Questions related to Environmental Economics
I am trying to value natural capital as an input into a mining investment decision. Does anyone have any ideas how this might be achieved? Or can you provide me with references?
Based on my contingent valuation survey (double-bounded dichotomous choice), I have decided to run the models (e.g. Model 1: WTPa; Model 2: WTPb; Model 3: WTPc, and WTPmax) for only positive response. The question is how can I run these models separately?
The dependent variable is dichotomous WTP response (e.g. WTPa-first answer for offered price; WTPb- second answer for next question...). While the independent variables are sociodemographic info (e.g. age, income, occupation, etc.).
Should I separate first the data into a different model? Then, the problem is what is the dependent variable? Because there is only one answer (e.g. Yes).
Most Economists agree that our goal should not be "zero" pollution because zero pollution would mean zero production and zero jobs.
However, what is an acceptable level of air pollution?
Is there an 'ideal' level of pollution that is generally accepted by researchers?
UN agencies, governments, international organizations like FAO and World Bank, academic institutions and so on appear to be talking about green economies and green growth yet they are not implementing green markets as the environmental cost of production is not yet internalized. They are promoting non-green market approaches like carbon pricing or cap and trade, can green economy and green growth exist outside green markets? I think "No", what do you think?
Which agricultural strategies were sustainable, both environmentally and economically, over the long term, and why?
Suppose we want to calculate the monetary costs of the sediment retention services provided by natural vegetation for providing the clean drinking water supply to people, how to do that?
Coal based power plants are one of the cheapest and more effective instruments to produce electricity. Many developed countries have already applied this plants and had the benefit from it. Although some of the countries have now stopped using coal based plants because of the negative impact being created towards the nature.
At present, many developing countries specifically in Asian and African region, are choosing Coal to produce more electricity as the demand is at the highest peak; even though a huge environmental degradation is happening due to these circumstances.
I am doing research on Tourism's Carbon Footprint. I need help to find the data for a panel of countries. If there is no specific source then how can I calculate the Carbon Footprint for tourism sector?
An economic evaluation of the natural capital is essential to understand its loss for human developmental activities.
Moreover, valuation methods have always underestimated the economic costs associated with natural resources. Nevertheless, they at least provide a vision for policymakers to decide development against conservation.
How could valuations methods be improved, and integrated into holistic policy and decision making?
I would request my colleagues to enlighten, regarding its importance from your years of research experience.
There are many studies which have shown a positive impact of Foreign direct investment on the economic growth of the host country, where some of the researchers have claimed that FDI puts a negative impact on the host country by creating environmental pollution. This has created many arguments.
Hi, I try to come up with research question for my master's thesis. I would like the topic to be connected with environmental economics, sustainable development etc. and to provide some added-value to that field of science.
What, in your view, lacks research in this area? What are the questions that still needs answer or additional exploring?
I consider: ETS market, Environmental Kuznets Curve, decoupling, game theory in the context of climate policies, discount rate in DICE models, how to apply degrowth economically...
but I struggle to find something specific.
I'd really appreciate some advice.
I want to ask a (not so) quick question about ecosystem services economics, urban planning, sustainable water drainage and cost-benefit analysis.
Whenever comparing different scenarii of urban greening or urban planning, in a cost-benefit anaysis (CBA), opportunity costs have to be integrated to represent the whole array of costs associated with a plan. The definition by Buchanan (1992) is good enough here : "Opportunity cost is the evaluation placed on the most highly valued of the rejected alternatives or opportunities", which is to say, it is the value that is sacrificed in any choice in a decision making situation. This cost is usually valued as the highest benefits that could have been produced by a choice, but that was forgone by the actual choice.
Now, when the subjects of a CBA, that is, the scenarii, are firm or private indivdual investments, the notion of opportunity cost is pretty thorough : it is the net revenue from the best forgone investment. And that's it.
However when dealing with urban planning, as with many other real world economics, it becomes trickier. The opportunity cost of using urban space is almost exclusively represented in the literature with land or real estate prices. The underlying hypothesis there is that construction would always be the next best profitable option for urban land, and that land prices are its best reflection. Fair enough, although it may debatable, as not all the alternatives of land use for a given land have a clear net benefit flow, far from it. Who knows, perhaps, at times, the next most profitable option for public welfare would be represented by the net flow of ecosystem services generated by a natural conservation option ?..
Anyhow, what if we are valuating water drainage systems scenarios ? Small urban green bioswales alongside the roads, designed for managing sustainably rainwater and stormwater ? It does not really eats up property lands, but rather public space, streets and sidewalks. What about linear street parking spaces, if those are to be converted for creating urban parks and whatnot. Real estate prices would not be a fitting approximation for the lost foregone best benefit in these situations, it seems to me.
I have not found any alternatives in the literature for taking into account the opportunity costs of open or public space. Do you have any insights on this matter ? Any literature on geographic economics or urban economics modelling that deals differently with this ?
Many thanks for any contribution
Ok so I'm all new to computer science and metaheuristics, and need to implement multi-objective optimization for an environemental economics problem with real world data.
The problem goes as this :
I have a large set of possible locations for an infrastructure within a city. Each location provides two benefits A and B, as well as costs (more benefits may be added in the future, depending on further research). Data points are unrelated, cost and benefit functions are not linear and not continuous.
I need a method for selecting a handful of locations that maximizes simultaneously A and B, under the constraint that the total costs < a budget parameter.
I went towards genetic algorithm (GA) for this problem, as it is is highly combinatorial, but I am facing the fact that most "traditional" GA I've looked at have fixed chromosome lengths, and ultimately only give out final individuals of n items. In my case, i am quite flexible on the quantity of best locations, as long as it either minimizes total costs, or handles it as a constraint. As a matter of fact, it would be quite interesting to have as a final result a pareto-front of individuals of different size (for example : in my problem, locations in city center have more "value" than locations in periurban areas, so a few centric locations could be as pareto-optimal as more numerous periurban locations). So I see the problem as a knapsack problem, where costs would be the "weight"; however there can't be any repetition of items here (a same location cannot be used twice).
Is there a way to handle costs constraint as to make a knapsack genetic algorithm that can provide a pareto front of individuals of heteogeneous length. I have been trying it with DEAP library but don't really find details in its documentation.
Biosecurity management allows countries to meet a number of international obligations and provides some protection from potential degradation of environmental, economic, social and cultural values. The Biosecurity Act is oriented towards the management of unintentional introductions of species and sets out the standards for creating pre-border quarantine systems as well as the post –border incursion response and continued management.
Someone suggest me to have at least two to five different sets (with different bids) for Willingness to Pay (CVM) questionnaire to minimize starting point bias. Is it compulsory to do so? My questionnaire is double-bonded dichotomous.
There are several possible explanations of why mainstream economists and thinkers from the UN level up and down have steered the solution to the environmental crisis away from green market, green growth, and green economies commitment they place on themselves in 2012 Rio +20, and leaning towards dwarf green markets like carbon pricing or low carbon…pushing economics towards the non-science domain in the process, and if the process continues or it is not corrected soon, then I believe economics cannot longer then be called a science as a field which do not follow the scientific method/the theory-practice consistency principle on purpose is not a science….it can be a business, but not a science….
One of the main explanation to the issue above can be constructed around two key words: manmade market distortions vrs market failures which get clouded under the paradigm shift knowledge gaps as in this case the green market paradigm shift knowledge gap; and the only inside solution to the paradigm shift those inside the box can see is to look at the issue, that once was assumed not to be an issue at all, as externality led market failure. And to treat an issue that in the new market is supposed to be endogenous issue as an externality led market failure adds more distortion to the already distorted market…..Thomas Kuhn/The structure of scientific revolutions suggested the inability of those inside the box to deal with paradigm shifts like the shift to green markets, those inside the box see only externality led market failures and those outside the box see the man made distortions that need to be corrected/closed to internalize the externality and create green markets…..I will show this in my next paper, but I am curious about whether others see what I can easily see so I am asking this question....
We know that Adam Smith assumed social and environmental externality neutrality to simplify reality and to create an economy only market making only economic issues endogenous issues and the only issues reflected in the pricing mechanism of the traditional market.
Therefore Adam Smith gave a model with two distortions in 1776, a social distortion(a) and an environmental(c) distortion and one dominant component, the economy(B), the structure below:
TM = aBc
TMP = P = ECM + i
Society(a) and environment(c) did not matter, they are there to meet economic goals....remember the thought?
Then the 1987 Bruntland Commission critique came in "Our Common Future'" and suddently social and environmental issues matter and need to be internalized...so they shifted to green markets, economy and environment partnership markets, with the structure below:
GM = aBC
GP = P + EM = ECM + i + EM
The structure of the shift is as follows as the environemental distortion is corrected (c---------->C) as now environmental issues matter and they are reflected in the price mechanism of the market as an externalty margin(EM):
TM = aBc-----------------------> GM = aBC
TMP = P = ECM + i -------------------> GP = P + EM = ECM + i + EM
Therefore, to correct Adam Smith model to reflect environmental concerns we only need to correct the distortion in his model as the environment matters and internalize the environmental cost in the pricing mechanism of the market....
GP - TMP = ECM + i + EM - (ECM + i ) = EM
So when Adam Smith assumed social and environmental externality neutrality he introduced those distortions as there has never been social and environmental externality neutrality....Therefore, to correct his model we only need to correct the distortion, not to treat the distortion as an externality led market failure which is what apparently those inside the box are doing in the case of the shift to green markets....
As Adam Smith created these social and environmental externality distortions as they have always been there I use the term man made market distortions....
So the question is, Are manmade market distortions market failures? I say no, what do you think?
“Yes and Why or No and why” answers or comments please to better exchange ideas.
It has been recognized that Architecture is influenced by many factors like, Social, Physical, Cultural, Environmental, Economic and Political etc.
Think for a moment, shifting from traditional market thinking to green market thinking in 2012 Rio +20 meant a shift from pareto optimality thinking to green pareto optimality thinking, yet to my knowledge nothing is written about this. Green pareto optimality thinking is at the heart of perfect green markets.
And this raises the question, what is the structure of green pareto optimality then? What do you think? I am interested in exchanging ideas on how to address this question and exchange thoughts.
I wish to collect the data of Annual Average conc. of SO2, NO2 indicators, state-wise. The data available is citywise. Can I take average of all the cities within the state and use it for state wise analyasis?
I wish to test the environmental sustainability of a region. Can i use on pollution indicators such as air pollution, water pollution, soil, noise etc.
I want to estimate the environmental costs of the soil pollution and degradation in an industrial area consisting of some refineries and petrochemical plants. soils and ground waters in some parts of my study area have polluted as a result of pipeline failures and leakage of oil and other chemicals. I' m looking for a good reference (preferably book) for economic cost estimation of pollution.
I have come to know from literature that David William Pearce was one of the writers of ‘Blueprint for a Green Economy’ in 1989, and at the same time, David Pearce, was serving as the initial Associate Editor with Robert Robert Costanza (the Chief Editor) in the first issue of 'Ecological Economics' (World's first Journal on Ecological Economics). My first question is, are these two persons same?, and the second question is, does the concept of 'Green Economy' emerged from the concept of 'Ecological Economics' if these two persons are same?
I am working as Assistant Professor, department of Economics, Govt College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. I have my PhD in Resource and environmental economics and interested to work on this project if you can please add me. firstname.lastname@example.org
I am the student of Environmental Economics. I am searching on the ecosystem services of wetland. The purpose is to value the services provided by wetland ecosystem. Carbon storage is taken to value through contingent valuation method. So how far this method is suitable. what are the alternates for valuation for carbon storage service of wetland.
We know today that the traditional market of Adam Smith was a fully distorted markets in environmenal and social terms as it assumed social and environmental externality neutrality...
In 2012 a consensus was reached to correct Adam Smith's traditional market model to make it environmentally friendly or making it reflect environmental concerns....
The correction of Adam Smith model could have been done in two ways:
a) Externality internalization by adding a green margin to the traditional market price creating that way green market prices; and
b) by externality managment by bringing an array of green taxes creating that way dwarf green market prices.
Which correction do you think leads to the most efficent, science based, traditional market correction?....
I think correction a) externality internalization, what do you think?
I am presently doing a Masters in Environmental Economics. I want to do my thesis in water sector or estuarine environment of Bangladesh. I need your suggestions about a topic that will be appropriate for Bangladesh environment for my thesis.
The markets being planned and in some cases implemented to deal with environmental issues such as pollution, it seems, are no longer being required to meet perfect, free market thinking, where free producers and free consumers determine the price at which to produce and consume.
Economists seem now fine with permanent government intervention setting up environmentally related market prices. And this raises the question, has economic thinking been flipped in the face of the environmental pressures since 2012 UNCSD Rio plus 20? If yes, is that good in the long-term?
Just think about it , we do not yet have set up green markets, and therefore we have failed to meet the 2012 UNCSD goal at Rio plus 20 so far, that of shifting to green markets and the green economies.
And that may explain why everywhere you look, you see now either carbon pricing or cap and trade thinking is taking hold as the best way to address environmental issues, not green markets.
And that means as far as I know that for the first time since Adam Smith we are now not just calling for, but praising government intervention.
As you know or should know, carbon pricing or cap and trade markets are not free markets.
And this raises the question, was the Rio plus 20 called to shift to green markets a call for government intervention?
I do not think so, what do you think?
I would like to compile a list of researchers (economists, conservation scientists, sociologists) who work on questions related to responsible/ethical/green supply chain management, or who work on the ground with producers/suppliers. Many thanks if you do have any suggestions,
I am working on the project :
- Sustainable urbanization expansion of the Kut city - Iraq
A classical hydroelectric system that can be completely free of environmental and economic concerns and Reliable & Responsible to operate in Oceans and Seas.
It is a huge project. I greatly appreciate your particular guide for the following inquiries:
· Why not building a classical hydroelectric plant in ocean/sea water (salty water)? Is this because:
I. There is no reliable design proposed yet?
II. Or because the exact idea has not yet been taken into account?
III. Reservoir: impossible to build an ocean-based reservoir?
IV. Environmental, Social, and Economical concerns: A possibility of Non-environmental emissions, Harm to sea life?
V. Civil & Mechanical engineering: Construction of the plant in the middle of the Ocean/Sea?
VI. Survivability of the building?
VII. Hydroelectric equipment: Generators, turbines, pumps etc…. Installation and efficiency during operation?
VIII. Salty water: Impact of salty water on Turbines, Pipes, etc….?
IX. Grid connection & Electricity transmission: Transporting electricity to the mainland station?
X. Operation & Maintenance?
XI. Retrofitting process: Costs and its viability?
XII. Licensing & Relicensing Process?
Unendurable of final costs: Unaffordable Project?
Industries are earning, and it is easy to justify recovery of operational cost for an industrial waste water treatment plant. Municipal wastewater water treatment receive a bulk of wastewater from a big population, scattered over a wast area. In developing word it is difficult to run municipal wastewater treatment plant. They construct such treatment plant, but due to lack of funds, such treatment plant are abundant and not working. In such situations what you suggest, from where to arrange and manage finance for continuous operation?
The operational cost include labours' salary, Laboratory, and electricity charges.
Could anyone give suggestion regarding to environmental economics towards trade using cge model? and how to construct the models step by step?
how to justifiy the results given...?
The past population estimates and existing data demonstrate that world population continued to grow since its origin to date. Extremely high rate of growth has been observed during the second half of 20th century along with medical and green revolutions. World population data sheets and other data sources tell that 80 to 90 million individuals are added to the global population every year increasing pressure on resources. Consequently, environmental, economic, social, political, demographic, and biological problems are also increasing and in some cases are appearing in new forms. On the other side, world communities, specifically more developed countries claim that they are taking several measures to overcome these issues. Here the question arises that in the prevalence of such kind of situation where population is augmenting rapidly, environmental degradation is at its apex and resources are already in pressure, is it possible to overcome these problems?
Generally, we talk about environmental and economic sustainability in research or on public platforms.
In my view, society or social sustainability is real driver of overall sustainability.
Kindly drop your comments with logic
In conducting a security management related research, there is a blurry distinction with criminology or conflict management research. The theoretical framework one can choose from are in fact the same. While defending my proposal recently, i was advised to move away from conflict to security management in terms of not only the tone but the theories. i did revisit my notes and could get much deviation.
It gets even more tricky when a researcher wants to fold in an environmental/economic approach to security management research. Mostly the theoretical framework will shift from the traditional crime theories to environmental/economic theories. This might cause trouble with examiners who might view it as lacking in terms of security management orientation.
It is my take that despite the approach and the theories thereof, security management is inherent in a wide range of disciplines and thus one should not be bogged down in tunnel-vision of crime theories. So long as the relationship can be brought out clearly through other theories relevant to the setting(economic/environmental) then it should be understandable.
Sage advice needed here.
To apply discount rate on natural resource valuation/ecosystem services valuation has become debate among the researchers, many researchers are in the opinion that discount rate should be applied on natural resources valuation.
I want to know,
- What is a discount rate and which equation is used for discount rate?
- What is the difference between discount rate and interest rate
- How to put discount rate on the values of ecosystem services ?
Key words: Economics, valuation, discount rate, discounting, interest rate, ecosystem services, natural resources.
What are the steps involved in contingent valuation model? How to fit the variables to run the model?
Thousands of research papers are available on internet about the preparation and uses of compost. Solid waste generation and disposal is a growing problem across the globe. Composting is one easy and cost effective method for waste recycling and management. But there is a question, how to convince a farmer to use compost. Each farmer is interested in production and saving of time. He/she may not have time to prepare compost. If solid waste managers prepare solid waste, what mechanism may be adopted to utilize the prepared compost?
It is important that solid waste managers will spend money to prepare compost and will expect some profit. Farmers will expect some discount or subsidy on the ready-made compost. In such situations what mechanism may be adopted to encourage this business of composting?
I am trying to collect as much green management indicators as possible to suit my research about green business management in third world countries.
I need to know the number of workers and the productions of
each one of the copper production processes (including mining / concentrator / smelter / refining) in Rio Tinto Kennecott. Is there any way to access these data?
Thank you for your help
There are many questions about China's involvement in mineral resources in Greenland I'd like to ask. For example, what kind of minerals are China exploring? What're the scales? How does the exploration affect local communities environmentally and/or economically? How do Chinese investors interact with local governments and citizens in Greenland? I look forward to hearing your findings on these questions.
I want to estimate the effect of public policies supporting renewables on the share of renewables in a countries energy supply (CRES, dependent variable). I added some control variables (GDP; commodity prices, energy dependence etc.). My question is how to construct a variable for Energy Policies and Measures. My database are those measures and policies listed at IRENA/IEA. They distinguish between 6 types of policies/measures ( (1) Economic instruments, (2) Information and Education, (3) Policy Supports, (4) Regulatory Instruments, (5) R&D and (6) Voluntary.
(1) Either creating a dummy variable which takes on the value 1 if the country has for example more /equal to 20 policies in each category (rule of thumb)
(2) Create a continous variable, attributing the value to each measure, however in this case I assume that each measure has the same weight
Any suggestions/ideas/ contributions are highly appreciated!
In many geothermal systems in the Himalayas, carbon dioxide concentration is high and calcite scale is common, preventing the resources being properly utilized for power generation. It has been difficult to solve this technical problem which has been an issue in development investment for a long time.An economic and effective solution is needed.
Enhanced Geothermal System technology has been developed for nearly 4 decades. Some of the projects are being implemented at commercial scales. More projects are being considered in many countries. While technically speaking it is feasible to exploit energy from deep underground, cost is now a major factor to judge if a project is feasible or not.
The idea is to develop theoretical models of cities in order to test what should be the future city with respect to environmental, economical, social,.... constraints.
This is about to measure the economic benefits of biodiversity conservation, particularly beneficial that provides for scientific research.
Concise definition of economic growth and economic development.
Interrelationship between the two concept in the context of the developing economies.
To investigate the impact of spatial effects in modelling of road deterioration and investment requirements.
I've doing environmental economic project, and then i get the result that different with earlier research. One of variables that used in this project is quality of water index, which is the greater number imagine the quality of water is better than the lower one. But, in the result panel regression show that the quality of water index has negative and significant influence on economic growth. The theory say it must be positive impact. How can i should explain this problem ?
In the frame of flood protection it becomes necessary to use land from third party land owners like farmers, for instance for water retention in polder areas. What kind of compensation schemes do exist on international scale for the land owner compensation for that kind of service ? Are these mainly monetary compensations, or are there also other types of incentives ? Thank you in advance !
Whenever I ran a cost frontier function of Frontier 4.1c version, all the cost efficiency (CE) indices are going beyond 1. Please advise.
To tackle the increasing problems of draw down, depredation and degradation (pollution) of environmental resources we are trying to promote green products, green processes, green technologies, green industry. More importantly we are sensitizing people to adopt green lifestyle, green culture and green consumerism to shrink our ecological footprint and to make a peace with our Mother planet Earth. But it's easier said than done! How 'green' is green enough? How good is good enough? Please elucidate with informative thoughts, insights and illustrative inputs.
I am studying the environmental and economic benefits of PET recycling. is there any related papers which conducted in this context. I want to know the net landfill space saving during the one ton of PET recycling.
Thanks for your contribution.
Currently working with biomass decomposition rate estimates, that are highly kurtois (but not skewed). The endpoint is to try to explain rates as a function of type of biomass and environmental data.
I have no experience with data of this type, but if "feels like all the outliers" might have an undesirably large effect on model outcomes. How to transform such data? And will the estimates be at all intelligible?
I mean the formula for obtaining the price through the demand and supply of emission allowance credits
I am currently working on Malaysia Energy Decarbonization. Emission trading scheme has been seen as a promising economic tool toward low carbon power generation. I need to model the carbon market via allocation and carbon price determination. I will appreciate if you can help with the mecahnism(formula) along with appropraite refrence. Thanks
Instead of living within the annual interest that biophysical wealth of Nature gives us, we are using up our natural capital. We are taking more resources than Nature/Earth can provide and throwing more wastes and pollutants than that Nature can metabolize and assimilate. What are the impacts? What future is waiting for us? What should we do for restoring our ecological balance sheet?
Fertiliser production and consumption adds million tons of CO2 equivalent gasses and reduce soil properties on the other side use of organic manure and other organic inputs fixes carbon in the soil and improve soil properties and not contribute in green house gasses. There are several other socio-economic implications of fertiliser use that may not find fertilisers as a reliable tool for long term sustainability of agriculture on the other side organic inputs are locally available and their recycling in agriculture not only solve several environmental problems but also cost effective. So it the right time to shift to organic system for long term sustainability of agriculture ? Please see one of my publication( book chapter) Role of organic farming in mitigation of climate change
Dear all, the questions has been posed to the EKLIPSE mechanism to conduct a knowledge synthesisi on, if needed - for this we are scoping the current knowledge on the matter with a detailed call for knowledge.
If you want to share something on this, please use our KNOCK Forum
Working in the field of Climate Change and Sustainability I would like to get some information about the potential consequences of humanity and countries fulfilling the 17 SDGs and COP21 agreement by signing the specific agreement that exist (not what they could be if everyone were great people and amazing companies). I would like to have as much scientific and empirical evidence as possible to avoid opinions or specific good or bad examples that do not represent the overall reality that these agreements bring. Thank you for your support. All the best, Gil
I am looking at the practicality of environmental offsets and whether there these are economically and sustainable viable options. The real question are these feasible in a developing world environment
Dear professors and researchers,
I am looking for a paper close to "The infrastructure of the stock market and its impact on the valuation of assets" example BRICKS countries. Anyone knows about information, paper or article to close this topic. Please share links, books and paper. if anyone shares it me I really appreciate them
A research colleague conducted exploratory research based on 4 cases located in one developing country. The outcome of the study depicts 3 categories with underlying subcategories (factors) for each. The researcher clearly states that due to the limited set of cases (4) more research is required to determine whether other factors are relevant.
My purpose wants to follow this, hence I want to conduct exploratory research (face-to-face interviews) based on 6-10 cases in two or more developing countries.
Am I right with the assumption that I consequently test the colleagues categories and factors (theory)?
If yes, is it then a deductive approach? If yes, do I need to come up with hypothesis or research propositions based on the colleagues theory?
Of course I am aware that I can quantitatively test the colleagues theory, but 1. I do not have access to a sufficient amount of samples and 2. I want to follow the colleagues future research propositions as 4 cases in one single country is not enough.
I'm looking for references of studies that propose indicators to environmental and economics evaluation of a project, at same time.
Many scholars agree that NTFPs is a part and a final product from ecosystem services, but there is a question whether NTFPs contribute back to generate or to maintain ecosystem services or not?