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Environmental Stresses - Science topic

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Hello dear researcher,
I am very eager to participate in writing part of your research, if possible, and do whatever my scientific ability allows. My favorite topics are plant nutrition, environmental stresses and other aspects of crop physiology. Thank you very much.
AHAD MADANI
Ph.D in Agronomy.
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How to Find a Research Collaborator
Authorea is the leading collaborative platform to read, write, and publish research.
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Most preliminary studies on plant toxicity use radish and lettuce seeds as test plants. Inhibitory effect on germination and seedling growth of both is taken as indicator of toxicity in plant. Is it right that radish and lettuce are comparatively far better indicators of plant toxicity so preferred to be used in biological assays? If this is so what could be the reason for their better response in comparison to other crops/plants? 
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Lettuce and radish seed usage is mostly a function of availability and short time to generate results.
This is akin to use of fruit flies for genetic studies the short generation time give advantage in a model system.
Between radiah and lettuce I would favor radish because it germinates more uniformly and quicker.
For these tests you do not want seeds with dormancy issues because that will affect the uniformity of results.
The seedling assays are quite affected by substrate. For instance higher uniformity can be found on celllulose pad assays but soil can reflect more the real world situation where seeds are confronted with soilborne pathogens.
For discriminating stress environment results the Iowa cold test is hard to beat for the ability of discriminating the seed quality effects under less than ideal conditions.
Something that gives good indication of potential high germination under an ideal germination environment may react very less favorabling under natural stresss environments and ability to do well under the natural stress is very important criteria for results in the field.
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I want to know if just distilled water would be fine for this purpose or should I go for something like Phosphate buffered saline? My ultimate aim is to freeze-dry the fungal hyphae for SEM analysis. Apart from this, a colleague of mine also told me that after being separated from the growth media, the fungal hyphae have a chance of experiencing environmental stress. So, in that case, can washing the fungal hyphae repeatedly to remove the growth media (which would be a time taking process) have an undesired impact on the SEM analysis results (in terms of the morphology of the hyphae as in shrunken hyphae etc)?
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I agree with Nabodita Sinha !
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I want to select most sensitive gene for environmental stress. But I do not know using what method. Could you provide some answer or related manuscript? Thank you in advance!
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هذه طريقه جديده ويجب البحث عنها بشكل دقيق من اجل المام الموضوع والسيطره عليه
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I trying to growth plant under different conditions (( Light , Drought , Temperature)) to study environment stresses on activity of bioactive compounds.
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We have done a wide study involving several stress factors and their role in plant ROS production and signalling:
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Tomato split stem and bumps symptoms are usually linked to environmental stresses. Some reported about correlation with Fusarium, Verticillium wilt or Rhizoctonia root infection. Is there any experimentally proved link between those symptoms and pathogens? Symptoms are observed on greenhouse plants, so, there is no pesticides effect.
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In the last decades the climatic changes, acid rains are some of the negative effects since the viruses are in the air these viruses fall to the plants producing infections to the plants in the case of the tomato the moment that the plant approximates this virus the plant an infection arises to the stem of the plant being able to fungus not only the stem but also all the parts of the plant until it dies.
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The PAL and PPO enzymes activity increased in response to environmental stresses. PAL activity increased more than PPO in stress conditions special high temperature stress. Is the a good reason?
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Hello everyone !
I am designing multi-factor experiments that manipulate the environment in the absence and presence of ecosystem engineers along a environmental stress gradient.
I would like to determine, in artificial bivalve patches I will set up, the temperature stress to invertebrates and their predatory mortality in the presence versus the absence of bivalves.
Do you know of any mean to do such things ?
I thought about setting up a camera filming continuously to see 'live' how the community is interacting. Like BRUVs stuff to follow sharks and big fishes at a site.
Do you think it might work with such tiny specimens like the invertebrates in bivalve patches ?
I will study any suggestion you might give me 😉
Thanks !
Alexia
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Thank you for your answers and the adviced references!
I was also a bit doubtful regarding the use of video to assess mortality rates due to predation for bivalve beds, as the associated species are very small and the 3D-structure of bivalve beds makes it tricky to correctly film all the predation events.
However, I read in McAfee and Bishop (2019) that coupling the artificial manipulation of stressors with direct measurements of mortality and sublethal stress would provide a more comprehensive assessment of stressor amelioration by ecosystem engineers. To me, direct measurements are crucial technical gaps that need to be examined, so thanks for your insights!
I will soon post my project on ResearchGate and document my progress on the subject ;)
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Additives, particularly nutritional additives are oftentimes added to animals feed to obviate nutritional and environmental stress of animals. In the hot humid tropical environment, this is a common practice. The cost of adding these condiments are addition to the overall cost of livestock production.
Therefore, if the appropriate time of adding the additives are known, it may be a relieve to both the nutrients and also the economy of production. Hence, the question
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Yes, one of the proven solutions for reducing stress effects in cattle. Made by a Canadian firm and perhaps meant for Canadian climes. The answer should have biochemical and biological bases. When is it the best time to apply these additives to animals?. Before, during or after stress. The answer should also have a bearing on the hot humid tropical clime. For livestock as well as for poultry
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This is a very broad topic given the developmental nature of some of these disorders that can also be triggered by genetics or environmental stresses. The old nature vs nurture argument is very relevant to your research.
What population demographics are included in your study as this will also bias your methodology and results?
You have set yourself a monumental task so good luck. Defining your parameters at the outset will make the research much easier to manage and be much more productive.
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Hi Kulvir,
I would be interested in following how you proceed.
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environmental stress can lead genome or gene duplication
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Both biotic and abiotic stress may results in gene duplication!
Check the link below:
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Calculation of EDI index
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Hi
Thanks Raoof
If you have any question or problem with using MDM you can contact with us at http://www.agrimetsoft.com/contact.aspx
or
Cheers
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I need to analyse the chloroplast ultrastructure of seaweed samples of different environmental stress condition. However, currently I do not have the TEM/SEM facility at my disposal and hence I will be cryopreserving the tissue samples.( The environmental stress is season dependent and I cannot simulate it in a laboratory, hence samples have to be preserved). However, I am clueless whether the cryopreserved samples will be ideal for Ultrastucture analysis of plastids.
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Dear Arkanksha
Fixation of sample for SEM and TEM obervation has different protocol. You caould fix the samples at you laboratory girst. Then, you can bring it whenever to the laboratory that has SEM andSEM facilities for next steps.
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Environmental stress as a functional of
i- noise
ii- pollutants
iii-politics?
iv- natural hazards? (earthquake and nuclear reactors, eruptions, tsunami, others..)
v- social unrest (insurgencies among tribes for example in ASSAM, NER of India)
how do you account of all these and how do you model?
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My question was: how did you model the functional mathematically as it depends on various functions and they are interdependent. Unless this model is verified the conclusions may run the risk of imprecision. Ergonomics i.e. human related effects are very difficult to include. Can you explain your mathematical modeling?
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1. Specially in eukaryotic microorganism such as saccharomyces cerevisiae
2. extracelluar stress such as high temperature, high salt stress and nutrient limitation
3. I wonder the specific signal pathway
Thank you very much!
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Hello,
Basic biochemistry has shown that electron transport processes in chloroplasts and mitochondria (and else where in cells) result in generation of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) which then interact with cellular components.  The cell has mechanism s for detoxifying ROS. When the normal metabolism functions, the detoxification  is adequate so minimizing damage .  If ROS production exceeds the capacity to detoxify then damage ensues.  An example is in plant cells,  where  light absorption  by chloroplasts is potentially often in excess of  the capacity to detoxify especially when CO2 supply is limiting when water is limiting and stomata close.  This leads to very rapid inhibition of Coupling Factor in the chloroplast and decreased ATP synthesis , which then has further profound effects on photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and many other cellular processes.  Please see
 Plant, Cell and Environment (2002) 25, 275–294  Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants D. W. LAWLOR & G. CORNIC 
I prefer not to think of this or many of the ROS related processes as a signalling mechanism or stress sensor because it is moreto do with  basic metabolism. 
Best wishes
David
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I have a mutant strain that I have analysed by RNA-seq and when compared to WT, the differentially expressed genes seem to be following the pattern for the yeast environmental stress response (up-regulation of metabolic genes and down-regulation of translation genes etc). Is there a direct way in which I can test whether this mutant is inducing the ESR? for example the phosphorylation of a protein?
Thank you :)
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Hi Julia,
Pol III transcription is known to shut down within minutes of introduction of stress. You might want to look for its negative regulator Maf1 and its phosphorylation.
Good luck.
Yatendra
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Understanding leaf weight and leaf area in development of drought tolerance
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Leaf weight reflects the assimilate depositing in leaf as a surplus over exported sink. Moreover, water holding capacity of leaf depend upon these stored hydrophilic materials.
Leaf area usually reflects the light intensity that leaf are exposed to, where low light intensities tended to increase the leaf area. However, high light intensities tended to reduce leaf area on the account of leaf thickness.
leaf size and leaf bulk density reflect the the capacity of inter cellular spaces, which reflect the CO2 quantity, the Photosynthesis substrate.
You need to compromise between these traits in order to detect the leaf participation in yield    
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For a local council, I am compiling a literature review on effects of festivals and other large events (people, music, food, cars, fireworks in different combinations and numbers) on nature (mainly birds, bats and mammals on/in the ground). These festivals are often organized in or near areas with natural values (city parks, nature or green areas close to cities). Regular papers can of course be found, but I hope there is ‘grey literature’ on this in different countries: case studies where not only assessments from literature have been made but where effects have been assessed and measured in the field. Suggestions, references, pdf’s are welcome!
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There have been some highly publicised cases here in Scotland which might be quite relevant to your situation. In both cases the species are rare and protected here but are much more common elsewhere in northern Europe. I have attached a link to the Environmental Statement for one event which was prepared for the organisers: this event was given permission to go ahead. There is a second example from a newspaper article on an event from earlier this year. There are more media articles on both events, some balanced and some less so, but I hope you will find something useful.
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I'm interested to measure cumulative stress effects of fish life-history strategies. Thereby I'd like to observe stress levels during the development as an individualistic time series. Main problem is that catching, anaesthesia and blood sampling may cause extra stress to fish and bias to data. Does anyone have any experience if the stress could be measured any other way more reliable? Or is there any reliable indicator for stress than stress hormones that could be measured?
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Maybe you could measure free cortisol in the water? However, you may only be able to get relative measures among individuals for each time-point. I'm not entierly sure about how it works, I've only read papers where the method is used... Hard to get individual measurements though, unless you somehow keep the individuals separate (maybe you have to do this anyway, otherwise dominance hierarchies may influence both stress-levels, growth and behaviour as a confounding factor...). Here is a paper, and I guess all the other papers citing it are good sources as well: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00499.x/full
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Kindly describe the detail information and reason of the occurance.  
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direct relativity transmutation in the time conductress and phases metamorphism and lot of cases. 
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Hi, everyone, currently I am working On giving Metal stress to Marine Actinobacteria, So does anybody have some suggestions or some experience regarding this?
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you may use morphological and physiological parameter for metal stress analysis.  
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All living being are under environmental stress but this depends on the situation we are in and the status we in need to.
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Adaptation is a generic phrase encompassing all changes undertaken by an organism to reduce the negative effects of unfamiliar and undesirable external environment.  This includes both acclimatization and acclimation.
Adaptation describes a spectrum of changes that follow acute and repeated exposure incorporating genotypic (changes within the genome) and phenotypic (within an organism’s physiology) adaptations. It may also include behavioural responses including reduced activity levels.
Acclimatization describes adaptive physiological or behavioural changes within an organism in response to their natural climate or environment.
Acclimation differs from acclimatization in that rather than adaptive characteristics being augmented in a natural climate or environment, the stimuli for adaptation is artificially induced, typically within an enclosed chamber within which ambient conditions (temperature/oxygen content) are altered.
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Higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide is an important marker of stress. On the other side ascorbate peroxidase reduces H2O2 by the oxidation of ascorbate as physiological substrate. In a APX over expressed plant the level of H2O2 is lowered, but aperture of guard cell is higher in comparison to the control plants. So is there any correlation between the  level of ascorbate and stomatal movement?
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Thanks to Maria refs.There is circumstantial evidence of ascorbate involvement in stomatal closure, mainly resulting from Conkling's Arabidopsis mutants but the main drivers for stomata are the guard cell osmoregulators H+ ATP-ase and CO2 feedback, as in http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17557075 and ABA literature.
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A concept of stress has a bit of controversy when we move from species to vegetation. Environmental stress means that overall vegetation productivity is reduced for whatever cause (more limited resources, presence of toxic elements, reduced or imbalanced water/energy supply). But species behave in a mixed way: while most species respond as expected to the stress and reduce their productivity, some species are so specialized that grow better under such stressful conditions [example – alpine Rhododendrons (Rh. caucasica) – a cold-adapted species from high elevations that cannot be grown in lowlands even under garden experiments]. Does anybody know any similar examples re light? Any examples of shade-specialists who die if the shade is removed?
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Dear Zaza
You might be interested by this paper we published in Plant Ecology where we showed that the removal of the tree canopy of a broad-leaved temperate forest killed one understorey species (Galium odoratum) which is known to characterize these highly shaded forests. Thus, this species can be called a light-intolerant species. In contrast, another species (Deschampsia flexuosa) growed better in the gaps than in the shade and was rather a shade-tolerant species. Attached also another paper in JVS where we showed similar patterns during the 2003 heat-wave for two different conifers, Abies alba and Picea abies, respectively.
Sincerely
RIchard Michalet 
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I found this larvas near side of freswater located at North of Turkey (East of Blacksea Region) in spring 2014. So there are many of family and form of caddisfly. Is it possible to determine family and form of its? And very few study indicate that there is a relationship between water quality and its living condition and "most types of caddisflies are pollution sensitive. Caddisflies are a good indicator of water quality because they live within a diversity of habitats. However, some types that are widespread, can tolerate pollution and environmental stress".
Even if this species one of the indicators of water quality, I can't guess whether freshwater have good quality or not because some of forms can tolerate pollution and environmental stesses.
Have you any idea about this issue?
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I agree with the above answers, in that a species has its own range of tolerance of environmental conditions in its home range; hence ideally calling for further surveys of aquatic invertebrates and water quality for a region of interest. Having said that, there are some general principles that make Trichoptera, Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Ephemeroptera (mayflies) indicators of good water quality and 'intact' forested watersheds - for instance, if there is a lot of soil erosion in the catchment (deforestation/agriculture/roads etc), that washes down into the stream and covers the stony bottom, these insect larvae would have no habitat left (the underside of streambed stones), and hence would disappear from the stream. hence the presence of caddisfly larvae indicate an absence of major soil erosion over the past year.
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Oxygen metabolism is key to eukaryotic life and important for signaling as well as metabolism. Yet, ROS are linked to cancer and aging as well as inflammation. There is also a possible link between stem cells and levels of ROS. With new in vivo imaging, and other methods ROS levels may be more evident at the individual cell level and in response to environmental stresses. 
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Another interesting point is that both tumor microenvironments and stem cell niches tend to be hypoxic. Depending on the metabolic rate of the cells this can lead to more or less ROS. A stem cell niche might be preserving itself from ROS during quiescence, conversely tumor stem cells might be driven to death while dividing in a hypoxic environment created by antiangiogenic drugs. It seems important to gauge the level of hypoxia, metabolic rate, and ROS buildup of a given niche or tumor model to get a real sense of what is going on.
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Periodic occurrences of decline and death of oaks over widespread areas have been recorded since 1900 in all the world. These outbreaks, variously named oak decline, oak dieback, or oak mortality, are caused by a complex interaction of environmental stresses and pests and given the name oak decline.
Please describe the experience in your country.
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Dear Seyed,
Actually, may be there are lots of problem in declining of oak forest but the main problem is related to  human activity (anthropogenic). In Turkey, Oak forestlands has been managed mostly as coppice forms. A large part of the forests occuring in Southeastern Turkey has been destroyed and formed shrubby bunchy by anthropogenic effects such as unmanaged cutting for fuelwood, grazing and illegal cutting.
In addition to all, I think the another problem is global changing. For instance; Oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), especially in Central Europe, Turkey, Russia, Iran, and Azerbaijan is an important pest species of oaks. This species mostly occurs up to 700 meter altitude. But in 2010, I have found it in Brant's Oak coppice occuring southestern Anatolia in over the 1000 meter altitude. It may indicate that something is cahanging really due to climate changing in terms of Oaks...(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269336601_Larval_development_and_behavior_of_oak_leaf_roller_depending_on_brant%27s_oak_phenology)
These forests, although may be regarded as unproductive and degraded. So, they have physiological activity as all other plants and ability to sequestrate atmospheric CO2. Degraded Branth’s oak stands will may sequestrate approximately 5.5 tonnes atmospheric CO2 in one hectare per year under the relatively optimal photosynhetical conditions. Besides, in case of rehabilitation of this forests, the ratio may will be up to 3 times.(https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268804276_The_Potential_for_Atmospheric_CO2_Squestration_in_Degraded_Oak_Coppices_Occuring_Southeastern_Anatolia_Region)
So, protection and rehabilitation is important issue for enhancement of productivity in degraded oak coppices. And coppice should be turned into high forest by using silvicultural methods...
Warm regards...
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It has been shown that different populations of the same plant species can produce longer or shorter n-alkanes for their wax in response to water stress and/or temperature. I would like to know if one specimen at one site can modulate the chain-length of its n-alkane in response to seasonal environmental variation. It is for Paleoclimatic application (Lower Jurassic).
Regards
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Thank you for this reply
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Plants have evolved a variety of adaptive mechanisms that allow them to optimize growth and development while coping with environmental stresses. These mechanisms include seed and bud dormancy, photoperiod sensitivity, and low-temperature response. Seed dormancy delays germination until after the embryo has gone through an after-ripening period. The over-winter survival of buds of many temperate zone trees and shrubs is dependent on a dormancy stage that starts in the late summer or early fall and ends after exposure to an extended period of cold or increasing day length in the spring. In addition to trees, many other dicots and grasses have a photoperiod response that can advance or delay flowering. Vernalization is a requirement for growth at low temperatures before a plant will flower. if vernalization brings a beneficial effect for the plant, can we consider this cold period as abiotic stress?
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In broad respect, absolutely; anything that is not optimal range is stress. However, for many plants vernalization is a physiological process required for germination, and thus, I think it is programmed to be a normal condition for a plant, so for Arabidopsis it may not be a stress, but for tobacco (which does not really need vernalization), it may be not.
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Does anybody worked with salicylic acid applicationn on foliage of trees in order to reduce environmental stress?
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thank you for your suggestions 
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Is there any supersede for this method?
what are all methods used for assessing autonomic nervous system?
best regards
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Dear Farzaneh,
microneurography will remain an indispensable tool in the armamentarium for autonomic assessment. You may have a look at Grassi G, Esler M. How to assess sympathetic activity in humans. J Hypertens. 1999 Jun;17(6):719-34. If possible try to combine several techniques.
Best, Karsten
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Fish kills can be defined as any sudden and unexpected mass mortality of wild or cultured fish over a short period of time. It could be due to pollution or contamination of waters or a combination of natural and human-induced stresses in the environment. Climate change (rise in temperatures) and projected increase in the frequency of algal blooms may also increase fish kills.
Fish kills can occur due to a number of reasons including the following: abrupt change of temperatures (winter fish kills/summer fish kills), accidental spills; acid mine drainage (AMD), acid sulfate soils (wetlands and floodplains), algal blooms (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates), ammonia (NH3) toxicity, anoxia, black water events, bush fire ash, crowding, climate change (rise of temperature), cold water pollution, cold stress, dam operation, dissolved solids, diseases, droughts, environmental stress, eutrophication, floods, herbicides, high temperature stress, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) toxicity, hypoxia, life cycle event, low temperature stress, metals (toxic), municipal sewage, oil spills, nutrient pollution, overturn of lakes, pesticides, pH (low), parasites, power generation water discharge, red tide, salinity, spawning activities, toxins, turbidity, underwater explosions and upwelling.
Fish kills are very visible events which cause considerable interest and concern to the public. Fish kills could be an indicator of environmental stress, a declining of aquatic ecosystems health or water quality problems or water pollution or contamination of water etc.
Question: What were the causes of fish kills in your lakes, rivers, coastal waters and oceans?
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I think pollution is the main root cause. Water contamination is increasing rapidly due to unplanned industrialization and urbanization. Especially, chemical factories near water resources are mixing untreated water into lakes, rivers, coastal waters and oceans which cause fish kills.
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How is macro fungus able to grow in environmental stress conditions?
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Dear Balraj, really it is the matter of experiment to test what factors are responsible for their growth in the stressed condition. Usually, species have their own adaptability to grow in their environment. For example, Desert Truffles grow in the desert ecosystem. They are adjusted with the eco-environment of desert. It can not be predicted all on a sudden the mechanism of growth of the fungus. It should be experimented scientifically to investigate the know-how of the truffle growth. Rather you can design an experiment regarding the factor with the desired fungus.
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When we added to the culture medium in vitro large amounts of NaCl (over 4g / l), the vast majority perished, but there were one or two individuals that were tolerant to this concentration. In this case, is this an adaptation or genetic modification?
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I just would like to say that it is reported that some retroelements are activated by salt stress (and by environmental stress in general). Thus it is possible, at least in theory, that clonally micropropagated explants could acquire genetic differences in some cells (the explants would be genetically chimeras).
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I need research papers, reports or book chapters on pesticide-induced oxidative stress in plants including mechanism and mitigation strategy. In case do any of you have such articles?
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Thanks Ivan.
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I am doing an experiment on the effects of winter waterlogging on plants shoot and root.
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Stomatal conductance is a fairly sensitive measure for detecting flood stress as long as you consistently record it late in the morning to around noon, but I've never used it outside of the growing season. I work with wetland plants, and soil conditions have to be pretty bad for wetland plants to show any response in Ch fluorescence. If the plant has undergone some degree of senescence over winter, it might be useful to record some phonological data in the spring.
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I am trying to validate reference gene(s) with real time PCR in a plant under environmental stresses. Under salinity stress, in case of UBC, we previously got the mean cq values range from 24-25 cycle at different time intervals. But when we repeated this, we got cq values range from 29-31 cycle. I would like to mention that the conditions were the same (amount of cDNA, age, stressor, etc). Is this normal? Will this be a problem for my publication?
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I still think it is a problem with your 'new' RT reactions: either the RT reagents (especially the RT enzyme) were compromised in some way, or, your second round of RNA isolations were more robust than your first round, and you ended up adding too much RNA to your RT reactions (thereby inhibiting the RT reactions differentially) giving you the weak and sporadic results you, as of most recent, have attained. Did you check the concentration (and quality; by RIQ/RIN analyses) prior to your 2nd round of cDNA syntheses? If everything were truly held identical to your first experiment(s), you should not be getting this discrepancy, and, in most cases with qPCR reliant on a preliminary RT step to create cDNA, the problem(s) lie(s) therein. RT in a lot of cases actually stands for where the "Real Trouble" with the subsequent qPCR is.
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Based on the differential accumulation pattern of biochemical parameters, physiological traits, field performance, we try to assign a genotype to be tolerant or susceptible. But I do not agree with the universal set of parameters as a marker for tolerance? I would like to know about your opinion.
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The best manner is to evaluate the performance of the crop(s) in saline stress, preferably at 4-5 levels in controlled conditions using a non-saline control. The stress levels can be decided depending on the salt tolerance status of the individual crop. Threshold slope and reduction in plant growth and grain or economic yield with salinity is the best criterion along with relative yield under normal vis a vis salinity.
I will be happy to help you in deciding the salinity levels and the procedure.
Best wishes .
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Higher accumulation of Proline under stress in a genotype does not necessarily mean it is more tolerant than the other accumulating less.
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Proline was quantified in plants used as a biochemical marker for salt stress
Proline, the most common osmolyte, accumulates in many plant species in parallel with an increase in external salinity but there are other factors also involved. Water stress tolerant plant normally shows high accumulation of proline but it’s vice versa is not true. That all plant having high proline content is water stress tolerance, but it may be a point/marker for activating the mechanism of tolerance but some plant does not have that efficient mechanism like a resistance plants and showing high proline but not water stress resistance..... It’s required through study to understand in detail..........mechanism
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I feel plants have to compromise their yield potential for their tolerance towards environmental stresses. As we need plant varieties with high yield and better tolerance, is it really possible to produce these or do we all need to compromise?
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Sujit, your question would need the contents of a book to answer adequately! You have already had some very good replies. There are probably three key genetic factors that need to be considered by breeders, as well as improved agronomy which will always help any genotype. Those are 1) deciding whether you want to breed for a SPECIFIC environment, as opposed to broad adaptation, 2) whether you can increase the amount of conversion of the sun's energy into biomass for a given environment (or range), and 3) whether you can improve the conversion of biomass into economic yield in that environment (or range). In general, breeders have been succeeding in doing this for decades, though they may not always know how or why they have made progress! Whatever the environmental stress, water will always be important, so more effective use of water/unit dry matter gain will always be useful, and this can be done, though as others have said, there will always be a trade-off: plants with closed stomata save water very well, but don't grow! It is likely that in the years to come, at least for the major crops, a combination of molecular genetics (sequencing and gene-function analysis) and genetic engineering of one sort or another will gradually succeed in increasing the efficiency of converting light energy into dry matter. That will inevitably feed through, with the breeders' help, into improving crop yields in a wide range of environments. Without increasing the efficiency of light-energy conversion, there is an inevitable limit to improving yield in ANY environment, whether stressed or not. Yours was a difficult question to answer simply, but you now have a range of responses to take into account. Cheers, Steve
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Many studies have shown a high comorbidity between depression and anxiety. Is it more likely that one of these conditions causes, or makes more likely, the other? Or do both depression and anxiety arise from a common source, either genetic or environmental?
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There is a high risk for depression as it maybe a genetic link, but often environmental due to habitual thoughts. Thus cognitive behavior therapy works very well with both of these illnesses. Anxiety overtime may actually be a causal link to later recurring depression. Often, chemicals and adrenaline can weaken the body , thus producing a more fatigued, less responsive immune system. Depression is a direct result of continuous negative affect and overall response to decisions that are made during periods of intense rumination. Similarly, phobias and other recurrent negative thoughts produce staying isolated which is a habitual, repetitive avoidance tactic to avoid anxiety inducing situations. Thus, the link between anxiety and depression is a common comorbidity that is often somewhat successfully treated with cognitive behavior therapy and psychiatric referral for medication. This thinking pattern is often cyclical and repeats itself. Turning the negative thinking cycle off is like "turning a barge around" (Diamond, Brad, 2012)
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Bio-Rad protein assay based on Bradford method.
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Thank you Gaber Abgadallah. I will repeat it again with the suggested extraction solvent.
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I had read journal about wastewater phytoremediation, there it said DO is nil but BOD is high (about 200mg/l), how could that happen? Since BOD was in biological oxygen demand and DO was nil how could microorganisms be degrading organic matter if the oxygen is absent?
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In fact I am responding to your post not to what the journal says though, you will know from the response that in some instance it is quite likely.
The DO (dissolved oxygen) has a direct relationship with the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) in that it is determine to test the level of the BOD in water, especially in wastewater when microorganisms and an available food supply are present in water body. The DO is consumed in the process of oxidation of waste in water. Oxygen consumed in the decomposition process robs other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live. Organisms that are more tolerant of lower dissolved oxygen levels may replace a diversity of more sensitive organisms. Normally, oxygen is not a very soluble gas and the DO concentrations are particularly very low in wastewaters. To determine the BOD, sample wastewater is tested for the DO on the first day of the sample and the sample water is incubated at 20°C for five days it is again determined at the end of 5 days. The difference in dissolved oxygen between the initial measurement and the fifth day measurement represents the BOD.
Suppose, initial and final determinations of the DO both are zero, naturally the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) will be very high and what ever there is the demand of oxygen for oxidation of a given amount of waste in given volume of water.
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My research has shown that naked neck hens which feed on larger corn particles have low egg shell quality, high rectal temperature and respiratory rate compared to hens that were fed smaller corn particles. Does anyone know any article that addresses this interaction?
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I think Increasing the particles size of corn will increase the energy use during digestion especially in gizzard, thus heat generation during digestion will be increased and thus, hens under heat stress will suffer from the surrounding (outer) heat and increasing heat production inside the body (metabolic) which increase heat production and birds needs more energy to get ride of it, dissipate it. I think you could better see this interaction if you used two strains of laying hens with different corn particles size rather than one strain. But the decrease in the shell quality in you case seems to related low Ca/P availability under heat stress and/or respiratory alkalosis
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I have observed that after applying ABA some of the phenolic acids increase in two cultivars of strawberry, but I didnt find any direct or indirect reason.
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Hi Mehdi, Thank u very much for ur answer. Everything is fine. I hope things are going well for u too. Actually I cannot find any indirect metabolic reason for this relationship. the phenolic acids were Gentisic Acid, Ellagic Acid, Ferulic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid and Cafeic Acid. But the metabolic pathways of ABA and these compounds are completely independent. Maybe the role of exogenous ABA in accumulation of sugars, amino acids,.. is important.I dont know!!
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For all my research work on wheat I need to estimate the rate of photosynthesis and I don't have any recent tool to carry this out.
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Hi, Heshmat,
if you wanna to know the photosynthetic rate, there are some popular methods, first one: to check the O2 evaluation by mcrosensors, second: CO2 fixation per hour or min by LI-6400(Li-Cor Inc,USA)or 14C(well, 14C method is really complexed to check high plant in my opinion), third: to measure the fluoroscence parameters of PS2 by PAM or FMS-2.