Science topic

Environmental Impact Assessment - Science topic

An environmental impact assessment is an assessment of the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the natural, social and economic aspects.
Questions related to Environmental Impact Assessment
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i would like to learn more about gis espicially Arcgis
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Why don't you try to get started with GIS software by the Open source approach ? cf. http://www.osgeo.org/ and QGIS http://www.qgis.org/
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Others may chime in with more specific answers, but having read a lot literature on this topic or others related, my sense is: not much, unless the land use change is huge (that is, a major change in land use, and over most or all of the watershed, and all at the same time). The water quality response to land use change is hard to track for several reasons, even through monitoring the water quality directly.
One big reason: hydrology is often the major source of variation in water quality from year to year. So in order to have good data for assessing WQ responses to land use change, you have to have long enough records for both the pre- and the post- that you can "average out" the hydrology variations. I have seen great studies in medium/small watersheds where the WQ response to pretty significant land use change was only barely detectable after ~5 years.
On the other hand, it's defensible to qualitatively describe WQ impacts from land use change (mapped remotely or not), because the wealth of the science can inform what kind of changes are likely even if it's difficult to determine the extent of those changes quantitatively. For example, conversion from perrennial prairie to row crop agriculture generally increases runoff and thus soil erosion and thus sediment-bound WQ pollutants like phosphorus. Conversion from rural land use to urban changes the hydrology and can also change the nature of pollutants likely to end up in receiving water bodies.
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Should ideally include economic, social, as well as environmental cost-benefit analysis.
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According to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act, which i s quite specific, any change of land use or change of land use plan has to be approved by the Municipality and by the County. In case of developmental activities with substantial effects on the environment and society, a separate impact assessment must be made.
Especially see section 4.2.
I do not have detailed knowledge about legislation in other countries, but I guess that this act is similar at least to that of other Scandinavian countries and probably many other European countries.
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Lu Qing-Bin (2013) argued that cosmic rays and CFCs result in Global warming, but many climatic scientists think that CFCs contribute to global warming at a small level.
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Current thermal mapping of the globe from space shows extreme temperature differentials in the Norther Hemisphere that physically correlate to methane sources and CO2 concentrations, more than the ozone hole. There is no doubt that reducing any shielding effect has some influence but I believe that it is disingenuous at best to make the claim that CFC degradation and ozone depletion are the sole cause, regardless of the conclusions drawn in the study noted. I have yet to see anybody else claiming to have replicated their results. There is equally good science that is in conflict with this paper regarding the effect of CO2 and of Methane as GHGs and showing that ultimately it is carbon in the atmosphere that is the culprit. Given that CFC degradation also results in carbon in the atmosphere, it seems likely that it is a contributing factor.
It should also be noted that commonly available, and well substantiated, information (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion) indicates that ozone depletion results in a cooling effect so elimination of ozone depletion would necessarily eliminate that cooling effect. There ARE a number of deleterious effects of ozone depletion but global warming doesn't seem to be generally considered to be one of them.
Placing blame for how we got where we are is a red herring from my perspective. What we need to be focused on is how to minimize the impact of what is still very much a continuing problem. Anyone who believes that it is already turned around (as is projected in this paper) should be careful about assuming that one correlation, as defined by this paper, is the ONLY correlation that applies, in my opinion. That is my diplomatic viewpoint - 1 7.2 billionth of the world viewpoint on that subject.
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We have some data of SDT in pre-cambrian granitoids, gneiss and anorthosites. The fractures were encountered mostly within 100m. Well yields are in the range of 8 - 20 litres per second. Step drawdown test and aquifer performance tests were conducted involving multiple saturated fracture zones. Now since there is no well construction involved in these wells in the aquifer zones, what does the formation loss and particularly the well loss indicate?
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Well losses are associated primarily with turbulent flow as velocities increase toward the well bore, and may be particularly important in a formation where most or all flow is through fractures...the effects are manifested primarily by head losses in and immediately around the well bore, and will be superimposed on the effect of formation losses. Formation losses are those head losses, generally assumed to be associated by laminar flow, as water flows through the formation toward the pumping well. The total drawdown in the pumped well should be the sum of these two factors, and analyses of step drawdown data should provide you with some estimate of the relative significance of well losses and formation losses (similar to the idea of well efficiency). Two other approaches to assessing this are a) analyses of recovery data for the pumping well (well losses should be minimized), or b) if observation well data is available, you may be able to estimate the theoretical drawdown at the pumping well without well losses (ie an estimate of head losses associated with just the formation).
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For any extra-information, please, read the web-page http://www.mdpi.com/journal/climate/special_issues/climate_%20impacts_health
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Dear prof. Singh,
you and your colleagues are welcome in this special issue. Our idea is to merge the different knowledge (climatology, meteorology, atmospheric physic, medicine, social science, etc...) in a “multidisciplinary view”. I hope that you will arrive to submit your precious contribution at this special issue! For any extra-information don’t hesitate to contact me…
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Health data reviewed indicated that there is a correlation between the loss of fisheries resources and the decline in tribal health. Does the data justify that conclusion?
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My answers are in two parts:
-part1: Yes, if fish is the main source of animal protein for tribal people. Fish in general provides food security (in some countries more than 50% of animal protein supply in Asia, Africa, and Oceania). It is regarded as a cheap source of “rich food’ (a source of high-quality protein, containing beneficial ‘omega oils’ such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), other minerals including iron, calcium, potassium, vitamin A, and iodine) which are vital for good health. Fish contains fatty acids that help fetal brain development and enhance intellectual abilities critical for effective learning. There are some reports that women in particular who consume fish regularly as part of their diets enjoy better health and produce stronger babies. The rate of malnutrition, food insecurity and micronutrient deficiencies can be mitigated from consumption of fish. A recent research relates that seafood consumption (halibut, anchovy, sardine, salmon, mackerel, and tuna) can even prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by promoting stronger neurons (nerve cells) in the brain's gray (grey) matter. Therefore the loss of fisheries and thus reduced in fish consumption could be related in decline of tribal health
- part 2: Please note that fish can bio- accumulate his risk pollutants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs, persistent chlorinated pesticides, and mercury cadmium, lead etc.), therefore additional health risks for tribal people can be occurred if contaminated fish are eaten, however, in developed countries there is a regular monitoring in place to ensure that fish/seafood consumed by human are safe.
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How long does it take (weeks, months, years) until traffic-related heavy metal deposition (atmospheric) is contaminating roadside soil (upper layer) or is it measurable with a standard method in the following cases?
1) Traffic burden: 5.000 cars per day
2) Traffic burden: 10,000 cars per day
1 + 2) Distance roadside to soil (sidewalk in between) is 4 m or 13 feet
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Hi Mike,
I don't know if this work will help you, I just saw it yestarday published in STOTEN. Good luck!
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I have to estimate the noise levels that will be generated by the installation of a Francis type hydro power turbine.
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I measured the noise inside the room of a gas turbine and a boiler for 1m electric gas station, the maximum values ​​of Lp are 88 dB and 86 dB
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A single point source pollution occurring for a limited period (e.g. overflow from Wastewater Treatment Works) into a permanently flowing river has implications for downstream water management and uses. I understand that bacteria, nutrients and heavy metals will decrease in concentration as further down the river. What is this general rate (e.g. %/km) of decay of, firstly, general urban sewage wastewater and secondly, heavy metals.
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Hi Wayne,
As Beranrd stated, its a complicated answer. When you find the answer, let us know so that we can come to you. In the mean time, you might want to look into a few "river models" to see what relationships are known about the factors I also recommend reading the following references (and then follow some of their references):
here is a chapter in a standard text:
here are other refs that give individual element info:
Longitudinal dispersion in rivers: The persistence of skewness in observed data
Carl F. Nordin Jr., Brent M. Troutman Article first published online: 9 JUL 2010
DOI: 10.1029/WR016i001p00123
Plane source injector design for river dispersion studies, CB Lepage - 1996
Carbon Storage and Fluxes within Freshwater Wetlands: a Critical Review Birol Kayranli & Miklas Scholz & Atif Mustafa & Åsa (2009)
White PS, Walker JL (1997) Approximating nature’s variation:selecting and using reference information in restoration ecology.Restoration Ecology 5:338–349
Zedler JB (2000) Progress in wetland restoration ecology. Trends in
Ecology & Evolution 15:402–407
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As a part of my Master’s thesis I will evaluate the use of asparagus waste as a natural resource.
I came up with this topic because my father is an asparagus farmer and every year during May and June, he is left with more than one quarter of his asparagus harvest as waste. This waste contains mainly asparagus bottom cuts and the asparagus which is too thin or thick for the market.
The goal of my thesis is to evaluate current applications on asparagus waste and I would be very pleased to gather information on any products based on asparagus waste. I would also be very grateful for notes and hints and will be available for any questions on my proposal.
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There are many processes that can be considered for the valorization of these residues. However, the first step would be to determine their composition in order to find the best way to produce high value added products from them.
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What can make failure in heart disease treatment with a patient presenting tooth decay and periodontal disease?
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thx Islande for the answer the blood is main way that the bacteria can entrance in the human system.the streptococus mutans is the most dangerous for the heart and can lead to endocardatis . it's important when you see a patient you must to do a systematic exam to prevent some complications. generally for a patient with a heart desease you must to do a prophylaxis treament while five before you interven
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Thanks for reply
i read in essential of geology medical a chapter dealing fluoride so the concentration of fluoride depend of the geology nature of this region for ex a region with a high concentration of calcuim you will be assist with a low concentraion of fluoride in drinking water ,in granite rock
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I am undertaking a study on fluoride in drinking water in the south central hydrographic region of Haiti. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varies from place to place. I would like to know what could be the cause of this.
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Fluoride is considered as one of the biggest geogenic contaminant in the semi-arid hard rock terrains. Fluoride-rich minerals such as Fluorite- micas- apatite-amphiboles etc. are abundant in granitic rocks and act the major source of F in the groundwater (Reddy et al. 2010). However, a minor contribution may be derived from the agricultural fertilizers and combustion (Brindha et al. 2011). Since it has a natural origin, the variation in hydrogeochemical conditions in the aquifer may affect the mobility of F in groundwater. A number factors including availability and solubility of F-minerals, pH, temperature, anion exchange capacity of aquifer materials, residence time, porosity, structure, depth, groundwater age, concentration of bicarbonates (Apambire et al. 1997). The determination of international standard of F in the drinking water is done by WHO as 1.5 mg/L. However, this value may be waived accordingly with different climatic regions, since the amount of water consumed and consequent fluoride ingested are influenced primarily by air temperature (Bell and Ludwig, 1970). In India, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, 1992) specifies the maximum permissible limit of fluoride in the drinking water is 1.2mg/L and the most desirable limit being 0.6—1.2 mg/L.
To get more information please follow the links
http://link.springer.com./article/10.1007/s00128-012-0929-8
http://link.springer.com./article/10.1007/s00128-012-0638-3
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I would like use CFCs and SF6 to characterise groundwater but am not getting consistent results.
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What kind of difference to you observe? Are the SF6 ages lower or higher than the CFC ages?
In addition to the above comments:
1. Did you consider excess air? Excess air (dissolution of air bubbles during groundwater recharge) will considerably increase SF6 concentrations relative to air saturated water. For CFCs, the relative concentration increase is much smaller. Neglecting excess air would result in an underestimation of the tracer ages, particularly for SF6.
2. SF6 may accumulate from terrigenic sources. Neglecting this may also result in an underestimation of the SF6 ages.
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I would like to know if you have any experience with that, and the main strategies used by environmental agencies in your country to prevent something usual here in Brazil, where the company interested in, and which is paying or executing some project, contracts the technicians who will give their evaluation about the project. Obviously, the process is questioned by numerous researches, who don't give any credit to that process.
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Dear Diogo,
That is an interesting question. I fear that similar practices are to be found almost everywhere; either rather obvious or more hidden in a large bureaucracy. In the Netherland some of the evaluation reports (regularly in the form of an environmental impact assessment) are contested in court by ENGO’s and others. This sometimes leads to new studies or adaptations of the old report. But since there will always be companies willing to write down what the client asks these things are unlikely to change. Bringing it into the media might be the most effective strategy, if it is pick-up and indeed gains a lot of attention.
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I am initiating a study on the socioeconomic and environment = development impact of the biogas support program in Nepal during its four phases that started in 1992 and ended in 2010, please help me regarding the 1) tools that should be used and 2) the methodology for the study
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To measure the impact we may use two proven approaches: (1) Before-after scenario and (2) control group experimentation. As you did not conduct any study on the beneficiary of the project before the project started, better you think of of control group i.e. you consider a sample from among the beneficiaries and a sample from the non-beneficiaries and see the difference of different variables between the two groups. Make sure the characteristics of the both the control group and experiment group match. Best wishes for your research.
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The climatic conditions required to protect the buildings from global warming. So the solution lies in a lot of green areas, because the small percentage of green areas in residential neighborhoods or urban area leads to the aggravation of heat waves. Therefore, the development of urban areas alter the effects of climate change on cities and imposes a variety of challenges and multiple solutions.
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For healthy environment it is recommanded to design friendly walkable commuinty. Therefore, when streets are designed only for cars, they deny people the opportunity to choose more active ways to get around, such as walking and biking. Even where sidewalks exist, large intersections and speeding traffic may make walking unpleasant or even unsafe - discouraging any non-motorized travel.
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Yes, strange question... and perhaps necessary in some contexts. Wether the only way to embrace a complex object of study (e.g. social impacts of a big project of infrastructure) coincide with the "unfaithfull" of a enterprise wich department of r+d only believe in "numbers" and "strict steps"... and perhaps some of "where's your model for a project like the mine?"... Could be a choice to construct "the best possible-model" for this kind of situations? For "legitimating our job?", and at the same time for "introducing a qualitative-methodology-is-reliable" axiom into som rigid and traditional scientific minds?"... Both? Some more?
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Within the world of scenario planning, this is one of the key challenges. How to link qualitative information derived from a broad variety of stakeholders with different worldviews, discourses, and power relations, with quantitative models. In my mind, "iteration" is the key word. So develop models while also acquiring qualitative data working with stakeholders. Qualitative information can then be quantified and used to apply models; and results of the models can be discussed with stakeholders. By going through this cycle a few times, consistency between qual and quan products (hopefully) increases. There are a variety of methods and tools that is being experimented with to work with stakeholders on products that are semi-quantitative or even quantitative to help bridging the gap between qual and quan. A few refs that might help you:
Kok, K. 2009. The potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for semi-quantitative scenario development, with an example from Brazil. Global Environmental Change 19: 122-133
(I'm using this quick and dirty tool directly with stakeholders)
Alcamo, J. (Ed.), Environmental futures: the practice of environmental scenario analysis. Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment – Volume 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
(Joseph Alcamo explains a framework, called Story-And-Simulation)
Giaoutzi and Sapio. Recent Developments in Foresight Methodologies. Springer Book.
(a number of excellent chapters on linking qual and quan scenarios)
Let me know if you have access to this. I can provide you with some PDFs if needed.
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We use much more paper in office and personal life. Some offices use so more paper about requirement and many time we use only one side of paper and some dummy letter, chart, other dummy detail certi. By offices which is not required.
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It cannot be limited. Even if the paper box is increased to 500$ the corporate will use it. It will only effect the lower class and students.
The other way is the technology way. In which there should be E-Copies introduced to students. One copy of 64 MB with hand writing recognition will save all the work. But it will create recognition problems as mostly people hand writing is difficult to analyze. then comes the language compatibility. This is a huge huge topic which cannot be covered.
Only the solution is " Support the Green Network, Save Trees". or companies use "Do not print this email else necessary".
there should be some other recycling technique. That can take paper back, roll them out as new black paper. But have not heard about any technique yet related to it.
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I am always confused on how to treat properly the data from Before After Control Impact design? What should I take into account?
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There is extensive literature describing the pros and cons of BACI, but in the most basic form the statistical model is:
Y=mu_before/after+mu_treatment/control+mu_before*treatment and the appropriate test is for a significant interaction.
A good plot of the treatment and control means pre and post is perhaps the best way to visualize this test. You are looking for non-parallel lines as an indication of significant interaction.
If multiple time steps are available this model can be extended to look for change in slope over time pre/post or tests looking for recovery to an appropriately defined asymptote over time.
Most of the controversy over BACI is about whether all environmental factors are adequately controlled or if lurking factors may cause rejection when in fact there has been no "treatment" effect.
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Orienteering is a sport which takes place largely off-track in terrain
which often has conservation value. This gives rise to concern amongst ecologists that there is the potential for damage to flora and fauna.
The conclusion to be drawn from the general vegetation impact studies is that
orienteering has low to very low impact with generally rapid recovery. The disturbance of breeding birds is more problematic and the research information is very limited.
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Species (populations, and even individuals) differ in their response to human disturbance. Some are more sensitive and others quite tolerant to human proximity. You will need a list of species potentially affected and check if the proposed timing of your disturbance event in question will coincide with breeding (stage?) or maybe another important life stage such as moulting, there's quite some literature about on human disturbance effects on birds and how you can measure the effect of different disturbance stimuli. Most importantly you will need link your measured disturbance responses to potential population level consequences. Such data can then provide the basis for effective conservation management decisions.
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There is no answer in EPA or FAO for range of the total organic matter/carbon of sediment.
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The answer to your question in FAO , EPA
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The presence of FLUORIDE, IRON, MANGANESE, NICKEL in groundwater can have a natural or anthropic origin. is it possible the use of chemical or isotopic analyses for discriminate the origin?
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thank you for the answer.
I know the problem of nitrate contamination in groundwater (I studied it in my PhD thesis and I also published the results of a nitrate isotopic characterization in Debernardi L., De Luca D.A., Lasagna M. (2008). Correlation between nitrate concentration in
groundwater and parameter affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability. Env. Geol. 55: 539-558.).
I'd like to know if a similar approach is reported in literature also for the listed contaminants.
Indeed I'm studiyng a polluted industrial area, and I want to confirm definitively the anthropic origin of FLUORIDE, IRON, MANGANESE, NICKEL. I know that a regional study on chemical features of groundwater and the geological background are very useful; however, I'd like to know if an isotopic characterization of them in possible. I didn't found anything in literature.
Thank you
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Can anyone suggest some methods to be implemented for an indicator based monitoring of coastal ecosystems? Can anyone also suggest articles?
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If that is a soft-bottom intertidal, you can use approaches like AMBI and M-AMBI (look at many papers in my profile). If that is a rocky shore, you can find a method in my profile (Diez et al., 2012), for macroalgae. For fauna, you need to use multivariate methods, using software like PRIMER or CANOCO, using biotic and abiotic variables
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What kind of image classification is suitable for any land use or land cover types, spatially in different climates?
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Dear Saleh,
If you are using multi-temporal images of the same area for land cover mapping, you should also consider conducting atmospheric correction.
It is always better to work with radiance or spectral reflectance instead of DNs.
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My previous question actually gives a way to imbibe a good culture on waste disposal by man. From the responses so far, it shows that attitude has an impact on waste disposal methods, then what will be the effective ways of managing waste disposal.
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While the public considers the disposal of society’s waste a significant environmental concern, it is not an issue at the forefront of their minds. The transient nature in which it is considered appears insufficient to establish and maintain habitual patterns of recycling and waste management.
There is potential to increase the salience of waste issues through association with other environmental issues:
- linking waste with global issues such as climate change, which is an issue that people appear particularly aware of and concerned about. The challenge is to successfully make the association between people’s waste disposal behavior and global concerns in the same way as they have linked climate change to car use and local flooding;
- linking waste to local issues, including street cleaning, litter and the wider ‘livability’ of the local area. These are all currently high on the public’s agenda, and there are clear associations between ‘rubbish’ in the home and ‘litter’ in the streets and between the aesthetics of the street environment and the visual impact of recycling and waste management sites.
Now coming towards the best available techniques for waste management. The best available techniques are different for different graphical locations, waste composition, population, urban patterns, technologies available and etc. Keeping in view the current human behavior towards waste management a researcher can look for the best methods by life cycle cost benefit analysis, social life cycle assessment and environmental life cycle assessment and mean while if the right measures are taken to improve the attitude of the people then destination can be reached.
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To calculate the cost distance between two points in a wind field, I have to make a cost surface. Then, I think , atmosphere stability a good indicator for this cost, because this indicates the speed at which air pollution can be dispersed and there is even some model using horizontal wind speed to determine the stability, but this model only classifies the stability into 5 classes. Now comes my question: to incorporate this index into the model I have to use to inverse of wind speed to estimate it, so how do I determine the power? Is there any application?
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Dear Li,
Would you elaborate a little more what exactly you are intend to do? My guess is that you are looking for wind-energy potential regions. If that is the case, atmospheric stability may not be the right parameter for your needs. Stability in the atmosphere is a measure of vertical mixing (mechanical or thermal turbulence). My suggestions is to use 2D or 3D meteorological Models.
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I am interested especially in the noise section.
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even though it sound's ridiculous these details are considered confidential. so, the only place you can find solution for this in EC office in belgium
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And also, more importantly, who knows real cases of authorities paying attention to and obeying the results and recommendations of the EIA, and the Environmental Declaration? Effective management and conservation of biodiversity in areas affected by development could be improved if EIA processes are seriously treated by authorities.
EIA is not only politics, but also (and mainly) science; however, politicians are not always prone to pay too much attention to such issues. For example, most politicians must consider that impacts are cumulative, interactive and sinergic, and that the ecological landscapes are limited in their carrying capacity, and that, hence, EIA should include an evaluation of any previous source of impact or disturbance which accumulates and interact with the new ones to reduce and deteriorate biodiversity.
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Most competent EIAs/ESIAs should include assessments of biodiversity. However, standards and practice vary hugely from country to country, and unfortunately the quality of many assessments falls a long way short of what it should be.
I found a few examples that might be of interest to you:
1. A scoping report for an EIA of a road bypass project in the UK.
Scoping report is a precursor to a full EIA. This report provides a good summary of existing information, and identifies the biodiversity issues that need to be considered in more depth in the full EIA.
2. EIA for a dredging operation at a marina in the UK.
EIA for marine habitats, with a detailed explanation of the process and framework used to assess impacts.
3. EIA for a mine in Liberia (see Zoological and Botanical reports).
Far less information is available in this sort of context, so most of the data had to come from dedicated baseline surveys at the site by a range of specialists.
In the UK, EIAs are taken seriously and mitigation activities are often carried out on the basis of EIA findings. However, measures that allow the development to proceed (such as translocating reptiles and amphibians to another site) are more common than making major changes to the project, or even cancelling it. A benefit of EIA, from a conservation perspective, is that it gives a legal basis to the responsibilities of a developer to minimise their impacts, and they can be taken to court if they fail to discharge those responsibilities.
On the points you made about impacts being cumulative and synergistic, a better way forward is for Strategic Environmental Assessment rather than relying only on EIAs for individual projects.
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I am concerned with the lack of completeness, correctness and even usefulness of many EIA reports presented to authorities in my country and in the Canary Islands in particular. I would like to learn how people, scientists and professionals of EIA approach the EIA without losing sight of these ecological issues. Why should authorities pay attention to EIA reports including these ecological/biogeographical aspects; and if technicians and scientists make use in their EIA reports of core ecological and evolutionary concepts. I would appreciate learning personal experiences in this field.
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Here may be some links that interest you:
And some points of view from the Australian perspective:
- Environmental Impact Assessment in Australia: Theory and Practice by Mandy Elliott and Ian Thomas (Mar 17, 2009)
- Australian Centre for Environmental Law: http://law.anu.edu.au/acel
and herein I have heard very interesting talks by Chris McGrath (now at UQ in Brisbane):
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Looking for an EIA report on a gasifier based power plant.
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Hi
You can download the EIA report from the MoEF website (http://moef.nic.in/) if the project got/recommended for the clearance. Or you can get it from the District/State pollution control board through RTI or may be directly.
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For the management of a thermal discharge in rivers, is there any scientific evidence to choose between a limited downstream constant temperature and a daily cycle?
For example, is it better to have a constant 26 ° C throughout the day or having 24 ° C in the morning and 28 ° C in the late afternoon?
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It will strrongly depend on the limnological characteristics of this river, such as the mean flow and natural tamperature, as well as the climatologic chraracteristics of the region it crosses, in order to couple with the characteristics of the discharge flow. I suppose you have already considered these informations. I suggest you, if possible to make some experiments with sentinel species of this river, in order to test their physiological responses regarding the temperature in question. In the literature there are a lot of protocols, since the behavioural to the more sensitive biochemicals, where some importat cell proteins are tested.
Are we seriously threatening our biosphere and ourselves or is the environment resilient enough to cope?
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....with us as long as we continue to take baby steps for protection. Advanced Answer: Is the rate of our protecting/sustaining/continuing our healthy environment going to keep pace with the rate we are discarding, ignoring and decimating it? I do not have a set answer. This one needs more insight.
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"It's entirely possible to live in a bubble that takes what it wants from the outside and dumps it's waste on the outside." Noa… Isn't that essentially what the human race has been doing? We have been taking what we want from the "outside"… Mother Nature's natural resources… and dumping our wastes "outside".. back into Mother Nature's yard. Climatologist, Dr. Reid Bryson, commented on this back in the 1970s when global cooling was the topic of discussion: "We're not looking for something that tells us, "Oh boy! It's going to get cold everywhere," or "Wow! It's going to get warm everywhere." That's not the way the climate behaves. The climate has always changed. Conditions have always gotten slightly more desperate in some places while getting slightly less desperate in others. What has changed is us. There's too many of us now. Even if the climate remains exactly the same, we already know that we're currently just barely able to feed everyone who wants to eat. And we also know that the population is going to keep right on doing what it's been doing since man appeared on the planet. And that's grow." That was said over 30 years ago! As Walt Kelly's Pogo once said… "We have met the enemy and he is us".
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I am interested in acoustic modeling (outdoor propagation)
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Hello, I have used the simulation code Soundplan for noise oudoor propagation and noise mapping. You can download some of my papers to have a look at the results. It is a very good and reliable software. You can also find some useful references in my papers
Can anybody explain more about NF3 produced during the manufacturing of solar panels, how toxic is this NF3?
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I read that NF3 gas is produced in the making of solar panels and I wanted to know how toxic are the byproducts. I am searching for more details, can anybody help me?
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You are right about NF3 nitrogen fluoride is not as bad as ozone destroying chlorofluorocarbons but it is not good if you google OSHA and than look up MSDS on NF3 it will tell you exactly what you need
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Parts of the site are peat and others are cohesive and granular.
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It was back in the 1970.s, but we preserved wooden posts for removal and later
dendro-chronology by pouring gasoline with dissolved parafin in it over the
wooden posts.
Perhaps a better solvent could be found that the wax would melt in and not
be as environmentally unfriendly as gasoline.
What are you trying to preserve, and why?
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Does any country or any financial institution have a checklist of major costs and benefits of a mining project from social, economic and ecological point of view.
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One of the best brazilian researches in this area is called Dr. Luiz Eduardo Sanchez, he is teaching at Universidade de Sao Paulo. I think you may find lots of articles or published materials from him in the web. Right now I have nothing in this computer, sorry.
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I want to estimate dust emission deriving from quarrying, vehicle transit on dirty roads, stockpile operations, etc in a clay-processing industry. Estimated emissions will be used for atmospheric dispersion modelling.
The most used methodology is EPA's AP-42 Fugitive Dust section.
Nevertheless this approach seems very simple. The equations for estimating emissions are based on regression analysis of few measured data from some case studies in the USA, so they are "statistical" models without any mechanistic foundation. It is problematic to apply the same set of equations in other sites with probably different characteristics.
Does anyone know other methodologies/equations for this kind of emission estimation?
At present I must exclude experimental campaign to measure emissions, so I need to refer to the emission factor approach.
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Attached is a bibliography of articles and reports on fugitive dust from different industrial operations.
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I want to survey the effect of Zayanderood river drought on ecotourism, every one know one of the best analyse is SWOT, which analyse can I use?
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Hi Minoo
I think you're surely finished with that topic, whether thesis or paper. Anyway I could suggest Porter's diamond model, although designed for national level, but it is applicable to such cases.
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What is the best methodology to gauge GHG emissions in the supply chain, specially in transportation?
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Thanks, Eric. These were interesting reports. See also the Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives report, published in 2013 by Nordic Energy Research and IEA, here especially Chapter 5 on transport.
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I'm looking for some information on the membrane cleaning method as shown in the title. Could you give me some suggestions about it? Thanks a lot.
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As we know that RO membranes removes only dissolved ions not dissolved gases like O2 and CO2. In the specific case of CO2, there is an equilibrium between bicarbonates and carbonates ions. These ions can passes through RO membrane not CO2 at all. So that the pH of feed water raised. By controlling the pH of the feed water, a portion of the Co2 present can be shifted bicarbonates and carbonates depending on the pH level reached.
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Sources an distribution of heavy metals
Sources: Natural and Anthropogenic
Distribution (World and India)
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Mr. Jan,
For articles, you may look at the References section of the report I recommended to you. Moreover, you may try to look for "heavy metals distributions" in Google Academic. I am confident there are many academic papers on the subject.
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Article 4, §1.(f) of the UNFCCC requires all parties to “take climate change considerations into account, to the extent feasible, in their relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, and employ appropriate methods, for example IMPACT ASSESSMENTS, formulated and determined nationally, with a view to minimizing adverse effects on the economy, on public health and on the quality of the environment, of projects or measures undertaken by them to mitigate or adapt to climate change.”
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Just wrote a paper not long ago an interesting twist is that global warming cannot be proved in fact this years glaciers were bigger than last years
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Green leaf manures such as Thespecia (Tree) and Callotropis are used by farmers as green leaf manures in onion and tobacco fields. Is there any additional information on this? I wish to hear more about it as it could be useful to incorporate into organic farming practices.
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Clearly, there are any number of potential green manures that could be beneficial. It will depend upon the crops being grown and the nature of then soil itself, as well as what insects are positive and negative in that situation. See the following references -
Use of Cover Crops and Green Manures to Attract Beneficial Insects
CONTRIBUTION OF COVER CROP MULCHES TO WEED MANAGEMENT
Cover crops and control of arthropod pests of agriculture
Managing Pests With Cover Crops
Brassicas: Cover Crops
Brassica Cover Crops: Impacts on Plant Nutrition and Pest Management
Cover Crops
Nectar Cover Cropping for Sustainable Pest Management
Enhanced Pest Management with Cover Crop Mulches
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The mechanism of adsorption between lead ions and rice husk.
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Can refer our research work in bulletin of material science on lead cations removal from water by anionic adsorbent.
Normally its intra-particle diffusion as well the surface adsorption phenomenon involved in such cationic adsorption process.
You can concentrate on Freundlich adsorption data such as kF parameter and whether bF values are 0 < bF < 1, this range that supports either electrostatic interaction or ion-exchange or a metal adsorption combined mechanism onto adsorbent. Also contributes through a nonspecific electrostatic interaction although less significant compared to other active sites of silicates of rice husk.
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Which software is the best for coal mining modelling?
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It is too broad to answer. Underground coal mining is based on the rock mechanics, So FLAC, ANAYS, Abaquas are widely used in coal mining. For underground coal mining in U.S., the NOISH recommends the following softwares and you can download from this website: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/works/productlist.html.
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How can we calculate the water productivity of fodder? We are using a jet type water sprinkler to irrigate fodder plots. The scientists or researchers working in this area may be able to help me with this. Is there any instrument which can directly assess the amount of water delivered from a sprinkler jet?
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I think that it is important to specify the biome wherein this will be taking place, because different water evaporation coefficients will occur according to temperature, humidity, elevation above sea level(which also leads to alternating levels of air pressure). Also the different climatic zones will also affect how the plat grows.
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Can anyone recommend a portable ozone analyzer (manufacturer/model) with a built-in datalogger? I need to use one to meaure atmospheric O3 concentrations along a transect. It should be fairly compact as I intend to mount it on a bike.
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Thanks Gustavo. Somehow I figured out these projects were linked. I have submitted my proposal. I'll be using the O3 monitor of 2BTech. Cheers!
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Like some check list, impact risk factors, environment matrix
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Heavy metals deposited in water by different way and reach in human body through food chain and food web. Plankton is prime source of food for aquatic organism.
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Jeetendra,
Do you mean zooplankton, phytoplankton or both?
My suggestion for so called "heavy metals" estimation in phytoplankton biomass:
1. Take a water sample.
2. Choose a specific filter for water sample filtration (e.g. GF/C can also handle cyanobacteria cells). Before filtration weigh the mass of the filter!
3. Filter the sample.
4. Dry the filter.
5. Weigh the filter. The difference between the mass after and before filtration is a mass of dry phytoplankton biomass.
6. Place a filter in small vessel and flood with 20-25 ml of HNO3.
7. Perform mineralization.
8. Determine metals content using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).
Tenure and cost of REDD+: An Interface
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Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation comes at cost, since forest conservation implies opportunity cost. It is the value of the next best alternatives when choice is to be made. Along with the advent of REDD+ there is a time to make a choice: Conserving forest or continuing deforestation. REDD+ - PES mechanism incentivize the forest owners, who otherwise deforest, to conserve forest. Insecure Tenure is considered as a biggest challange of forest conservation. I am interested to know to what extent the tenure arrangements impact the costs of REDD+? Followed by a question, to what extent economists have considered the tenure issue while calculating the opportunity costs of REDD+?
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Most of the comments I read about land tenure is that without land rights is almost impossible to have value for carbon. About how economists consider tenure. Tenure is reflect on the land market price, the component that most author are using as part of the opportunity cost analyses. My point of view about tenure is the importance for equity in poor tropical forest areas.
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Over the years, integrated (environmental) modeling, i.e. the combination of models and simulations of interlinked environmental phenomena, appeared on multiple national and cross-national research agendas. Software tools, such as CCA (Common Component Architecture), ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework), Kepler and Taverna, have been developed and are continuously improved. We came to a point, where the vast amount of available tools makes it difficult to access which integrated environmental modeling or work flow tool should be used for a particular integration challenge. Who could give examples, best practices or recommendations on when to use which integrated environmental modeling or work flow tool?
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Thanks for your answers. I now spent quite some time diving into the overall topic and your inputs provided good help.
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How to run spatial models in heterogeneous areas? Are there methods for taking into account e.g. the "basin" as a predictor?
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Hello Paolo,
I think you can check if you have spatial auto correlation in your study area, before doing your analysis, using I of Moran index for example. If it s significant you can use SAR models to take into account spatial autocorrelation, or an other model with your data.
Best regards
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Social aspects, for environmental impact activities, can be, sometime, "minusvalued", or directly, forgotten. How could you explain to companies managers how profitable is the labour of social consulting (social assessment of their impacts on environment)? It can be clearer for companies that develop their activities in northern ("western") countries; I mean, companies with some sense of socio-environmental responsability. What about other companies that work in countries like Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, where law is more "light" for socio-environmental impacts?
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What si meant by social aspect. Usually the environmental impacts assessment consider the social/behavioural/economic aspect together.
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The area I am researching experienced a crude oil spill in the year 2000 and impact assessments were conducted that year, in 2004, and 2008. Now the company is requesting for an environmental evaluation review report.
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In the first you can prepare a report and it will be prepare step by step on the state environmental objectively verifiable indicators achieved, impact environmental objectively verifiable indicators achieved and pressuret environmental objectively verifiable indicators achieved (it is my personal experinece), based in your project objective,
Post assessment identifies actual impacts during and after implementation, to enable corrective action to be taken if necessary, and to provide information for improving the design of future interventions. The stages in the project cycle where impact assessment needs consideration are .
A distinction can be made between two separate but interlinked levels:
• Internal monitoring and evaluation for ongoing learning, through for example the integration of specific impact indicators into existing management information systems, which makes information immediately available to staff;
External impact assessment, often involving independent investigators. Such assessments produce reports for specific purposes, such as poverty impact assessment, regulatory impact assessment, social impact assessment or health impact assessment. Certain types of ex ante assessment may be part of the approval process for certain types of intervention, including environmental impact assessment and economic impact assessment (cost-benefit analysis). These may contain their own ex post monitoring activities. Separate ex post assessments may be undertaken or commissioned for any particular intervention or set of interventions, to provide fuller information than may be available from routine monitoring and evaluation.
In the context of sustainable development, the social, economic and environmental impacts of an intervention are all interlinked. The various types of impact assessment may therefore need to be combined in an integrated impact assessment, whose nature will vary according to the type of intervention, and the aims and cost-effectiveness of the overall impact assessment package.
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What is the best method for formally testing the temporal variation against the one due to environmental and spatial matrices? Is there any kind of partial RDA, partial mantel tests or something similar which takes into account the time effect? Any other suggestions?
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Depends on what you're interested in exactly, and the nature of the data indeed (high vs low frequency?...)
You can for example detrend the data and then explore the anomalies (as in http://www.pnas.org/content/104/38/14889.full.pdf, for example).
Another possibility is to work with a moving window (as we did for a short time series in Vicca et al 2009, Geobiology).
Wavelet analysis is another tool that has been used by for example Vargas et al., 2011. On the multi-temporal correlation between photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux: reconciling lags and observations; New Phytologist).
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Litters from the this interplants would actually degrade but how fast do you think the decomposition would be and is there any synergy in the decomposition of the two tree species' leaves? And do you think lignification of the leaves could affect the decomposition and synergy?
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Mr Durai, thanks for the contribution. What i think is that due to the combined cropping of cocoa and kola. This delayed release of nutrient from lignified leaves of cocoa may be compensated for by the non/ less lignified leaves of kola which readily decompose and mineralize..
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Dear all,
I'm working with an insect surveillance network and I need to optimize it. Are there some ones having experiences about this? Please share your documetations!
Thanks,
Viet
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Yes, once you have this basic info about your population (mean, standard deviation, etc.) there are a couple of software that can easily run the analysis. I know PASS 11 does it, but even if you google "Sample Size Calculator" you can find a lot of freeware solutions... There was recently a similar question on RG suggesting good items (I can post it to you... if I'll find it again!)
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Even after treating the effluent, the water which is separated persist some amount of colour, what are the biological, physical or chemical methods available to remove the color of the water completely, by which this water can be used for drinking purpose.
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Hi Mr Narendrakumar. A few weeks ago, I performed field trials in 3 textile industries in Bangladesh using reactive dyes. I removed color up to 99% in 2 minutes upstream of the biological treatment which removes the COD and BOD. After upgrading this biotreatment the treated water will be very clean except for the salt which would require UF + RO as to produce potable water.
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I work on the optimization of surveillance network for an insect ecosystem. I'm finding out some models or methodologies for this study. If you have some experiences, please share me some references or links?
Thanks in advanced!
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Hello. It seems to be an interesting problem. I'm sorry my major is not in this field, but I did have experiences in optimization. The detailed mathematical model of an ecosystem is too difficult. But I think that the simple Predator-prey model may be a good choice in preliminary analysis.
For an optimization problem, you must identify the performance index with the optimization variables.The basic principle is to find the optimal variables in order to optimize (min or max) the performance index. However, I 'm not sure what you are going to do. Maybe I can give more advice if you can offer some more detail. Thank you!
Can anyone recommend a robust criterion (test) of normality (data normally distributed) to be applied to small samples?
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Can anyone share some information/experience of robust criteria or tests for data normally distributed. I've been using the known Shapiro-Wilk and Anderson-Darling test, but I'm not sure about its robustness with small sample size (n<30).
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Just don't bet your life on "Normality". I have been put in a position of judging some claimed results that seemed somewhat critical, and the company could make a lot of money or lose a lot of money, and it was only 3 observations, and the p-value was .0001 or something, based on normal distribution assumptions, and I said, "I'm much more interested how those 3 samples were obtained than any assumption of normality, but if they were more or less random samples we might expect in future implementations of this technology, then it looks good, though any 10^-4 p-value is likely overrated." Such is the life of an honest statistician. I do bet my life on trail guides, climbing ropes, harnesses, and occasionally pitons, but not on "normality".
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AQUATOX predicts the fate of various pollutants, such as nutrients and organic chemicals, and their effects. Has anyone already worked with this software? Do you recommend it?
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You may want to contact Tom Dupius at CH2MHill here in Boise. They have used the model on the Boise River, he may have some information for you.
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What is the practical applications of EIA for industrial and urban areas?
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In my sense EIA is not a tool to calculate the impacts after effect.it is basically tool to avoid and minimize hazardous impacts of environment in early stage to predict with,
Base line,mitigation surveys
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My recent case study reveals that frequently impact assessors are unable to apply SEA because they consider some spatial plans to have none of the strategic aspects to assess. It got me curios about the roots of spatial strategy and impact assessment. Hence, considering the context of SEA, when can we say that a spatial decision is strategic one and how to call the other decisions – design, operational or tactical?
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In my experience, strategic decisions are about which of several (to possibly many) spatial units are the highest priority for, say, protection or remediation. Emphasis is on the which. Next, given a set of priortized spatial units, one may then ask, for any specific unit, what are the best management options. The emphasis here is on the what. This a classical multi-criteria decision analysis problem in which I want to choose among one of several discrete actions, and this is an example of tactical planning. Finally, having selected a specific action to implement on a specific spatial unit, there is the question of precisely how. Emphasis on the how, which is about operational planning (and so also design, I suppose).
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Very interesting research on social investment and social enterprises are been developing last years. Until now, SIA has been considered by literature as a part of Environmental (or holistic) Impact Assessment, as a way for the project to involve local communities, and as a way to save money for the developer. The social investment dimension of SIA should be more promoted by academics and practitioners, because SIA implies capital investment for developer, and medium-long term benefits for communities (and developer too).
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Dear Andres, I think SIA should be carried out aligned with Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as well, because in several countries government lack funding to support infrastructure projects and get enacted PPPs for underpinning such kind of projects. However we barely find academic literature on such assessment and their specific relationships. What we actually deem "social" gets more and more amplified boundaries because the governance understanding and meaning is becoming a matter of private sector as well.
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As Allison Aubrey and Dan Charles reported today on Morning Edition, meat has more of an impact on the environment than any other food we eat. That's because livestock require so much more food, water, land, and energy than plants to raise and transport. (Listen to the audio above for their conversation with Morning Edition's Linda Wertheimer.)
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The resources needed for meat production are multiple times of that required for vegetation.
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Brazil – the host of the Rio+20 conference on sustainable development – has the worst record for danger in a decade that has seen the deaths of more than 737 defenders, said the briefing, which was released on the eve of the high-level segment of the Earth Summit.
Brazil recorded almost half of the killings worldwide, the majority of which were connected to illegal forest clearance by loggers and farmers in the Amazon and other remote areas, often described as the "wild west".
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It is disgusting. For short tem gains, capatalists are putting existence of humanity at stake.
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World Environment Day celebration began in 1972 and has grown to become the one of the main vehicles through which the UN stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and encourages political attention and action.
Through World Environment Day, the UN Environment Programme is able to personalize environmental issues and enable everyone to realize not only their responsibility, but also their power to become agents for change in support of sustainable and equitable development.
World Environment Day is also a day for people from all walks of life to come together to ensure a cleaner, greener and brighter outlook for themselves and future generations.
Everyone counts in this initiative and World Environment Day relies on you to make this happen! We call for action – organize a neighborhood clean-up, stop using plastic bags and get your community to do the same, plant a tree or better yet organize a collective tree planting effort, walk to work, start a recycling drive . . . the possibilities are endless.
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we should think globally but act locally
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A multi-use product
Plastic bags were designed to satisfy a need. Thin plastic can do many things that paper, which is recommended as a good substitute for plastic, cannot. Indeed, there are ways in which thin plastic may be more useful than paper.
For example, plastic bags are widely appreciated for their use in wrapping food, and holding water and other wet goods. They are also useful as a protective lining for rubbish bins, as a protective wrap for delicate clothing material, or as a way of temporarily sealing roof and tap leaks.
These and many other functions make the plastic bag a versatile, practical invention of the twentieth century.
Another advantage of the plastic bag is that it is reusable. Although some plastic bags are too thin for reuse, the solution is to manufacture stronger and more durable plastic film bags, not discard them altogether.
manufactured from a biodegradable material — such as the bioplastics that are now being produced in some European countries — the main reason for banning them would disappear.
Wrong behaviour
One reason that plastic film bags are widely seen as an environmental nuisance is that most are non-biodegradable. But if they were
Even with a change of material, however, there is no guarantee that environmental damage from plastics would stop. This is because the 'evil' is not in the material used, but in the behaviour of those who do not know — or do not care — where, when and how to dispose of the product.
Moreover, governments cannot ignore the contribution to the economy of the thin plastics industry.
Australia, for example, has decided to reduce the use of HPDE (high-density polyethylene) thin plastic bags but not ban them because of the negative impact it would have on employment.
According to the Worldwatch Institute, the plastics industry similarly generates hundreds of thousands of jobs in China, Malaysia and Thailand, which in 2005 jointly exported to the 239 million tonnes of plastic bags — worth US$108 million — to the United States.
Good environmental management is key
The answer to the problems associated with thin plastic bag use is not a ban, but better management. The 3Rs — reduce, reuse and recycle — of solid waste management (SWM) also apply to plastic bags.
But only a few countries in Asia have sound SWM systems, even though all of them have regulations on solid waste. This is a result of a general misconception that managing is the same as regulating.
Managing plastic bags means knowing how to use and store them properly so that they can be reused many times, and knowing how they can be recycled when their useful life has come to an end.
Guidelines on how to use, maintain, reuse, recover and recycle plastic bags are necessary, and recycling technologies for thin plastic bags are now widely available.
The guidelines should extend to the application of appropriate technologies for disposal when the materials have reached their ultimate limit for reuse and recycling.
Many materials need to be managed if they are not to harm the environment. Indeed, if not properly managed, paper can be a worse polluter than plastic bags; it occupies nine times as much space in landfills, and does not break down substantially faster than plastic.
The need for enforcement
According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, paper bags generate 70 per cent more air pollutants and 50 times more water pollutants than plastic bags, because four times as much energy is required to produce them and 85 times as much energy to recycle them.
Indeed, as with anything that is designed for a purpose, both paper and plastic bags need to be managed to sustain their usefulness and prevent them from disrupting the balance in our ecosystems.
Regulating the use of plastic bags is necessary. But regulations are not enough; their enforcement is more important.
Banning plastic bags dismisses them as useless, and disregards their practical functionality, durability and affordability.
It is the misuse and improper disposal of plastic bags that is causing harm to the environment, not the product itself. A total ban on plastic bags will only gloss over the lack of an effective environmental management policy in a given country. It will not save the environment from the ill-effects of a 'throw-away' mentality.
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Dear Dr. Ashok,
It purely depends on the country and government that the plastics should be managed or banned. Like for example in India they should be banned as the people are not having awareness about the pollution and hazard it is creating in INDIA. 
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Environment and natural resources are the prime source of all material inputs to economic activities. The environment also acts as a receiver and sink of the various kinds of waste generated through human activity. A proper balance between the developmental needs and environmental concerns is necessary in order to pursue the path of sustainable development. Sustainable Development involves an enduring and balanced approach to economic growth, social protection and justice, and environmental conservation.
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Dear Ashok, I am not right now updated on this issue, but there are several examples on this subject in the field of industrial ecology. The focus of industrial ecology is to avoid pollutants formation and widespreading especially integrating technologies through which one can harness another resources. See please the work of Dr. Leo Baas, I recommend it, as well as Journal of Cleaner Production papers.
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The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts when deciding whether to proceed with a project. However, often the results are ignored prevailing political will and not the technical and socio-economic aspects.
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Check this out. It's a fine example of how the eia process works in chile: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/amaxwell/chilean_supreme_courts_split_r.html
Can anybody explain how to measure the denitrification reductase enzyme activity from soil samples?
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I need a method to measure the denitrification enzyme activity in soil. Can anybody explain how to measure the denitrification reductase enzyme activity from soil samples?
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Have you ever taken contact with Robert Grant (robert.grant@ualberta.ca) from University of Alberta, quite well known for his comprehensive "ecosys" ecosystem model? or with Changshen Li (changsheng.li@unh.edu) from University of New Hampshire, also well known for his widely used "DNDC" ecosystem model? Another person who can also help you is Usama Zaher from Washington State University (zaheru@wsu.edu). They for sure can help or address you to right person you are in need to get in touch. Best luck.
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Some days ago, a partner of mine, at Peru, told me some specifications about how national environmental law is on big developments (as urbanization, roads, railways, mining, dams). I was very surprised because Peru's law is much more exigent and developed than Spanish one is. Would you share some details about your countries? I think it can be a very interesting discussion.
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My country also has detailed and comprehensive environmental laws and these laws enforcing and monitoring institutions. However, millions of dollars have gone down the drain in cleaning Ganges under Ganga Plan without avail. We have laws but they don't have teeth. There is an old proverb, administration always has an eye closed. True, to decision makers economic sustainability is more important than environmental sustainability, while knowing well that former cannot be maintained for long without latter. In economic development process, less emphasis is places on increasing real income of people and eradication of hunger than on tangible development plans as constructing apparently good roads, sanctioning townships and economic zones for industries not with the purpose to provide better infrastructure, good housing and generate employment, but because some person could add more to their stock of wealth with out taking cognizance of the fact that in this process how many trees are fell, grass lands are destroyed and wildlife is disturbed and biodiversity is depleted.
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All Natural resources are "Free" before we start to make any use of them, and we need to place a value on them by the damage by their use they cause to itself and the rest of the environment, including man.
At present no-one is held directly responsible for any damage caused , who pays the price of oil spills? air pollution , noise pollution, mono cropping etc causing ecocide of all the micro and macro-flora of the soil and local habitat? The consumer is the one who demands this damage to occur by the price they are prepared to pay .
I believe we all should pay for the damage caused to the environment directly through the goods and services we all use and consume.
Existing means of green taxes and taxes on pollution and damage, are often at cross purposes with economic growth of economies around the globe and with the associated subsidies and grants that distort so many values of the resource we all rely on.
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Rob Gray, has done a lot of researches in that area since 1970. To the base my knowledge they are one of the leading authors,advocate and proponent of Environmental accounting. However, whether businesses should pay for environmental cost after corporate taxes which is suppose to take care of social and environmental cost is subject to debate depending on economic ideological perspective of individuals.
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Though the impact of climate change is a long-term process, is there any method by which we can study the impact of climate change on plankton with short-term data (about 5-6 years data)?
The data is from tropical coastal waters i.e. Southern Bay of Bengal.
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That is a very complex question to address. And with such a very short time series you really cannot make any sort of statement/assessment about changes in phytoplankton. In our studies we have 20+ years of time series data and we cannot even make any meaningful statements with regards to long term climate changes.
That being said, what types of data do you have? Cell counts, biomass (carbon), chlorophyll, species, functional groups, etc?
If you want to read some good literature about plankton time series take a look at the CalCOFI program, HOTS, BATS, and CCE-LTER. Those are all a great place to start to see how others have assessed climate on plankton. You'll find, however, that even these long running programs find that a very difficult question to address.
Good luck, and let me know how it goes.
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What are the most cost-effective techniques for tracking subsurface oil plumes (or concentrations)? If one uses AUVs (ocean gliders, etc.), what detectors or other instrumentation should they carry? Assume two different cases, shallow waters and deep waters.
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Hi Victor, a couple of options come to mind:
Fluorescence can be used to track hydrocarbons. I believe Turner Designs makes submersible sensors for this purpose. I am not sure of Turner's depth and platform capabilities.
In situ particle sizing instruments (Sequoia Scientific LISST-100X and -Deep) have also been used for oil plume tracking and for examining the effects of dispersants on the oil in situ and in test facilities (a couple sources below). The LISST-Deep is capable of deployment to 3000m. These instruments can be profiled, and can be adapted to various platforms, though I do not know of any researchers deploying specifically on an AUV for oil studies.
Li Z, Lee K, Kepkay P, King T, Yeung W, Boufadel MC, Venosa AD (2008): Wave Tank Studies on Chemical Dispersant Effectiveness: Dispersed Oil Droplet Size Distribution. In: Davidson WF, Lee K, Cogswell A (Eds.): Oil Spill Response: A Global Perspective. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Springer, pp. 143 – 157.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8565-9
Li Z, Lee K, King T, Boufadel MC, Venosa AD (2010): Effects of temperature and wave conditions on chemical dispersion efficacy of heavy fuel oil in an experimental flow-through wave tank. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(9): 1550-1559.
doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.04.012
Trudel K, Belore RC, Mullin JV, Guarino A (2010): Oil viscosity limitation on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea conditions in a large wave tank. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(9): 1606-1614.
doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.01.010
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SAR and multispectral imagers seem to be best for tracking (mapping) surface oil slicks. What is the added value of including a thermal infrared scanner? Can thermal IR provide rough estimates of oil slick thickness? How reliable would be the TIR results?
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Hi Victor, I don't think that there is any point using TIR. The simplest reason is spatial resolution. Because of low SNR the footprint of TIR sensor is usually 2 times the size of VIR and 4 times of PAN...
As oil slicks are dominantly detected by their geometric properties (SAR roughness, form and size...) you would not add any specific information to the algorithm with TIR.
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I am searching for FCR, FFDR, feed ingredients, common aquaculture methods and environmental impact assessments for this species (Bronze Featherback). Does anyone work with this species? I only found some "old" (>5-10years) publications.
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Hello Dola,
thank you very much ! But I am still searching for more information on feed. FCR of 3 with trash fish is very high and there must be some progress within the last 13 years ??
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It would be a great motivation for RSC programs in private companies. Opinons will be wellcome.
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Mmm... Too long for explaining here. Perú affair is only a specialized course. Briefely, a project of mine has been founded by MINECO (I+D call): "Methodology for social impact assessment of golf courses and annexed developments". My idea is to develop the model linked to this project, adding the experiencie of mine and my team in SIA. Some of our works can be seen, in abstract, at
SIA for a High Speed train by Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) or SIA for marinas, for the same government, also has been produced.
In adition, we are making a big compilation of cases for constructing an standarized step-by-step method, oriented to every sector that could be considered (hidro-power, electric lines, pipelines, railways, and so on).
Actually could be a great oportunity for developing togheter with... Repsol, for instance ;-)
Seriously, we are designing a presentation to look for aditional funding, possibly to offer to heavy partners interested y this aspects of EIA. The fact is that every SIA project is different to another, so the process of standarization is hard to research. Possible the final phase will be (or I imagine it as) a specific software that has to be applied with some aditional consulting for every project, to include ad hoc aspects and the more qualitative issues (social particiaption, negotiation processess...).
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We can arrange our lab setup according to the APHA 21st ed; but we can not find those species (without Daphnia) described in Sri Lanka, can we use zebrafish (Danio rerio) - freshwater fish for this?
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Dear Dr. Henrik Andersen,
thank you for the reply, I tried to carryout with marine species (according to the APHA). but it was really difficult to keep them alive even in the storage tank. in your explanation I figure, that we can not use Daphnia also for this sea water based samples. therefore Acartia tonsa (copepoda) is the correct specie for this, Am I correct?
thank you!!!
AmilA.
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Which climate factor/s or soil condition/s effect/s the end of growing season for plants? We have investigated the effect of climate factors on the start of the growing season (SGS) for deciduous plants (i.e. Betula pubescens) and find that the SGS of B. pubescens is dependent on air temperature and the plants have a acclimatised to the temperature change from winter time to spring time. But we don't find any effect of air temperature on the end of growing season for these plants. Does anybody have any idea which factor/s or conditions can influence the end of growing season by deciduous plants?
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Maybe day-length is important
What will be the most promising technology for CO2 capture, solvent, solid absorbents, membranes or ionic liquids?
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A lot of effects have been focused on CCS to reduce CO2 emissions. However, which technique will be commercially feasible, considering the costs and environmental impacts?
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1. In case of low CO2 concentration like flue gas from thermal power station: Chemical solvents like MEA 2. For treating large quantities (flue gas from a typical power station): Chemical Solvents like MEA 3. For pre combustion capture (read high CO2 concentration): Physical solvents like solexol, Gas hydrate based separation process, any other physical absorption process, PSA etc. 4. On board application (depending on CO2 concentration): Solid absorbent/adsorbent 5. Very Low CO2 concentration or for small loads: Membranes 6. Separation of CO2 from CH4: Physical solvents, membranes Basically the technology has to be tailor made for a situation, it can not be like "free size" (fits all)
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In Rwanda some 6,000 ha are already successfully transformed. All over Africa some 2 Mio. ha swamps could be transformed without endangering the eco-systems. Solid research, monitoring-analysis and large-scale funding (1 ha ca. 2-4,000 $) would be required. Any supporters?
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The ecological concerns are valid and have to be taken into consideration, for any agric. investment globally. We have however to perceive the gigantic increase in world-population. When development-cooperation started some 50 years ago, we had some 3 billion, now we have 7 billion people, the majority of which is sufficiently fed by a steadily increasing food-production, esp. in the tropics. Irrigated rice in Asia (since at least 3,000 years) and elsewhere plays an important role in that. In Africa irrigation is at its start. Malaria and salinity are minor and managable side-problems. Eco-Tourism is on the increase globally and can still contribute substantially to productive rural communities. In a couple of years we have to feed 10 bio people. That is the major challenge, demanding for the utilization of the natural resources and potentials in all countries.
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Is LCA a good method? What do you suggest?
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Even though IA and their mesurement are complex, there are not only a recipe for each of them. So, "it depends on" would mean the 4 points described before by J. Andres for each project.
Concerning the question about methodology, each project requires a different approach and, therefore, a different methodology in order to include the 4 points.
However, I would use SWOT to scope the project. Then, I would find out which stakeholders and normative are concerned. And then, there are loads of methodologies to apply or innove.
So, I would recommend you astrong methodology review, to choose according the pros and cons of each one of them and regarding the determined project. For instance, Leopold´s matrix could be useful in a hotel project you studied but in the current hotel one it can´t be no useful. For this reason, be aware of applying the same approach for each sort of project- which is the most followed in consultancy.
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We have heavy metal data for coastal water and sediment for a couple of years for several locations.
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A general advice: Be careful with the data due to its compositional nature (closed data). The data concentration always ads up to 100% which means that if one concentration is reduced the others will increase automatically, and vice versa. (in near coastal sediments I guess the organic content will cause most variation). This can cause a lot of problems for the interpretation. Of course you can run a PCA and it will give you a "mathematically correct" results, but they may not be real. Clemens Reimann and co authors have recently highlighted the closed data problem for univariate and multivariate data analysis in geochemistry (several papers and a book available). Not all solutions are easy to understand but at least CLR (centered logratio transformation) seems to be more popular. The software needed is free (R packages and also the stand alone software codapack http://ima.udg.edu/~thio/
Other tricky features are grain size variation that will affect your results. So parallel to any statistical analyses I would strongly recommend to think about the possible end member and in situ influences on the sediment chemistry.
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Tsunamis and cyclones are the most powerful and destructive natural hazards. One is related to seismic activity and other is meteorological. But in field, how can you distinguish between both signatures?
One way that I know of (I am not quite sure whether this is the right way to proceed) is to correlate the past seismic activity with the sediment disturbance. If it perfectly correlates, then that signature is due to a palaeotsunami, if not then it is palaeocyclonic.
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I want help I am currently working search for antioxidants in types of Yemeni honey, I have a chemical that I could not find it they do not exist in Yemen, it can be provided by me ..Please continue with me ...........
Article Name
2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
Asaad Ataa
00967733957373
Addition of Dolomite to acidic soil decreased while addition of Lime enhanced emission of N2O from same soil. What may be possible reason?
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Can anybody explain the reson?
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Hello! Although both lime and dolomite contain strong base cations (e. g., Ca2+ and Mg2+), lime [Ca(OH)2] is more reactive than dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] in soil applications. [N. B.: Dolomite is less reactive due to the presence of Mg in its chemical formula, which tends to reduce its dissolution rate]. Therefore soil pH will increase more rapidly when lime is applied, as opposed to dolomite. Because N2O emissions are directly related to soil microbial activity, the increase in soil pH (due to lime being applied) might promote a more favorable environment for soil microorganisms, and would thus be evidenced by increased nitrification and denitrification processes taking place, resulting in increased N2O production.
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Eia, sea
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In my opinion, spatial tools will enrich the model you adopt for analysing your data. Problems will be given by a scarce of theoretical and applied knowledge about them... But these can be solved by hard study of them!
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I need to create a full map of lagos including geo-object such as elevation, infrastuction, landuse and water bodies
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This sound a question for one of the best GIS team in the worlf: http://www.geog.uni-heidelberg.de/lehrstuehle/gis/mitarbeiter_en.html
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I am a third year undergraduate Environmental scientist and have been presented with a fascinating proposal by a local research institute. The have asked would I like to participate in a project to understand the impact of legal highs on water borne biota. This is a great way for me to kick start a career in environmental research, so my question here is - in order to make the best of this opportunity, are there existing studies out there that we can refer to, and to researchers out there, what pitfalls should I as a greenhorn be aware of ?
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Luckily for me,I have been offered the opportunity to participate in study that will address the issues of pharmaceuticals in waste water in Scotland. I see a career beckoning!!
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I am interested in input and output variables. And how environmental impacts and energy use might be measured.
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Data envelopment Analysis or multi-criteria decision analysis (check texts on operations research)
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I am undertaking in a reserch project titled: "Beaches erosion: a marker of coastal exposure to environmental hazards". Since this issue as an important correlation with incresing of sea level, which is an indicator of saline contamination of grounwater, I would appreciate to receive information on methods related to this topic.
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Hi
There are lot of papers dedicated to the relation between aquifer and coastal zone through porous media. Most of them treated of salination problem within the aquifer or inputs of fresh or brackish subterranean waters into the coastal zone. You must look at both processes if you want to find these papers. I don't know a paper specifically dedicated to the influence of beaches erosion on coastal aquifers, but you can start with the generic papers of Emilo Custodio as an introduction.
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Green manure mixes were grown in summer under greenhouse and incorporated with addition of compost or manure. Tomato and Strawberry were transplanted the objective is to evaluate the impact of green manure incorporation,cattle manure and compost application to nitrogen leaching and yield.
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Modeling is a good approach but do not forget to install some probes (microlysimeter, phreatimeter...) to collect percolation water to analyze NO3 concentration. Then, at least, determine the uptake of N (crop yield*N concentration) and compare this amount with the n input (N balance approach)
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Here in Spain, commercial, residential and domestic biomass burning is officially supported for climate reasons, but in urban agglomerations the effect on air quality may be very negative.
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FYI: The National Academies Press just released Opportunities and Obstacles in Large-Scale Biomass Utilization: The Role of the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Communities: A Workshop Summary. It should address some of the issues for here is the US.
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In benchmarking, an area with crude oil deposit, what is the best remote sensing operation to be employed?
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i think thermal remote sensing will give some clue.. or you can try high resolution data which will provide the detail picture and extract the features by taking separated from others.
pls have a look
or
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Here are the steps to clean the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) or without ITO coated on the glass.
1. Clean acetone
2. Clean with 55 deg C of 10% NaOH solution
3. Rinse in deionized water.
Step #3. Can the deionized water replace by distilled water? Is there any effect?
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We use ITO to make solar devices. To clean, we usually sonicate the substrate in dilute acid made with deionized water usually HCl to remove oxide impurities. We then rinse extensively with deionized water to remove the residual HCl. Finally, we sonicate it in acetone with the conductive side, transfer it while its still wet to ethanol and sonicate to remove organic impurities and then finally rinse with deionized water. The substrate is usually blown dry with compressed argon or nitrogen. We summarize the preparation of ITO in the paper below.
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I'm interested in looking into how visual art processes and materials can have a detrimental affect on the natural environment in terms of water, air and ground pollution as an annex to my PhD topic.
I have come up with a lot of information specifically on the negative health impacts (asthma, cancer, skin irritations etc), but not so much on the environmental/ecological aspects. Can anyone suggest a journal, article, author (or self if your working in the area) or other resources to focus my search.
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I do know that Cristo's wrapping of the Sydney coastline came in for quite a bit of fire from local environmental groups Jade, as this event caused stress for the animal and birdlife which were native to those particular Sydney cliffs and coastline. Also Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty also came under criticism in later years as it degraded into the environment after it was built.
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There are now many software to compute the acoustic outdoor propagation. No manufacturer of calculation indicates the uncertainty, related to the result obtained from the simulations of calculation.
How to keep your account in models of acoustic propagation?
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As far as I know, does not exhist any sofware or Add-on to give the uncertainty or some similar result. My PhD proposal involved habitat mapping with QTC (single beam acoustic system) in the entire (!) Portuguese continental shelf and when I used it, all acoustic dataset did make no sense! All data wasn't used...we found a huge heterogeneity of sediment types and also biological communities and just 2 or 3 major acoustic assemblages! We realized that some variable(s) greatly interfered the acquisition, but any post-process could correct the problem... For sure a software like you are searching for could helped me...