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Environmental Toxicology - Science topic

Environmental toxicology, also known as entox, is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms
Questions related to Environmental Toxicology
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Do Aerosols, PM2.5 and PM10 particles contains or behave like natural toxic nano-particles. Whether these particles removal or minimization procedure will follow from the environment and in what circumstances these have adverse effect for living beings and non-living historical monuments. Although, its critical issue for environmental nanotechnology research, however, very less output come into existence for improvement of environment.
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Hi all
I'm looking for the following publication. I've not been able to come across it online. If anyone has a copy I'd really appreciate it!
Burger, J. 1994. Metals in avian feathers: bioindicators of environmental pollution. Reviews in Environmental Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 5:203–311.
Thank you!
Marie Claire
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Thank you, Peter!
Best wishes
MC
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for example what is the difference between N-acetylcistein and BHT(BUTYLATE HYDROXY TOLOUEN)? 
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Hi Elah,
all the answers given so far are very useful, but are all given from the point of (cell)biologists. You always have to consider also the chemistry and not only the cellular point of view.
In general, substances, which have a preference to give electrons are reducing components (reductants) and substances, which have a preference of taking electrons are oxidzing components (also called oxidants). Not all but many radicals are oxidizing compounds (because they are lacking one or more electrons and want to fill that gap to become stable). Of course there, are also strong oxidants that are not radicals.
A cell, as a stable biological system, wants to avoid a lot of radialcs (or strong oxidizing or reducing subtances) going around, because they react with biomolecules and therefore damage the cell. "Antioxidant" is a general term for all chemical substances, which can reduce an oxidizing substance (not only in the cell).
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are just one example of oxidizing substances in biological systems. In this group you have to distinguish between radicals (Superoxide anion, Hydroxyl radical, Peroxyradical) and non-radicals (Hydrogen peroxide, hypocchloride, singelt oxygen, ozone). If a substance you add to your cell can react with at least one of these substances (it does not matter if radical or not) this substance is a "ROS-Scavenger". How the substance is doing the job depends on its chemistry and the ROS subspecies it reacts with. NAC for example can directly, as stated above correctly, exepct eletrons from radicals. It also refills the gluthathion pool of cells, which is necessary to decompose hydrogen peroxide. So NAC can (directly and indirectly) "scavenge" different types of ROS (not only radicals). From the cellular pooint of view it is an ROS-Scavenger, from the chemical point of view it reduces and oxdizing comopnent, so it is an antioxidant.
I am sorry this answer is a little long, but I hope this helps you.
All the best,
Marc
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I have searched many papers for allowable concentration of Copper and Chromium in industrial wastewater but I didn't find anything useful.
I would be so grateful if you help me with this matter.
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No permissible limits for Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) in waste water.
The available permissible limits in guidelines are for drinking water
Cu = 2 mg/L
Cr = 0.05 mg/L
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As muscle is the main consumption part of the fishes, then what is the need to analyze the toxic elements in other tissues such as liver, gill and kidney?
Is that to check the accumulation pattern in different organs and their behavior? Or if you have any other suggestions, please give your comments.
Kind regards,
Anand.
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I guess Cr6+.  However in practical, we using it more in laboratories.  How to avoid it.
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Naturally chromium ions exist predominantly in two different oxidation states, trivalent Cr3+ ions and hexavalent Cr6+ ions. Trivalent chromium is a thousand times less toxic than Cr6+ and is an essential micronutrient for several organisms.
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Recently we got a review of a manuscript saying that "data did not follow dose-response patterns". I know about linear models of response, as well as log-logit and probitos-like distributions. However, I was wondering should all biological responses fit in those models?
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Dear All,
I just found this blog http://ourstolenfuture.com/newscience/lowdose/nonmonotonic.htm a bit old but potentially interesting to some of you.
Cheers
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doing project on remediation of contaminated soil with recovery of heavy metals.so planning to contaminate a sample artificially with heavy metals.
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Good information
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Hi everyone,
I have analyses the on-site and major and trace elements some river water samples , and now I want to calculate several water quality parameters like pollution index, water quality index, metal index, ..etc. In the equations I encountered variables like Si and C0 to calculate the Pi and Cf values. I wonder if they are the same or different meanings. Also can I calculate pollution Loading Index (PLI) for water samples, not the sediments.
Thanks in advance
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Hi Mohamed,
yes, you can calculate heavy metal pollution index (HPI) . Please find the paper attached by Al-Hejuje et al (2017 )
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There are a number of bioassay tools and techniques available. They study LC50, LD 50 (for 24, 48, 96, ....hours). We also do EC studies. I think, mother Nature can provide some hidden physical clues showing toxic effects of toxicants. Different organisms show some defensive or biochemical struggling signals in the form of secretions that can be detected through chemosensing. If we detect the early warning signals by reading the physical or catching the chemical clues mitigation or removal of toxicants could be done  in due time. 
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There is a study about that, the only problem is that it is in Spanish, if you have any questions, do not hesitate to ask, I am the author of the work, I leave the link
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Hello, I am trying the evaluate the toxicity of Zn to freshwater microalgae P. subcapitata with a 72h toxicity test. I was wondering if I should add EDTA in the test medium or not. The obtained results will have to be compared with those obtained with natural water containing Zn.
Can the presence of EDTA alter the bioavailability of Zn?
Can this influence the comparison with results obtained in natural water?
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Ciao Michela, 
I never worked with your test organism, but here follows some information on the the toxity that applies for most of aquatic species.
EDTA has potential to bind metals, and therefore affect the free ion concentration. As the free ion concentration (bioavailable metal) is normally accepted as the one responsible for most of toxic effects, adding EDTA has potential to affect toxicity.  Naturally, how much it would affect the toxicity of Zn would depend on the water chemistry of your experimental media. In other words, it is difficult to say whether you would be able to measure the effect of EDTA without knowing the concentrations of EDTA, Zn treatments, and other cations, anions, and ligands in your media. While the effect of EDTA is always there, the question on whether you would sense it depends on your experimental setup.
Regarding the comparison to natural water, again it depends on the EDTA concentrations and the binding capacity of the EDTA you are using. 
I would be careful to add EDTA to metal exposures, especially if you want them to be comparable to natural waters. There are other metal complexing agents that could be more useful for that, as humic acids for instance.
I hope it helped
abel ;)
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I am working on heavy metal contamination of soils at mechanic site and i need international, regional and even national permissible limit of the metals am working on
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Dear Linus Aposu
You can following the attached paper too.
regards
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Patient diagnosed with CFS in 2001 was an international flight attendant with an Australian airline and has many of the symptoms of Aerotoxic Syndrome.
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The main concern here has focused on the role of an organophosphorus lubricant used in airplanes, such that a leak releases this lubricant into the atmosphere of the plane.  This probably acts as a neurotoxic toxic agent, much like organophophorus pesticides do, indirectly producing excessive NMDA activity.  This organophosphorus toxic mechanism is discussed in the 2009 MCS toxicology review.
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hello every one. I have measured lead, cadmium and chromium in fish muscles and my result showed a reduction of heavy metals concentrations in females .is it possible that heavy metals have been eliminated in fish eggs?
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Ok, No problem
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A conference on “Topics of current hygienic importance in nanotoxicology: theoretical premises, results of animal experiments, population health risks assessment and management” will be held in the Ekaterinburg Medical Research Center for Prophylaxis and Health Protection in Industrial Workers in 2016 (tentatively, September or October). Although it is planned as a  national event, participation of reputed scientists from other countries would be greatly appreciated.  Those  who are successfully active in this field of research are invited to give a lecture or an oral presentation of their results and novel ideas on relevant topics of their own choice. The working language of this Conference is Russian, but a system for mobile simultaneous interpretation will be established.. The said Center will waive lecturers' registration fee and will pay for their accommodation, meals and a cultural program although, unfortunatrly, there are no funds to finance their travel
A preliminary contact with me regarding this matter should be established  preferably no later than January 31, 2016 through E-mail: bkaznelson@etel.ru
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Dear Sir
I am very much interested in attending this conference. Is this conference available this year? I have missed 2016 conference.
Please send me details 
Thank you
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I am working on phytoremidation of  Lantana camara to heavy metal by tissue culture technique
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Lead sulphate is hardly soluble in water and lead acetate is well soluble in water. (See solubility data in chemical handbooks)
This difference might influence the results considerably.
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Nanotechnology is being promoted as a new generation environmental remediation technology with immense potential to provide cost-effective solutions to many of the most challenging environmental cleanup problems.  Silver,copper, gold, iron oxides, titanium oxides are some of the commonly used nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used in environmental remediation. Further, nanoparticles can be used as selective and sensitive sensors to monitor toxins, heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in soil, water and air environments. But there appears pitfalls in the horizon! Toxicity issues have raised important environmental concerns. Although we need to make a trade-off but scientist are hopeful about benefits of this new "magic bullets", which far exceed their put-down-able drawbacks.
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Dear Dr kumar
I will send you soon in this regards.
Regards
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How do you plan to estimate the availability/production of mushrooms in Finnish forests? by using models? what sort of models?
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The Daphnia magna toxicity test of silver nanoparticles always chooses moderately hard water from EPA. But from EPA the the culture media of  Daphnia magna is hard water. I have no ideal for choose the test media. Could you give me some suggestion ? 
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Dear Zhang
Indeed this is a bit tricky... the culture media needs to be quite hard but if you do short term testing this is not strictly needed. By reducing the hardness you will better be able to control the agglomeration of NPs. We have explored this further in our 2016 paper in Ecotox Environ Safety www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829068
However, if your AgNPs are sterically stabilized the hardness will not influence the agglomeration much and in this case I would recommend the medium hard medium to make your study comply with the OECD requirements.
Best regards
Anders 
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Can anyone help me with detail information on how macrophyte and phytoplakton can be use simontaneously in assessment of the ecological state of aquatic environment. what statistic can be use to present the result and what parameters i can use for the monitoring method? is it neccessary to analyse the plants for heavy mental too?
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Dear  Enodiana,
 for assessment of the ecological state of the aquatic environment, you can quantify of chlorophyll-a concentration in collected water sample to predicting the level of eutrophication using Trophic State Index (TSI) according to Carlson (1977).
using Phytoplankton species diversity
and calculate Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′), where it is one of the most
widely used indices for measuring diversity. It can change with key ecological factors such as competition, predation, and succession altering the diversity through changes in evenness without any change in species richness. also, you can use Shannon-Wiener index as a pollution index in diatom communities and suggested the following scale: 0–1 for high pollution, 1–2 for moderate pollution, 2–3 for marginal pollution, and 3–4 for incipient pollution or use palmer′s pollution index (Palmer, 1968) as an organic pollution index. you can determine Physico-chemical parameters in water samples like temperature, pH, TDS, DO, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate,...  
use canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to examine the environmental variables influencing the phytoplankton community and it is very good analysis to present your final data.
good luck,
Sara Sayed
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Good morning every one
I am doing a PhD in computer sciences and Risk analysis. My major goal is aggregation of data in order to build an indicator that would assess the consequences of a given scenario of industrial accidents on biodiversity.
In the case of a scenario in which a big volume of an acid or basic solution would be lost in the environment (for exemple Ajka accident, Hungary, 2010) and if we could predict the modification of pH in the surrounding environment (that would go back to 7 after two or three days). Would it be possible to assess "how bad it would be for the biodiversity". I have been told that, for a 7 +- 1.5 pH, almost everything dies. Could we say for example "with a 7+- 1 pH there would be a big impact but with a 7+-0.5 pH almost nothing happens"?
Thank you for your help
Tom
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7+- 1.5 may be there is change in biodiversity but no to death.
but it may be different from each organism to another, but I belive for juveniles or larvea this could some mortality,
but for 7+-0.5 I think it is the same.
but the question how could you design this pH system in the environment?
how could you control it ?
I think it is not possible
regards
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Please can you help me to find Standard and guidline of the permissible limits of toxic heavy metals (copper and silver) in sediment, bivalve and sea water ?
Thx in advance
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 Dear   Khouloud BOUKADIDA 
Please follow the 
standard EPA documents
and also the best references which dear Mikhail reffered.
Best Regards
Parisa Ziarati
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Does anyone know about permissible limit of the trace elements (Cd Cr Cu Mn and Ni) for milk or other food? I've been seaching for it in WHO and FAO publications but not all of them are listed
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Permissib limits by WHO/FAIn ppm
Cu .05
Pb .001
Cd .003
Cr .06
Co .005
Ni .05
Fe .3
Zn  5-15
Mn  .05
Cu .05 to 1.5
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How many the limited concentration  of Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin and Zearalenone (ppb) for feeding fish ?
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Dear Dr. Nasreen ,
Many thanks for your attachments. 
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We are planning on developing a project on potential use of fly ash generated from thermal power plants. It has both a number of potentials and pitfalls for use in aquaculture. There is risk of a number of environmental risks especially heavy metal contamination. It used in fish pond there will be risk of transfer of contaminants along the food chain. How the project's aim and objectives can be drawn, the technical design and work plan can be made. Above all, how the pre-application treatment of fly ash can be thought for removal and inactivation of heavy metals and other toxic contaminants. 
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Interesting discussion...
Fly ash leachate induces  stress in freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch). Source : Environ Int. 2004 Sep;30(7):933-8.DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2004.03.00
 
Abstract : Oxidative stress inducing potential of fly ash leachate (FAL) was studied in a freshwater fish, Channa punctata (Bloch). Fish were exposed to fly ash leachate for 24 h and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was studied as a marker of oxidative stress. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in the exposed fish. FAL (1 ml/l) induced LPO in all the organs and most prominent response was in the gill. It also caused induction of enzymes and glutathione. Liver showed highest level of induction of enzyme activities. The results of this study demonstrate that fly ash constituents have potential to induce oxidative stress in fish and gills are the most vulnerable organs. It is also suggested that in case of exposure to FAL, along with LPO antioxidant defense is also activated to counteract the reactive oxygen species (ROS) at least partly in the initial stages of exposure.
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Effect of heavy metal lick Zinc, copper and iron on pathogenicity of plants fungal pathogens
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I have no study in this project.
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The is toxic elements on aquatic organisms
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I have used to study lead toxicity on crab Carcinus aestuarii hemolymph, and I have found an significant increase of ALT and AST enzymes as well as oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase).
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I need to calculate LOD in Hg analysis of fish sample. My method is;
Blank: put 10 mL nitric in microwave vessels and run the program and volume up to 50 mL and read (result received in microgram/L)
Sample: take 1 g sample+10 mL nitric acid in microwave vessels, then run the program, 
My equation is for LOD=mean+ 3*standard deviation
But I receive blank reading in microgram/L unit (See attached excel sheet), then how I calculate LOD? Can you give the example or correct my excel sheet
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@Henrik
You are correct, assuming each sample is exactly 1.00g, and the volume is 50 mL.  Your calculation assumes that all 15 weight measurements are exactly 1 gram.  The spreadsheet should have separate columns for the weight extracted and volume used of each sample. 
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In the dynamic light scattering studies of cutinase of Fusarium solani pisi what is the Z-Average (d.nm) value generally observed or reported?
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Thank you Laith Al-Ani
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Redox state and prevailing ambiance influence heavy metal inactivation and detoxification as well as transformation of nutrients (C, N & P) in soil and aquatic environment
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Most of the studies have been done with regard to biochar originated from plant biomass. Application of biochar , especially in acid soils has proven more beneficial than alkaline soils.  hoever , there are  pressing documents to prove that biochars are equally effective in alkaline soils as well . Application of biochar invariably improves the adsorptive capacity of soils through enhancement of CEC of soils, therefore , better NUE can very well be anticipated. If it is acidic soils , it brings an improvement of soil pH , thereby ,  brings  conspicuous imprvoments in soil fertility plus biological soil properties as well. but , the most distinctive advantage of biochar as an physical amendment is the  provision of carbon contributing handsomely towards the non-labile fraction of soil SOC, as the carbon from biochar has maximum residence time compared to ant other form of organic residues including the organic manures... 
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copper contaminated soil
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I am just looking for some toxicology protocols using Acartia tonsa as their bioindicator. Does anybody have Parcom or APHA 1992, or ASMT protocols too? I would appreciate! Because I need some details of their methodology!
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Dear Lopes,
i would like to send you the SMEWW 22nd edition 
hope u find it useful
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Environmentally-induced epigenetic changes of gene regulation could result from chronic, lifelong exposure, to low doses of environmental toxicants, such as chemicals including, tobacco smoking and endocrine disrupting compounds, or to other environmental factors such as nutritional changes, and lifestyle-related conditions. These environmentally-acquired epigenetic marks may influence the control of gene regulation through DNA methylation, histone modification, or through a large set of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These epigenetic Effects might be passed on to the developing embryo and child as inheritable non-genetic marks, which recapitulate previous lifelong history of exposure to environmental influences that start from the stage of primordial germ cell, passing through the maturing germ cell, and ending by the zygote stage. This involves the paternally transmitted information on the sperm that contribute to modulating embryogenesis functions and later childhood development, in concert with, the maternally transmitted information encountered by the exposure to a large milieu of environmental factors either periconceptionally or during lactation period.
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Dear Matthias R. Schaefer,
Thank you very much for your precious advice.
I will consider that. Best. AM Morsy
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Over the past few decades, birds have been proven as one of the most favorite candidate group of animals to predict environmental health and to trace footprints of environmental pollutants Burger 1993.  why are birds preferred to other types of indicators? I need reasons to support this statement.......
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May be a very practical point. Most pollutants are fat soluble and will be deposited in the eggs.
Eggs can be rather easily collected and analysed and their residue levels will generally reflect the contamination of the birds, without the necessity of catching and sampling the birds themselves.
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need answer 
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The (U.S.) National Library of Medicine's "ToxTutor" might be of interest to you, e.g., Section 5 is on Toxicity Testing Methods. Section 5's Learning Objectives are "After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
  • Explain modern approaches to testing for and assessing toxicity.
  • Identify sources of information related to alternatives to using animals to assess toxicity.
  • Explain how clinical investigations and epidemiology studies are used to evaluate toxicity to humans."
"ToxTutor is a self-paced tutorial covering key principles of toxicology for users of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) chemical and toxicology databases."
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is it justifiable to make a comparison of the heavy metal content between anodonta sp. and macrobrachium sp. (both collected from the river) just because of their different feeding patterns? what factors do i need to consider if i make this comparison?
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The theory of magnification in trophic chain explains that the accumulation in organisms depends on their trophic levels, which depends also on feeding behaviour , seasonality, reproductive cycles.
In the case of mollusks, the trophic level is fixed at 2, because they filter algae. For crustacean the trophic level should be measured by stable isotopes of N (ratio 14N/15N). I add an EU guideline on that which contains a lot of useful info and references
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Hello 
I'm doing a research about ecotoxicity of sediments in a estuary ,specifically a mangrove forest in the north coast of peru  and i'd been looking for a good organism to perform this tests but i can't find anything available here other than the Artemia sp. Would it be ok to use this specie ?
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Thank you so much for the feedback i'm going to look for other more options like the ones mentioned .
Peter I'm going to make test to expose the organisms to  contaminated sediments  
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We would Iike to determine water quality  by measuring the reaction of bioluminescent organism when they are added to a water sample.  Can anyone provide us with a reproducible procedure?
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 Thank you to everyone who has sent information.  I appreciate you taking the time to help out.
Mahalo from Hawaii.
Barb
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I need suggestion, because I'm not sure
Mold grow on sabouraud with chloramphenicol.
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Hugo,
I would like take photos. The fungus is interesting. Few photos 5 and 6 is younger mould.
best regards Aleksa
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Is there a consensus on the optimal concentration of glutaraldehyde for the preservation of marine phytoplankton?  I typically use 1%, but notice that other researchers use from 0.1% to 3%.
I am interested in maintaining as many taxonomic features as possible for LM and SEM with the lowest concentration of glutaraldehyde that is acceptable, since I don't like working with this chemical at sea. I typically work in low chlorophyll high nutrient areas of the Southern Ocean, but may find sea-ice blooms from time to time.
I appreciate you thoughts and recommendations :).
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HI.
usually working stock of 10% then between 1% and 2% is where I have usually gone. I have a paper which I used as a good reference for marine samples, ya no lugols, as the colour issue and also the degradation with diatom frustules getting broken down. My lowest would be 1% pretty smelly still, but I make it on board ship in fume hood then you can pre-spike vials keep it in the fridge and then out samples back into the fridge after sample is added, I hope that helps? Ya more is better than less. Also remember that lugols does colour the organelles so harder to identify, much better to use glut.
I hope this helps, let me know if you need the paper?
Di
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There are many research papers published on Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) bleaching which state that it is sustainable process to do bleaching with potassium permanganate.
e.g.
I agree with conducted research regarding effectiveness and results obtained through use of potassium permanganate, but I have come to know recent news that KMnO4 is restricted in many countries and it is non-biodegradable at all.
CHT Bezema has introduced alternative of KMnO4 which is 99% biodegradable, you may visit following link to know about their product.
As per CHT report, Why KMnO4 is restricted?
Manganese is a heavy metal and not biodegradable. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) belongs to the substances which are particularly dangerous to the environment with high fish toxicity. In many countries there are strict regulations or even an obligation to provide evidence to avoid any misuse of KMnO4.
Please share your valuable information and thoughts.
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As Dr hassan mentioned Hydrogen peroxid is recommended for textile fabrics.
Regards
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Hi all, 
I'm currently studying economic impacts of hazardous waste spills on drinking water, and Carlisle, PA had a highway spill in 1994 which resulted in direct damage of over $4 million. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration defines the spill as an "HMIS Serious Incident" but finding a detailed report on the spill is extremely difficult; even news coverage seems to be lacking. Any information on this spill would be hugely helpful!
Best, 
Dalton
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Its going to be difficult to find material on the incident.  First, its old, and second, the incident to which you are referring was discovered during monitoring required because of a previous incident.  According to US EPA documents "On April 20, 1993 an above ground 90 Solvent pipeline leak was discovered. During the course of remedial activities, it was discovered that the 90 Solvent came in contact with the groundwater. A groundwater monitoring point
was installed in one of three soil borings. At the time, there was no reportable quantity for naptha, but a conversation between PADER and GemChem resulted in PADER agreeing that the established limit for TPH could be used to show acceptable remediation. Furthermore, the analytical results for BTEX were below EPA’s RBC for residential soil and
groundwater. The monitoring point was to be sampled quarterly for six months to confirm there was no impact. There is no documentation in the files to show that this additional sampling was done. However, a Complaint Detail Report from PADEP dated 1/10/1994 noted this spill as a nonviolation and mentioned that it was covered during a Hazardous Waste
Inspection and the complaint file was closed."  (Facility EPA ID # 069 784 049; From 'Documentation of Environmental Indicator Determination," Dates: 2/5/99.)
You can use the EPA ID number above to search for addition documents.
There is one report I could find.  Here is the link (hopefully)
To this EPA report: EPA, Region III, Statement of Basis, Carlisle Syntec, Incorporated.
This is a detailed report covering multiple years of problems at this location. 
For further information, the contact person at EPA is:
U.S. EPA Region III
1650 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Contact: Mr. Kevin Bilash (3WC22)
Phone: (215) 814-2796
Fax: (215) 814 - 3113
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As the question states, I was curious if there is any research into toxicity or developmental effects of applying Mosquiron to aquatic habitats on non-target species, in particular amphibians or fish.
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I'd be surprised if there were any amphibian toxicity data generated for the registration. I could not find mention of amphibians on the Pest Management Regulatory Agency's posted information on novaluron (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/pubs/pest/_decisions/rd2014-10/index-eng.php). As an insect growth regulator applied to water, it would be good to have some native amphibian-specific toxicity information for the product.
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I have done BSLT, but I don't know how artemia larvae die.
thank you very much for the answers
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which chemical you have used?
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I will be collecting water samples for an eDNA study on Hellbenders and would like to test the water in the streams to figure out if endocrine disruptors are leading to their decline. Is there a solid test that exists to test water samples for estrogen? That can be done by a graduate student? Thanks!
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I don't have experience with this specific product, but there are ELISA test kits for detecting estrogenic hormones in water - http://www.biosense.com/render.asp?segment=3&ID=87
Other ELISA tests I have been involved with were relatively inexpensive, and appropriate for a grad student with lab experience.
I've seen one stat that claims 80% of US waters have detectable levels of estrogenics present, and that they're even in bottled waters. So don't be surprised by positive results. So, one problem for you to address is correlation versus causation.
Cheers,
Mike
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I want to estimate the non-carcin risk for a group of heavy metals using US EPA method of HQ. One of the metals is Fe (Iron), my problem is that I couldn't get the RFD value for it? Any suggestions? Thanks
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 (RfD) (mg/ Kg/ day) for elements reported in literature:
Fe (0.700 ), Mn (0.014), Zn (0.300), Cu( 0.040), Ni (0.020) ,
Cd( 0.001), Pb (0.0035).
 Find attached Table:6 of the following reference
Chemistry Central Journal
December 2011, 5:64
Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania
·                            Monica Harmanescu, Liana Maria Alda, Despina Maria Bordean, Ioan Gogoasa,Iosif Gergen
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nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium fertilizers as a inorganic compound. I indeed have been measured the nutrients concentration in freshwater. But now is there methods to measure them as compound?
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Sara,when we apply fertilizers and manures to field crops,over years their residues in soluble form accumulate in soil.Through leaching they reach ground water and through erosion and run off reach nearby surface water bodies like ponds and tanks.The soluble nitrogen forms are ammonium,nitrate and traces of nitrite.The soluble P forms are HPO4 and H2PO4. Potassium is in K plus ion form.Both N and P ionic forms can be estimated colorimetrically using visible spectro-photomter  and K by flame photometer or atomic absorption  spectro-photometer .The following reference will provide details of methods used for water analysis.You can find several other manuals on line in pdf form
Guide manual:water and waste water analysis-Central Pollution Control Board
cpcb.nic.in>upload>newitem>Newitem_171_guidemanualw&wwan
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Any researcher in toxicity field
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If you want to test 2 or more toxins on a sample, the best method to use is an optimal response surface. ORS is a type of designed experiment. So, you'll need software that is capable of designing one. I use Design Expert from Stat Ease. JMP from SAS and R are also capable software.
The ORS will test different combinations of each toxin you test. You can add in ideas about gender of species, type of species, seasonal effects, etc.   
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I want to determine the metal concentration in sediment using Geo-accumulation index and the geochemical background value is needed for such an exercise.
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Hello Peter,
firstly you should calculate the concentration of metal in sediment from your study area. Secondly, if the the background values for metals at your study area do not exist, you can use the “average shale” of the Earth's crust (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961) as background values.
Good luck !
N. Mejjad
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Please describe the methods and techniques to prepare the slide, staining requirements and study the cells of plant leaf affected by pollutants. 
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Dear Researchers can you tell me something about the methods used for plant cytology.
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institute with Atomic absorption spectrometer facility for analysis of heavy metal like Cu, Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni, Fe,Co, Pb and Hg in plant samples with minimal charges or free for research students preferably in and around chennai.
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For heavy metal analysis AAS and ICP-MS are the best  analytical methods.
Kindly contact
Director, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad.
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i want find out  the relationship between the ones that was found in oily polluted areas with the one of thee protozoan that i have in our lab that i used for bio-remediation studies. 
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Dear Andrey
I would like to contact you directly regarding the above question please email me on this email address Leokachienga@gmail.com.
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I’m doing metal genotoxicity experiments and when I tried to measure caspase activity by capase-Glo 3/7 assay (Promega), the metal lethal concentration 50 (LC50) had a low activity and a nontoxic concentration had an increase in caspase activity. Did I do something wrong or are there a explanation for this result?
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I have a couple of thoughts, first, could the metal(s) you're adding be interfering with the kit you're using? I know that it is a big problem when using nanopaticles, but I'm not sure if this kit might be affected by whatever metal(s) you're using. I don't know if you've included a positive control that you've spiked with the metal(s) or not, if you haven't I'd give that a try and see if it affects the kit.
Second, I'm unclear about how you're running the experiment. Is your exposure at the LC50 the length of the LC50? What I mean is that if you are using a 48 hour LC50 as your exposure concentration and exposing for 48 hours, then normalizing cell death before the exposure may not be sufficient, you may need to compensate for the number of surviving cells (as Diego says above). If you kill 50% of the cells in the dish, then you're measuring caspase activity in half the population you started with (I'm assuming caspase 3/7 denature quickly after cell death). 
Hope that's helpful!
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Human health risk assessment for water quality of rivers through trace element and heavy metals contact
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You can search into US EPA IRIS database for toxicological information about arsenic toxicity.
I'm sure that some quantitative data are reported for chronic oral reference dose, carcinogenicity and relative drinking water consumption.
The effects induced by the exposure is reported as endpoint.
I can suggest also the links from Dr Latshaw,  Dr Varga and Hakkinen
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Hello, I am trying to involve my students in some basic water analysis techniques. Can anyone suggest a simple and fast protocol to measure chlorophyll content in coastal water samples to estimate the concentration of phytoplankton? Many thanks
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we used this method and it worked properly, but it's not the accurate one. Individual samples of chlorophyll a are measured by filtering a known amount of sample water through a glass fiber filter. The filter paper itself is used for the analysis. The filter is ground up in an acetone solution and either a fluorometer or spectrophotometer is used to read the light transmission at a given wavelength, which in turn is used to calculate the concentration of chlorophyll a.
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The leaves and seeds of Abrus precatorius were blended and then macerated in methanol before evaporating the solvent under reduced pressure. Is it that i didnt add DMSO to make a solution? 
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Do you have a method to detect abrin in your extraction? This can help clarify if your extraction is the problem. Other studies use solvents other than methanol for extraction. A quick search finds just one study using methanol extraction of A. precatorius, which produced no apparent toxicity as bacterial growth inhibition, so I would double check your methods. If you can quantify the abrin, then this may just a case of needing a higher exposure concentration of abrin to see a toxic effect. Keep an eye out for sublethal responses as well.
What life stage of Artemia are you using? Nauplii? Start with your most sensitive life stage. Also since the brine shrimp are in very saline water, those salts could have easily disrupted the structure and function of the proteins you are trying to extract. Maybe including a freshwater system like Daphnia would be a good comparison. I can't find any toxicity tests on aquatic organisms for abrin (and none are in the EPA ECOTOX database), so having both saline and freshwater organisms would be an interesting comparison.
Why not extract the seeds and leaves separately? There is some indication that the leaves may be toxic, but not nearly as much as the seeds. 
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Who can help me of polyurethane combustion consumption produces some toxic products?
Thanks friends
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NIH NLM's TOXLINE database includes a publication on "Toxic Products from the Combustion and Pyrolysis of Polyurethane Foams" (I have provided a Permalink to the citation record).  This is an excerpt from the abstract: " The authors conclude that polyurethane foams containing phosphorus flame retardants yield a variety of byproducts which vary according to temperature and ventilation of combustion."
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How to study toxicological impact of copper on human?
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Susan - for you and others who study metal ions, I receive an email this morning about a meeting in late November 2016 on metal ions in biology and medicine.  This International Symposium will be held in Mumbai and so I would encourage you to attend if possible.  I would love to attend, but finances will probably not allow me go.
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What is the impact of nano Fertilizers on health and environment? 
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Hello. I am in the stage of choosing my research study in the field of Environmental Chemistry. I was wondering if you have any suggestions on how to reduce contaminants and ensure the safety of the environment for the benefits of all (esp residents). Since I am living in a community where there are mining industries. The mining companies I'm referring maximize nickel from ore. Any advice or suggestions will be greatly appreciated. Thank you very much!
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Nickel is a heavy metal. Many study done on community health effect of nickel to CNS, respiratory system etc. Many my article can give you some ideas ...
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Chelation......importance
Is that possible to use the iron chelating properties of bacteria as curable remedies from the toxicity of toxic metal in our ivestocks?
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Which kind of toxic metals? Did you  measure metals content in livestock flesh? I don't think you can chelate toxic metals in livestock using bacteria, maybe the environment in which they live can be subjected to bioremediation...
but Could you please give us more informations? Responses could be more appropriate after that
Regards, stefania
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Is anyone familiar with any monitoring projects to study trends in emerging contaminants in developing countries?
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 Dear Timothy
In many countries like Iran many projects have been doing due to vast environmental pollution and contamination especially in heavy metal and Nitrate and Nitrite presence in food and medicinal plants.
What is your exact and specified point?
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If formaldehyde has been exposed for 1/2 days for the purpose of fumigating a mushroom farm, how should it properly be disposed? Any negative impact if it is disposed inside farm house wash hand basin???
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Formaldehyde can be oxidised to carbon dioxide under acid conditions by hydrogen peroxide. Note that hydrogen gas will be produced in the process if conditions are alkaline and the formaldehyde will not be mineralised.
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Hello,
You will find here the answer to your question
-Rastogi, R. P., Madamwar, D., & Incharoensakdi, A. (2015). Bloom dynamics of cyanobacteria and their toxins: environmental health impacts and mitigation strategies. Frontiers in microbiology, 6.
Cordially 
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I am going to analysis organochlorine pesticide residues in fish by using GC-ECD with Quechers method. According to quechers method, sample is extracted by acetonitrile solution. We haven’t programmable temperature control unit in injector side. We use 1 uL as inject volume, split less mode. But some literature said quick expansion of acetonitrile (1 ul) is not good for GC column. Can you help me the overcome this?
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I would recommend two choices to try out.
1) do the solvent exchange from acetonitrile to acetone or toluene.
2) if you want to do acetonitrile, you can try to use spit injection with split ratio of 1:1 or 1:3. Jack Cochran from Restek has a paper that you would not loose sensitivity much. However, acetonitrile may give the response to the ECD so if you need to use ECD, I would do the solvent exchange.
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please, I need WHO standards and safe limits for pesticide residues and heavy metals content limits in Nigerian leafy vegetables such as Corchorus olitorius, Amaranthus hybridus and spinosus. Anyone with details?
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check, the WHO/FAO, on their website, you have all docs you need
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It is a known fact that there is not one "plant availability". Availability of metals and metaloids depends on many parameters of the soils (pH, EC, CEC etc.) as well as on plant physiology (rhizosphere processses). Until today a lot of methods have been developed (column elution methods, single step extraction, sequential extraction), however if one is interested in the availability of non essential trace elements for plant growth (e.g. lanthanides, uranium) what method is the best? Does anybody have experience in that?  
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The only real way to measure plant availability is to be specific and measure update by the target plant of interest in the soil type that it needs to grow in(or that you want to grow it in). All other methods are just approximations and to have most confidence in any extraction methods they need to be calibrated against targeted pot trials.
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dust roads has significant concentrations of heavy metals, you can be given some use?
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Do you want to take samples  for analysis or use the dust as a source for reusing the (heavy) metals?
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Dear friends, Hello, I have enjoyed the conversations very much and first of all I want to thank you for sharing. I am a PhD student in marine biology and decided to work in the subject of Microplastic ingestion by fishes in Southern Caspian Sea. At first part of my work, we are going to examine fish intestines to find any anthropocentric object and in second part, feed juvenile fish with mixtures of food and 0.5 to 5 micron Microplastic (MP) to find their possible cellular movements and effects on cell mechanisms of entrocytes. To find out, I want to use Transmission Electron Microscopy Technique to see weather MP is found in entrocytes of intestine or not and is there any effect on ultrastructure of entrocytes. I have written a proposal and presented it but some experts had doubt about efficiency and practical possibility of this method. I have used the Technique for normal tissues of different fish species but some people think in the EM images, MP will show up as empty spaces and they may be confused with other objects or artifacts. Therefore, I appreciate if you help me in this case. I need to know what you think about it. Happy 2016 and hope you have a nice holiday. Cheers, Zahra
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sounds like a very cool project. I have only done work with SEM. Is there any reason you can't use SEM? Erik Zettler took some great pictures while mapping out the microbial community on plastics found in a variety of marine environments. I assume that you will supplement the images with spectroscopy. This article discusses methods for that as well. Hope this helps even a little bit! 
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I would like to prepare filamentous fungal biomass (Fusarium solani) to get a mycelium for biodegradation experiment. If anybody suggest me, would be useful.
Thanks in advance
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 thank you very much Dr.George but I could not find the procedure about Fusarium sp.
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I need published data related to metamizole environmental fate, thank you very much in advance.
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dear marina.....
the attached article might help you
thank you
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Does someone know about field trials with applications of EDTA or DTPA for enhancing the phytoremediation of soil accumulated heavy metals through plant uptake?
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This was looked at in the US in the late 1990 's, where a lead-contaminated field was planted with Mustard, the crop grown to maturity and watered with EDTA. Soil lead levels were measured before and after treatment as well as plant lead content and plant dry matter.  Soil lead levels decreased after treatment.  This could not be accounted for by plant uptake and the difference was taken to be the chelated fraction that was leached into the lower soil horizons and eventually to ground water.  EDTA kills plant roots, removes selective barriers to ion uptake and means that treated plants act as sponge.  Similar results were found in field trials in Poland, where expensively-modified EDTA derivatives were used in conjunction with Sunflowers in a large scale field trial with similar disappointing results.  This is a technology promoted by a now-defunct company and should be thoroughly discredited. Far better to use 'soft' remediation strategies that minimise soil-plant transfers and protect groundwater.  In conclusion, don't bother.
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Does anyone can be write me about role of plants ( Phragmites Australis, and other emergent plants, in pollution removal in subsurface wetlands? How much percent can be role in reduction of heavy metals, N, P, other macro and micro nutrients? How much percent, minimum, mean and maximum, or range of efficiency.
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Dear Bill Paton
I will be delighted to have the percentage of pollution removal that related to the Plant role?
Thanks
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I need to find some literature articles about the Human toxicology and environmental persistence of Lindane.
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Thank you Kees
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I need a few clarifications about the formaldehyde method (SE F DEC manual, B-5.1 , formaldehyde in fish using NASH's reagent )
1. NASH's reagent use in this method, I saw the leterature, that it should be freshly prepared, but in this method it is not mention. Is it ok?
2. Time period between sample prepartion and UV-VIS reading. The color develop with the time. Hence, I think thereshould be limited time before the reading (2 min or 10 mi etc). Unless the absorbance varied. Is it ok?
3. there is a factor in calculation, what will be the approximate value of the factor, this is for cross check my value
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Dear
the fish samples under verification were cut into small pieces.
Then fish flesh was taken into blender for homogenization and
blended for 10 minutes. Then a 60 ml of 6% tri-chloro-acetic
acid was added for extraction of formaldehyde from the fish
flesh. The extracted solution was then filtered by a Whatman
No.1 of filter paper. Then pH of the solution was determined
by a pH meter. Though the addition of tri-chloro-acetic acid
reduced the pH value of the sample it was adjusted the pH
between 6.00-7.00 of the sample by using Potassium
hydroxide (KOH) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Then 5 ml of
sample solution was taken in a 50 ml of volumetric flask. Then
the sample was kept in a freeze (- 200C) for 1 h. During
analysis, the sample was taken out of the freeze and 2 ml of
previously prepared Nash’s reagent was added as indicator.
Fish sample was then heated in the water bath at 60
0 C for 30 minutes. The absorbance of the sample in cuvette was
measured at 415 nm immediately by UV/v spectrophotometer
(Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA). Triplicate of the
absorbance was made for each sample and recorded for further
calculation. The sample reading was placed in the standard
curve for the calculation of formaldehyde content of the
sample.
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In my research carried out in the Klang Valley, found that critical age of environmental lead exposure is at the age of 6 months. How the results of other studies?
What is the critical age of the physical and mental development of children who may be affected by the environment of lead toxicity?
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 I'd like to  refer you to my paper  on Lead abd Childhood  which presents some relevant data for answering your question (see the full text in the "contributions" of my RG profile)
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Today nanotechnology is at its peak, but there is very little information about its toxicity especially on plants. Can anyone share information about the titania nanoparticles toxicity on broad beans (vicea faba)?
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