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Environmental Economics - Science topic

Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues.
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I am trying to value natural capital as an input into a mining investment decision. Does anyone have any ideas how this might be achieved? Or can you provide me with references?
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This is a sort of financial ecosystem services for which you can consult this book
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Based on my contingent valuation survey (double-bounded dichotomous choice), I have decided to run the models (e.g. Model 1: WTPa; Model 2: WTPb; Model 3: WTPc, and WTPmax) for only positive response. The question is how can I run these models separately?
The dependent variable is dichotomous WTP response (e.g. WTPa-first answer for offered price; WTPb- second answer for next question...). While the independent variables are sociodemographic info (e.g. age, income, occupation, etc.).
Should I separate first the data into a different model? Then, the problem is what is the dependent variable? Because there is only one answer (e.g. Yes).
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Well Done !!! interesting...
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Most Economists agree that our goal should not be "zero" pollution because zero pollution would mean zero production and zero jobs.
However, what is an acceptable level of air pollution?  
Is there an 'ideal' level of pollution that is generally accepted by researchers?  
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100
AQI values at or below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is unhealthy: at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values get higher. The AQI is divided into six categories.
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UN agencies, governments, international organizations like FAO and World Bank, academic institutions and so on appear to be talking about green economies and green growth yet they are not implementing green markets as the environmental cost of production is not yet internalized.  They are promoting non-green market approaches like carbon pricing or cap and trade, can green economy and green growth exist outside green markets? I think "No", what do you think?
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From a systemic point of view, Green Markets are one of finalities of Green Economy. So, there is a two-way relationship between the both concepts, Green Market is created and enhanced by Green Economy, and this latest could not be implemented without Green Market. By other words, Green Market is a sub-system for Green Economy. - Anouar.
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Which agricultural strategies were sustainable, both environmentally and economically, over the long term, and why?
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Farmers, advisors and policymakers are faced with complex choices. They are faced with a wide range of technologies that are either available or under development; they must deal with the uncertainties of both the effects these new technologies will have throughout the agri-food chain and the impact that a whole range of policies will have on the sustainability of farming systems. In addition, there is increasing pressure on agricultural research and advisory budgets that must be accommodated.
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Dear Colleagues,
Kindly guide
Suppose we want to calculate the monetary costs of the sediment retention services provided by natural vegetation for providing the clean drinking water supply to people, how to do that?
Regards
Gowhar Meraj
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Thank you very much for this sharing this essential piece of information.'
Sincerely yours
Gowhar Meraj
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Coal based power plants are one of the cheapest and more effective instruments to produce electricity. Many developed countries have already applied this plants and had the benefit from it. Although some of the countries have now stopped using coal based plants because of the negative impact being created towards the nature.
At present, many developing countries specifically in Asian and African region, are choosing Coal to produce more electricity as the demand is at the highest peak; even though a huge environmental degradation is happening due to these circumstances.
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Coal is cheapest source of energy production, if we use new technology for removal of the pollution
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I am doing research on Tourism's Carbon Footprint. I need help to find the data for a panel of countries. If there is no specific source then how can I calculate the Carbon Footprint for tourism sector?
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An economic evaluation of the natural capital is essential to understand its loss for human developmental activities.
Moreover, valuation methods have always underestimated the economic costs associated with natural resources. Nevertheless, they at least provide a vision for policymakers to decide development against conservation.
How could valuations methods be improved, and integrated into holistic policy and decision making?
I would request my colleagues to enlighten, regarding its importance from your years of research experience.
Regards
Gowhar Meraj
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Thank you very much for highlighting this issue. I have now deleted the link to the paper. I have also added some questions and hope that you will provide some valuable insights.
Sincerely yours
Gowhar Meraj
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There are many studies which have shown a positive impact of Foreign direct investment on the economic growth of the host country, where some of the researchers have claimed that FDI puts a negative impact on the host country by creating environmental pollution. This has created many arguments.
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Hi, I try to come up with research question for my master's thesis. I would like the topic to be connected with environmental economics, sustainable development etc. and to provide some added-value to that field of science.
What, in your view, lacks research in this area? What are the questions that still needs answer or additional exploring?
I consider: ETS market, Environmental Kuznets Curve, decoupling, game theory in the context of climate policies, discount rate in DICE models, how to apply degrowth economically...
but I struggle to find something specific.
I'd really appreciate some advice.
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Hi. I think the following article could help you :
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Hi everyone,
I want to ask a (not so) quick question about ecosystem services economics, urban planning, sustainable water drainage and cost-benefit analysis.
Whenever comparing different scenarii of urban greening or urban planning, in a cost-benefit anaysis (CBA), opportunity costs have to be integrated to represent the whole array of costs associated with a plan. The definition by Buchanan (1992) is good enough here : "Opportunity cost is the evaluation placed on the most highly valued of the rejected alternatives or opportunities", which is to say, it is the value that is sacrificed in any choice in a decision making situation. This cost is usually valued as the highest benefits that could have been produced by a choice, but that was forgone by the actual choice.
Now, when the subjects of a CBA, that is, the scenarii, are firm or private indivdual investments, the notion of opportunity cost is pretty thorough : it is the net revenue from the best forgone investment. And that's it.
However when dealing with urban planning, as with many other real world economics, it becomes trickier. The opportunity cost of using urban space is almost exclusively represented in the literature with land or real estate prices. The underlying hypothesis there is that construction would always be the next best profitable option for urban land, and that land prices are its best reflection. Fair enough, although it may debatable, as not all the alternatives of land use for a given land have a clear net benefit flow, far from it. Who knows, perhaps, at times, the next most profitable option for public welfare would be represented by the net flow of ecosystem services generated by a natural conservation option ?..
Anyhow, what if we are valuating water drainage systems scenarios ? Small urban green bioswales alongside the roads, designed for managing sustainably rainwater and stormwater ? It does not really eats up property lands, but rather public space, streets and sidewalks. What about linear street parking spaces, if those are to be converted for creating urban parks and whatnot. Real estate prices would not be a fitting approximation for the lost foregone best benefit in these situations, it seems to me.
I have not found any alternatives in the literature for taking into account the opportunity costs of open or public space. Do you have any insights on this matter ? Any literature on geographic economics or urban economics modelling that deals differently with this ?
Many thanks for any contribution
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Very good question. The opportunity costs of using public space for greening depends on situations and countries.
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Hi,
Ok so I'm all new to computer science and metaheuristics, and need to implement multi-objective optimization for an environemental economics problem with real world data.
The problem goes as this :
I have a large set of possible locations for an infrastructure within a city. Each location provides two benefits A and B, as well as costs (more benefits may be added in the future, depending on further research). Data points are unrelated, cost and benefit functions are not linear and not continuous.
I need a method for selecting a handful of locations that maximizes simultaneously A and B, under the constraint that the total costs < a budget parameter.
I went towards genetic algorithm (GA) for this problem, as it is is highly combinatorial, but I am facing the fact that most "traditional" GA I've looked at have fixed chromosome lengths, and ultimately only give out final individuals of n items. In my case, i am quite flexible on the quantity of best locations, as long as it either minimizes total costs, or handles it as a constraint. As a matter of fact, it would be quite interesting to have as a final result a pareto-front of individuals of different size (for example : in my problem, locations in city center have more "value" than locations in periurban areas, so a few centric locations could be as pareto-optimal as more numerous periurban locations). So I see the problem as a knapsack problem, where costs would be the "weight"; however there can't be any repetition of items here (a same location cannot be used twice).
Is there a way to handle costs constraint as to make a knapsack genetic algorithm that can provide a pareto front of individuals of heteogeneous length. I have been trying it with DEAP library but don't really find details in its documentation.
Many thanks
Georges Farina
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Knapsack problems of economic type can be easily solved by Genetic algorithm see the following sites for an example of knapsack business problems:
Knapsack Problem Using Genetic Algorithm With Source Code | by Muzamil Shahbaz | Medium
Genetic algorithm for knapsack problem in Matlab - Free Open Source Codes - CodeForge.com
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This question was asked in internal assessment of Resource and Environmental Economics. Please suggest me best book or article where i will find this question's answer.
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Thank you for sharing this Question
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Biosecurity management
Biosecurity management allows countries to meet a number of international obligations and provides some protection from potential degradation of environmental, economic, social and cultural values. The Biosecurity Act is oriented towards the management of unintentional introductions of species and sets out the standards for creating pre-border quarantine systems as well as the post –border incursion response and continued management.
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Someone suggest me to have at least two to five different sets (with different bids) for Willingness to Pay (CVM) questionnaire to minimize starting point bias. Is it compulsory to do so? My questionnaire is double-bonded dichotomous.
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yes
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There are several possible explanations of why mainstream economists and thinkers from the UN level up and down have steered the solution to the environmental crisis away from green market, green growth, and green economies commitment they place on themselves in 2012 Rio +20, and leaning towards dwarf green markets like carbon pricing or low carbon…pushing economics towards the non-science domain in the process, and if the process continues or it is not corrected soon, then I believe economics cannot longer then be called a science as a field which do not follow the scientific method/the theory-practice consistency principle on purpose is not a science….it can be a business, but not a science….
One of the main explanation to the issue above can be constructed around two key words: manmade market distortions vrs market failures which get clouded under the paradigm shift knowledge gaps as in this case the green market paradigm shift knowledge gap; and the only inside solution to the paradigm shift those inside the box can see is to look at the issue, that once was assumed not to be an issue at all, as externality led market failure.  And to treat an issue that in the new market is supposed to be endogenous issue as an externality led market failure adds more distortion to the already distorted market…..Thomas Kuhn/The structure of scientific revolutions suggested the inability of those inside the box to deal with paradigm shifts like the shift to green markets, those inside the box see only externality led market failures and those outside the box see the man made distortions that need to be corrected/closed to internalize the externality and create green markets…..I will show this in my next paper, but I am curious about whether others see what I can easily see so I am asking this question....
We know that Adam Smith assumed social and environmental externality neutrality to simplify reality and  to create an economy only market making only economic issues endogenous issues and the only issues reflected in the pricing mechanism of the traditional market. 
Therefore Adam Smith gave a model with two distortions in 1776, a social distortion(a) and an environmental(c) distortion and one dominant component, the economy(B), the structure below:
TM = aBc
TMP = P = ECM + i
Society(a) and environment(c) did not matter, they are there to meet economic goals....remember the thought?
Then the 1987 Bruntland Commission critique came in "Our Common Future'" and suddently social and environmental issues matter and need to be internalized...so they shifted to green markets, economy and environment partnership markets, with the structure below:
GM = aBC
GP = P + EM = ECM + i + EM
The structure of the shift is as follows as the environemental distortion is corrected (c---------->C) as now environmental issues matter and they are reflected in the price mechanism of the market as an externalty margin(EM):
TM = aBc-----------------------> GM = aBC
TMP = P = ECM + i -------------------> GP = P + EM = ECM + i + EM
Therefore, to correct Adam Smith model to reflect environmental concerns we only need to correct the distortion in his model as the environment matters and internalize the environmental cost in the pricing mechanism of the market....
GP - TMP = ECM + i + EM - (ECM + i ) = EM
So when Adam Smith assumed social and environmental externality neutrality he introduced those distortions as there has never been social and environmental externality neutrality....Therefore,  to correct his model we  only need to correct the distortion, not to treat the distortion as an externality led market failure which is what apparently those inside the box are doing in the case of the shift to green markets....
As Adam Smith created these social and environmental externality distortions as they have always been there I use the term man made market distortions....
So the question is, Are manmade market distortions market failures?  I say no, what do you think?
 “Yes and Why or No and why” answers or comments please to better exchange ideas.
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Dear friends, you may find the following article full of food for thoughts so I am sharing it here for you to check when you have time:
Sustainability thoughts 130: Can green economies and green growth exist without green markets? If not, why not? What is the current main development implication of this?
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It has been recognized that Architecture is influenced by many factors like, Social, Physical, Cultural, Environmental, Economic and Political etc.
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This is very crucial issue. In the contemporary age, we are lacking balance, as the market drags us to its material standards, which causes the loss of some spiritual, social and cultural dimensions.
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Think for a moment, shifting from traditional market thinking to green market thinking in 2012 Rio +20 meant a shift from pareto optimality thinking to green pareto optimality thinking, yet to my knowledge nothing is written about this. Green pareto optimality thinking is at the heart of perfect green markets.
And this raises the question, what is the structure of green pareto optimality then? What do you think? I am interested in exchanging ideas on how to address this question and exchange thoughts.
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Dear friends, here I am sharing an expansion of green pareto optimality and traditional pareto optimality to link it to environmental externality management markets, simply as food for thoughts, done with positive intentions just to share ideas
Sustainability thoughts 126: Are environmental externality management based production and consumption bundles inconsistent with green pareto efficiency and with pareto efficiency principles at the same time? If yes, why?
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I advise you to get into topics related to traditional rangeland economics and traditional animal husbandry and focus more on topics such as energy efficiency and productivity.
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I wish to collect the data of Annual Average conc. of SO2, NO2 indicators, state-wise. The data available is citywise. Can I take average of all the cities within the state and use it for state wise analyasis?
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Belt and braces would be to take a population weighted average of the cities , but it might be better to explain what the problem is, as there might be better analytical solution to what you are trying to do.
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I wish to test the environmental sustainability of a region. Can i use on pollution indicators such as air pollution, water pollution, soil, noise etc.
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Yes, you can use many indicators indicators for testing the environment sustainability of any region.Firstly environmental pollution indicators which it depend on the change in ecosystem and environmental parameters (water, air and soil).
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I want to estimate the environmental costs of the soil pollution and degradation in an industrial area consisting of some refineries and petrochemical plants. soils and ground waters in some parts of my study area have polluted as a result of pipeline failures and leakage of oil and other chemicals. I' m looking for a good reference (preferably book) for economic cost estimation of pollution.
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I hope you will be getting required results with these references:
(1)Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World http://www.springer.com/series/11480
(2) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews
(3) Soil Pollution - An Emerging Threat to Agriculture
by: Jayanta K. Saha • Rajendiran Selladurai M. Vassanda Coumar • M.L. Dotaniya Samaresh Kundu • Ashok K. Patra
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I have come to know from literature that David William Pearce was one of the writers of ‘Blueprint for a Green Economy’ in 1989, and at the same time, David Pearce, was serving as the initial Associate Editor with Robert Robert Costanza (the Chief Editor) in the first issue of 'Ecological Economics' (World's first Journal on Ecological Economics). My first question is, are these two persons same?, and the second question is, does the concept of 'Green Economy' emerged from the concept of 'Ecological Economics' if these two persons are same?
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At the beginning, David Pearce (who unfortunately died too young) was a member of the group that founded the journal and the society for Ecological Economics around 1988-90. I mean Herman Daly, Bob Costanza, AnnMari Jansson, Dick Norgaards and some others, including myself. After 1994, he left the joint-editorship of the journal. He believed in what was called "weak sustainability" (substituting of manufactured capital for so-called natural capital), while we the ecological economist were more inclned towards a "strong sustainability" approach, and to a biophysical view of the economy, in terms of social metabolism (counting the flows of energy and materials).
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I am working as Assistant Professor, department of Economics, Govt College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. I have my PhD in Resource and environmental economics and interested to work on this project if you can please add me. majeednadeem@gcuf.edu.pk
Thanks
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thank you
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I am the student of Environmental Economics. I am searching on the ecosystem services of wetland. The purpose is to value the services provided by wetland ecosystem. Carbon storage is taken to value through contingent valuation method. So how far this method is suitable. what are the alternates for valuation for carbon storage service of wetland.
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Hi Alamzeb,
the world expert in this area and the developer of the LANCA (Land Use Indicator Value Calculation in Life Cycle Assessment) system is Dr. Ulrike Bos. She could answer your questions for sure. You can reach her at ulrike.bos@thinkstep.com.
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We know today that the traditional market of Adam Smith was a fully distorted markets in environmenal and social terms as it assumed social and environmental externality neutrality...
In 2012 a consensus was reached to correct Adam Smith's traditional market model to make it environmentally friendly or making it reflect environmental concerns....
The correction of Adam Smith model could have been done in two ways:
a) Externality internalization by adding a green margin to the traditional market price creating that way green market prices; and
b) by externality managment by bringing an array of green taxes creating that way dwarf green market prices.
Which correction do you think leads to the most efficent, science based, traditional market correction?....
I think correction a) externality internalization, what do you think?
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Sharing publication
The Flipping of Traditional Economic Thinking: Contrasting the Working of Dwarf Green Market Thinking with that of Green Market Thinking to Highlight Main Differences and Implications
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I am presently doing a Masters in Environmental Economics. I want to do my thesis in water sector or estuarine environment of Bangladesh. I need your suggestions about a topic that will be appropriate for Bangladesh environment for my thesis.
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Marine and aquatic enviroment research will be good because these days most forum discuss the microplastic contamination of aquatic environment
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The markets being planned and in some cases implemented to deal with environmental issues such as pollution, it seems, are no longer being required to meet perfect, free market thinking, where free producers and free consumers determine the price at which to produce and consume.
Economists seem now fine with permanent government intervention setting up environmentally related market prices. And this raises the question, has economic thinking been flipped in the face of the environmental pressures since 2012 UNCSD Rio plus 20? If yes, is that good in the long-term?
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Good day Joseph, First, I am trying to keep comments within the scope of this question, traditional economic thinking flipping or not in responding to environmental crisis, and it seems yes.
With respect to your last comment, if a model is distorted would you expect the predictions to be trusted?....Since Adam Smith assumed social and environmental externality neutrality you can not use it to deal with socio-economic issues or eco-economic issues, as only the economy matters. If you do not properly correct the adam smith model to close social and/or environmental sustainability gaps(eg green markets) and use for example dwarf green markets, do you think the predictions can be trusted?.
You mentioned climate change program, it is a science based program being inplemented through dwarf green markets, not green markets....
If you have anything to add to the question of economic thinking flipping feel free to write otherwise let's leave it here.
Gracias por sus comentarios!
I think you can find some good food for thoughts related to your last comment in the following articles:
Complex and Man-made Markets: Are We Currently Approaching Sustainability in a Backward and More Chaotic Way in Terms of Economic Thinking? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281277199_Complex_and_Man-made_Markets_Are_We_Currently_Approaching_Sustainability_in_a_Backward_and_More_Chaotic_Way_in_Terms_of_Economic_Thinking
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Did Adam Smith Miss the Chance to State the Goal and Structure of Sustainability Markets in His Time? If Yes, Which Could Be Some of the Possible Reasons Behind That? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286625136_Did_Adam_Smith_Miss_the_Chance_to_State_the_Goal_and_Structure_of_Sustainability_Markets_in_His_Time_If_Yes_Which_Could_Be_Some_of_the_Possible_Reasons_Behind_That
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The Unintended Consequences of Paradigm Death and Shift: Was the Arrow Impossibility Theorem Left Behind? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299879934_The_Unintended_Consequences_of_Paradigm_Death_and_Shift_Was_the_Arrow_Impossibility_Theorem_Left_Behind
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Just think about it , we do not yet have set up green markets, and therefore we have failed to meet the 2012 UNCSD goal at Rio plus 20 so far, that of shifting to green markets and the green economies.
And that may explain why everywhere you look, you see now either carbon pricing or cap and trade thinking is taking hold as the best way to address environmental issues, not green markets.
And that means as far as I know that for the first time since Adam Smith we are now not just calling for, but praising government intervention.
As you know or should know, carbon pricing or cap and trade markets are not free markets.
And this raises the question, was the Rio plus 20 called to shift to green markets a call for government intervention?
I do not think so, what do you think?
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Good day Usama, thank you for taking the time to comment.
Markets shift from perfect market to perfect market when corrected so the 2012 Rio plus 20 marked a shift from perfect traditional market thinking to perfect green market thinking to move towards green economies and green growth after correcting it to reflect the environmental costs of doing business....These are free markets so no government intervention is needed if they are set up well and therefore they are working out well. So the UNCSD at rio plus 20 was not calling for goverment intervention, it was calling for governments to shift their structures from traditional economies to green economies, both free market economies.
If there is permanent government intervention, there are no free markets....so permanent government intervention to achieve environmental goals means NO FREE GREEN MARKETS, but what I call "dwarf green markets".
If government intervention is necessary, especially permanently means the markets are not properly set up....
I appreciate your comment
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I would like to compile a list of researchers (economists, conservation scientists, sociologists) who work on questions related to responsible/ethical/green supply chain management, or who work on the ground with producers/suppliers. Many thanks if you do have any suggestions,
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Great question. Excellent responses.
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I am working on the project :
  • Sustainable urbanization expansion of the Kut city - Iraq
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Dear Araw,
Well done, the integration of land uses with the transport network is a very important factor.
But are you think there are other factors effect on the expansion of our cities ??
regards
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Self regulation can reduce operation as cost ?
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Dear Abdul Rahman Mahmud,
Are you refering to in-house rules and regulations as " Self Regulation"?
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A classical hydroelectric system that can be completely free of environmental and economic concerns and Reliable & Responsible to operate in Oceans and Seas.
It is a huge project. I greatly appreciate your particular guide for the following inquiries:
· Why not building a classical hydroelectric plant in ocean/sea water (salty water)? Is this because:
I. There is no reliable design proposed yet?
II. Or because the exact idea has not yet been taken into account?
III. Reservoir: impossible to build an ocean-based reservoir?
IV. Environmental, Social, and Economical concerns: A possibility of Non-environmental emissions, Harm to sea life?
V. Civil & Mechanical engineering: Construction of the plant in the middle of the Ocean/Sea?
VI. Survivability of the building?
VII. Hydroelectric equipment: Generators, turbines, pumps etc…. Installation and efficiency during operation?
VIII. Salty water: Impact of salty water on Turbines, Pipes, etc….?
IX. Grid connection & Electricity transmission: Transporting electricity to the mainland station?
X. Operation & Maintenance?
XI. Retrofitting process: Costs and its viability?
XII. Licensing & Relicensing Process?
Unendurable of final costs: Unaffordable Project?
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The constraints of building classical hydropower projects in seas and oceans are locational and economical dependent rather technological limits. The following question provides some valuable answers. For example, the answer of Dr. Tony clarifies critical constraints in Australia.
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or environmental economics
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Developing a proposal in Agric Econs. has the same principles like that of other fields. The only difference lies in the fact that every field has its own jargon. Once your have identified a problem, know what you want to do and how you want to do it your good to go. You proposal must also be garnish with economic principles and theories
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Industries are earning, and it is easy to justify recovery of operational cost for an industrial waste water treatment plant. Municipal wastewater water treatment receive a bulk of wastewater from a big population, scattered over a wast area. In developing word it is difficult to run municipal wastewater treatment plant. They construct such treatment plant, but due to lack of funds, such treatment plant are abundant and not working. In such situations what you suggest, from where to arrange and manage finance for continuous operation?
The operational cost include labours' salary, Laboratory, and electricity charges.
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The consumers of water utility ( domestic, commercial and industrial consumers are supposed to pay wastewater treatment
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Could anyone give suggestion regarding to environmental economics towards trade using cge model? and how to construct the models step by step?
how to justifiy the results given...?
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Check PEP_MPIA web, you will get many example of CGE model and practice them using GAMS student version.
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it like the Blind Men and an Elephant story because what is my experience in that way I am looking elephant.
please insight.
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Artur Braun
We (probably) all know what odd decisions are made from time to time within our own scientific organisations, by scientific people based on technical arguments. Obviously, we do not need social science, religion, environmentalists or anyone else to introduce irrationality.
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The past population estimates and existing data demonstrate that world population continued to grow since its origin to date. Extremely high rate of growth has been observed during the second half of 20th century along with medical and green revolutions. World population data sheets and other data sources tell that 80 to 90 million individuals are added to the global population every year increasing pressure on resources. Consequently, environmental, economic, social, political, demographic, and biological problems are also increasing and in some cases are appearing in new forms. On the other side, world communities, specifically more developed countries claim that they are taking several measures to overcome these issues. Here the question arises that in the prevalence of such kind of situation where population is augmenting rapidly, environmental degradation is at its apex and resources are already in pressure, is it possible to overcome these problems?
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Dear Khan,
The earth has and will always have enough "for everyone’s need but not for everyone’s greed". Therefore, the question is not about overpopulation but it has more to do with over-consumption and overproduction. It seems that for those with privilege it is easy to talk about overpopulation (human beings as if they were undesirable) and a few billions too many. Yet, those who have less in the world are the ones who exploit resources the least and conserve biodiversity the most. Unfortunately, the world's hunger is the results of wars and conflicts, not because of population growth. There is hunger and yet the amount of wasted food per year can feed the world four times over. Those who insist on talking about overpopulation are only finding a way to blame others and to divert attention away from greed and planetary vandalism that destroy our natural resources and take away what little is left from the 'have-nots'.
This is what they say: "There is overpopulation and therefore there are not enough resources for everybody." The eyes of some immediately turn to the growing populations in emerging and developing nations. Yes, there is population growth but it is not unsustainable if the wars and global mega-corruption will stop. In Japan and the West there is low birth rate; Russia is such a big country with less than 160 million people, and so on. Therefore, when people talk about overpopulation, they are referring to the others (those they deem undesirable).
It is easy to fall into the trap of going along with this narrative when they use mind games through imagery to suggest that the poor are giving birth to too many children even though there is not enough food to feed them and there are many diseases, too.
Consider this. Where there is industrialization and opportunities for all, birth rate tends to be low. Even in developing nations, the middle and upper middle classes have fewer children. It must be noted, however, that with or without food the privileged don’t like the poor anyway.
Solutions:
- Arrest greed, over-consumption and overproduction and don’t steal from the have-nots.
- Good nutrition can already solve most of global health problems – Waste not, want not!!.
- Let’s create opportunities for all so that girls can aspire to be anything they want to be - after college and Master’s or a possibility to learn a trade, no one has time for ten children per family. When girls have opportunities to go to college just like their male counterparts, they tend to also want to become professors, doctors, engineers, pilots, entrepreneurs. etc., because they can.
- Men should take responsibility for family planning: when women are left bereft of educational/vocational opportunities, men use them as breeding machines. Women don’t make the children all by themselves - and no child should suffer any indignation of being seen as the one who arrived in the world as one child too many.
Just my two cents.
Samberg, L. (2018). ‘World Hunger Is Increasing, Thanks to Wars and Climate Change’ Scientific American, October 18, 2017, available at: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/world-hunger-is-increasing-thanks-to-wars-and-climate-change/ (accessed 12 September 2018)
World Hunger Is Increasing, Thanks to Wars and Climate ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Deen, T. (2018). 'Food Waste Enough to Feed World’s Hungry Four Times Over', Inter Press Service, available at: http://www.ipsnews.net/2018/05/food-waste-enough-feed-worlds-hungry-four-times/ (accessed 3 June 2018).
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Generally, we talk about environmental and economic sustainability in research or on public platforms.
In my view, society or social sustainability is real driver of overall sustainability.
Kindly drop your comments with logic
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Yes, that is exactly right
Sustainability has three main pillars: social, environmental, and economic. These three pillars are informally referred to as people, planet, and profits. A sustainable business should have the support and approval of its employees, stakeholders and the community it operates in.
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In conducting a security management related research, there is a blurry distinction with criminology or conflict management research. The theoretical framework one can choose from are in fact the same. While defending my proposal recently, i was advised to move away from conflict to security management in terms of not only the tone but the theories. i did revisit my notes and could get much deviation.
It gets even more tricky when a researcher wants to fold in an environmental/economic approach to security management research. Mostly the theoretical framework will shift from the traditional crime theories to environmental/economic theories. This might cause trouble with examiners who might view it as lacking in terms of security management orientation.
It is my take that despite the approach and the theories thereof, security management is inherent in a wide range of disciplines and thus one should not be bogged down in tunnel-vision of crime theories. So long as the relationship can be brought out clearly through other theories relevant to the setting(economic/environmental) then it should be understandable.
Sage advice needed here.
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Thank you very much Jośe Luis Domínguez Figueirido
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To apply discount rate on natural resource valuation/ecosystem services valuation has become debate among the researchers, many researchers are in the opinion that discount rate should be applied on natural resources valuation.
I want to know,
  1. What is a discount rate and which equation is used for discount rate?
  2. What is the difference between discount rate and interest rate
  3. How to put discount rate on the values of ecosystem services ?
Key words: Economics, valuation, discount rate, discounting, interest rate, ecosystem services, natural resources.
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There is an idea that Sustainability is about intragenerational and intraregional equity. That implies that the discount rate must be the same everywhere, and everywhen.
There are aspects of the ecosystem that can not be replaced by any means, that humans are reliant on. Sunlight, for example - we can't replace it with anything else to do what it does for us. We can substitute it in very small cases, in highly limited ways, but we can't even replace all of the sunlight stored in our food crops, let alone the rest of the solar energy reaching the planet.
Photosynthesis, gravity, biodiversity, weather, etc. are all in the same class of aspects. For all of these (and many more), there must be no discount rate - these are always equally important. I would argue that because these have a discount rate of 0, then all ecological discount rates must be 0 as well. Which means the math that is used by economists doesn't work ecologically.
Instead, one would have to assume that the duration of 'forever' is much, much longer than human timescales, and the difference of beginning a time series in 5 years vs beginning the time series today is insignificant.
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What are the steps involved in contingent valuation model? How to fit the variables to run the model?
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Dear,Linden thank you very much forbsharing the nice note on steps of CVM to me and Madhumita.
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Thousands of research papers are available on internet about the preparation and uses of compost. Solid waste generation and disposal is a growing problem across the globe. Composting is one easy and cost effective method for waste recycling and management. But there is a question, how to convince a farmer to use compost. Each farmer is interested in production and saving of time. He/she may not have time to prepare compost. If solid waste managers prepare solid waste, what mechanism may be adopted to utilize the prepared compost?
It is important that solid waste managers will spend money to prepare compost and will expect some profit. Farmers will expect some discount or subsidy on the ready-made compost. In such situations what mechanism may be adopted to encourage this business of composting?
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Farmers use their own compost for centuries and it is the best practice. You cannot expect farmers to pay for compost from outer sources, not even to allow to dispose compost in their lands for free. I would choose the risk free, well-known fertilizer 10 out of 10 above a unknown compost.
In the EU, the compost is used to re-cultivate old landfills and old mines or the municipality use it in its own lands, parks, urban forests. I think the same approach should be followed, everybody should use its own compost.
So, the composting should be taught and incentivised, not the compost market. If somebody produces more compost than the need, he needs to buy lands and manage its waste properly.
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How to simultaneously take into account the environmental, social and economic value of a product during its design?
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Dear Gwenola
Please check the following streams of research of the problem you mentioned:
1. Investigation of direct link between sustainable and economic value in the "integrated reporting" research, for instance:
Maniora J (2017) Is Integrated Reporting Really the Superior Mechanism for the Integration of Ethics into the Core Business Model? An Empirical Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics (2017) 140:755–786
2. Investigation of "innovative Local David vs Global Goliath competition" in sustainable values (my favorite, because (1) they use meanings to explain innovations and (2) make the knowledge about the local sustainable values important)
Hokerts K (2009) Greening Goliaths versus Emerging Davids – Theorizing about the Role of Incumbents and New Entrants in Sustainable Entrepreneurship. WORKING PAPER NO. 01-2009, CBS Center for Corporate Social Responsibility, CBS Working Paper Series, 1-44.
3. Experiments in how sustainable values affect consumers perceptions
Lundqvist, A., Liljander, V., Gummerus, J. and van Riel, A. (2013), “The impact of storytelling on the consumer brand experience: the case of a firm-originated story”, Journal of Brand Management 20, 283-297 (February/March 2013), doi:10.1057/bm.2012.15
There are more streams of research of the problem in question.
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I am trying to collect as much green management indicators as possible to suit my research about green business management in third world countries.
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 I need to know the number of workers and the productions of
each one of the copper production processes (including mining / concentrator / smelter / refining) in Rio Tinto Kennecott. Is there any way to access these data?
Thank you for your help
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If I intend do a research about green GDP, how should I find variables. Is there any special formula?
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There are many questions about China's involvement in mineral resources in Greenland I'd like to ask. For example, what kind of minerals are China exploring? What're the scales? How does the exploration affect local communities environmentally and/or economically? How do Chinese investors interact with local governments and citizens in Greenland? I look forward to hearing your findings on these questions.
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Thanks a lot for all the helpful responses! My work so far focuses on the socioeconomic and political impacts of mining industries in China. But I'm interested in comparing the strategies and consequences of China's domestic vs overseas mineral exploration. I look forward to reading all the references mentioned above.
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I want to estimate the effect of public policies supporting renewables on the share of renewables in a countries energy supply (CRES, dependent variable). I added some control variables (GDP; commodity prices, energy dependence etc.). My question is how to construct a variable for Energy Policies and Measures. My database are those measures and policies listed at IRENA/IEA. They distinguish between 6 types of policies/measures ( (1) Economic instruments, (2) Information and Education, (3) Policy Supports, (4) Regulatory Instruments, (5) R&D and (6) Voluntary.
My approach
(1) Either creating a dummy variable which takes on the value 1 if the country has for example more /equal to 20 policies in each category (rule of thumb)
(2) Create a continous variable, attributing the value to each measure, however in this case I assume that each measure has the same weight
Any suggestions/ideas/ contributions are highly appreciated!
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In many geothermal systems in the Himalayas, carbon dioxide concentration is high and calcite scale is common, preventing the resources being properly utilized for power generation. It has been difficult to solve this technical problem which has been an issue in development investment for a long time.An economic and effective solution is needed. 
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Enhanced Geothermal System technology has been developed for nearly 4 decades. Some of the projects are being implemented at commercial scales. More projects are being considered in many countries. While technically speaking it is feasible to exploit energy from deep underground, cost is now a major factor to judge if a project is feasible or not.
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The idea is to develop theoretical models of cities in order to test what should be the future city with respect to environmental, economical, social,.... constraints.
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Dear Prof. Thierry Dhorne,
The question is very interesting and of dynamic nature. What I believe is to explore the literature on the proposed dimensions of future city for modeling this phenomenon. The literature related to urbanization, congestion, and environmental effects, among others may help in identifying the key factors in modelling future city. However, the technique of analyzing the model rests on the nature of the data.
Best Wishes,
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This is about  to measure the economic benefits of biodiversity conservation, particularly beneficial that provides for scientific research.
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I am working on Biodiversity and climatic change, there are may research papers which can help.
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environmental accounting
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I recommend an old but goodie for an orthodox approach. Dixon. 1994. Economic Analysis of Environmental Impacts. World Bank. Earthscan. p.210. 
From a heterodox perspective, Healy et al. 2013. Ecological Economics from the ground up. Routledge, UK, p.556 
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Concise definition of economic growth and economic development.
Interrelationship between the two concept in the context of the developing economies.
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Economic growth is different from the economic development. They are measured with indicators used in development economics. The economic growth can be measued with the variation in the Gross Domesctic Product (GDP), the Gross National Product (GNP) and/or the National Revenue. Efficiently, economic development growth is measured with the variation in the Human Development Indicator (or Index) (HDI). The economic development can also be measured with the poverty indexes (P0, P1 and P2), and the inequality indexes, such as the Gini Index.  
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To investigate the impact of spatial effects in modelling of road deterioration and investment requirements.
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Unless i understood incorrectly, you are talking about two fundamentally different approaches that are not necessarily linked. In spatial modelling what we are trying to avoid is spatial autocorrelation  in the residuals of a fitted model. 
The second approach implies that spatial autoccorelation in independant variables is  a bad thing, which is not based in any statistical inferences. If we include all relevant predictors of a spatial process that is described by a set of spatially autocorrelated predictors, the residuals will be random and not spatially dependent.
from which ''
We believe that within the arguments presented by Hawkins (2012), he has confounded the occurrence of SA in the raw data with SA in the residuals. If the spatial autocorrelation of an ecological response variable is caused by autocorrelated predictor variables (such as climate, land use, topography, human population densities or virtually any other spatial predictor), we are not alarmed. Of course we do not wish to remove this effect of such predictors. […] SA in the residuals is, however, a serious problem, because it
(1) indicates the violation of an independence assumption of any statistical model, be it regression or CART (classification and regression trees), resulting in incorrect error probabilities; and
(2) can seriously affect coefficient estimates.''
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I've doing environmental economic project, and then i get the result that different with earlier research. One of variables that used in this project is quality of water index, which is the greater number imagine the quality of water is better than the lower one. But, in the result panel regression show that the quality of water index has negative and significant influence on economic growth. The theory say it must be positive impact. How can i should explain this problem ?
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Dear Mr. Yuni,
It is absolutely correct that the quality of water is as important as the quantity of water available in determining the economic condition and growth. With the water quality deterioration, the production cost will increase because of expenses towards water purification; health index will come down due to consumption of bad quality water (direct or indirect), there can be products produced of sub-standard quality if the bad water quality water is used in agriculture or industries which in turn can create havoc in the society; etc. Considering all these it can be concluded that there is direct correlation between water quality and economic growth.
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Is there article that addresses the negative effects of climate change on human existence with econometric model?
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Hi Ezekiel, 
Here are two publications that include economic impacts of climate change on Inuit in the Arctic, though I'm not sure these will answer your question regarding the use of an econometric model. 
Wenzel, G. W. Canadian Inuit subsistence and ecological instability - If the climate changes, must the Inuit? Polar Res. 28, 89–99 (2009).
Lawn, J. & Harvey, D. Nutrition and food security in Kugaaruk, Nunavut: Baseline survey for the food mail pilot project. (2003)
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In the frame of flood protection it becomes necessary to use land from third party land owners like farmers, for instance for water retention in polder areas. What kind of compensation schemes do exist on international scale for the land owner compensation for that kind of service ? Are these mainly monetary compensations, or are there also other types of incentives ? Thank you in advance !
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In most of the Reservoirs in India, land is acquired to a Full Reservoir Level + 3 metres elevation to take care of the free-board. The farmers are compensated & Government acquires the land. However, since the water retention in this land is for limited periods, the lands are leased out for cultivation during the rest of the year.
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Whenever I ran a cost frontier function of Frontier 4.1c version, all the cost efficiency (CE) indices are going beyond 1. Please advise.
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Thank you Valentina. I later came to understand that cost efficiency indices from Frontier 4.1c software are greater than one due to the nature of error term (v+u)
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To tackle the increasing problems of draw down, depredation and degradation (pollution) of environmental resources we are trying to promote green products, green processes, green technologies, green industry. More importantly we are sensitizing people to adopt green lifestyle, green culture and green consumerism to shrink our ecological footprint and to make a peace with our Mother planet Earth. But it's easier said than done! How 'green' is green enough? How good is good enough? Please elucidate with informative thoughts, insights and illustrative inputs.
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Moving from environmental economics to ecological economics and strong sustainability gives a glimpse about how green we need to go and thereby need to transform our current economic system rather than treating symptoms with the same thinking we applied to create these problems in the first place. Rather than aiming at "good enough" we should first acknowledge "enough is enough" and that consumerism wont be the panacea
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Dear researchers
I am studying the environmental and economic benefits of PET recycling. is there any related papers which conducted in this context. I want to know the net landfill space saving during the one ton of PET recycling.
Thanks for your contribution. 
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Dear Amit
thanks for your prompt response, but the goal of our study was the cost/benefit analysis of recycling of municipal solid waste. therefore, the strategies of recycling don't include in the scope of the study...
Regards,
Ata
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Currently working with biomass decomposition rate estimates, that are highly kurtois (but not skewed). The endpoint is to try to explain rates as a function of type of biomass and environmental data.
I have no experience with data of this type, but if "feels like all the outliers" might have an undesirably large effect on model outcomes. How to transform such data? And will the estimates be at all intelligible? 
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Try robust estimation of your analysis. This will give less weight to outliers. There are several methods with Robust Analysis that you could try to achieve reasonable estimates of your biomass decomposition function. The thick tails might be an indication of a more complex process involved that creates such outliers.
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I mean the formula for obtaining the price through the demand and supply of emission allowance credits
I am currently working on Malaysia Energy Decarbonization. Emission trading scheme has been seen as a promising economic tool toward low carbon power generation. I need to model the carbon market via allocation and carbon price determination. I will appreciate if you can help with the mecahnism(formula) along with appropraite refrence. Thanks
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According to the US Department of Energy, carbon price rages from $30 to $40 per ton. I've attached a simple and accurate formula for calculating the carbon price.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, UK
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Instead of living within the annual interest that biophysical wealth of Nature gives us, we are using up our natural capital. We are taking more resources than Nature/Earth can provide and  throwing more wastes and pollutants than that Nature can metabolize and assimilate. What are the impacts? What future is waiting for us? What should we do for restoring our ecological balance sheet?
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Dear Dr Kumar
There is no doubt today that a major dimension of the present multidimensional crisis, which extends to the economic, political, cultural and general social level, is the ecological crisis.  The upsetting of ecological systems, the widespread pollution, the threat to renewable resources, as well as the running out of non-renewable resources and, in general, the rapid downgrading of the environment and the quality of life have made the ecological implications of economic growth manifestly apparent in the past  years.
By contrast to the focus on wild places, relatively little attention has been paid to the built environment, although this is the one in which most people spend most of their time.Ecosystem destruction is already happening.
Humans destroy ecosystems. Our lifestyle creates pollution and we overuse our natural resources. Today,  We build roads, hunt animals, cut down trees destroying forests and just litter the planet . We waste resources that are not infinite and will soon run out, if we continue our practice.
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Fertiliser production and consumption adds million tons of CO2 equivalent gasses and reduce soil properties on the other side use of organic manure and other organic inputs fixes carbon in the soil and improve soil properties  and not contribute in green house gasses. There are several other socio-economic implications of fertiliser use that may not find fertilisers as  a reliable tool for long term sustainability of agriculture on the other side organic inputs are locally available and their recycling in agriculture not only solve several environmental problems but also  cost effective.  So it the right time to shift to organic system for long term sustainability of agriculture ?  Please  see one of my publication( book chapter) Role of organic farming in mitigation of climate change 
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What is the contribution of synthetic fertilizers production and consumption vis a vis use of organic inputs in making climate resilience farming?
Where organic amendments shine is in the area of soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration. Most original studies in this area have focused only on a capability of legumes to mostly eliminate the carbon footprint of the production practice. Good but not best option in my viewpoint.
In a crop like maize, synthetic ammoniated fertilizer is about half of the total emission footprint. But what can be done in emission footprint reduction is still small compared to enormous potential for soil sequestration. 
If the maize is planted as a crop after alfalfa this imprint is virtually eliminated but the ley cropping also greatly increases the soil organic matter. Soil organic matter is the big area for focusing on not the emissions of practices alone. .
While this carbon footprint can be seen as a negative and its reduction and elimination a positive this is equivalent in carbon to 100 to 300 kg/ha/yr C.
Here is the bigger mostly unheralded bigger story. When we change to using compost can feed the soil and provide for the maize crop optimally and at the same time can result in many times more positive benefit for its role as soil carbon and nitrogen sequestering.
A compost amendment program can add thousands of sequestered carbon into the soil and not only eliminates the negative carbon footprint of a couple hundred kg/ha but also gets our greenhouse gas budget enormously on the plus side. Lal has suggested that positive sequestration of no-till maize using synthetic fertilizer if applied to tillable lands around the world would counteract about 10% of the total greenhouse gas emission.
The Puget and Lal long term analysis puts no-till at a sequester value of about 300 kg C per ha per year. The results with compost of intensive holistic pasturing and crop and animal integration would show that the total emissions of present fossil fuel use can be remediated by focusing on our raising of soil organic matter in our tillable lands and pastures to levels before man's intervention to deplete them. This will not only reverse the greenhouse gas enrichment over time but also mitigate the effects of climate change from the promoting of greater soil ability to capture and recirculate water resources and grow optimally at higher than accustomed temperatures. 
A compost amendment program can add thousands of sequestered carbon into the soil and not only eliminates the negative carbon footprint of a couple hundred kg/ha but also gets our greenhouse gas budget enormously on the plus side. Lal has suggested that positive sequestration of no-till maize using synthetic fertilizer if applied to tillable lands around the world would counteract about 10% of the total greenhouse gas emission. The Puget and Lal long term analysis puts no-till at a sequester value of about 300 kg C per ha per year.
The results with compost of intensive holistic pasturing and crop and animal integration would show that the total emissions of present fossil fuel use can be remediated by focusing on our raising of soil organic matter in our tillable lands and pastures to levels before man's intervention to deplete them. This will not only reverse the greenhouse gas enrichment over time but also mitigate the effects of climate change from the promoting of greater soil ability to capture and recirculate water resources and grow optimally at higher than accustomed temperatures. 
Rattan Lal, noted soil carbon expert,  has suggested that positive sequestration of no-till maize using synthetic fertilizer if applied to tillable lands around the world would counteract about 10% of the total greenhouse gas emission. The Puget and Lal long term analysis puts no-till at a sequester value of about 300 kg C per ha per year. The results with compost of intensive holistic pasturing and crop and animal integration would show that the total emissions of present fossil fuel use can be remediated by focusing on our raising of soil organic matter in our tillable lands and pastures to levels before man's intervention to deplete them. This will not only reverse the greenhouse gas enrichment over time but also mitigate the effects of climate change from the promoting of greater soil ability to capture and recirculate water resources and grow optimally at higher than accustomed temperatures. 
The Puget and Lal long term analysis puts no-till at a sequester value of about 300 kg C per ha per year. The results with compost of intensive holistic pasturing and crop and animal integration would show that the total emissions of present fossil fuel use can be remediated by focusing on our raising of soil organic matter in our tillable lands and pastures to levels before man's intervention to deplete them. This will not only reverse the greenhouse gas enrichment over time but also mitigate the effects of climate change from the promoting of greater soil ability to capture and recirculate water resources and grow optimally at higher than accustomed temperatures. 
This is based on the ability of these systemsto capture thousands of kg/ha/yr carbon. This will not only reverse the greenhouse gas enrichment over time but also mitigate the effects of climate change from the promoting of greater soil ability to capture and recirculate water resources and grow optimally at higher than accustomed temperatures. 
Unfortunately, most original focus pointed to the ability of legumes to mostly eliminate the carbon footprint of the production practice. In a crop like maize, this is about half of the total emission footprint. If the maize is planted as a crop after alfalfa this imprint is virtually eliminated. While this footprint which is negative can be equivalent in carbon to 100 to 300 kg/ha the bigger story is that changing to using compost can feed the maize crop optimally and can result into many times more positive benefit for its accumulated benefit as soil carbon and nitrogen.
A compost amendment program can add thousands of sequestered carbon into the soil and not only eliminates the negative carbon footprint of a couple hundred kg/ha but also gets our greenhouse gas budget enormously on the plus side. Lal has suggested that positive sequestration of no-till maize using synthetic fertilizer if applied to tillable lands around the world would counteract about 10% of the total greenhouse gas emission. The Puget and Lal long term analysis puts no-till at a sequester value of about 300 kg C per ha per year.
The results with compost of intensive holistic pasturing and crop and animal integration would show that the total emissions of present fossil fuel use can be remediated by focusing on our raising of soil organic matter in our tillable lands and pastures to levels before man's intervention to deplete them.
This will not only reverse the greenhouse gas enrichment over time but also mitigate the effects of climate change from the promoting of greater soil ability to capture and recirculate water resources and grow optimally at higher than accustomed temperatures. 
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If  Agricultural Policies  based on biodiversity of agroecosystem it would be help to enhance biodiversity. But most of the time people concern about yield and on emphasis on biodiversity unless organic agriculture.
In developing countries no clear and static policies on agrobiodiversity.
see attaCHED.
Sena
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Working in the field of Climate Change and Sustainability I would like to get some information about the potential consequences of humanity and countries fulfilling the 17 SDGs and COP21 agreement by signing the specific agreement that exist (not what they could be if everyone were great people and amazing companies). I would like to have as much scientific and empirical evidence as possible to avoid opinions or specific good or bad examples that do not represent the overall reality that these agreements bring. Thank you for your support. All the best, Gil
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Dear Gil, I have to say about my experience living in Mexico-USA border, since 1995, NAFTA recently signed, the volume of cargo trucks in the border increased so high. To 1999, was developed the first and only Air Quality Plan of Mexicali, Baja California (INE-SEMARNAT) among other border cities. Since then, was diagnosed a huge pollution caused by cars, made it possible those imports and trades. To check volumes of northbound and southbound traffic, please see transportation plans of San Diego area by SANDAG.
Later in 2001, two bigger energy companies (SEMPRA and SHELL-INTERGEN) arrived to the border due to a national mexican concession by CFE. Foreseeing later energy crisis of California, those companies installed a gas and residual water process (combinated cicle) to generate 1000 MVA of electricity from Mexico to California. Plants comply mexican environmental regulations, but no EPA regulations. NAFTA never planned the fact that border issues involve shared basins, nor only through pipelines, desalination plants, regasification plants, installed in Mexico border in late 2000-2010.
I think those examples represents some issues in environment, thanks to NAFTA trading. Hope this help to your research.
Best regards,
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Hi
I am looking at the practicality of environmental offsets and whether there these are economically and sustainable viable options. The real question are these feasible in a developing world environment 
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Sorry I think I picked up a little problem with paragraph 2 line 1 - pleas remove "and disposal of saline waste" not sure how that appeared.
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Dear professors and researchers,
I am looking for a paper close to "The infrastructure of the stock market and its impact on the valuation of assets" example BRICKS countries. Anyone knows about information, paper or article to close this topic. Please share links, books and paper. if anyone shares it me I really appreciate them   
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Thanks Jasman Tuyon
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Also how to assign weights to component indicators (Social, economic, institutional and physical) of household resilience....???  
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Much appreciated your concrete feedback Kunti May Walun :-)
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my research is base on e-waste recycling i want to estimate EAF for that ... kindly suggest me 
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Hello, Muhammad. I would suggest the indicator of attributable fraction, representing the fraction of cases or deaths from a specific disease that would not have occurred in the bsence of exposure to a specific risk factor either in the exposed population or the population as a whole. It can be easily transformed from indicators, such as risks or relative risk. You can refer to a thorough overview on this measure, "Steenland, K., Armstrong, B. (2006) An overview of methods for calculating the burden of disease due to specific risk factors. Epidemiology 17, 512-519.".
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A research colleague conducted exploratory research based on 4 cases located in one developing country. The outcome of the study depicts 3 categories with underlying subcategories (factors) for each. The researcher clearly states that due to the limited set of cases (4) more research is required to determine whether other factors are relevant.
My purpose wants to follow this, hence I want to conduct exploratory research (face-to-face interviews) based on 6-10 cases in two or more developing countries.
Am I right with the assumption that I consequently test the colleagues categories and factors (theory)?
If yes, is it then a deductive approach? If yes, do I need to come up with hypothesis or research propositions based on the colleagues theory?
Of course I am aware that I can quantitatively test the colleagues theory, but 1. I do not have access to a sufficient amount of samples and 2. I want to follow the colleagues future research propositions as 4 cases in one single country is not enough.
Many thanks!
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The question "Will this research test the theory?" cannot be answered without specifying two concepts.
1. Is this a theory? Categories and factors don't make a theory yet. Do you have a set of statements linking Categories/factors to specific outcomes, which are produced through specified processes (mechanisms) under specific circumstances? Then you have a theory. My guess is the results are somewhat in the middle, with the theory consisting of statements about factors causing certain outcomes. If this is the case, we can call it a theory (albeit I would say it is incomplete).
2. What is "testing a theory" suppoed to mean? Proving that an entire theory is totally wrong seems difficult to me. What is actually going to happen with your research is any, or all, of the following:
- Limiting the current theory's scope by identifying cases it should explain but cannot.
- Extending the current theory's scope by identifying more cases it does explain.
- Expanding/ further specifying the theory by introducing additional factors that come into play in particular circumstances, additional effects, or specific mechanisms producing effects,
- Further generalising the theory by developing more abstract formulations.
None of this is 'testing' the theory but then again, I think you can test hypotheses (see David, above, on the requirements) but not theories. Theories have a scope that can be changed by finding counterexamples. Only if your research lets you call into question the thoery-building of your colleague as such, you might want to abandon the theory altogether.
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I'm looking for references of studies that propose indicators to environmental and economics evaluation of a project, at same time.
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Did you had a look into literature on multi-criteria analysis of ecosystem services? Or on integrated assessment of ecosystem services? You cannot assess economic and environmental states with one indicator, but you need to combine mutiple indicators.
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Many scholars agree that NTFPs is a part and a final product from ecosystem services, but there is a question whether NTFPs contribute back to generate or to maintain ecosystem services or not? 
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Dear Phanith,
I have recently started working with acai (Euterpe oleracea) in the Amazon estuary. The palm, which is native to the flooded forests of this region is an example of a NFTP that is now a driver of ecosystem service loss, as well as a provider (provisioning service = palm fruits). Acai was initially considered as a means to conserve forest habitats, but its popularity and high value of harvested fruits have lead to a rapid 'acaification' of the forest habitats, which has had strong negative impacts on diversity, function, and ecological integrity of local forests. I hope this provides a good cautionary tale about how NTFP do not always bring about positive consequences for biodiversity. You can read more about this in the article of my colleague, Madson Frietas (see link below).