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Environmental Chemistry - Science topic

Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It can be defined as the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity on these
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Dear experts
The study of metal pollution in continental rivers is it still a current topic and a primary research focus? What are the new research axes for environmental chemistry?
Thank you
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Heavy metal pollution will always be relevant. However, I think that further studies on remediation strategies will be a plus.
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I'm modeling an aspen model for wastewater treatment and in the model it allows me only to specify the component concentrations while I only have the COD for it is there any way to convert the COD into a concentration??
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Converting COD to regular COD concentrations can be seen in the link am sharing and apart from this easy way would be edivining the number by 1000 as to converting COD from m/l to o2/l and this is a very simple technique of conversion of the overall COD from mg/l to go2/l as this involves the oxygen as well
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The effects of fluorine on the cycling of calcium, magnesium, and potassium in pine plantations of Eastern North Carolina.
Author: Wheeler, Garland Laurin, 1941-
Published: Raleigh, N. C., 1972.
Description: 67 ¾. illus. 29 cm.
Format: Theses and Dissertations
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Yes.
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Which method is easier to measure PFAS in water?
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High-pressure membranes, such as nanofiltration or reverse osmosis, have been extremely effective at removing PFAS. Reverse osmosis membranes are tighter than nanofiltration membranes.
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For some poeple Plastic Road is highly hazardous, especially for aquatic animals and birds. When plastics are exposed to sunlight and especially heat, they begin to turn into a harmful health element called microplastics. This harmful element is absorbed into the soil and has the ability to accumulate toxic substances around it.
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According to a report, in India the central government has been using plastic waste in road construction to properly utilise the material which otherwise is not recycled. So far, one lakh kilometre of road has been constructed using plastic waste, Hindustan Times’ sister publication Hindustan reported
Plastic has been used in the 270-kilometre-long Jammu Kashmir National highway. About 1.6 tonne of plastic waste was used in the two-kilometre-long stretch of Delhi-Meerut highway news UP Gate, according to Hindustan. It has also been used in constructing the road connecting Dhaula Kuan to the airport in Delhi, the report in Hindustan said.
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(Should the research in environmental chemistry, green chemistry, materials chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry and other related chemistry areas be now further accelerated?)
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Extrement important
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Special emphasis on PMF model.
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Quality and cost are directly impacted by measurement uncertainty. Many industries including research, manufacturing, finance, and healthcare rely on reports that contain quantitative data from measurement results. Product quality, experiment results, financial decisions, and medical diagnosis can all be directly impacted by errors introduced from the omission of measurement uncertainty. Without awareness or consideration of the impact measurement uncertainty has on quality, the greater the probability of increased operating costs and failure rates.
Measurement uncertainty is critical to risk assessment and decision making. Organizations make decisions every day based on reports containing quantitative measurement data. If measurement results are not accurate, then decision risks increase.
The need for increased accuracy is not as important as the need to measure quality. Accuracy should only be adequate enough to effectively satisfy each organizations established requirements.
The measurement of uncertainty is not an easy task. The following link address the steps of measurement of uncertainty
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Please, Could any one suggest for me a journal with rapid publication in the field of environmental science, health and pollution, a journal indexed in Web of Science, Scopus, low IF, and without fees, to publish my research paper.
Thank you.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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The reference used in my reference was orange peel.
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Tea waste is a low cost absorbent for removal of some heavy metals
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The term "micropollutants" is used in many scientific papers. It seems like chemicals of emerging concern are often thrown into the micropollutant box. But how can a pollutant be classified as micro if chemicals are all quite microscopically small!
Are the users of the micropollutant buzz word not as guilty as the "heavy metals" fans? Fortunately a few papers have spoken out against the misuse of the term heavy metals (E.g. Duffus 2002, Pure and Applied Chemistry 74(5):793-807). Will micropollutants have their turn as well? :)
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Nanopolutants term is a new trend)
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Hello! I'm studying environmental engineering and would like to find the latest strategies and developments for DNAPL remediation and investigation, but don't know where to start.
Are there any websites or publications I can start with?
Many thanks in advance!
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My reaction mass contains traces of hydrogen peroxide which I want to degrade without any catalyst.
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H2O2 decomposed safely presence of enzymes catalase peroxidases.
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I have measured the nitrogen content in the litter, and I want to calculate the ammonia emission using an equation.. can you help me in this point
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I following the best answer.
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Available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) content data are correlated applying with the multiple correlation coefficients formula, the obtained values are approaching 1 that indicates a strong positive relationships with each other, but each variable of the soil nutrients is considered to be dependent on the other variables changes, governed by the extraneous factors, that badly needs the regression fit line, but how could I couldn't find any formula for the calculation of the regression fit line for the multiple variables, is it available where two variables are independent and one is dependent, or is the regression fit line for the multiple variables relevant at all?
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@Dipankar Bera
Yes, you are right. Only solution is to plot such q-q plot, residual vs best fitted and etc. Regression fit line for multiple variables is not possible but #Goutam Kumar Das sir you can use MLR model using R-Stat software to show plot in a single frame that helps to fit the regression line for each (One X as dependent variable and one Y as independent variable).
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Mangroves have the ability to absorb up to four times more carbon dioxide by area than upland terrestrial forest ecosystems, carbon dioxide is stored as blue Carbon in the sediment of the mangroves swamps and marshes and green carbon in the soils of the terrestrial forest floors, and that carbon sink forms the carbon pool, but the result obtained from the analysis of the sediment samples of both types of ecosystems doesn't reflect that quantity, the organic carbon of the mangroves swamps ranges from 36 to 69%, whereas, the organic carbon content of the soils of the terrestrial forest ecosystems varies from 16 to 66%, then where and how the extra carbon stored in the mangroves sediments as blue Carbon which is four times more than that of the green carbon of the forest soil?
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Convey my thanks for such a relevant article that nicely elaborated of the carbon draining from the terrestrial forest floors arrested in the mangroves ecosystems and that is seen at a glance, I will go through the paper later on and use as citation in my work
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The content obtained for the C & N in the soil samples of the forest floors is increased this time and in 2020 is 5 times more than that of the C & N obtained in 2008, simultaneously the same forest stands in four districts is increased by areas observed in the India State of Forest Report 2019, not only that the forest canopy is much lush green in comparison to 2008, is this change be considered as the evidence of the climate change, though the time span of only 12 years is very short for interpretation of the evidence of the climate change.
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I totally agree with Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam that we need more studies to be done around the world to repeat the idea and evidence. It is a very interesting discussion we are countering here. During my PhD study, I have done a long-term research investigating the effects of 20 years climate influence on soil fauna and vegetation. I think 12 years can also be considered as a long-term research and these discussed obtained results maybe show the effect of higher temperatures on increasing the decomposition rates. Although this is a perception and it really needs to be studied in detail.
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After soil chemical analysis, obtained result for the content of organic carbon and nitrogen in kg/ha shows 0.00, whereas potassium content is 55.20 kg/ha for a surface soil sample collected in the Panagarh forest patches under the Bardhaman Forest Division of West Bengal, the soil was collected in the depth of 15 cm and the bulk density of the soil is 1.3 gm/cubic cm, visibly the sampled soil is the admixture of Alfisol and lateritic combination, is it possible for the soil sampled in the natural forests lacking both organic carbon and nitrogen, though the nature of forest vegetation is quite normal in the sampling spot?
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That might be anomalous, I will repeat the analysis for the particular Sample.
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I'm thinking of conducting an experiment with a solar photo-Fenton, but I'm in doubt about whether working with a reactor (using the chemical pollutant in large amounts, in flow) or if I work with the pollutant in Erlenmeyer's in the order of mL.
What would be more recommended?
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I think your work will be great if you start by lab scale to control all parameters influence your process then you can move to the pilot scale.
good luck In your work
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Hey,
I'm planning an experiment to pinpoint which chemical(s) from a group of 10 components is/are causing an observed ecological effect.
Unfortunately there is no data which chemical is more or less likely to be relevant.
(Edit: To avoid confusion, this is not a question about pollution in aquatic systems, but about odours causing a behavioural response.)
The plan is to have different mixes of the chemicals as my treatments. Each mix will contain eg 4 of the chemicals in different combinations.
The concentration of each component will be constant, the difference will just be a binary 0 or 1 whether it is present or not.
Question 1: Is there a name for this kind of procedure so that I can read up on it?
Question 2: Are there ways or best practices how to design my mixes, i.e. how many different ones and how many components in each.
Question 3: What would be the best way to analyze this? As far as I've read it could potentially be done with a logistic PCA, NMDS or SIMPER analysis, but I cannot figure out which one would be best.
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It is fine to use continuous variables in the Y matrix. I mentioned a binary response because of the way you framed your question. Both the X and Y matrices could be continuous, and for statistical reasons it is better that they are not binary. So use concentrations in X instead of presence/absence, and use your growth parameters in Y. Y can contain one or more variables. I am sure that there are good published tutorials on PLS-DA that would explain further.
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"Dear Sergio, Greetings! It is our honor to invite you as a Speaker for 21st International summit on Environmental Chemistry during August 19-20, 2020 which will be a webinar (Online Event). The conference includes oral, poster and video presentations. Also please be informed that, Our Editors of Industrial and Environmental Chemistry Journal are planning to release their upcoming issue, so kindly submit your manuscript/research article/abstract to get published in this journal. We are looking forward to your positive response. Regards, John Dixon| Program Manager Evironmental Chemistry2020 47 Churchfield Road London, W3 6AY, UK"
I never heard about this conference. I said yes and they wrote:
"Hi Sergio, I am very glad to hear from you. Firstly let me know your mode of participation as a speaker( oral, poster or video-presentation- where you can record your ppt and send it to us) or as a delegate (listener). i am waiting to hear from you. Regards John Dixon"
Now, Who is John Dixon?
I only found this reference on Linkedin https://www.linkedin.com/in/john-dixon-33a075103/
The profile picture shows a bunch of researchers but I believe he is not there.
Does anybody has experience with https://www.conferenceseries.com/?
And also, How much do I have to pay?
Thanks
EDIT 01/07/2020
They wrote me with the following message:
"Hey!! Sergio, For video-presentation!! you need to send us your recorded video of your research topic which will be displayed on the day of conference where your research ideas can flourish in front of many other eminent researchers, students, business delegates and more.📷Waiting for your quick repl "
By the way, the wrote on twitter https://twitter.com/environmentchem lol
I checked the link and guess what, after the registration, I can proceed to payment... LMFAO, these guys have no shame!
-----
I finally reply:
"Dear conference, I dont want to participate anymore. Best and get a real job"
Let us see what happens, my guess is that they will block me
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This kind of pseudo-invitation started a few years ago. They immediately appeared suspect to me, and younger colleagues asked what to do. In fact as soon as you ask the organizers they “offer” some discount on the high inscription fees. Anyway we never went farther with these organizations looking more as commercial companies. My advice is to prefer nonprofit organizations like chemical societies, and their technical groups as conference organizers.
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during chemical analysis of groundwater of an industrial area, we found the concentration of fluoride in the range 0.15-0.32 mg/L, the pH of the water was found to be in the range 7.5-8.2 and bicarbonate alkalinity were found in the range 1000-5000mg/L.
please help me in  this regard
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depending on the nature of the soil, you can find a lot; or little fluoride.
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The issue is that for many fresh water samples (not all) orthophosphate concentrations are slightly (for some samples more than slightly) higher than total P. For sample preservation I'm using HCl. Could that be the reason? Should I rather use H2SO4?
I have already tried eliminating arsenate, tried additional acidification and tried blowing the samples with nitrogen gas.
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It can't. Therefore one of your two measurements is incorrect. We developed and have used the persulphate oxidation technique to digest freshwater samples to determine Total N and Total P (on an unfiltered sample) and Total Dissolved N and Total Dissolved P (on a filtered sample) in my lab for over 30 years. We conduct our digestions in a microwave digestion unit, which will digest around 40 samples in 1 hour. We then analyse them on a Skalar San ++ continuous flow autoanalyser, using the molybdenum blue method to determine all sample P as orthophosphate, and the copper hydrazine reduction method to determine all oxidised N (TON = nitrate + nitrite) and any residual ammonium in the samples. We use 10 ml of sample to 5 ml of oxidising reagent, introducing a dilution factor. We multiply all concentrations derived from the analysis of the digested samples by 1.5 to remove this dilution effect. If you then perform the following calculations you can derive the DON, PON, DOP and PP fraction concentrations: TN-TDN = PON; TDN-TON (on an undigested sample) - NH4-N (on an undigested sample) = DON; TP - TDP = PP; TDP - PO4-P = DOP. If you visit my researchgate page you can find multiple papers describing the method and the data we derive from it. Look for Yates et al 2019a, 2019b, 2016 and Lloyd et al 2019 for our latest publications on this technique and the quality assurance procedures we use to check the % recovery of these digested fractions.
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we have a double-chambered MFC that produced an OCV that reached 220 mV in 1 h, and was getting higher. after 24 hours the OCV dropped down, and I don't know why.
I want to measure the generated current first to plot the I-V curve, then the power density curve.
  1. Is the OCV drop because we didn't use an external resistance? when should we start applying it to the MFC? can someone explain it in details please.
  2. How to decide whether to use a fixed resistance over time, or to use a range of different resistances to carry out these measurements (I-V Curve, Power density Curve)?
I'm using a digital Multimeter for recording Voltage across either fixed or varied resistors.
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Dear Nedan,
The drop in voltage during the OCV evolution is due to the fact that the substrate is depleting. The substrate, such as organic compounds, has been utilized by the microbes to generate electricity in MFCs. Hence, if you are using a bioelectrochemical system in a batch mode, I strongly recommend you to perform feed (substrate) injection until two sequential equal peaks in voltage are obtained. Depending on the experiment, It is impossible to say the exact time for achieving two consecutive equal peaks in voltage (It may take several days to several months).
Variable external resistances are suggested to obtain polarization and power density curves.
For more information, I suggest the following article.
Best Regards,
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Hi everybody!
I am PhD in analytical chemistry and I make part of a multidisciplinary team working on the development of a web based solution focusing mainly on treatment and management of environmental chemistry data. But in order be more acertive in this project I need to interview researchers worldwide to trace a more realistic picture on how they deal with their environmental data.
Could any of you please help me by giving me a 40 minute interview? We could make it via WhatsApp or Hangouts (or other choice).
Messages in private to more details are welcome!
Thank you all very much in advance.
Yours sincerely
Gilson
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Dear Dr Gilson
I am ready to help if I could and be grateful to do something due to make progress!
I think many valuable media and journals could be useful for you such as:
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Are they significantly influence Earth’s climate?
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How we can separate the modern and ancient impacts on soils from each others?
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By studying the TIME FACTOR of soil genesis. There are factors that accelerate and those that retard soil profile development. Investigation of resistant and non-resistant parent materials can also give insights on past pedogenic activities.
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I'm just trying to determine what's more crucial for my system. Supposedly, soil columns (allophanic) were loaded with wastewater with high initial P concentration prior. So if I were to pass 2 types of solution through the soil column, both with same ionic strength but one has high P concentration while the other has negligible P concentration. Which solution would cause desorption of P from the soil column?  
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Very good and effective discussion is going on. Desorption must follow adsorption isotherm process. following.
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I read in a book Environmental Chemistry that" in anoxic region of water bodies , some bacteria use sulfate ion as an electron receptor where as other bacteria reduce iron(III) to iron (II). These two products react to give a black later of iron (II) sulfide sediment. This frequently occurs during winter, alternating with production of calcium carbonate by product from photosynthesis during the summer. "
Can anyone help me understand why this phenomena occurs during summer and winter??
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Dear Samiksha,
during winter months when the water column is oxic, Fe oxide reduction only occurs in the strongly reducing sediment column. Reduced Fe(II) diffuses to the sediment-water interface where it is immediately oxidized to Fe oxide. As a result, there is no buildup of dissolved Fe in the water column during winter. In early summer the lake becomes thermally stratified. As summer progresses, oxygen is consumed by biological processes and the bottom waters become anoxic. Reductive dissolution of Fe oxide continues to occur in the sediments. Fe(II) diffuses into the anoxic bottom water and is oxidized at the oxycline forming a peak in particulate Fe in the water column. Below the oxycline, where the water is strongly reducing, dissolved Fe(II) is stabilized and its concentration increases with time. In early winter, mixing processes re-oxygenate the entire water column and Fe(II) is rapidly oxidized and precipitated.
After creating an account (free), you can read the article for free.
With best regards,
Johannes
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Hello
I'd like you to share the material that you have came across with the a very high adsorption capacity for whatever analyte or substance whether organic or metal ion
Thank you so much for your cooperation and time
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First, there is no adsorbent is the best for all times.
But if you need a good adsorbent, I recommend Clay minerals and activated carbon.
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The aim of speciation procedures is to maintain the integrity of heavy metals species and minimise sample preparation procedures that may alter heavy metals speciaton. There is a tendency for laboratories to choose methods they are familiar with rather than the most appropriate procedures likely to obtain accurate and unambiguous speciation data.
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Chemical Speciation and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals ...
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Soil is an important source for heavy metals in crops and vegetables since the plants’ roots can absorb these pollutants from soil, and transfer them to seeds which through this can effect on humans, but what about soils in urban areas?
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Human Nutrient Supply from Soils
A mere 11 elements constitute 99.9% of the atoms in the human body. These are typically divided into major and minor elements. The four major elements, H, O, C, and N, make up approximately 99% of the human body, and seven minor elements, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, and Cl, make up another 0.9% of the body (Combs 2005). Approximately 18 additional elements — called trace elements — are considered essential in small amounts to maintain human life. However, human health experts do not universally agree on the exact number and identity of these trace elements. Out of the approximately 29 elements considered essential for human life, 18 are either essential or beneficial to plants and are obtained from soil, and most of the other elements can be taken up from the soil by plants (Brevik 2013a).
Negative Health Effects
Heavy Metals
Exposure to heavy metals through soil contact is a major human health concern. Arsenic is a metalloid, but it is commonly grouped with the heavy metals. The heavy metals of greatest concern for human health include: As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn (Fergusson 1990). Heavy metals enter soils naturally through the weathering of rocks, but they have also been introduced into soils through human activity. Heavy metals are the by-products of mining ores, and they are present in mine spoils and in the immediate surroundings of metal processing plants. Heavy metals are released into soils from landfills that contain industrial and household wastes and from sewage sludge that comes from wastewater treatment plants. E-wastes, or wastes associated with electronic appliances, are an increasing source of Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, and Ni in the soil (Robinson 2009). Urban soils are particularly susceptible to significant accumulations of heavy metals from automobile exhaust, coal burning, erosion of metal structures, and refuse incineration. In agricultural settings, the use of fertilizers, manures, and pesticides has also contributed to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils (Senesi et al. 1999). Arsenic has been used in pesticides, and the build-up of arsenic in orchard soils is problematic since it may persist for decades (Walsh et al. 1977). The heavy metals with the most toxicity in humans, including Cd, Pb, Hg, and As, are those with no biological function that disrupt enzymatic activities commonly affecting the brain and kidneys (Hu 2002).
Organic Chemicals
Organic chemicals have been deposited into the soil both naturally and anthropogenically, and many of the organic chemicals deposited into the air and water eventually end up in the soil. Soil contamination with organic chemicals is a serious problem in all nations (Aelion 2009). A large amount of these organic chemicals come from the agricultural application of herbicides, insecticides, and nematicides (Figure 2). Soil pollution with organic chemicals is not limited to farming areas. Soils in urban areas are also polluted with organic chemicals as a result of industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration, and sewage and solid waste dumping (Leake et al. 2009). Both farming and urban areas have soil contamination that includes a complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals, and microorganisms caused by municipal and domestic septic system waste, farm animal waste, and other biowastes (Pettry et al. 1973). A more recent health concern includes pharmaceutical waste derived from antibiotics, hormones, and antiparasitic drugs used to treat humans and domestic animals (Albihn 2001).
The most common types of organic chemicals found in soil include polyhalogenated biphenyls, aromatic hydrocarbons, insecticides, herbicides, fossil fuels, and the by-products of fossil fuel combustion (Burgess 2013). These organic chemicals are highly diluted in the upper layers of the soil, and they form chemical mixtures used in reactions involving microorganisms. We have very little toxicological information about the health effects of these chemical mixtures (Carpenter et al. 2002). Studies of the health effects of low concentrations and mixtures of these chemicals in soil have been very limited (Feron et al. 2002). Due to the very long half-lives of many organic chemicals, they are referred to as "persistent organic pollutants." These persistent organic pollutants are organic chemicals that resist decomposition in the environment and bioaccumulate as they move up the food chain. An example of this is 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), which was shown to disrupt the hormonal systems of raptors (Vega et al. 2007).
Airborne Dust
Airborne dust can impact human health, especially when the particles are less than 10 microns in size (Monteil 2008). The main direct health effect of inhaled dust is irritation of the respiratory passages and diseases, such as lung cancer. However, airborne dust can carry additional materials, such as pathogens, harmful gases, organic chemicals, heavy metals, insects, pollen, and radioactive materials, that can cause other health problems (Bartos et al. 2009). Humans can breathe airborne dust containing toxicants into the lungs, where the toxicants may enter the bloodstream. Cultivation for agricultural production and deflation (wind erosion) from unpaved road and work sites and denuded fields can introduce dusts into the atmosphere. Airborne dust from Africa is a significant health concern for North American soils. Clouds of dust from the Sahara and Sahel deserts follow the trade winds across the Atlantic Ocean, and African dust has been linked to elevated levels of Hg, Se, and Pb in North American soils (Garrison et al. 2003). The number of asthma cases in the United States more than doubled between 1980 and 2000, and asthma rates have also increased in the Caribbean (Brevik 2013a). Airborne dust from Africa has been tentatively linked to increased asthma in North America (Monteil 2008).
Soil Pathogens Although most organisms found in soil are not harmful to humans, soil does serve as a home for many pathogenic organisms. Bacteria are the most abundant type of organism in soil, and they are found in every soil on Earth. Most fungi are saprophytes that absorb nutrients by aiding in the decomposition of dead organisms, but approximately 300 soil fungi species out of the more than 100,000 total fungi species are known to cause disease in humans (Bultman et al. 2005) (Figure 3). For example, the soil fungus Exserohilium rostratum was responsible for the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States (Brevik & Burgess 2013a). Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms. Most protozoa found in soil feed on bacteria and algae, but some cause human parasitic diseases such as diarrhea and amoebic dysentery (Brevik 2013a). Helminths are parasites that may inhabit the human intestines, lymph system, or other tissues. Diseases caused by helminths require a non-animal development site or reservoir for transmission, and the soil is a common development site. Billions of people are infected by helminths worldwide each year, with an estimated 130,000 deaths annually. Helminth infections generally occur through ingestion or skin penetration, and in most cases involve infection of the intestines (Bultman et al. 2005). The soil is not a natural reservoir for viruses, but viruses are known to survive in soil. Pathogenic viruses are usually introduced into soil through human septic or sewage waste. Viruses that cause conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, polio, aseptic meningitis, or smallpox have all been found in soil (Hamilton et al. 2007; Bultman et al. 2005).
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I have a solution contains Cobalt, Nickel, Manganese, Lithium and Iron. I want to measure the ferrous (Fe2+) concentration by potassium dichromate titration. Is mentioned elements affect the ferrous titration accuracy?
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Check out the Ksp of those at the pH you would do the titration. Those values are available in literature at 25 oC
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I want to extract soil nitrogen using KCL and use IC for analysis of Nitrate. In most of the protocols that I found so far 1 M KCL is used for extraction. However, IC's are not able to handle such high concentration of chlorides, neither are Hach kits. Any suggestion would be helpful to proceed further.
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I am struggling to grind my samples to a fine powder, possibly because they have a very high sap/resin content. The samples have been freeze dried under vacuum, which should make them brittle but they are not!
So far I have tried:
- a Zirconium Oxide ball mill;
- Agate mortar and pestle and liquid nitrogen;
- inside an Orbital shaker in seal jars with glass balls;
- An Agate Mill mortar and pestle mill.
I can't proceed with the analysis until these samples are powdered, and I am running out of ideas and would appreciate any suggestions from people who have successfully powdered their samples.
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Following
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Chromium occurs in the environment primarily in two valence states, trivalent chromium (Cr III) and hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Exposure may occur from natural or industrial sources of chromium. .The motive behind the question is to get to know methods of removing chromium from waste water and other solid waste.
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Electrocoagulation with Iron-based electrodes is reliable and cheap to reduce CrIV to CrIII.
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I guess Cr6+.  However in practical, we using it more in laboratories.  How to avoid it.
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Naturally chromium ions exist predominantly in two different oxidation states, trivalent Cr3+ ions and hexavalent Cr6+ ions. Trivalent chromium is a thousand times less toxic than Cr6+ and is an essential micronutrient for several organisms.
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Which one will be better choice for heavy metal analysis from polluted soil TEM or SEM?
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FESEM with EDX
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I am planning to do a research on the levels of mercury in waste water; mercury is known to be a persistent, bio-accumulative toxin, indicating that its toxicity does not diminish through decomposition or chemical reaction, and that it is absorbed faster than it can be excreted. Recently, efforts to minimise the release of mercury, and to track its migration when released, have demanded more sensitive analytical techniques for its measurement.
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I think ICP-MS
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When flow of gas (oxygen) is 2.5 L/min and ozone concentration in gas is 4 mg/L .
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Thanks.
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Recommend Manohar Sehgal answer
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In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. It is expressed in milligrams per litre(mg/L), which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per litre of solution. But how could we estimate the amount of Organics by the COD of waste water? I wanna set up a calculation relationship between the organics content and wastewater COD.
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TOC
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I am using COD kits (Merck), with 25-1500 mg/L range. When I used low strength simulated textile effluent, cod values were obtained in the that range, but upon increasing the strength values fell out of the range i.e. > 1500. Therefore I diluted the samples (I have tried 10 and 20 times dilution) but the values I got are very high such as by diluting my samples 10 times I got the value 367 mg/L which means that the exact values should be 367 mg/L*10 = 3,670. I am getting such values even after complete decolorization of textile effluent (when the OD values for color fall below zero) but when I perform the cod test, values are very high. Please can anybody help about this? Am I doing it doing it wrong or  is there any other solution for this?
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Recommend A. G. Piyal Aravinna answer
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Different groups favor different methods; I would greatly appreciate more input on the debate. Assume all bottle types are cleaned thoroughly and samples are being analyzed in the lab for Methylmercuy (MeHg), Total mercury (THg), both filtered and/or unfiltered. Other considerations: remote work, trace-level contamination, freezing vs. acidification.
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Teflon
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My Problem:- I am working on ammonia sensor. I want to calibrate this sensor in a 1.2 L Airtight Chamber by Liquor Ammonia of 30% concentration and Specific Gravity 0.89.
So, What amount (in volume) of liquor ammonia is needed to achieve 1 ppm concentration of ammonia in chamber to calibrate the sensor.
My Answer:-
Ammoin is very volatile hence I used a fan fitted in the chamber for better mixing of gas in chamber and also for total ammonia evaporation from the sample.
To make a calibration mixture for liquid ammonia, a known volume of liquid is vaporized in a known volume of dilutant air. The ideal gas law states that one gram mole of molecules will occupy 24,500 cc of volume at 25 degree centigrade and at 760 mm of mercury or sea level atmospheric pressure.
One part per million (by volume) is equal to a volume of a given gas mixed in a million volume of air.
1 ppm = (1 gas volume)/(〖10〗^6 air volumes)
A micro litre volume of gas in one litre of air would therefore be equal to 1 ppm:
1ppm= (1µL gas)/(1L air)
According to specification of liquor ammonia 30%
100mL liquor ammonia contains 30gm ammonia
Or, 1mL liquor ammonia contains 0.3gm ammonia
After dissolving 1mL liquor ammonia in 2499ml pure de-ionized water we obtained that:
2500mL liquor ammonia contains 0.3gm = 300mg ammonia
Or, 1mL liquor ammonia contains 1.2mg ammonia
Or, 1µl liquor ammonia contains 0.12µg ammonia
According to Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) law
17 gm ammonia will occupy 24.5 Litre volumes
Or, 17µg ammonia will occupy 24.5 µL volumes
Or, 0.694µg ammonia will occupy 1 µL volume
Or, 0.833µg ammonia will occupy 1.2 µL volumes
We know that,
1ppm= (1µL gas)/(1L air)
And, We have an Airtight chamber of 1.2L volume
Hence
1ppm= (1.2µL gas)/(1.2L air)
Form above calculation we can derive an equation for ppm calculation for 1.2 liter gas.
liquor ammonia (µl)= (0.833 ×ppm ×dilution)/300
Therfore, If we take 7µL diluted (2500 times) liquor ammonia and placed in 1.2 L Airtight chamber
Then, We obtained 1ppm ammonia concentration in that chamber.
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Follow
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Oxidation-Reduction, environmental Chemistry 
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You are welcomed
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As people generally know that higher impact factor occupies higher Q1 rank. However, I noticed that " environmental science and pollution research has 2.80 impact factor and it is Q1 ranked, while "environmental chemistry letters has 3.18 IF but still Q2. why and what is the meaning of Quartiles within subject categories? advance thanks.
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In CO2 photoreduction, in order to determine the order of reaction, it is important to know concentration change with time. how do we do that? i found a titration method using standard NaOH solution. this method can be used to know the initial concentration, but not the concentration in the middle of experiment. Is there any reference for a better/ accurate way to determine CO2 concentration. thank you
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Recommend Amir Abidov answer
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I had an M.Sc in Environmental Chemistry and Pollution Control from UI, Nigeria and I want to proceed for my PhD.My master thesis was on Speciation study on the impact of copper based pesticides on the soil of cocoa plantations from two south western States ,Nigeria.
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Work on heavy metal analysis or adsorption
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is anyone can help me to understand:
I have several questions related to Understanding by Design.
As a part of my writing thesis, UbD is one of recommendation good issue topic from my advisor to talk about, I start to get close to Understanding by Design and its workbook, try to apply to our class environmental chemistry which topic is Water treatment. However, I have difficulties to find who will be a validator for what we made several months ago. I  made it based on what I read in the books, but I do not know yet whether it is correct or not. I got troubles in 1. validate the learning plan that we made
2. to measure student improvement whether they have the deeper understanding or not. what kind of test I need to give to student to measure the student's improvement?
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The best way to prove with the design is go for lab scale studies. It will impart confidence in your design.
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I want to convert powdered activated carbon to pellets to use in a continuous adsorption process for the removal of Iron from contaminated water. In this regard Can you suggest binders which do not react with iron?
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You have two choice for this application 1) try for different binders and their different wt% to avoid much decrease in the surface properties of AC 2) Make a porous structure (may be of a cloth or any polymer) that retains your PAC inside without any dispersion during water flow. I suggest for point one you should try some binders used in making of high porosity membrane in RO membrane manufacturing facility. For second point i suggest you should increase the pore size of AC and put it inside a cloth / fiber closed which protect it from flushing out. Second method can also retain the surface characteristics of your AC.
Hope this can help
Thanks
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Dear researchers and professors
I have difficulty to determine the exact amount (kg/hr) of PZ, H2O, CO2 in LeanIN into absorber column. If the given values are following
PZ 5 m (molality (mol/kg H2O))
mol CO2/ mol alkalinity = 0.236
LeanIN flow rate is 3180 kg/hr?
My concern is mainly the right calculation method for the certain problem if anybody can be helpful?
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I'm currently working on hydrocarbon contamination specifically BTEX in underground waters. I would like to know which chemical or solvent is best for the extraction of the water samples for the onward determination of Benzene, Toluene, Etylbenzene and Xylene concentration. Thanks
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Hi My Dear:
From my work in hydrocarbons ,you can use the hexane for many reasons: low cost, high affinity with hydrocarbons especially when increase the contact time between them in room degree and the easy to evaporation and this point is very important according to use the rotary evaporator to maintain the evaporation point for hydrocarbons
Thank you
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Determination of trace concentrations of phenol in aqueous solutions.
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this link is useful
ttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/.../3527600418.bi10895e000...
regards
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I want to calculate how much ammonia evaporates from a 10% ammonia solution (ammonium hydroxide solution), to check if the concentration of ammonia in the air exceeds 25 ppm. The temperature is 40°C. How can I also consider the pH regulation? Thanks in advance!
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Ok so it’s a ‘pure’ ammonia solution then with no stripping.
You need to start by knowing the vapour pressure (VP) and total pressure (TP) of your ammonia solution. Fortunately there are tables that provide just this on the internet (e.g., http://www.southernionics.com/pdf/Ammonia_Handbook.pdf).
From there you can calculate the mole fraction of ammonia in the air versus the solution. It should come as no surprise that the mole fraction is high. The pH of a 10% ammonia solution is approximately 12.0, and the speciation in solution will be virtually 100% ammonia, with negligible ammonium ions present. And since ammonia is a gas at room temperature, it’s going to readily come out of solution.
So if you are working with a 10 g/100 mL ammonia solution in an open beaker you are going to get a lot of that 10 g into the air. Just how much is a lot? My calculation makes a few assumptions because I’m treating your whole lab as a vessel with no atmosphere other than water and ammonia. But I don’t think it matters so much, for example if we assume your lab has some sort of humidity and temperature control and it’s set at 50%/70°F (21°C). The VP of water in the lab would be 0.36 psia (http://www.wiredchemist.com/chemistry/data/vapor-pressure). This is only slightly different from the pure ammonia/water situation in which:
The VP of water in a 10% an aqueous ammonia solution at 70°F (21°C) is 0.32 psia.
The VP of ammonia in a 10% an aqueous ammonia solution at 70°F (21°C) is 1.52 psia.
The Total VP of a 10% an aqueous ammonia solution at 70°F (21°C) is 1.84 psia.
Hence, the mole fraction of ammonia is 82.6%.
So a whopping 8.26 g of ammonia will leave the beaker.
How big is your lab? From there you can calculate the ammonia concentration in the lab air. But if your limit is 25 ppm (18.7 mg/m3) your lab would need to have a volume of 442 m3.
Lastly, I’ve made no mention of the kinetics of ammonia loss. I’m assuming all the ammonia just leaps out of the beaker immediately. Of course, this is not the case. And once some ammonia does leave the beaker some of that in the lab air will then be lost quite quickly, via chemical reactions, or escaping under doors etc. So view my calculation as worst-case.
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I am curious as a student of environmental chemistry and toxicology. Thank You!
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We directly measured the 2,4-D concentrations in each lake that received an herbicide treatment. We measured before during and up to 62 days after the treatment. Herbicide concentrations were measured with HPLC.
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Dear Researchers, I have prepared few research papers and I need the list of open access Scientific Journals of Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry or Environmental Geology or which are related to assessment of heavy metals in different environmental samples.
Please suggest me the Journals having no publication fees or very low because I am an independent researcher and I dont have any source of funding from my institute.
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Have a look in these journals....
Environmental Chemistry Letters: https://link.springer.com/journal/10311
Environmental Earth Sciences: https://link.springer.com/journal/12665
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology: http://www.springer.com/environment/journal/13762
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I am using the standard in the form of mixture i.e EPA VOC Mix 2 (2000 microgram per ml each component in methanol). As mentioned in COA, it is having 14 components / analytes. When this particular mixture was run on HPLC, it did not give all 14 peaks of different components. It gave only one broader peak with some minute peaks. The mobile phase utilized was Acetonitrile : Deionized Water. Why separate peaks were not being identified? What should be done / Which parameter of HPLC should be altered so that separate peaks could be identified?
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Please first make sure the column is clean running only the mobile phase. the broad peak might be column contamination. then I suggest running a standard with known retention time, there are many variables involved. including the system (column, pressure, mobile phase) and sample purity. better to trouble shoot step by step
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I'm trying to understand what laboratories in UK or any part of the world can offer in regards to biological monitoring of agents/pollutants specific to the food and beverage industry such as grain and flour dust, aerosol proteins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) , chlorine and hypochlorite used in cleaning and sanitizing, ammonia and sulphur dioxide used in refrigeration...etc 
I'm looking for articles, laboratories contacts, researcher profiles, that can help me to answer the question. 
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Hello Yehia,
Please see UK food chemical surveillance programme  which is coordinated by Food Authenticity Steering Group 
the chapter 4 of this book also would be helpful
Food Contaminants: Sources and Surveillance
I hope this will help
Amin
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Coagulation-flocculation
Water treatment 
Wastewater treatment 
Neutralisation 
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No, it is not recommendable
The pH varies and depends strongly on the coagulant used and the quality of the water to be treated
There is no general rule for this reason that the Jar Test tests are strongly recommended
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I have a problem with my portable water treatment plant. Raw water is coming bad, ammonia, manganese and organic increasing day by day. So I'm finding some way to treat it. 
Do anyone knows or have experience with chitosan as coagulation aid or to absorb metal?
thank you so much for all helps.
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Dear Mr.Ata,
Thank you so much for such information. then, do you have any information about its organic compound and metal absorb ability?
and dosage also.
Thank you so much for all help.
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If I make a sodium arsenite solution with NaAsO2 in distilled water, later I want to measure the concentration using SDDC method, shall I preserve it with 1% nitric acid and refrigerate at 4C? Will it hamper the arsine gas generation?
Suggest me with necessary links/papers.
Thanks.
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This includes the soil pH, organic content and to check the metal contents like Fe, Mn etc. 
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We use Kjeldhal digestion to decompose organic matter. Using H2SO4 and H2O2 for digestion. But since we have a lot of samples, we are looking for colorimeter method to measure quickly the NH4, or (NH4)2SO4 in the solution, which its pH <1
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You can use Nessler  or Riegler s reagent for colorimetric estimation of ammonium ions..
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Recently, i am working on the buffer capacity of soil colloid. Can anyone suggest me a method to determine the concentration of humic acid in soil colloid. 
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Good morning,
You can consult the standard procedures recommended by the international humic substances society (IHSS) on its website http://humic-substances.org/
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i want to determine phenol in solutions, i'm doing adsorption desorption. how to do it using a GCMS
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je vous remercie Madame
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I want to know the appropriate method for BTEX extraction from charcoal filter tab
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search Indian standard method IS 5182( part 11) for BTX  analysis
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we have sulfate leakages into permeate in our SRS plant, what i want to know that how to reduce it, secondly if we need to make the cleaning then what type of chemicals and what procedure we need to adapt for cleaning of nano membranes......?
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M.Gamal Khedr....
NF is design for rejection of Divalent anion and cations and let go for monovalent,,,,while in RO membrane case all ions are rejected, so in your case i am not getting the answer.
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The pH of the media is 6-7, but both the anoxic and oxic zones of my reactor have a pH of 8-9. I've been trying to find information about this in research, but can't seem to find anything. 
The media uses calcium chloride dihydrate at a concentration of 0.675g in 15L and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate at a concentration of 9g in 15L.
I'm new to wastewater microbiology and have limited experience with chemistry, so any help would be much appreciated. 
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You also have an oxic / aerated zone, right ? Then I would increase the importance (in volume distribution and aeration intensity) of the oxic zone compared to anoxic. Nitrification will acidify by converting the NH4 to NO3 (using O2) with release of H+. If nitrification is impaired / limited in rate by too low available / degradable organic carbon, you may want to add small amounts of organic carbon (e.g. glucose in test environment) to stimulate the nitrification process in the oxic zone.
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In an optimization test of oleic acid dosage as a collector for silica sands beneficiation the recovery of heavy minerals increases as the oleic acid dosage increases reaching a turning point at 2 g/kg oleic acid dosage is that related to dissociation of oleic acid?
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isn't it a problem of interfacial tension? Aggregation of them?
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Dear All,
My name is Ferdinand. 
I have sample from electroplating wastewater. It is colored blue (just like Copper solution)
I measure the sample with AAS and the result Copper (II) = 11,3455 ppm
then in the next  3 months I measure it again yet the result is 14,1960 ppm
my question is what happen to my sample?
before I measure it with AAS, I always shake the sample and make sure it is completely homogen.
does some reactions happened?
the pH =2,5
I store the sample in the HDPE plastic container,  no sunlight exposure,
temperature at room temperature.
The sample was destructed with concentrated HNO3 before the measurement.
thank you
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Good evening
Maybe it's a bad calibration of your AAS
Also, the error read is not so great,
Me personally I always use the method of internal standards to recalibrate my measurementsAdd your answer
Greetings
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What are impacts of the concentration of any chemical in stock solution on the main experiments?
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Thanks Paul Milham. I have made stock solution of a chemical, with the concentration more than the actual solubility of said chemical in water. I dissolved the chemical by boiling the water. Then later observed the crystals in solution upon cooling. I tested the degradation on trial bases which was efficient. However, then I changed the concentration in stock solution to the value, which is also the solubility level in water. The degradation on trial bases was observed less as compared to previous one. I reached to conclusion that,
If we keep the concentration higher even in stock solution, the degradation of a pollutant is higher due to easy availability of access ions since the pollutant is more than the solubility level.
If a pollutant is soluble in water, it is difficult to remove or degrade it on large scale even at lab scale.
Your views about the condition are welcome and will be highly helpful.
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I need to analyze Al with UV using different pH and other recovered nutrients from sludge. I don't want to use ICP OES and Atomic absorption for Al measurements as ICP OES analysis is not appropriate due to high Na concentration.
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Dear Dr. Sebastian Hippmann, 
Thank you so much for your comprehensive answer. I have again checked with pH 3.0. But the results are not changed although pH 3.0 showed low concentration than pH 6.0 .  I have also checked with different quantities of Morin solution and results showed with the increase in Morin quantity aluminum concentration increased which reflects that optimum quantity of Morin solution is 5 ml / 25 ml final sample.  
 The concentration of Fe and Cu is very low in my samples although the PO43- is high and I think that caused the problem. Could you send me the article with other reagents and appropriately the method which don't interfere with PO43- ?
Thank you so much 
regards, 
umair
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Geo polymerization is possible with dry state of alkali regents??
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I would be surprised if this happens for a couple reasons: 
1. geopolymerization tend to rely on the polymerization of C-A-(S-)H phases where the H stands for hydrate (water)
2. under dry conditions polymerization reaction should occur in the dry state (without any water present), such solid phase transformation reactions are generally inhibitively slow at low temperature.
But i wouldn't mind being proven wrong. 
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My doctoral theme is the investigation of thermal waters composition, and how do they change during use as a pool water. During this work, I want to perform a detailed study on organic components.
I thought about measuring PAHs, humic acids, TPH and BTEX compounds, and low C number carboxylic acids.
Any idea what else could be interesting?