Science topic

Epidemics - Science topic

Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
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Publications related to Epidemics (10,000)
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Malaria is a deadly human disease that is still a major cause of casualties worldwide. In this work, we consider the fractional-order system of malaria pestilence. Further, the essential traits of the model are investigated carefully. To this end, the stability of the model at equilibrium points is investigated by applying the Jacobian matrix techn...
Chapter
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In the early agrarian stages of civilization development, most of the needs were met within the boundaries of the household or local community. However, the development of urban settlements forced the emergence of collectively satisfying some needs (initially mainly sanitary and hygienic). Over time, thanks to the achievements of subsequent industr...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has relegated pathologies that were previously commonplace to a secondary context. Therefore, it is necessary to study the evolution of these diseases in the presence or absence of COVID-19. Objective: The present study had the following objectives: 1. to evaluate the relationship between the COVID-19 epidemic and the possib...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how structural social inequities fundamentally shape disease dynamics, yet these concepts are often at the margins of the computational modeling community. Building on recent research studies in the area of digital and computational epidemiology, we provide a set of practical and methodological recommendations...
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Background Vaccines have become the best weapon for epidemic prevention and control in the absence of standard approved effective therapies. However, skepticism about the vaccine efficacy and safety is constantly reported. To our knowledge, there has been no study assessing COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Lebanon. The primary objective of this surve...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, the wearing of face masks became mandatory in public areas or at workplaces in many countries. While offering protection, the coverage of large parts of our face (nose, mouth and chin) may have consequences for face recognition. This seems especially important in the context of contact tracing which can require memory...
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Clinical trials during public health emergencies of novel medical products such as therapeutics and vaccines in resource-limited settings are daunting due to the limited capacity for regulatory assessment. Regulating clinical trials during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone required expedited evaluation to identify medical products that could be pr...
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Background Drug overdose and firearm injury are two of the United States (US) most unrelenting public health crises, both of which have been compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic. Programs and policies typically focus on each epidemic, alone, which may produce less efficient interventions if overlap does exist. The objective is to examine whether dru...
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Infectious diseases in livestock are well-known to infect multiple hosts and persist through a combination of within- and between-host transmission pathways. Uncertainty remains about the epidemic dynamics of diseases being introduced on farms with more than one susceptible host species. Here, we describe multi-host contact networks and elucidate t...
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With an increase in the number of active users on OSNs (Online Social Networks), the propagation of fake news became obvious. OSNs provide a platform for users to interact with others by expressing their opinions, resharing content into different networks, etc. In addition to these, interactions with posts are also collected, termed as social engag...
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Background In early 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 (Alpha variant) became dominant across large parts of the world. In Denmark, comprehensive and real-time test, contact-tracing, and sequencing efforts were applied to sustain epidemic control. Here, we use these data to investigate the transmissibility, introduction, and onward transmission o...
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Background Children and adolescents and low-income individuals are considered particularly vulnerable for mental health implications during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Depression is a frequent negative emotional response during an epidemic outbreak and is also prone importantly to environmental risk like stressors derived from income inequality....
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Rice blast, one of the most destructive epidemic diseases, annually causes severe losses in grain yield worldwide. To manage blast disease, breeding resistant varieties is considered a more economic and environment-friendly strategy than chemical control. For breeding new resistant varieties, natural germplasms with broad-spectrum resistance are va...
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Background Prostate cancer is an epidemic of the modern age, and despite efforts to improve awareness, it remains the case that mortality has hardly altered over the decades, driven largely by late presentation. There is a strong public perception that male urinary symptoms is one of the key indicators of prostate cancer, and this continues to be p...
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The global prevalence of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, is rapidly increasing and has now reached epidemic proportions. Chronic tissue inflammation is a characteristic of these metabolic diseases, indicating that immune responses are closely involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. However, the regul...
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Background Neutralizing antibodies are approved drugs to treat coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients, yet mutations in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) variants may reduce the antibody neutralizing activity. New monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody remolding strategies are recalled in the battle with COVID-19 e...
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Background COVID-19 has had a considerable impact on society since 2019, and the disease has high mortality and infection rates. There has been a particular focus on how to best manage COVID-19 and how to analyze and predict the epidemic status of infectious diseases in general. Methods The present study analyzed the COVID-19 epidemic patterns and...
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly infectious and pathogenic animal disease. In recent years, with the rapid development of the swine breeding industry in China, pig farms have shown a trend of larger-scale development. Large-scale pig farms employ standardized management, a high level of automation, and a strict system. However, thes...
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The existence of a critical traveling wave solution for a reaction-diffusion epidemic system with spatio-temporal delay is established, whose existence of super-critical traveling wave solutions is obtained in [Z. Zhen et al., Math. Method. Appl. Sci. 41 (2018) 7074-7098]. Meanwhile, the non-existence of traveling waves with non-positive speeds are...
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Background Diabetes, a cardiometabolic condition with social and health ramifications, is already a global epidemic. Diabetes affects 422 million people worldwide, with the majority living in middle- and low-income countries, resulting in 1.5 million deaths each year. Inhibiting DPP-IV, an enzyme whose main biological function in diabetes is the br...
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Background Forecasting healthcare demand is essential in epidemic settings, both to inform situational awareness and facilitate resource planning. Ideally, forecasts should be robust across time and locations. During the COVID-19 pandemic in England, it is an ongoing concern that demand for hospital care for COVID-19 patients in England will exceed...
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Background This study aimed to compare the prevention and control strategies adopted by the United States and India in the COVID-19 outbreak and analyze the effectiveness of their strategies, in order to provide empirical experience for the prevention and control of the epidemic. Methods This study extracted official data on COVID-19 from various...
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Background The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic hit South America badly with multiple waves. Different COVID-19 variants have been storming across the region, leading to more severe infections and deaths even in places with high vaccination coverage. This study aims to assess the spatiotemporal variability of the COVID-19 pandemic and estimate the infecti...
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Delta and Omicron variants of 2019-nCoV are still spreading globally, and many imported infections have been identified in China as well. In order to control the spread chain from imported to local, China has implemented the dynamic Covid-zero policy. In this article we summarized China’s governance models and practices of fighting potential import...
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In response to the COVID19 pandemic, many countries have implemented lockdowns in multiple phases to ensure social distancing and quarantining of the infected subjects. Subsequent unlocks to reopen the economies started next waves of infection and imposed an extra burden on quarantine to keep the reproduction number ( $$R_{0}$$ R 0 ) < 1. However,...
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Objective To study the change in trend of antenatal mental health and associated factors among a cohort of pregnant women during the second wave of COVID-19 using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Previous study using the same scale, during the first wave reported a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Results A descriptive cro...
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Background With the emergence of Corona virus Disease-2019, a novel worldwide health disaster is threatening the population. The WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic in December 2019, when it first surfaced in Hunan seafood market in Wuhan, South China, and quickly spread far and wide. Different corona virus variants are currently causing concern al...
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Alliance among healthcare professionals grows and develops during the practice of healthcare services, clearly in COVID19 epidemic. This joint effort makes one’s way gradually and systematically, especially in the virtual field of activities. This manner of exchanges result the coming to light of health-related social network sites, committed to al...
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Background SARS-CoV-2 is known to transmit in hospital settings, but the contribution of infections acquired in hospitals to the epidemic at a national scale is unknown. Methods We used comprehensive national English datasets to determine the number of COVID-19 patients with identified hospital-acquired infections (with symptom onset > 7 days afte...
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Background The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 ( ACE2 ) is recognized to be the fundamental receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), responsible for the worldwide Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, genetic differences between people besides racial considerations and their relation to disease susce...
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Background Kuwait had its first COVID-19 in late February, and until October 6, 2020 it recorded 108,268 cases and 632 deaths. Despite implementing one of the strictest control measures-including a three-week complete lockdown, there was no sign of a declining epidemic curve. The objective of the current analyses is to determine, hypothetically, th...
Article
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Monkeypox has a very prominent regional epidemic. It has been confined to Western and Central African countries. Sporadic cases found in countries outside Africa generally have a history of sojourn in endemic areas. However, the recent multinational outbreak of monkeypox cases in Europe in early May 2022 has revealed a changing epidemiological tren...
Article
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Rumor is an important form of social interaction. Therefore, spreading harmful rumors can have a negative impact on the health of the society. People's communication in the society plays an important role in spreading rumors, and whether or not it is spread depends on the person's level of trust in the rumor. Thus, one of the most important factors...
Article
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Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, considered as the worst global public health event in nearly a century, has severely affected more than 200 countries and regions around the world. To effectively prevent and control the epidemic, researchers have widely employed dynamic models to predict and simulate the epidemic’s devel...
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Background During the fourth COVID-19 wave in Japan, marked differences became apparent in the scale of the epidemic between metropolitan Tokyo in eastern Japan and Osaka prefecture in western Japan. Methods Public epidemic data were analyzed, with performance of mathematical simulations using simplified SEIR models. Results The increase in the n...
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Background: A remarkable drop in tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been achieved in China, although in 2019 it was still considered the second most communicable disease. However, TB's spatial features and risk factors in urban areas remain poorly understood. This study aims to identify the spatial differentiations and potential influencing factors o...
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Background The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed human behavior in areas such as contact patterns and mask-wearing frequency. Exploring human–human contact patterns and mask-wearing habits in high-risk groups is an essential step in fully understanding the transmission of respiratory infection-based diseases. This study ha...
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Rapid global COVID-19 pandemic response by mass vaccination is currently limited by the rate of vaccine manufacturing. This study presents a techno-economic feasibility assessment and comparison of three vaccine production platform technologies deployed during the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) adenovirus-vectored (AVV) vaccines, (2) messenger RNA (mRNA) v...
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Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has made an important contribution to the prevention and control of the epidemic. This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy and explore the mechanisms of TCM for COVID-19. We systematically searched 7 databases from their inception up to July 21, 2021, to...
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Background Vector control is an important approach to preventing and controlling malaria. From the malaria epidemic to malaria elimination in China, vector control has played an essential and irreplaceable role in the historical process. This review systematically summarizes the evolution, adjustment, and optimization of vector control strategy tow...
Article
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During a pandemic event like the present COVID-19, self-quarantine, mask-wearing, hygiene maintenance, isolation, forced quarantine, and social distancing are the most effective nonpharmaceutical measures to control the epidemic when the vaccination and proper treatments are absent. In this study, we proposed an epidemiological model based on the S...
Article
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Background COVID-19 serosurveys allow for the monitoring of the level of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and support data-driven decisions. We estimated the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a large favela complex in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods A population-based panel study was conducted in Complexo de Manguinhos (16 favelas) with a pro...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a great demand for computational models capable of describing and inferring the evolution of an epidemic outbreak in the short term. In this sense, we introduce epidWaves, a package that provides a framework for fitting multi-wave epidemic models to data from actual outbreaks of COVID-19 and other infectious...
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COVID-19 has emphasized that a precise prediction of a disease spreading is one of the most pressing and crucial issues from a social standpoint. Although an ordinary differential equation (ODE) approach has been well established, stochastic spreading features might be hard to capture accurately. Perhaps, the most important factors adding such stoc...
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Background The Omicron wave of COVID-19 in England peaked in January 2022 resulting from the rapid transmission of the Omicron BA.1 variant. We investigate the spread and dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the population of England during February 2022, by region, age and main SARS-CoV-2 sub-lineage. Methods In the REal-time Assessment of Comm...
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The aim of this paper is twofold. On one hand, we strive to give a simpler proof of the optimality of greedy controls when the cost of interventions is control-affine and the dynamics follow a state-constrained controlled SIR model. This is achieved using the Hamilton–Jacobi characterization of the value function, via the verification argument and...
Article
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In this paper, we focus on the propagation phenomena of a bistable man–environment epidemic model with nonlocal dispersals, where there exists a positive feedback interaction between the concentration of infectious agent and infectious human population. The monostable and bistable traveling wave solutions and three-wave entire solutions are studied...
Article
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This paper introduces thermal optimal path method to investigate the dynamics lead-lag relationship of jumps among Chinese stock index and futures market under the background of the Covid-19 epidemic. Based on three representative stock indexes and their index futures in China, we find the lead-lag structure changes significantly before and after t...
Article
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We formulate an age-structured SEIR epidemic model using vaccination and treatment as control measures. Using the method of characteristics and fixed point arguments, we prove the existence of a unique positive solution to our proposed nonlinear model. We use a suitable objective functional and prove the existence of optimal control variables. Depe...
Conference Paper
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The COVID-19 epidemic, which emerged at the beginning of 2020, has affected social, cultural and commercial life in many ways all over the world. Due to the epidemic, international and local commercial activities faced many problems, and accordingly, businesses in some business lines had difficulty maintaining their continuity. The concept of busin...
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The existing research models of SIQRS are often defined by linear incidence, ignoring the impact of lagging public awareness during outbreaks of infectious diseases. Their research results often deviate from the actual situation. For decision‐makers, the delay of quarantine measures according to its formulation is liable to bring losses. Given this...
Conference Paper
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Almost every market, both for services and goods, has been experiencing increasing uncertainty since the beginning of 2020. A lot of interesting research topics have emerged after the impact of COVID-19 on the economy. The disdain for the expected high dangers and related risks, which were overlooked by many countries' governments in prior years, m...
Article
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The basic reproduction number $${\mathscr {R}}_0$$ R 0 is a fundamental concept in mathematical epidemiology and infectious disease modeling. Loosely speaking, it describes the number of people that an infectious person is expected to infect. The basic reproduction number has profound implications for epidemic trajectories and disease control strat...
Article
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A stochastic SIR (susceptible infective recovered) model is considered for the spread of an epidemic on a network, described initially by an Erdős–Rényi random graph, in which susceptible individuals connected to infectious neighbors may drop or rewire such connections. A novel construction of the model is used to derive a deterministic model for e...
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Currently, health authorities around the world are struggling to limit the spread of COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic, social distancing has been the most important strategy used by most countries to control disease spread by flattening and elongating the epidemic curve. Another strategy, herd immunity, was also applied by some countri...
Article
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With the expansion of the global novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, unprecedented interventions have been widely implemented in many countries, including China. In view of this scenario, this research aims to explore the effectiveness of population mobility restriction in alleviating epidemic transmission during different stages of the...
Article
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The hepatitis C virus is hitherto a tremendous threat to human beings, but many researchers have analyzed mathematical models for hepatitis C virus transmission dynamics only in the deterministic case. Stochasticity plays an immense role in pathology and epidemiology. Hence, the main theme of this article is to investigate a stochastic epidemic hep...
Article
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The spread of fake news on social media has increased dramatically in recent years. Hence, fake news detection systems have received researchers' attention globally. During the COVID‐19 outbreak in 2019 and the worldwide epidemic, the importance of this issue becomes more apparent. Due to the importance of the issue, a large number of researchers h...
Article
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The control management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) infections is one of the most challenges in the 21st century. By May 8th, 2022, SARS‐CoV‐2 has infected over 510 million people with 6.2 million death worldwide and over 1.2 million people with 9133 deaths in the fifth wave of infection in Hong Kong. The governme...
Article
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Background: The level of protection after a SARS-CoV-2 infection against reinfection and COVID-19 disease remains important with much of the world still unvaccinated. Methods: Analysing nationwide, individually referable, Danish register data including RT-PCR-test results, we conducted a cohort study using Cox regression to compare SARS-CoV-2 in...