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Environmental Change - Science topic

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Interested to join the launched 'Climate and Environmental Change Network' at the biggest university and research association "Unimed" for multilateral scientific cooperation.
Get more info at https://t.co/bSnMWFIVy7
Deadline : July 30th. Don't miss it ↗️
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Good for sharing, this was an interesting program.
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Hello,
I established transfer functions with PAST 4.01, and I would like to input some downcore data (lake sediments, diatoms) to reconstruct past environmental change quantitatively using the transfer function.
However, I don't know how to put the data into the transfer function in PAST.
Does anyone know how to do that?
Or I appreciate any other suggestions for methods to build a transfer function and its application.
Thank you very much in advance!
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I have attached the past 3 manual to this response; hopefully it its helpful
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I would like to know your opinion about what are currently the greatest unsolved problems or opportunities for further research in palaeoclimatology.
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How about: humans are the greatest challenge? The idea that a capitalistic economy based on consumerism is the "best"? That we need to have the latest smartphone, buy "fast" fashion, eat meat, follow influencer, follow celebrities...to be humans? Human greed is the greatest challenge to Climate Change. Failure to be capable of being able to cope with less things and enjoy Life for what it is. But we all fear Death, don't we? And we fill this fear with meaningless things. If we were Penguins, we would Live and Die because this is how it is. We would not need more than we need. And we could live in a much better World.
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Its going to be a huge shift for marketers, tracking identity is tricky at the best of times with online/offline and multiple channels of engagement - but when the current methods of targeting, measurement and attribution get disrupted, its going to be extremely difficult to get identity right to deliver exceptional customer experiences whilst getting compliance right.
We have put our framework and initial results show promising measurement techniques including Advanced Neo-classical fusion models (borrowed from Financial industry, Biochemical Stochastic & Deterministic frameworks) and applied Bayesian and Space models to run the optimisations. Initial results are looking very good and happy to share our wider thinking thru this work with everyone.
Link to our framework:
Please suggest how would you be handling this environmental change and suggest methods to measure digital landscape going forward.
#datascience #analytics #machinelearning #artificialintelligence #reinforcementlearning #cookieless #measurementsolutions #digital #digitaltransfromation #algorithms #econometrics #MMM #AI #mediastrategy #marketinganalytics #retargeting #audiencetargeting #cmo
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Here are a few ideas about how marketers can do this:
• Encourage site login by better authenticated experiences or other consumer-oriented rewards to increase the number of persistent IDs.
• Create a holistic customer view by combining customer and other owned first-party data (e.g., web data) and establishing a persistent cross-channel customer ID.
• Allow customer segmentation, targeting, and measurement across all organizations and platforms. Measurement and audience control can be supported by integrating martech and ad tech pipes wherever possible.
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I'm an Undergraduate student on the search for a research topic which has to involve any ecosystem service(s) and a response to environmental change. I'm looking for raw quantitative data sets (I need to do a stats test with it) which can inspire me, but I have had no guidance as to where I can find such data online. I don't have any specialist software for this, nor am I expected to use any. Would prefer UK data if possible.
Thank you in advance!
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I want to find out at what stage do we consider changes in the environment as problems.
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Now.
Lou
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Societies are undergoing continual and sometimes rapid changes. At the same time, we are facing the biggest environmental challenge. How are the two related?
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Environmental change provides for opportunities; in short, a stage for social actors. I has been going on for the last 30,000 years and now we stand before another "curtain - call" as human beings.
Lou
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I am in need of article that link genetics or biotechnology to environmental changes, biodiversity and ecosystem services
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I have attached you a book. Hope it would be useful.
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I am interested in the study on geo-environmental changes and modelling of ecosystems using satellite images and gis tools. your suggestions are welcome.
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Thank you Mr Mohamed-Mourad Lafifi..your references are quite helpful.
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With the ongoing global changes in the climate, several schools are including environment changes effects on health and disease. Are you giving a place in the curriculum to this critical area?
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Excellent debate. I work with effluent nitrogen removal systems and some other parallel areas. In recent years, I have been very interested in how these areas are related to climate change and innovative propositions for them.
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Green cover is reducing all over the world and temperature is increasing concurrently as well.There are so many factors are responsibe for the rise of temperature & Humidity), but what's the effect of tree/forest cover reduction on it?
  • Is there any direct relationship between tree/forest cover reduction on temperature and humidity? (i suppose yes, there is)
  • How to calculate the effect of tree on temperature and humidity?
NB: Article reference would be appriciated
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Agreed with Dr Nidal
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If there is a significant relationship between these. What is the nature of the relationship? Do other factors like political factors affect this relationship? What can you say about the contribution of environmental change to violent conflict in Nigeria?
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Thanks
Eleni Krikeli
and Dragos Simandan . Your inputs are great starting points for my work. Very helpful!
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Dear Tom, I have received information about your project from Leszek Mackiewicz who cooperates with us. Justyna Żabicka’s PhD thesis under my supervision is focused on: Viola epipsila (2n=4x=24)-V. palustris (2n=8x=48) complex taxonomically very critical group of species in whole circumboreal range of distribution. The genetic diversity of this complex, in addition to the changing climate and habitat loss (these species occur in flooded forests) may also be influenced by hybridization. These two closely related species cross easily in nature due to weak isolation mechanisms. Hybridization could lead to loss of biodiversity (endangered species extinction in disturbed habitats due to anthropogenic and global environmental changes; rare, endangered species might be displaced by interspecific hybrids) or biodiversity enhancement (origin of new ecotypes, species). Results of genetic diversity of V. epipsila, V. palustris and hybrids with the use of ISSR markers and genome size evaluation from several Polish and European populations showed that ISSR and genome size value are good markers delimitating both species and hybrids. Selected qualitative and quantitative morphological traits along with embryological traits (pollen viability, set seeds) are good distinguishing characteristics of both species and hybrids. Results of genetic diversity of sympatric population from the Białowieża National Park evidently indicated the decreasing number of parental species and increasing number of hybrids caused by climate changes, lowering the water level, and the loss of alder forests and marshy meadows, habitats of both species. Loss of beat bogs reduce biodiversity of species occurring on these sites. Viola epipsila is endangered in Poland and other European countries. I am looking to hearing from you. My e-mail address is: elzbieta.kuta@uj.edu.pl With best regards, Elzbieta Kuta
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Dear Elzbieta,
During field work in Northern Germany I encountered a population determined by others as "epipsila". Consulting literature such as Rothmaler most characters seem to correspond rather to "palustris". Thus, I would like to study more relevant literature and other data which would enable me to safely identify taxa of this complex.
I wonder whether you could give me some guidance?
Thank you very much and my best wishes from Berlin,
Ralf
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Science and social condition.
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Can the future be determined?
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What about the crops health risks from environmental change and increase planting material in agricultural?
Please , I want your opinion. Thank you for your answer.
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Hello, I am looking for articles: based age or gender- impacts of climate change and natural resource exploitation on Indigenous people? if do you know something I will be available to read your suggestions.
Thank you so much.
Laura
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Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites are an important component of environmental change research and generate unique datasets. However, in many countries (e.g. Brazil) each site uses different methodologies, generates different metrics and has distinct objectives. Moreover, there is very little replication, with LTER sites spread across biomes and ecosystems. In the absence of formal meta-analysis, which is practically unfeasible, is there a way to synthesize the results of these valuable and unique studies to guide policy and practice?
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Somehow you need to make adjustments for inconsistencies in methodology or at least discuss this. But spreading sites across ecosystems is good imo because it avoids pseudo-replication :)
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Consequent to some food-borne incidents in recent years, there have been significant increase in public health concern and decrease in consumer confidence. Despite significant advances in detection tools, regulations, monitoring and consumer education on food safety, reports of food borne illness outbreaks continue to increase. Within the supply chain which is increasingly becoming more complex in the globalized market, adulteration (unintentional or intentional) is the key food safety issue. Increase in imports of food/processed food items due to cost concerns, availability and consumer demand for diverse food products also provide chances for food contamination/adulteration. Regulatory bodies are comforting with major food safety issues including changes in our food production and supply, environmental changes leading to food contamination, new and emerging bacteria, toxins, and antibiotic resistance and consumer preferences and habits leading to increase in imported foods. At this juncture, what should be the effective strategies to address the emerging challenges to provide safe, healthy, nutritious and sustainable produced food to the world's population?
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I agree with dear Dr Debra Sharon Ferdinand-James
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The concept of climax community and succession particularly in terrestrial or water ecosystems where perturbations occur are interesting phenomena. Related concepts such as keystone species are also very important. But do these concepts apply in the microbial world where environmental changes drastically shift population and community dynamics in a very short time frame?
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CiteScore metrics are calculated from Scopus indexed sources.
In comparison, the Impact Factor is generated from the Journal Citation Reports [JCR], and not from the Web of Science.
This paper could be useful
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I am seeking for extracting roles of social aspects including social capital in climate change adaptation.
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There really wasn't very much literature on global cooling.
There is a useful study addressing this issue: Peterson, Thomas; Connolley, William; Fleck, John (September 2008). The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society. 89 (9): 1325–1337.
By the late 1970s when the popular media captured on the idea of global cooling and deemed that argument headline worthy, the majority of scientific papers on climate change were suggesting warming rather than cooling (see Peterson et al cited above, which found that of the 71 papers published on climate change from 1965 through 1979, 7 [9.86%] suggested cooling; 61.97% predicted warming; and the remaining 28.17% reached no conclusion). Moreover, based on the difference between the scientific literature and the suggestion of global cooling taken up in the media, the World Meteorological Organization issued a statement (a reprint of the article is here: https://enthusiasmscepticismscience.wordpress.com/h-h-lamb/1976_june_22_times_worldstemperaturelikelytorise/) to the media that the current scientific evidence in 1976 that stated "significant rises in global temperature are probable over the next century..."
So, in this example, one could say newspapers and magazines (Time magazine, for example, published an issue in April 1977 with a cover depicting a penguin walking on ice with the bold "headline" that read "How to Survive the Coming Ice Age"), which have some level of established social capital (some level of trust in news-reporting), attempted to play up the cooling findings in a minor portion of the scientific literature. Since newspapers were not, at the same time, reporting that most of the literature was reporting concern about a future warming trend, newspaper publishers/editors were using their social capital to, one could say, manipulate public opinion. Why? Who knows....
In any event, the "famous" scientific paper, which was in part at the center of the cooling claim, was also being mis-represented, (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/173/3992/138). That paper suggested that cooling might result from air pollution related to aerosols if aerosol pollution levels increased by a factor of 4. One of the authors of that article, Stephen Schneider, later argued that he had mis-calculated/over-stated the cooling effect, and underestimated the heating effect of CO-2 by a factor of 3 (see his book, Stephen H. Schneider and Lynne E. Mesirow, The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, Plenum, April 1976). Thereafter, as is well known, Schneider published numerous manuscripts on climate change and global warming. Later, Schneider also used his social capital, appearing on TV talk shows and in documentaries to discuss climate change to provide a scientific view.
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In order to corroborate environmental changes between modern samples (living snails) and specimens from an excavation.
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I am asking this question in the context of evaluating solar beam irradiation on buildings at city scale. 
I am wondering if those variations impact the amount of energy perceived by building, and therefor should be taken into account while evaluating how buildings are warmed up by the sun. 
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Let me clarify a few things here.
- The "solar constant" (SC) is the average Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) over many solar cycles and for the mean sun-earth distance. It is really a constant within 0.2%.
- The extraterrestrial irradiance is the value of TSI (or for all practical purposes, SC) for that moment corrected for the actual sun-earth distance, which varies seasonally within about +/-3%.
- The irradiance incident on a building is a function of a lot of things: surface's tilt and azimuth, sun position, atmospheric conditions of the moment (clouds, aerosols, water vapor, etc.), site's elevation, ground albedo and shading. That's where you can spend a lifetime improving the modeling methods...
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Landscape history of Dehesa Montado.
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Currently we are working on dehesa in Andalusia (see attached). Further, for your consideration a somewhat older article from dehesa in Extremadura and the most recent historical overview I have come across.
Evidently, we are interest in your experience with P. cinnamomi in dehesa or otherwise in oak, if any.
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I'm wondering is it possible to determine thermophile plants by following urban heat islands? There is an argue about Hordeum murinum L. is thermophilous. This idea based on occurrence of this species on urban heat islands in urban areas. Is this reasonable enough or should there be something else?
I also wonder if there is any specific studies about this topic?
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Thank you Mr. Towe and Mr. Singh for information.
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I understand that, generally, community stability is defined by having no apparent change in population size over a given period of time. Such that, the level of disturbance occurring in a particular community is just one factor that greatly affects the stability of a community. So what are other significant factors which specifically affect the stability of a marine community, and how are these factors measured or quantified (if possible)?
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Thank you for your responses Mr. Tomascik and Mr. Ben-Yami! 
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While I've heard of some instances such as the environment recovering from oil spills, have people's efforts actually worked on facilitating the return to a healthy environment it once was? If there have been, are there any specific instances or situations where this actually occurred? 
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It should also be more specific about which environment is considered as the ability of environment is different. There is a theory about this, the relation between disturbance and biodiversity, which is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. One indicator to see whether an environment is recovered or not, is by using a bioindicator. Some disturbances can even promote biodiversity depending on the frequency of the disturbances. Floodplain for example, there are a lot of disturbances happening, between the anthropogenic one, or even seasonal flood. The organisms that live in the floodplain can then be used to indicate whether the environment is recovered even after any disturbances, because there is always a pioneering species that starts. Please refer to a paper from my Professor for bioindicator methods.
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Human activity heavily disrupts community resilience. Other than that, is community resilience heavily reliant on the producers, consumers, keystone species, or something else entirely? How so?
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No problem, it is a pleasure.
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I need to conduct a quantitative meta-analysis on the effect of anthropogenic factors on the evolution of animals. This is a very broad topic and I can only think of subjectively measuring the "fitness" of species affected by human activity such as pollution, habitat fragmentation, poaching, climate change etc.
Are there any other ways one could measure and compare the evolution of species in response to these anthropogenic challenges?
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You are in trouble before you even start -- though this is a cool project.
I would try text mining the literature for articles that study specific organisms and report an environmental shift of some sort. I would then continue to search for articles that confirm/refute this find. Except that it is hard to publish inconclusive or negative results. So your literature search is biased in favor of your hypothesis regardless of whether your hypothesis is true or not.
This project requires a careful definition of adaptation (versus a change), and evolution. So there is research of the effect of the A-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands. The tests are detectable in animals like the sea urchin (http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1014/19ebertf.pdf). Is there adaptation? How does this affect other organisms?
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I interested in ' Integration climate change risk into river basin planning through applying SEA method in to planning process. How do you think about this?
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Hi there
I am undertaking a remote sensing analysis to distinguish areas of recent mangrove loss globally, and particularly in the Asia-Pacific region.
To help me on my way, I would like to understand which geospatial datasets are already in existence. I am looking for global mangrove datasets that are as up-to-date as possible, and across a broad timeframe from which I can undertake mangrove change analysis.
If you have datasets or ideas that could assist it would be great to hear from you. Many thanks!
Sam
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Have a look at this free and open access tool/database provided by a FAO initiative:
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The question is related to my research about the emergence and dynamics of 'green' markets in Brazil. I tend to deal with it in a 'idealist/culturalist' fashion, assuming changes that progressive changes in values, morals and in social institutions, more broadly, somehow implicate in changes in social practices. In my view, this implicated in contentious processes, though which shifts in practices are gradually enhanced and that may generate situations of major societal crises.
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The rise of 'environmentalism' can, I think, present both positives and negatives to dominant economic practices.
For instance, the idea of dominant economic practices making---realistically--least negative environmental impact, is to be welcomed.
And this is where social research can help; for when it comes to accommodating a really big issue into our dominant economic practices---e. g. Global Warming--we really need to explore how this  issue is evidenced, and how this evidence is interpreted and presented to the world.
Essentially, are we presented with critical environmentalism with realistic options tied to realistic, sustainable economics?
Or, are we presented with naïve environmentalism, with unrealistic options tied to unrealistic, unsustainable economics?
This, to me, is, 'in a nutshell', one of the great---perhaps the greatest---environmental-economic debates engaging us today.
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I'm conducting a research which its aim is to identify the relationship between environmental change and urbanization in a metropolitan area. For doing this, I'm using Landsat imagery data during the years 1990, 2000,2010 and 2016.
however, I classified all images in 3 classes with emphasizing the urban area by utilizing Neural Net algorithm in ENVI.
then I analyzed NDVI, LST and built-up index for all images.
Now how can I draw a conclusion for my primary objective? What is the best procedure for identifying the relationship between these indices?
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The relation seems simple - all movement generates energy (Einstein). City represents a lot of activities (transportation, computers and others machines, bigger and bigger data centers, heating...). To this you should add external conditions and influencies - green spaces, green buildings, urban agriculture, weather, water around....Very exciting complex systems. Try to draw a map of influences and inter-influencies first.
Hoping it helps. Good luck!
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I am compiling a series of historical case studies of transformative adaptation to major environmental changes, such as dryland salinity brought about by land clearing and changes in water availability due to high irrigation diversions and so on. I am keen to learn of examples that provide a perspective on social processes and decision making in relation to adaptive responses by people, particularly that relate to changes in societal values relating to the environment, how knowledge was used to scope choices for adaptation and how rules (legislation, policies, behaviours and norms) either enabled or constrained those choices. Any pointers to relevant literature would be gratefully received.
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Matt, I think a good and current example is what is being done in Netherlands to cope with flooding as the one occurred in 1953, when over 8,000 people died and about 10% of cropland was destroyed.  How the Dutch people perceived the threat and how such perception has been modulated more recently by growing evidences of the link between human activities, global warming and sea level rise falls, I believe, is within the scope of your research. The huge chain of flood protection structures that were constructed at the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Delta, and the decision-making process is well documented. Although the Deltawerks, devised by the Dutch engineer Johan van Veen, were finished in 1986, there are many public works for managing storm and flood waters being constructed. Adaptation for the Dutch people is a way of life. You can find plenty of publications related to the Deltawerken from the  Watersnoodmuseum site at. info@watersnoodmuseum.nl or Phone to +31 (0)111 – 644 382
Another current example, in the same realm, is that of the adaptations to sea level rise and increasing flooding of coastal urban centers as those in South Florida, where local governments began working together to develop join policies and programs to mitigate, adapt and to become more resilient communities to cope with climate change and sea level rise. The result of such undertaking is a list of about 100 recommendations to guide implementation of appropriate measures. See the following website:  http://www.southeastfloridaclimatecompact.org/
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I'm trying to fit a dispersal kernel using CMR data from small mammals, to parameterize a Cellular Automaton (CA) designed to model range shifts driven by environmental change. This CA have annual steps, so I need a dispersal kernel standarized to 1 year dispersal events. Does anybody knows how to fit such dispersal kernel using data of dispersal events experienced in just a couple days (no more than one month)? 
if someone can share a R script, it would be great,
Thank you so much!
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My latest paper fits seed dispersal distributions occurring over two weeks (or less) to Weibull curves: see DOI: 10.1111/ecog.02191 – it will be online in Ecography very soon. And available from me on this site soon.
Andrew :-)
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Hi
In the personality literature there is increasing evidence on how different individuals can respond in a different (and consistent) way to changes in an environmental variable (e.g. temperature).
I was wondering if there is any evidence of the effect of personality (being bolder or shier, for instance) in how individuals can cope with environmental change. This is, are bolder individuals more resilient to temperature changes for instance? Does it give them any advantage? I need reports from wild animals, under natural conditions.
Any idea?
Thanks, 
David
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Thanks to all of you for those great references, specially the Bijleved et al, 2014 is what I was looking for.
David
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Urbanization is the process to by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities and leading to population growth, economic growth and urban spatial expansion. Moreover, urbanization is considered to be the most important driver to make environmental change. Thus, the question is that "how can we measure the relationship between urbanization and environmental change?"
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Hi Lan,
Air pollution should be also considered, since more population generate more anthropogenic emissions (e.g. traffic, space heating, industrial, etc.)... Recent literature has clearly identified that air pollution has detrimental effects on materials especially on the cultural heritage objects which are of the important assets of urban environment.
Bests
ferhat
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I want to study the environmental change of a coastal bay through sediment records, is there any appropriate proxies to  quantitatively distinguish the human and natural caused marine environmental change?
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It depends on the question or targeted pollutant or process. For example for trace metals you can look at the ratios of land markers such as aluminium,if the trace metal is excesses of local geological soil ratios, then you have a measure of a human signal over a natural one. If you are looking at the change in a ecosystem, then you require range of natural variability in extent, structure  or possibly a marker health be that optimum element ratios with the plant foundation species at the ecosystem scale (temporal and spatial see characteristic length scales). determining natural variability is not easy as there a few long term monitoring programs. Palaeorecontructions and substituting space for time  as replicates is a common way depending on the environment and a broad less detailed knowledge of the sites in question.
Basically your readers need more detail of you program
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I read that contingent valuation surveys can only provide estimates of WTP for discrete environmental changes. Conversely, choice experiments can be used to infer marginal WTPs. Is that generally true?
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Thanks.
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I am interesting to Know which instruments have focus in the aboriginal resilience, taking account the environmental changes. how the aboriginal communities assume the challenges of climate change.
I will be grateful with your suggestions!!!
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Laura,  You should review Chantelle Richmond's work.
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It could be for any region, although my current interest is Brazil, but I am unsure if the spatial resolution available would be adequate. Thanks!
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 do i refer to a certification body to enable environmental change happen ? is this the only way or it depends also from agrarian reform from conventional wisdom to sustainable pathways,( a think that stays difficult in  any country in  transition)
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 great work and straight to the point . I think that better cotton addresses both variables (input use efficiency and fin. performance ) in a successful approach.  reasons for better cotton, step on issues of socioeconomic and environmental improvement like better cotton yield, that unfortunately for Pakistan stays in a small ratio  as farmers believe partly that conventional regimes are better in reality I assume.
I hope you address this issue as rapid  population growth  and land use change tend to shrink agro ecosystems as has happened in Greece after the massive application of fertilizers and pesticides that in historical route seemed to provide commodities  but not in the long term
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A recent study concluded that any driver of environmental change that will cause a loss of plant diversity will in turn reduce the stable production of plant biomass through time.
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It appears to depend to a great degree on how one defines "stability".  If we are speaking strictly of standing crop of biomass from one year to the next, there is some research suggesting that greater species diversity, especially if it is distributed among different functional groups, does indeed reduce the annual variation in standing crop.  David Tilman's classic experiments in grassland plots are the best known example.  However, this research is fraught with conceptual and practical difficulties, and the diversity effect may be significant only when species richness is low.  There are so many other factors involved (e.g., which particular species are lost or gained from a community) that generalizations are difficult.  I think our best conclusion right now is that there are theoretical reasons to suggest that species loss will decrease stability of annual production, and some experimental support, so to err on the side of caution we should try to protect natural species richness and be concerned about loss of species.
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.Hi All, I am planning to research on population dynamics, environmental change and human health nexus in developing countries. I have reviewed some models and would like more recommended materials and advise to polish up my proposal. Warm regards.
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Which models are currently included in your proposal? That would help us determine which other classes of models may complement the work you are already proposing. Without knowing the background of the work (particular aspects of population dynamics, particular human diseases, etc), it is difficult to suggest specific frameworks. That said, the SI/SIS/SIR/SEIR variants of infectious disease dynamics, incorporating aspects of environmental change or heterogeneity, would be a good starting point. 
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We have identified changes in microclimatic conditions of the storage dam construction area and its zone of influence. We have also suggest possible mitigation measures for possible changes in the area however the impacts may be cumulative or unavoidable. So if there is some related studies related to the topic I will be grateful for support and explore the research platform for further solution with broader discussion.
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Using a quasi-experimental design, which of types signifies the best approach
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Correlational design could be suitable
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I'm particularly interested in examples where plant species diversity has remained the same but the mix of species has altered considerably.  Examples of peer reviewed papers or grey literature would be most appreciated.
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Hi Jeff Ollerton
We conducted a study in tundra (!) grasslands in Northern Norway and found the exclusion of herbivores to cause modification of species composition but not species richness or diversity. I have attached the publication. Cheers, Kari Anne
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If one has satellite images for a certain area on different times, is there any software for the analysis of these images in order to detect the environmental changes over a certain period?
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Geomatician from Orléans' University of Earth Science teach students to use software like ENVI (by Exelis). It is not difficult to use, and can be quite powerfull : vegetation growth rate, ice melting, depending on your subject. Determine ROI (region of interest) and it will enlight every point of your images that have the same caracteristics (on every wawelenght you have in satellite image, infrared or ultraviolet included).
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according to resource based view, resources is the source of creating competitive advantage then what about ecosystem(environmental changes).
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I am strongly agree with the answers of Prof.Ignacio sanchez cohen. 
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I am using an individual based stochastic model to explore the impact of environmental changes on speciation. In this model individuals forage in two different habitats with a probability determined by the profitability of the habitat. Apart from the ecological and mating loci, I have a certain number of non-coding neutral loci that are used to follow genetic signatures of evolutionary divergence. The neutral loci act like microsatellites, with high maturation rates. My question is how to calculate Fst in Matlab? Are there any softwares that can be used in Matlab not in R?
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Hi Lai
I will suggest for the case of your study PGEToolbox, which is Matlab-based open-sourced software package for data analysis in population genetics (see pdf attached for more informations)!!
PGEToolbox is available free of charge at http://bioinformatics.org/pgetoolbox.
Good luck with your analyses!
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These wetlands are small in such a way that are not visible on landsat TM imagery. What other method can be applied for monitoring groundwater dependent ecosystems (springs,seeps and wetlands) using GIS and remote sensing? I don't want to use the Thompson et al.,(2002) method of identifying wetlands by combining aerial photography, GIS and remote sensing.
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You might also take a look at aerial data from airplanes and UAVs.
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The main challenge is to learn how to deal with very dynamic systems in order to understand the effects of environmental changes and human pressures vs. natural dynamics...which methods and approaches can provide better answers?
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A little I suppose. Regarding the methods and approaches that can provide better answers, I would say it all depends on which factors one would like to study.
You may want to see the following paper:
Fraser et al. 2013. Coordinated Distributed Experiments: an emerging tool for testing global hypotheses in ecology and environmental science. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 147-155.
Please, also see the attached paper.
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Based on the environmental damages that are occurring throughout our globe at the present time, caused by natural phenomena and influenced by human activities, the question arises: is it time to study atmospheric chemistry?
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Atomspheric chemistry is a broad aspect in science which study has been into existence, although, practically the effect of the study has not helped in solving the recent global problems like in the case of climate change. I will like to recommend that practical measures should be put in place in course of study to help minimize the effect of anthropogenic activities
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Most researchers pay attention on temperature and CO2 alternation during life evolution, I mean geological periods, like Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Is there any authentic data expressing other environmental factors like light, water, and chemical atmosphere component druing the geological periods?
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To some extent, yes, it is preserved in the geologic record -- for instance, we know that hurricanes during the Cretaceous were much stronger than today. The data for this can be found in papers from paleontological journals as well as paleoclimate journals and proceedings. I did find an interesting paper on forests and albedo during the Cretaceous: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1692175/