalam studi ilmu hukum disebabkan oleh obyek dari ilmu hukum, apakah ilmu hukum termasuk kedalam Ilmu ataukah hanya sekedar pengetahuan akan perundang-undangan saja. Dalam membahas mengenai keilmuan dari ilmu hukum penulis metodologi penelusuran k...
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This essays considers the hypothesis that Indian epistemology does not clearly recognize, let alone emphasize, an intellectual faculty that apprehends intelligible things, such as essences or “truths of reason,” or elevate knowledge of such things to a status higher than that of sense perception. Evidence for this hypothesis from various sources, i...
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Plain English Summary Historical approaches are key to accurately and comprehensively capturing the rich and varied dynamics of nascent-stage business venturing. Nascent-stage business venturing is messy and notoriously difficult to completely and accurately observe. Researchers are rarely, if ever, present when ideas are formed and initial actions...
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The central aim of this paper is to explain how protocol sentences establish a specific space for scientific discussion at the level of observation in the social sciences. In this space, the four levels of the theory of protocol sentences work as a coordinate system that allows to specify the degree of quality of data production. To do so, we elabo...
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Using Communication Complex as our theoretical framework, we explored socially constructed notions about mental health from a complexity informed perspective. Through qualitative interviews we investigated the availability of mental health services provided at three universities—one in Wrocław, Poland; one in Semarang, Indonesia; and the third in I...
Conference Paper
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The harm that social isolation and loneliness can have on physical, mental, and emotional well-being is now well evidenced. With social distancing and remote working now commonplace, the dangers of loneliness are ever more acute. Consequently, information technologies have taken on renewed importance to support healthy communication and reduce the...
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Research on conceptual change addresses the question of how the conceptual resources that learners bring to the context of formal instruction are transformed into conceptual understanding consistent with the accepted knowledge in some domain. Research has been conducted on conceptual change in domains such as science, mathematics, history, and econ...
Book
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Buku ini ditulis berasaskan epistemologi pasca materialis dengan hakikat (ontologi) bahawa landasan kemunculan bandar pintar bertitik tolak daripada budaya kebendaan teknologi termaju seperti teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (ICT). Namun begitu sebagai pemikir pasca materialis metode pemahaman terhadap pembangunan bandar pintar lebih jauh daripada...
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Introduction. In modern life sciences, it is impossible to ignore the problems of viruses, bacteria, parasites and their impact on the ecosystems. But the interface is a human ecosystem of the digital age and a new formation of life, which means that it also needs to be understood from subdiscursive elements, such as digital analogues of viruses, b...
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Epistemic nihilism for inquiry is the claim that there are no epistemic norms of inquiry. Epistemic nihilism was once the received stance towards inquiry, and I argue that it should be taken seriously again. My argument is that the same considerations which led us away from epistemic nihilism in the case of belief not only cannot refute epistemic n...
Preprint
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When membership of a community depends on commitment to shared beliefs, the community is a belief-based coalition, and the beliefs are identity-defining beliefs. Belief-based coalitions are pervasive features of human social life and routinely drive motivated cognition and epistemically dysfunctional group dynamics. Despite this, they remain surpri...
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In this paper we will throw a close look on the recent and contemporary military and hybrid phenomenons that curently shape both European and world security structure. In terms of security, seeing through the lens of intellingence and, at the same time, having a deep empirical and epistemological knowledge about the military events that occured nea...
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In this article, we defend the view that problematic epistemological extremism, which presents puzzles for many learners new to philosophy, is a result of earlier learning at the K-12 level. Confirming this hunch serves as a way of locating the problem and suggesting that recent learning interventions proposed by Christopher Edelman (2021) and Gale...
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Most research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples has been conducted by non-Indigenous people and has not been a positive experience for many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. This scoping review maps approaches to health research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities in Austral...
Preprint
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This paper has two aims: (a) is a study and proposition for changes, based in the STEM epistemology, in some lab lessons of the training framework, in Greece (and not only them) and (b) is a first step in the construction of a modular, low-cost, microcontroller- based computer system that can implement a large scenario variety both in education and...
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O artigo busca identificar como os livros didáticos de Sociologia concebem a desnaturalização das explicações sobre a realidade social. Para tal, à luz da análise do discurso de filiação pecheutiana, ancorada no materialismo histórico-dialético, analisa-se o discurso dos seis livros didáticos de Sociologia aprovados e recomendados pelo Programa Nac...
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RESUMEN A pesar de su popularidad, citar a Wikipedia en un trabajo académico es una práctica generalmente no aceptada por docentes e investigadores. La principal razón argumentada a este respecto es también la característica distintiva de Wikipedia: ser una enciclopedia libre donde cualquier perso-na, sin importar su nivel de erudición, puede escri...
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It is maintained that a classification or taxonomy of functions is required to reflect cognitive functions. On the basis of the epistemological position of a pragmatic monism, it can be stated that cognitive functions are evolutionary products, and furthermore that their availability is dependent on the structural and operational integrity of neura...
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Understanding the secondary–tertiary transition is not only an educational matter, but also an inclusion and equality matter as mathematics qualifications lead to better employment and better earning for students. Research on what causes the crisis associated to this transi- tion has so far focused on the impact of cognitive and epistemological cha...
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It is often difficult to teach mathematics for understanding. Many students seem to prefer to learn computational skills by rote, and seem to remember very little of the course contents the following semester. The reasons for this are surely manifold. This paper reviews the concept of understanding, looking particularly towards the meaning it has i...
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In this paper I have two main aims. My first aim is to introduce the notion of bounded emotionality. This notion is the analogue of that of bounded rationality in behavioural economics. Bounded rationality says, roughly, that human beings are cognitively limited with respect to their processing and memory capacities. Bounded emotionality says that...
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This interpretive cross-case study investigates complexity in the ways teachers frame mistakes and the reasons behind their framing, challenging the assumption in the literature that productive beliefs about errors generate productive error-handling practices, while unproductive beliefs result in unproductive practices. The study draws on interview...
Poster
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Society is the sum of all human experience along with its conceptual truths and labels about its subjects and objects. As either of us is part of this shared human experience, we are embarking on an inner journey to know what and who we are. To validate the hunches formed by this inner journey, we search for answers from external sources is the soc...
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Aim to determine the typology of weapons and to substantiate the need to assess the degree of destructive impact of the affordances of artifacts used as weapons on the surrounding objects and society as a whole. The Michael Cole's theory was used as the methodological basis of the study, which has a great applicative potential and allows you to giv...
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The problem of absurdity is a multidimensional problem of philosophical anthropology, it raises the question of the postmodern man, about the existence of man in the world of dystopia. Through the semantics of absurdity, it becomes possible to consider the problems of aesthetic, epistemological, cultural properties in the context of posing a fundam...
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Epistemic decolonization has taken centre stage in academia and everyday life. Epistemic decolonization is a call to dismantle the Western way of thinking and its self-arrogated hegemonic authority. It is also a call to re-centre the knowledge enterprise in Africa from a western-centric orientation to an African-centric one to accommodate African e...
Preprint
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Big data can help government agencies better make equity-related decisions in transportation systems. However, the lack of disaggregated big data is an obstacle to inform policy actions. In this paper, we review data sources that can be used to investigate transportation equity. Following the general three-step framework for transportation equity o...
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Prospective mathematics teachers’ students must be able to build didactic situations that encourage students to actively learn. They must also be able to develop lesson plans independently. The facts found include lesson plans in the form of drill activities and the activity of downloading lesson plans from the Internet rather than compiling the le...
Preprint
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This article examines the effects of commercial digital language technologies on the reg-imentation of language. Language technologies based on the exploitation of large data sets - from machine translation and automatic text generation to digital voice assistants - are a particular form of human-made sign practice in which traditional language nor...
Article
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It is one of the concerns of EAP to bridge the disparity of discursive practice between novice and expert writers, but the comparison is largely made across a broad knowledge field and little is known about the likely divergence within a disciplinary divide. In this study, we explore the epistemic positioning in research writing by PhD students and...
Article
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The present historical juncture, characterized by overuse of the word “intersectionality” and underappreciation for its historical evolution and intention, warrants not only clarification of intersectionality as a concept, but thoroughgoing reconsideration of its contemporary utility and limitations. This is precisely the task undertaken in this ar...
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This research scrutinises the fear-driven management of Arabs. It conceptualises fear as a structural component of Arab society through a sociological lens and, by drawing upon the reflections of 28 Arab experts, philosophises on the potential of fear to develop into a well-configured managerial system (‘feararchy’) that regulates public and privat...
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Science and technology have vastly expanded the realm of medicine. The numbers of and knowledge about diseases has greatly increased, and we can help more people in many more ways than ever before. At the same time, the extensive expansion has also augmented harms, professional responsibility, and ethical concerns. While these challenges have been...
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With the aim of expanding on our body of work (BOGADO; CIRINO, 2021) on films produced in the territory of the Recôncavo baiano, we will cross-reference the images of four short films– The Arc of Time (2019), The days with you (2021), marvin.gif Part II (2020), Heroic Dreams (2021), in the search for generating the “endless imagery”. These films br...
Article
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Black Brazilian Cinema is a concept that affirms the presence and the black culture in cinema since the arrival of the first literate slaves in Brazil, at the same time that it questions the structure of cultural and knowledge production. In this article, we seek a pedagogical approach to black cinema. The objective is to work with the universe of...
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Resumen: Desarrollar creencias epistemológicas y sobre el aprendizaje es un desafío relevante y pendiente en la formación docente. Un potencial recurso para afrontarlo es la argumentación con pares, pues habilita examinar críticamente distintas perspectivas y evaluar las propias. Dispositivos diseñados para ello deben tanto agudizar la controversia...
Conference Paper
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The article is honing on qualitative aspects& epistemological limitations of the 2 types of meaning of science concepts. It also shed light to why Einstein used advanced math object for his Laws, i. E they are derivable is this fashion because empirical meaning - based concepts operate at this dimension.
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This article seeks to challenge the prevailing doubts in feminist discourse about the political power and horizon of #MeToo, according to which the acceptance of stories of sexual harm to women as truthful claims is a product of the conditions of the present time, characterized as the era of post-truth, which implicitly erode the status of the trut...
Article
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"World History, Literary History: Postmodernism and After. The basic question Christian Moraru raises in his contribution is about the direction in which literary history and criticism overall may be going after postmodernism. Moraru’s answer, or guess, is that literary-cultural scholarship, along with the humanities at large, would probably have t...
Article
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Resumo A partir de uma abordagem que trata mente e matéria como planos indissociáveis, defendemos a hipótese de que, em qualquer avaliação de caráter espacial, o espaço ausente é parte do espaço presente. A presença da ausência se manifesta tanto no âmbito do deslocamento de materialidades heterotópicas quanto no âmbito da experiência humana, que p...
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This paper is a theoretical contribution to discussions about the emancipatory potential of citizenship education across four sites (i.e. Catalonia, Colombia, England, and Pakistan). By reflecting on policy and empirical data from our four contexts of study, we discuss whether citizenship education manifests different conditions of emancipatory edu...
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Napolitano (The epistemology of fake news, Oxford University Press, 2021) argues that the Minimalist Account of conspiracy theories—i.e., which defines conspiracy theories as explanations, or theories, about conspiracies—should be rejected. Instead, she proposes to define conspiracy theories as a certain kind of belief—i.e., an evidentially self-in...
Article
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In this paper we analyse the political articulation and understanding of ‘technology-supported care’ for older adults in central Norwegian public policy documents. In these documents, technology is increasingly presented both as a time saver and a lifesaver for the welfare state. Drawing on data from document analysis of official green and white pa...
Article
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There are two central kinds of epistemological mistakes: believing things you shouldn’t, and failing to believe things that you should. The knowledge-first program offers a canonical explanation for the former: if you believe something without knowing it, you violate the norm to believe only that which you know. But the explanation does not extend...
Article
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One of the open questions in Bayesian epistemology is how to rationally learn from indicative conditionals (Douven, 2016). Eva et al. ( Mind 129(514):461–508, 2020) propose a strategy to resolve this question. They claim that their strategy provides a “uniquely rational response to any given learning scenario”. We show that their updating strategy...