Science topic

Environmental Pollutants - Science topic

Substances which pollute the environment. Use for environmental pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
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Several studies on combustion of bio diesel/petroleum fuel blends in IC engines and other power generation / combustion devices discussed extensively about the influence of fuel unsaturation on NOx emissions. A fundamental question arises on how we quantify fuel unsaturation?
I would like to start a discussion on the topic - How to quantify fuel unsaturation ? what would be an appropriate index to quantify unsaturation irrespective of the family of origin of fuels - like methyl esters, ether, alcohol , alkanes, alkenes, alkynes or aromatics or a weighted combination of aforementioned categories.
Our research group's take on this -
We have established a parameter - Degree of unsaturation that serves as a common platform across different fuel families (esters/alkanes/aromatics) to quantify the effects of fuel unsaturation, particularly with petroleum/bio-diesel blends. DOU can be evaluated based on the average molecular formula of the fuel alone without involving complex and expensive experimental procedures such as those involved in the measurement of iodine number and bromine number.
If interested, please follow the link to access the research work we have conducted at our laboratory to investigate the effect of fuel unsaturation on nitric oxide emissions.
Message me to get a copy of this article.
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In the present plastic age plastics have appeared as highly versatile and immensely beneficial materials to human society. As the most recently used plastic polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation, the huge influx of such persistent and complex materials poses potential risk to the health of environment and organisms including human beings. Their indiscriminate disposal puts a heavy burden on the waste management systems, allowing plastic wastes to infiltrate ecosystems, with the potential to contaminate the food chain and elicit toxic effects on diverse forms of life. Still, there remains paucity of ecotoxicological studies, lack of quality knowledge generation and a huge knowledge gap about the action, potential and toxic effects of microplastics and nanoplastics of environmental origin.
Dear my friends and respected scientists, you please come forward and take part in the discussion on this RG platform and contribute substantially to make it a thought provoking and enriching brainstorming exercise for all of us concerned about this emerging environmental hazard.
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Kindly check the following review link in which the results of cutting-edge research about the interactions between a range of aquatic species and microplastics, including effects on biota physiology and secondary ingestion have been summarized:
Also, kindly check the attached pdf that may be useful:
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estimate time of residence
toxicology
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I found this interesting document in which it is it stipulated that people who live near a hazardous waste site, might be exposed to endrin from contaminated air, dirt, or water:
Stay safe
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I am working on a project ''Evaluate the impact of environmental pollutants on mammalian cancer cells'', the cell line is U2OS, I have faced many problems like how to dissolve BPA without causing an effect on the cells, so I need help solving the problem, and if anyone has a good protocol that would be fine.
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removal of environmental pollutant
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When one talks about Pollutant treatments then there will be various biological, mechanical and thermal treatments available so based on the techno commercial aspects one can select the best one. Research Gate is the based site where you can easily find many papers related to this treatment scientific papers
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Which category of particulate matter is most harmful to human health ?
How does air polluted with particulate matter affect human beings ?
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Apoorva... Regarding the size of particles, the smaller the particle size the greater will be the damage the cause to the living bodies. For the chemical composition, the presence of silica and asbestos particles exerts destruction of the respiratory vessels and the whole system damage. An appreciable hazard of the smoke come from the micro particles suspended in it. Good luck
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Environmental pollutants and hazardous are major issues through which the modern world. Among all the environmental pollutants and hazardous materials how much contribution is from chemists (out of 100%) lets put rough estimate.
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I think you mean to say the amount of emission by pharma sector. There is no study available but pharma industry is one of the major contributor of pollution. Pharma market is 28 per cent smaller yet 13 per cent more polluting than the automotive sector
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Environmental pollutants and hazardous are major issues through which the modern world is suffering. Among all the environmental pollutants and hazardous materials how much contribution is from chemists (out of 100%) lets put rough estimate.
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although it is very interesting question but I think its quite hard to put a percentage on it.
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I have the data of AAS but don't understand how to use isotherm? Please answer me from basics.
Mohammad tarique zeyad
Phd Student
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A complete guidance ..
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Now that the world's biodiversity day is near, most political leaders are questioning strategies to keep it. But should not biodiversity be kept by any of us? How can we do this?
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I agree with the opinion of Dr. Ponnam. Balance ecosystem with your possible effort can be preserved biodiversity.
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I am now doing a research on two environmental pollutants exposure on a particular disease. I am wondering how to calculate the power/sample size in this issue.
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Saeed Shafiei Sabet
My email is chwong3000@link.cuhk.edu.hk
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As you know, one way to tackle water & wastewater pollution is synthesize adsorbents which their raw material obtains from polluted sources (Take synthesize refinery sludge-based activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon pollutants from refinery wastewater as an example).
- It is an attractive and challenging approach, isn't it?
- What is your opinion about this approach?
- And what are other ideas, examples, and methods -based on pollution to solution- that are interesting to do some research on them?
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Good Thinking
To maximize the benefits for the environment and residents of the area, every region should commit to investing carbon revenue in clean energy and adopt the best practices for investment of carbon cap revenue.
1. Focus on energy efficiency.
2. Help unlock private investments in clean energy.
3. Extend the benefits of clean energy to low- and middle-income households
4. Incentivize local governments to adopt clean energy.
5. Reduce pollution from sources other than electricity generation
6. Advance the next generation of clean energy technologies.
7. The most basic solution for air pollution is to move away from fossil fuels, replacing them with alternative energies like solar, wind and geothermal. Producing clean energy is crucial. But equally important is to reduce our consumption of energy by adopting responsible habits and using more efficient devices..
8. Introduce Post-combustion controls, Improve Industrial emission standards, Improve Emission standards for road vehicles, Vehicle inspection and maintenance,
9. Residential waste burning turn into compost, Prevention of forest and peat land fires, Livestock manure management, Improve the use of Nitrogen fertilizers, Improve Brick Ovens, International shipping
10. Solvent use and refineries(Introduce low-solvent paints for industrial and do-it-yourself applications; leak detection; incineration and recovery)
11. Go for Clean cooking and heating, Switch to renewables for power generation, Improve Energy efficiency for households
12. Enforce energy efficiency standards for industries
13. Promote Electric vehicles, Improve public transport
14. Solid waste Management, Agricultural Management of Rice paddies
15. Wastewater treatment, Improve efficiency of existing Coal mining
16. Improve existing Oil and gas production, Replace refrigerant fluids.
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Especially in metropolitan areas.
Which one has the highest impacting today?
Which heavy metal have the highest pollution rate in urban soils todays?
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Excellent question and answers, according to our team study in Iran: lead in water pipes , traffic intensity , residential wastes , vehicles and urban industries !
Please kindly see the attached article!
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Soil is an important source for heavy metals in crops and vegetables since the plants’ roots can absorb these pollutants from soil, and transfer them to seeds which through this can effect on humans, but what about soils in urban areas?
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Human Nutrient Supply from Soils
A mere 11 elements constitute 99.9% of the atoms in the human body. These are typically divided into major and minor elements. The four major elements, H, O, C, and N, make up approximately 99% of the human body, and seven minor elements, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, and Cl, make up another 0.9% of the body (Combs 2005). Approximately 18 additional elements — called trace elements — are considered essential in small amounts to maintain human life. However, human health experts do not universally agree on the exact number and identity of these trace elements. Out of the approximately 29 elements considered essential for human life, 18 are either essential or beneficial to plants and are obtained from soil, and most of the other elements can be taken up from the soil by plants (Brevik 2013a).
Negative Health Effects
Heavy Metals
Exposure to heavy metals through soil contact is a major human health concern. Arsenic is a metalloid, but it is commonly grouped with the heavy metals. The heavy metals of greatest concern for human health include: As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn (Fergusson 1990). Heavy metals enter soils naturally through the weathering of rocks, but they have also been introduced into soils through human activity. Heavy metals are the by-products of mining ores, and they are present in mine spoils and in the immediate surroundings of metal processing plants. Heavy metals are released into soils from landfills that contain industrial and household wastes and from sewage sludge that comes from wastewater treatment plants. E-wastes, or wastes associated with electronic appliances, are an increasing source of Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, and Ni in the soil (Robinson 2009). Urban soils are particularly susceptible to significant accumulations of heavy metals from automobile exhaust, coal burning, erosion of metal structures, and refuse incineration. In agricultural settings, the use of fertilizers, manures, and pesticides has also contributed to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils (Senesi et al. 1999). Arsenic has been used in pesticides, and the build-up of arsenic in orchard soils is problematic since it may persist for decades (Walsh et al. 1977). The heavy metals with the most toxicity in humans, including Cd, Pb, Hg, and As, are those with no biological function that disrupt enzymatic activities commonly affecting the brain and kidneys (Hu 2002).
Organic Chemicals
Organic chemicals have been deposited into the soil both naturally and anthropogenically, and many of the organic chemicals deposited into the air and water eventually end up in the soil. Soil contamination with organic chemicals is a serious problem in all nations (Aelion 2009). A large amount of these organic chemicals come from the agricultural application of herbicides, insecticides, and nematicides (Figure 2). Soil pollution with organic chemicals is not limited to farming areas. Soils in urban areas are also polluted with organic chemicals as a result of industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration, and sewage and solid waste dumping (Leake et al. 2009). Both farming and urban areas have soil contamination that includes a complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals, and microorganisms caused by municipal and domestic septic system waste, farm animal waste, and other biowastes (Pettry et al. 1973). A more recent health concern includes pharmaceutical waste derived from antibiotics, hormones, and antiparasitic drugs used to treat humans and domestic animals (Albihn 2001).
The most common types of organic chemicals found in soil include polyhalogenated biphenyls, aromatic hydrocarbons, insecticides, herbicides, fossil fuels, and the by-products of fossil fuel combustion (Burgess 2013). These organic chemicals are highly diluted in the upper layers of the soil, and they form chemical mixtures used in reactions involving microorganisms. We have very little toxicological information about the health effects of these chemical mixtures (Carpenter et al. 2002). Studies of the health effects of low concentrations and mixtures of these chemicals in soil have been very limited (Feron et al. 2002). Due to the very long half-lives of many organic chemicals, they are referred to as "persistent organic pollutants." These persistent organic pollutants are organic chemicals that resist decomposition in the environment and bioaccumulate as they move up the food chain. An example of this is 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), which was shown to disrupt the hormonal systems of raptors (Vega et al. 2007).
Airborne Dust
Airborne dust can impact human health, especially when the particles are less than 10 microns in size (Monteil 2008). The main direct health effect of inhaled dust is irritation of the respiratory passages and diseases, such as lung cancer. However, airborne dust can carry additional materials, such as pathogens, harmful gases, organic chemicals, heavy metals, insects, pollen, and radioactive materials, that can cause other health problems (Bartos et al. 2009). Humans can breathe airborne dust containing toxicants into the lungs, where the toxicants may enter the bloodstream. Cultivation for agricultural production and deflation (wind erosion) from unpaved road and work sites and denuded fields can introduce dusts into the atmosphere. Airborne dust from Africa is a significant health concern for North American soils. Clouds of dust from the Sahara and Sahel deserts follow the trade winds across the Atlantic Ocean, and African dust has been linked to elevated levels of Hg, Se, and Pb in North American soils (Garrison et al. 2003). The number of asthma cases in the United States more than doubled between 1980 and 2000, and asthma rates have also increased in the Caribbean (Brevik 2013a). Airborne dust from Africa has been tentatively linked to increased asthma in North America (Monteil 2008).
Soil Pathogens Although most organisms found in soil are not harmful to humans, soil does serve as a home for many pathogenic organisms. Bacteria are the most abundant type of organism in soil, and they are found in every soil on Earth. Most fungi are saprophytes that absorb nutrients by aiding in the decomposition of dead organisms, but approximately 300 soil fungi species out of the more than 100,000 total fungi species are known to cause disease in humans (Bultman et al. 2005) (Figure 3). For example, the soil fungus Exserohilium rostratum was responsible for the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States (Brevik & Burgess 2013a). Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms. Most protozoa found in soil feed on bacteria and algae, but some cause human parasitic diseases such as diarrhea and amoebic dysentery (Brevik 2013a). Helminths are parasites that may inhabit the human intestines, lymph system, or other tissues. Diseases caused by helminths require a non-animal development site or reservoir for transmission, and the soil is a common development site. Billions of people are infected by helminths worldwide each year, with an estimated 130,000 deaths annually. Helminth infections generally occur through ingestion or skin penetration, and in most cases involve infection of the intestines (Bultman et al. 2005). The soil is not a natural reservoir for viruses, but viruses are known to survive in soil. Pathogenic viruses are usually introduced into soil through human septic or sewage waste. Viruses that cause conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, polio, aseptic meningitis, or smallpox have all been found in soil (Hamilton et al. 2007; Bultman et al. 2005).
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The physical and chemical properties,
Toxicity,
Impacts on human, animals, plants, soils, waters, ...
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Well, According to WHO, 2011
Guideline value; 0.02 mg/l (20 µg/l) Occurrence; Concentrations in groundwater less than 0.001 µg/l; concentrations in surface water less than 0.2 µg/l; concentrations in drinking-water appear to be less than 5 µg/l .
Tolerable daily intake (TDI) 6 µg/kg body weight, based on a NOAEL of 6.0 mg/kg body weight per day for decreased body weight gain and reduced food and water intake in a 90-day study in which rats were administered potassium antimony tartrate in drinking-water, using an uncertainty factor of 1000 (100 for interspecies and intraspecies variation, 10 for the short duration of the study).
Regards
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I am interested in knowing more on the impacts of plastic litter and other solid wastes on terrestrial fauna (excluding ingestion by birds and mammals). I am also especially interested in any information on the impacts of these wastes on terrestrial flora. Any good information and/or literature on these topics would be much appreciated.
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Dear Fadi Yaghmour ,
Plastic litter includes most of anthropogenic material that has been entered to the terrestrial environment by intentional or unintentional actions of human beings. The composition of plastic litter varies LDPE, HDPE, PET, LLDPE,LLDPE, etc....
These plastic materials take long time to degrading on the normal environment, therefore its accumulating on the earth.
Due to some plastic waste on the environment, water retains after rainy season and support to spread vector mosquitoes.
It ruins the aesthetic value of the environment.
When plastics breakdown in soil they release harmful chemicals, like Bisphenol A (BPA), that can harm natural microorganisms and it may harm full for plant growth.
Yohan Mahagamage
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can anyone guide me in simulating process waste production & waste recycle . I was wondering which software and how could I use for simulation of process waste production & waste recycle .
any paper or reference please.
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Mohammad,
See the below paper. Good luck!
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Dear all,
 we would like to transfect our clones of A549, HepG2 and BEAS-2B cells with a GADD45a luciferase reporter plasmid that will be sent from a research team in China.
This research team have recently developed the transfected cell lines (HepG2 an A549) (Xin et al., 2015. The development of GADD45 luciferase reporter assays in human cells for assessing the genotoxicity of environmental pollutants. Toxicol Mech Methods, Early Online: 1–7) but they are not able to send us the obatined cells due to the distance between China and Italy.
They offered us to send the reporter plasmid but at the moment we are not able to perform the steps that lead to the transfected cell lines we would like to obtain.
Someone can help us with the trasnfection? or do you know if these cell lines already transfected are available in commerce on in some research group?
We known that Gentronix have stable transfected lines with GADD45a but we need A549 and HepG2 cells as host!
Thank you
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A549 and HepG2 are indeed common cell lines, but they are different and require separate transfection setups (for A549: https://altogen.com/product/a549-transfection-reagent-lung-carcinoma-ccl-185/ and for HepG2: https://altogen.com/product/hepg2-transfection-reagent-hepatocellular-carcinoma/). I have not conducted the specific transfection that you have, but I would still suggest following pre-established protocols for transfection into the cell line you're using, with particular emphasis on the concentration of the plasmids you are transfecting.
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Dear Colleagues,
Hello. New developments in life such as population increase, globalization, urbanization, environmental pollution, global warming, climate change, fresh water scarcity, food security, deforestation, desertification, etc., result in some new technologies, applications, methods, etc. in agriculture in last several decades.
What kinds of new technologies, applications, methods have been emerging in agriculture in last several decades?
Thank you for sharing your opinions in advance.
Best wishes.
Muharrem Keskin
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Interesting..
Agriculture and crop science in China: Innovation and sustainability
Abstract: The International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is a regularly held event allowing crop scientists to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications. The 7th ICSC was held on August 14–19, 2016 in Beijing, China, with the theme “Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability”. As a companion production for this great congress, the nine papers collected in this special issue feature important fields of crop science in China. This editorial first briefly introduces the 7th ICSC, followed by a brief discussion of the current status of, constraints to, and innovations in Chinese agriculture and crop science. Finally, the main scientific points of the papers published in this special issue are surveyed, covering important advances in hybrid rice breeding, minor cereals, food legumes, rapeseed, crop systems, crop management, cotton, genomics-based germplasm research, and QTL mapping. In a section describing future prospects, it is indicated that China faces a full transition from traditional to modern agriculture and crop science. Source : The Crop Journal,Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages 95-99 PDF enclosed
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According to purewaterfreedom.com, the President's Cancer Panel (PCP) recently released its yearly report outlining the status of cancer in America. This report focuses primarily on environmental factors that contribute to cancer risk. According to the report, pharmaceutical drugs are a serious environmental pollutant, particularly in the way they continue to contaminate waterways across the country (and the whole world).
Many reports have recently appeared about pharmaceutical contamination of water supplies, rivers, lakes and other waterways, but spokespersons from the drug and chemical industries have denied that this pollution poses any risk whatsoever to the environment. But this report, issued directly from PCP, provides a stunning indictment of the dangers associated with pharmaceutical pollution.Sewage treatment plants are not currently designed to remove pharmaceuticals from water.
Does anyone have a summarized study indicating recent trends in pharmaceutical contaminants treatment?
Thanks in advance....
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In EU countries, pharmacies offers free dropping of medications and bottles and they manage the waste as a hazardous waste. In the US, most of the pharmacy chains and big retailers do the same.
Education of the customers is happening via brochures, online, and printed paper. The most important influencers (TV, radio) and schools have not covered the topic yet.
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I am using Labconco Vacuum Concentrator to evaporate my samples to dryness. The solvent is usually hexane, methanol, acetonitrile or water. My analytes in the solvent include PAHs, organophosphate flame retardants (tributyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate etc.). I am afraid that my analytes may evaporate also in the vacuum concentrator. So I want to know, is there a general rule to guide me on the choosing of solvent and setting of instrument temperature so that the solvents are all evaporated and the analytes are all retained. Thanks in advance!
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A first approach I think would be to find the phase diagrams of the pure components of your mixture, and choose a regime (temperature and pressure) where your solvent should be gasseous while your analyte should be liquid. However there might be a significant interaction between the components of your mixture with the result that whatever is evaporating is still a mixture of your solvent and analyte (although probably with a higher solvent:analyte ratio than you have in your liquid, so you would still get concentration at first). To be sure, maybe you can analyse the outflow from your concentrator chamber (using a GC?) to see check it for the presence of your analyte.
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As scientist continue to search for alternative and eco-friendly ways of managing environmental pollutants,Man on his part keeps releasing various pollution to the environment at an alarming rate through his anthropogenic activities. Can the world ever be free from pollution?
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I have just spent 10 years working in India and I have spent a lot of time in China as well. In both cases I was working in matters relating to water pollution. I have also spent a number of years with projects in Russia. In each of these places, air and water pollution are major health concerns and have a quantifiable impact not only on human health but also the economy of these nations. It has taken a vast amount of money and nearly 60 years to clean-up the United States in large part. A comment made to me years ago during one of my Russian conferences on "The Environment" by a conference participant when he said, "Cleaning up the environment is only for rich countries. Russia is a poor country and we cannot afford to clean up the environment." This has haunted my thinking on the subject of environmental management for many years because in that statement is a certain truth. I know that there are mornings when I could not land in Delhi because the smog was so dense, planes had to be diverted to other locations. The smog was blamed on many Indians cooking over wood fires in the urban settings. In Russia, the Don River water was so polluted that cancer was a major health issue if you were drinking groundwater miles from the river itself found in the typical river sediments.  
In a certain respect my Russian colleague is correct that funds diverted to environmental clean up in the short term show little reward and progress. On a global scale, we have become oriented to "fast results" as a general population. The age of computers has in my opinion has been one of the drivers behind this impatience. The general population has relied too heavily upon science as the solution. Earlier I said in one of my comments that science follows its own trajectory. This can be a costly and time consuming process and one that is becoming a bit more comlpex due to climate change influences. Higher sea levels are evident today. Increased fesh water flowing into our oceans changing the marine environment is notable and worrying. So, in response to the question above regarding whether the world can ever be free of pollution, I am afraid not because pollution is a moving target as is the economics of nations, the science of effort to understand before we can resolve and the nature of pollution changes from time to time. BUT, we can improve our human plight and that of the earth by making an effort to identify the most viable and important environmental assets at stake and focus on securing them into the future. In my world as a geologist/hydrogeologist/economist, I believe we are securing our global water resources and trying to provide for future generations through science, technology and regulation. This has been a completely facinating series of discussions on the original question and so many have joined into provide their insights. Thank you all. This is "important stuff."
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Asking specificly on studies available on construction , design , and requirements for construction related to bunkers for cancer proton centers.
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Sorry. I can´t contribute to your investigation. I don´t investigate this issue.
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Greetings all,
     In tanneries, the chrome tanning process is unreplaceable one to get the stable leather material to produce the various leather products which are very useful in day-to-day life.The chrome  tanning process is normally carried out by using basic chromium sulphate (BCS) to stabilise the collagen fibres via bonding with Cr ions  and the residual BCS  discharge with the wastewater and it is very harmful to the environment as we known about the toxicity of Chromium to the ecological systems.
Hence, i want to know the different kinds of available methods for the possible recovery of residual BCS from the chrome tanning wastewater economically and reuse the same for the tanning process.
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Dear Sir. Concerning your issue about the methods available for the complete recovery/reuse of chromium (Basic chromium sulphate) used in the chrome tanning process. The chromium (Cr) used in the manufacture of leather from hides has well-known adverse effects when inappropriately disposed in the environment. The tanneries use large quantities of water for processing hides. The recovery of Cr from the wastewater produced in the tanning step is an environmentally friendly and economically viable alternative avoiding the disposal of large amount of Cr-containing sludge in industrial hazardous waste landfills. This work aims at studying the removal of the Cr from the tanning wastewater through chemical precipitation (CP) and electrocoagulation (EC) techniques and its reuse in tanning process. In the CP experiments, efficient Cr removal from wastewater samples was achieved, with up to 99.74% removal efficiencies. In the EC experiments, three different electrode materials, Al, Cu, and Fe were tested. The highest removal efficiency of 97.76% was obtained with Al electrodes by conducting electrolysis at 3.0 V for 110 min. This was followed by Fe electrodes and Cu electrodes, which showed removal efficiencies of 90.27% (at 2.5 V) and 69.91% (at 2.0 V), respectively, for an electrolysis of 100 min. The recovered Cr was reused as a tanning agent in leather processing, where good crossing of Cr was reached in leathers tanned with the liquors prepared from the sludge, and the pH and ash content values were measured. While the hides tanned with the Cr-containing liquor recovered by CP and by EC with Cu electrodes showed good hydrothermal stability and Cr content above 2.5% Cr2O3, the hides tanned with Cr-containing liquors recovered by chemical precipitation and by EC conducted with Fe and Cu electrodes showed contents of Cr according to technical specifications. However, the Cr samples obtained with the iron electrode showed a dark coloration due to oxidation of the iron. It can be concluded that the tanning process with Cr recovered by CP and by EC with Cu electrodes showed the best results. I think the following below links may help you in your analysis:
Thanks
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I am working on remediation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW)-naphthenic acid (NAs) using wetlands. Part of the objectives for this work is predict the mechanism of NA removal using kinetic studies and to evaluate the feasibility of the method as a long-term remediation option and possibly adoption by policy makers based on the results and toxicity data
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We should know the current state of the site chemically and biologically and pathologically, by conducting scientific study, such as chemical biological analyses, and relevant experiments, among many others.  Based on regulatory science and engineering approaches, utilizing available data and newly found facts and data, we would be able to establish tentative measures to minimize harms and best available, new regulations, which will be effective in years to come.    
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I was wondering if anyone can direct me to some good sources regarding US EPA requirements on groundwater risk assessment for inorganics. Specifically I'm looking at how regulators and the industry deal with the uncertainties and variabilities involved in assessing certain natural attenuation mechanisms such as precipitation and sorption. I'd also like to know by what process regulators assess the plausibility of proposed conceptual models. 
Any links to standard industry practices and regulatory guidelines/requirements that include nitty-gritty and technical details would be greatly appreciated. (The links I found at the EPA site were just too broad and generic)
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please try this one.  You need to do web search with EPA website.  there are so many.
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Dear researchers/ profs/ Dr.,
I`m working on a project to extract the heavy metals from different soils and leaves of the various plantation in Kuala Lumpur- Malaysia. I already extracted the heavy metals from the soil by using modified BCR subsequential extraction procedure and aqua regia. My question now: Can I continue with the same procedure of total acid digestion (aqua regia) or should I follow another way?
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Dear Dr. Al-Doori
If the leaves have not so many fatty acids your method is the best, otherwise you should add  HClO4 and sometimes and the end of digestion after cooling add H2O2 too.
Please mention which plants , in this case it could be clear how to follow the method and which way is better and cheaper.
Best Regards
Parisa Ziarati
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nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium fertilizers as a inorganic compound. I indeed have been measured the nutrients concentration in freshwater. But now is there methods to measure them as compound?
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Sara,when we apply fertilizers and manures to field crops,over years their residues in soluble form accumulate in soil.Through leaching they reach ground water and through erosion and run off reach nearby surface water bodies like ponds and tanks.The soluble nitrogen forms are ammonium,nitrate and traces of nitrite.The soluble P forms are HPO4 and H2PO4. Potassium is in K plus ion form.Both N and P ionic forms can be estimated colorimetrically using visible spectro-photomter  and K by flame photometer or atomic absorption  spectro-photometer .The following reference will provide details of methods used for water analysis.You can find several other manuals on line in pdf form
Guide manual:water and waste water analysis-Central Pollution Control Board
cpcb.nic.in>upload>newitem>Newitem_171_guidemanualw&wwan
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Please describe the methods and techniques to prepare the slide, staining requirements and study the cells of plant leaf affected by pollutants. 
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Dear Researchers can you tell me something about the methods used for plant cytology.
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I want to know how does degradation of organic micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals) depend on Redox potential of wastewater? Is there certain explanation of a process?
Thank you!
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Dear Alyona Lepilova
Please, find in attach a paper related to your question.
Best wishes
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with some models or equation?
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May be using particulate emission factor (PEF)?
Reference:
US EPA ,United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. Supplemental guidance for devoloping soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER 9355.4-24, Washington, DC: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
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How do I remove heavy metals and volatile fatty acids from leachate to maximum extent by using limestone in the pretreatment?
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Dear Syazwan A. M.,
The following publications cover the answer to your question:
1-Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Jun;21(12):7522-9. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2674-5. Epub 2014 Mar 6.
Influence of the composition and removal characteristics of organic matter on heavy metal distribution in compost leachates.
He XS1, Xi BD, Li D, Guo XJ, Cui DY, Pan HW, Ma Y.
Author information
 
Abstract
Compost leachates were collected to investigate the influence of the composition and removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), humic-like substances (HSs), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) on heavy metal distribution during the leachate treatment process. The results showed that acetic and propionic acids accounted for 81.3 to 93.84% of VFAs, and that these acids were removed by the anaerobic-aerobic process. Humic- and fulvic-like substances were detected by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis, and their content significantly decreased after the anaerobic and membrane treatments. DON in compost leachates ranged from 26.53 mg L(-1) to 919.46 mg L(-1), comprised of dissolved free amino acids and the protein-like matter bound to humic- and fulvic-like substances, and was removed by the aerobic process. Correlation analysis showed that Mn, Ni, and Pb were bound to VFAs and protein-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances in the leachates. Co was primarily bound to fulvic- and humic-like matter and inorganic sulfurs, whereas Cu, Zn, and Cd interacted with inorganic sulfur.
2-African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (18), pp. 4572-4581, 15 September, 2009
ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
The Effect of C:N:P ratio, volatile fatty acids and Na
+ levels on the performance of an anaerobic treatment of
fresh leachate from municipal solid waste transfer
station
Anaerobic digestion was carried out in this study to treat fresh leachate from municipal solid waste transfer station in a 10 L stirred tank reactor (STR). The treatment process was performed in batch and semi-continuous process. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used as an inoculum. A high BOD reduction was achieved in 3 different treatment conditions in this study. A BOD removal of 85, 77 and 90% for the batch (Experiment 1), semi-continuous process without pH adjustment (Experiment 2) and semi-continuous process with pH adjustment (Experiment 3), respectively were recorded. It was observed that there was no significant deficiency in required nutrients for Experiment 1, 2 and 3 in this
work. High concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was detected in Experiment 3 which indicated the instability of bioreactor in which lower methanogenic activity was observed. The levels of acetic acid (HAc) and propionic acid (HPr) appeared to be the VFA species that accumulated and started to cause an imbalance in the reactor. It was found that the use of large amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to adjust the bioreactor pH had caused an inhibition of the metabolic activity of
methanogenesis bacteria that involved in the methane production.
3- Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 640717, 9 pages
Research Article
Effect of Volatile Fatty Acid Concentration on Anaerobic Degradation Rate from Field Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Treating Food Waste Leachate in South Korea
Dong-Jin Lee,1 Su-Young Lee,1 Ji-Su Bae,1 Jung-Gu Kang,1 Ki-Heon Kim,1 Sung-Su Rhee,1 Jong-Hwan Park,2 Ju-Sik Cho,3 Jin Chung,1 and Dong-Cheol Seo3
1Environmental Resources Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Incheon 404-708, Republic of Korea
2Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus) and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea
3Department of Bio-Environmental Sciences, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-742, Republic of Korea
Received 5 February 2015; Accepted 17 April 2015
Academic Editor: Jimmy T. Efird
Copyright © 2015 Dong-Jin Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acid concentration on anaerobic degradation rate of food waste leachate in the anaerobic digestion facilities. The anaerobic digestion facilities treating food waste leachate (FWL), codigestion with food leachate and animal manure (A-MIX), and codigestion with food waste leachate and sewage sludge (S-MIX) were selected for this study. In accordance with the regulation under Wastes Control Act in South Korea, the guideline of volatile solid removal rate for anaerobic digestion facility is set as 65% for anaerobic degradation efficiency. Highest volatile solids removal rates were achieved from FWL (63.5%) than A-MIX (56.4%) and S-MIX (41.2%). Four out of eight FWLs met the guidelines. The concentration of volatile fatty acids, therefore, was analyzed to determine the relationship with volatile solid removal rate. The results showed that, in order to meet the Korean guideline of 65% volatile solid removal rate, volatile fatty acid concentrations should remain below 4,000 mg/L on the field anaerobic digestion facilities treating FWL. Volatile fatty acid concentrations should be used along with others as an operational parameter to control and manage the anaerobic digestion process
4- Arabian Journal of Chemistry
Available online 29 September 2013
In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users
Open Access
Review
 
Perspectives on technology for landfill leachate treatment
Yao Peng,
 
 Show more
doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.09.031
Get rights and content
Open Access funded by King Saud University
Under a Creative Commons license
 
 Abstract
Landfills are designed to dispose high quantities of waste at economical costs with potentially less environmental effects; however, improper landfill management may pose serious environmental threats through discharge of high strength polluted wastewater also known as leachate. This paper focused on achievements on landfill leachate treatment by different technology, which contains biological treatment and membrane technology. Finally, development and prospect of landfill leachate treatment were predicted.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
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Is anyone familiar with any monitoring projects to study trends in emerging contaminants in developing countries?
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 Dear Timothy
In many countries like Iran many projects have been doing due to vast environmental pollution and contamination especially in heavy metal and Nitrate and Nitrite presence in food and medicinal plants.
What is your exact and specified point?
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The equation goes like this Igeo = log2 [Cn/1.5Bn] where Bn is the background level of the metal n. Where are those backgrounds levels? It seems they vary from one place to another, but I'm not really sure. Some authors explains that the quantity of the index is calculated using the global shale data from Turekian and Wedepohl (1961). And others did the calculation "using Fe and grain size < 0.063 mm" and there is the funny part cause I understand nothing. Can someone please explain this to me? thank you. 
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·        Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) = Log2 (Cn) / 1.5 (Bn)
Cn is the concentration of metals examined in soil samples and Bn is the geochemical background concentration of metal (n)  (Bn : 2.1 ppm for arsenic). Factor 1.5 is the background matrix correction factor due to lithospheric effects. The geoaccumulation index consists of seven grades or classes [20]. Class 0 (practically uncontaminated):Igeo ≤0; Class 1 (uncontaminated to moderately contaminated): 0<Igeo <1; Class 2 (moderately contaminated): 0<Igeo <2; Class 3 (moderately to heavily contaminated): 2<Igeo <3; Class 4 (heavily contaminated): 3<Igeo <4; Class 5 (heavily to extremely contami- nated): 4<Igeo <5; Class 6 (extremely contaminated): 5<Igeo. Class 6 is an open class and comprises all values of the index higher than Class 5.
Kind Regards,
Beste ARSLAN
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I think the prediction of leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils is very important for the treatment of these soils, so are there some easy methods to predict their leaching? Thank you very much!
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Hi Jininng,
Three methods come to mind.
1. The EPA's TCLP which mimics the leaching of pollutants from a landfill.
2. The EPA's SPLP (or SA's acid rain test) which mimics the leaching of pollutants from a mono-disposal landfill as a results of acid rain.
3. Column leaching studies where you fill columns with soil samples and leach with deionized water. Collect and analyze the leachates. This method is often used for breakthrough curves.
I hope this helps.
Regards,
Dimpho
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I plan to test soil pollution near by to the dump yard. For that what are all the list of tests essential to conduct for identifying the pollution level. Any standards are there for collecting and testing procedure. Like buffer distance how many samples have to be collected. Kindly answer if you know about this. 
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Respected Sir,
I can provide you with a paper which may help you to sort out the soil tests necessary to detect pollution levels in soil near solid waste landfill/ dumping yard. I have used it in my research.
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- ancient metamorphic and igneous rocks represented by a group of high grade metamorphic rocks, mostly chamokitic granulites of quartz and fieldspar,
- biotite gneisses, coarse grained crystalline rocks derived from granite which may weather to give rather sandy soils.
- Pre- Cambrian granitic and perthitic rocks
- alkaline silicate rocks, carbonatites, rocks rich in sodium and calcium carbonates 
- Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits 
I wouldl like to find out the geologic contribution of heavy metals in the area I am researching in.
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Dear Mussa,
I know Malawi though my various assignments to the Geological Survey and I would like to focus only on some HM mineral/ HM associations.
(1) biotite gneiss..is similar to your  second group but hard to specify
(2) Sn, W,  U,  Be
(3) REE, Coltan
(4) Ti, REE, Fe oxides, Fe-Cr  spinel, Coltan, Zr, corundum with HM chromophores
Best regards
H.G.Dill
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I have wind speed,wind direction data along with the mass concentration data of pollutants like PM2.5,Black carbon etc..How can we plot pollution rose of these pollutants using the data I have?
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Lakes environment (WRPLOT software) very easy to make rose diagram. the web address given below:
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They write in kind of English:
In China recent years in  the estimate of regional agriculture N2O emissions, the research on indirect emission factors such as nitrogen deposition, leaching, runoff and the research on regional field emission reduction and carbon emission trading are done on the limited soil and crops, still not find the effective way and the quantitative treatment method.
They want:
1) fast detection of the degree that the main crops corn, rice, potato, sweet potato, soybean etc soil N2O and CH4 pollute the crops, and to find the reason why they pollute the crops.
2) master the way of fast detection
I think some of this vegetation damage may be air pollution with ROS, VOC, TSP, PM10 or any soil or water pollution. How would you analyse it and which reagent could remedy/reduce these multiple plant damages?
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Thank you for your informative answers I will take them with me to there. Nice greetings from Vienna !
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As we know that microbes play a crucial role in the biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants. This is because of enzymes they produced to metabolize the pollutants. Therefore, I am looking for papers elucidating the detailed role of enzymes in biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants. Please can anybody provide me the papers on the role of enzymes in biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants?
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The Tessier method has five basic fractions, can be added other?
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Hey Jouan Manuel,
It is now known that to determine the effect of heavy metals on the environment is not sufficient merely to determine the total content of the element in the environment. The first examples of sequential extraction for bottom sediments and soil come from the seventies. Tessier et al. used a sequential chemical extraction method, identifying the five forms.
Salomons and Forstner  developed a method that allows to distinguish 4 factions:
  1. exchangeable cations (metals here are loosely associated with the outer structure of the particle), eluting with ammonium acetate,
  2. metals adsorbed surfactant - Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (pH = 2)
  3. organic combinations of metals - hydrogen peroxide, EDTA,
  4. residual fraction (crystalline silicates and iron oxides) - nitric and hydrofluoric acid.
The method reported by Clevenger allows to distinguish 5 fractions:
  1. metals associated with clay minerals - extraction with 1 M magnesium chloride (pH = 7).
  2. metals associated with the carbonate minerals - 1 M sodium acetate solution (pH = 5)
  3. metals associated with the hydroxides and oxides of iron and manganese - 0.04 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 25% acetic acid
  4. metal associated with the organic matter and sulfide 0.2 M nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide,
  5. metals associated with the lattice - concentrated nitric acid.
Rudd et al. proposed separation of the following forms:
  1. removable - eluted with 1.0 M KNO3
  2. adsorbed - 0.5 M HF (pH 6.5)
  3. organic connections - 0.1 M Na4P2O7
  4. dioxide - 0.1 M EDTA (pH 6.5)
  5. sulphides - 6.0 M HNO3
Best wishes,
Krystyna
 
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Currently I'm working out on an experiment to find out if there's any possibility that a plastic debris including microplastics can be forensically traced to its source, i.e. oil type (based on alkane composition) and manufacturer. What's the common chemical marker that can be targeted for fingerprint identification?
Thanks in advance.
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An additional issue with weathering  ( regards to other xenochemicals  that are hydrophobic ) will be there tendency to aggregate and adsorb to the plastic, so the PAH and PCB profiles may be modified by these issues, by the history of contact.  As forensics usually requires unique signatures, and non destructive analyses, the alternative will have to be to have small sample sizes, so chain of custody on retains can be preserved. 
Also a secondary method that can give additional corroboration should be run simultaneously. One method I saw in literature for use in recycling plastic types, used fluorescence lifetimes of some component, to separate airborne streams of the ground material.... It would be subject to matrix interference, and may not be very broad, but it would be nondestructive. 
And for pigmented plastics, the trace elemental profiles may be useful, and XRF may have some additional nondestructive use.
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I would like to measure ETS exposure inside homes.
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Thank you Gillian and Karbassi for your feedback.  I will look into both of your ideas and recommendations.
Regards
Leah
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Hello,
I have undertook a meta-analysis in Revman 5.3 for the effect of different pollutants on asthma. I am wondering if it is possible to show the different comparisons on one plot rather than separate ones?
Can anyone please advise?
Many thanks
Haneen.
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I think the answer is YES.
Assume your have input all the results (e.g. a binary outcome of having asthma or not) from different pollutants in RevMan.
   1. In the left tree panel, right-click the "Data and analyses",  choose "Add comparison" and name it "ASTHMA" for example.
   2. Then "Next", choose "Add an outcome under the new comparison", then "Continue".
   3. Since we are binary outcome, choose "Dichotomous", and also name it and define some details etc. For example, naming as "Sub-group analysis".
   4. Right-click the newly created sub-tree "Sub-group analysis", you could find and click "Add subgroup". Then you can add different sub-group by pollutants e.g. CO2, PM2.5, NO2 etc. one by one. Be careful, only by right-click the "Sub-group analysis" you will find the "Add subgroup" option. 
   5. Finally, right-click the newly created sub-group, for example "PM2.5", you can "Add study data" under them. Then the final forest plot will be a sub-group style with separate pooled result for each sub-group.
   6. Very important one. Remember right-click "Sub-group analysis", go the "Properties"-"Analysis details"-"Total", choose "Subtotals only". It is meaningless if we report a total pooled result including different pollutants.
Pls feel free to ask if I have not written clear enough. Cheers! : )
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The best sorbents of Trıchlorobenzene, comparing based on isotherm curves.
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XAD?
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I am writing on behalf of a research group from the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Romania, that plans to propose/or be partner in a project within the WaterWorks 2014 Co-funded Call (link to the website: http://www.waterjpi.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=351&Itemid=769), aiming the developments of efficient targeted sorbents for heavy metal water treatment (subtopic 1 in the call).
Our main area of expertise is in the design, synthesis, optimization and characterization of iron oxide – functional polymer magnetic composite adsorbents for heavy metal pollutant removal.
We are seeking partners with expertise in the following areas: high gradient magnetic separation and its application in water treatment; bio-sorbents for heavy metal ions.
Our main objective is to develop a low-cost technology for water treatment using magnetic separation.
We are very interested in finding partners to join this consortium and to participate in preparing a proposal. Contact us.
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 Dear Sema,
Thank you very much for your fast reply and information about your expertise in magnetic nanoparticles. Unfortunately, as you can see on the website, Turkey is not included in this call.
However, I save the information about your experience for another call.
Best wishes,
Stela
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I want to run sorption experiments of these two taste-and-odor compounds onto natural lake sediments but I am currently unable to find information about their respective pKa values.
Any help or clues are appreciated.
Thank you.
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Both molecules contain aliphatic alcohol groups so their acidity is likely less than water. Therefore, effectively they do not have acid-base properties in water
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Airborne particulate matters are the major air pollutants responsible for many cardio vascular diseases.
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By mention of cardiovascular diseases I suspect you mean PM10 and PM2.5. You may find an impact on cardiovascular systems from other particle sizes but that may be down to particle composition (i.e. does it contain heavy metals, VOCs, PAHs etc) as opposed to size.
As Satoshi points out, it would be good to know whether you need to just identify particle size or if you need to collect samples, because collection methods vary significantly depending on which one is most suitable.
If you're looking for pollutants contributing to cardiovascular disease don't forget to look at the gaseous pollutants (e.g. NO2, Ozone etc.) too. They're very important.
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Organic farming definitely having some positive effect on food safety. But we can not ignore the aspect of food security in this context. So, maintaining food security  of the world is it possible to substantiate a significant amount of dreadful chemical fertilizers with organic inputs to combat environment pollution, maintain soil fertility status and provide relatively safe food to people? 
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Overall the world is producing surplus food. lets look at the wastages experienced by both developed and developing countries. In Africa post harvest losses are great and something needs to be done. in order to combat the POP such as fertilizers, lets try and utilize integrated soil fertility management practices in order to built and sustain soil fertility. How ever we also need to reliase that organic farming does result in pollution of the environment especially where slurry is used, and where the produce has to be moved long distances to reach the market. Emerging studies (Tuomisto et al., 2012) from Oxford University show that integrated farming practices (IFP) that utilise both convention and organic technologies are greener and higher yielding. 
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Chlorinated phenols are used in many industrial processes. These are highly toxic in nature and to animal and human beings. Therefore, their removal from wastewater is a matter of concern. Please provide the details where phenols are used in different industrial process.
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It may be help.
Wenjue Zhong, Donghong Wang, Xiaowei Xu, Qian Luo, Bingyi Wang, Xiaoquan Shan and Zijian Wang. 2010. Screening level ecological risk assessment for phenols in surface water of the Taihu Lake. Chemosphere. 80: 998-1005.
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I would like to learn more about the persistence in environment of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Does someone work on the nanosilica life-cycle ?
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Dear Ghania,
this maybe two-sided. There is a possibility to enhance environmental transport. On the other hand I see no pronounced thread of reducing bioavailability due to adsorption on exposed surfaces, rather the opposite. Problems of reduced availability may results in case of microporosity. So adsorption would rather act to reduce risk of adverse biological effects by reducing available solute concentration and if organic contaminants to favour biodegradation.
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What do you think is the fate of this process in the growing trend of trace metal clean-up in our environment?
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Fomina, Marina, and Geoffrey Michael Gadd. 2014. “Biosorption: Current Perspectives on Concept, Definition and Application.” Bioresource technology 160: 3–14.
Michalak, I., Chojnacka, K., Witek-Krowiak, A., 2013. State of the art for the biosorption process–a review. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 170, 1389–1416.
Not so new one, but excellent paper!
Gadd, G.M. Biosorption: critical review of scientific rationale, environmental importance and significance for pollution treatment. J. Chem. Technol.Biotechnol. 2009.84, 13–28.
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Selective Sequential Extraction (SSE) tests are widely utilized in pollution evaluation and assessment. They give information regarding the fractions of chemical species or bonding states with variational affinities. But how can we take advantage of such information in view of the application in the treatment of polluted soils?
The reason I can think of is that it gives a brief percentage number of the most labile pollutants, which can be desorbed or cleaned from soil with the least efforts. How about the other strongly bonded portions of pollutants? Does SSE give us any hints about the viable approach to remediate the hard-to-clean pollutants?
Any comments or suggestions are welcome.
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Thanks Andrew, I will have a look at these recommended papers and further the discussions.
Best
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I'm doing research on advance treatment methods in wastewater from the paper and pulp industry.
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Dear Todd Rees,
Advanced oxidation process is currently gaining popularity in the treatment of waste waters and water & soil contaminated with pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons using catalysts to enhance the efficiency. I am also agree with the statement of Dr. Carlos Daza that many other methods and their modified methods are also available.
Also I am adding that... In India there is a conference in September 2014 on Advanced Oxidation Process. You can check the themes of the conference and if found suitable can attend the conference. This will help you a lot in your research and get more collaborators from different countries. Please check the link of the conference:
Thanks.
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I'm completing a study on heavy metal concentrations in sediments from an estuary. I am struggling to find data on the acceptable levels given either by WHO, EPA or other organisation. Could anyone help?
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Acceptable for what? Are you looking for species specific toxicity guidelines or something more general? If you are looking for species "independent" guidelines I suggest using sediment quality guidelines such as described here:
(and references therein).
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Off course, regulation will be the determining factor, but when do you expect things to change significantly?
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Albert,
If I understand your answer correctly (it contains some grammatical errors), you are not really convinced about the relevance of this discussion. In fact, I am and a lot of other people too. The discussion is very complex and consequences will be significant. I hope for some more constructive answers.
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Several years ago the river Tisza (Hungary) was heavily contaminated with cyanides by a Romanian gold mine. What is your opinion, what should do in similar cases - to try to do something to treat contamination (with chemicals even with causing a less harmful secondary contamination but capture the cyanides) - or leave the primary contamination along the river to kill completely fish and other living animals ?
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Do not mention it, it´s OK. It might be useful to look at chemical tables to find which complex is more stabile thn Cu /CN/3 -1 .., and use a donor with which Cu complexes are more stabile.......
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My question refers to living organisms, nutrients,heavy metals, PAHS,enzymes, and PCBS.
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yes bioremediation is a process where conditions are optimized for biodegradation of pollutant. Bioremediation has two strategies:
1. Biostimulation
2. Bioaugmentation
Moreover, bioremediation can be done in-situ or ex-situ.
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C/N ratio is modified when organic amendment is applied to a contaminated soil to achieve a lower value, but which would be the best ratio for bioremeditaion?.
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C compounds in a matured compost is different than uncomposted organic amendment. Compost may contain less decomposable C compounds (eg humus) than its feedstocks or other raw organic matter resources (green waste or manure). You will have to consider decomposable C while calculating C/N. Mineralisation (ie decomposition) is carried out by microbes residing in compost or organic matter. A compost may contain more microbes than many organic matter eg green waste. However some organic matters like wet manures may contain considerable amount of microbes. A wet compost will carry more microbes than dry compost. A wet soil will encourage microbial growth (thus mineralisation) as well. During composting 40-60% water is suggested for optimal composting. Beyond this range the microbial activity/population declines. An analogy may be drawn in case of soil too. Sorry I have packed a number of ideas/information in one paragraph.
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Recently, magnetic soap has been discovered and was proposed to be a potential eco-friendly tool for oil spill cleanup. The soap molecules bond to the oil and a magnetic field is used to remove the bonded complex. The potential advantage this method seems to have is that the collected soap-oil complex can be separated, in order to reuse the spilled oil. So, it seems that all we have to do now is to devise an efficient method to separate soap molecules from oil molecules.
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That is what we were aiming for *grin*. Don't believe that the targets discussed in the media are sensible or scientifically appropriate - but they make good headlines.