Science topic

# Entropy - Science topic

The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Publications related to Entropy (10,000)

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A large part of incident solar radiation on photovoltaic (PV) modules is converted into heat, leading to overheating and reduction of PV modules performance. The present work investigates the impact of rectangular aluminium fins (RAFs) and evaporative cooling represented by cotton wicks immersed water (CWWs) on the performance and thermal behaviour...

‘Perpetual motion’ is a hypothetical type of motion which continues forever without any external energy input contributing to this system. Students should know that this is generally impossible because of energy losses due to friction or other non-conservative forces, or because some assumption has been made which violates the first or second law o...

Reactive consolidation of medium entropy diboride in the ZrB2–TaB2–NbB2 system was performed by spark plasma sintering of diboride powders at 2000 °C. The 3:2:1 ratio between Zr, Ta, and Nb showed the highest specific strength at room temperature during the initial screening of the mechanical properties. The flexural strength gradually decreased fr...

We introduce SemanticLock, a simple, fast, and memorable single-factor graphical authentication approach for mobile devices. SemanticLock uses a set of graphical images as password tokens that allow the construction of a semantically memorable story representing the user's password. Passwords are entered via the familiar and quick action of draggin...

Humans can effortlessly assess the complexity of the visual stimuli they encounter. However, our understanding of how we do this, and the relevant factors that result in our perception of scene complexity remain unclear; especially for the natural scenes in which we are constantly immersed. We introduce several new datasets to further understanding...

The current paper presents numerical results of the 3D buoyancy-driven flow of a hybrid nanofluid in a cubical cavity in the presence of a magnetic field. The computational domain comprises two layers: a non-Newtonian fluid layer and a hybrid nanofluid layer. The temperature disparity within the domain results from heating the wavy bottom wall and...

This paper introduces a new two parameters discrete distribution by mixing the negative binomial with the discrete Erlang-truncated exponential distribution; the proposed distribution is called the negative binomial-discrete Erlang-truncated exponential (NBDETE) distribution. The quantile function, moments, moment generating function, Renyi entropy...

Urban green space (UGS) is a complex and highly dynamic interface between people and nature. The existing methods of quantifying and evaluating UGS are mainly implemented on the surface features at a landscape scale, and most of them are insufficient to thoroughly reflect the spatial-temporal relationships, especially the internal characteristics c...

It is a great challenge for traditional offline detectors to learn from continuous data streams, remember previous tasks and adapt to new-coming tasks in dynamic environments. To meet the challenge, online continual learning has recently attracted increasing attention, while the overwhelming majority of works focus only on classification with a bal...

The combined Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics simulations were employed to explore the influence of elemental segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) on the mechanical properties of FeNiCrCoCu high entropy alloys under uniaxial load. The chemical potential difference with respect to Ni atoms was first obtained, and used to reach the equilibrium ele...

Much attention has been paid to high entropy materials in the field of electrochemical water splitting. In this research, we present a synthesis of a high-entropy metal hydroxymethylate FeCoNiMgCr(OH)(OCH3) (labeled as FeCoNiMgCr-HM) material via a one-step solvothermal method. Due to the synergistic effect of five metal cations and complete surfac...

This study aims to reconcile quantum theory with the universality of the speed of light in vacuum and its implications on relativity through an information-theoretic approach. We introduce the concepts of a holographic sphere and variational potential. Entropy variation expressed in terms of the information capacity of this sphere results in the co...

In this paper, gas metal arc welding of a CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy was performed using 308 stainless steel filler wire. Electron backscatter diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to determine the microstructural evolution, while microhardness mapping and non-contact digital image correlation were employed to assess the local...

Existing neural network segmentation schemes perform well in the task of segmenting images of organs with large areas and clear morphology, such as the liver and lungs. However, it is difficult to segment organs with variable morphology and small target area, such as pancreas and tumors. In order to achieve accurate segmentation of pancreas and its...

We report the chemical-composition-dependent precipitation of Cr-rich BCC particles and their role in the hardening of Fe–Cr–Ni medium entropy alloys (MEAs). Three alloys with different chemical compositions: 33Fe–32Cr–35Ni MEA (33Fe), 40Fe–30Cr–30Ni MEA (40Fe), and 45Fe–30Cr–25Ni MEA (45Fe) (at%), were investigated. After annealing at 800 and 950...

The structural evolution and magnetic properties of NdMn2-xAlxSi2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) alloys have been investigated. It is found that the Curie temperature is decreased but the Néel temperature is increased by evaluating the substitution amount of Al. When Mn is substituted by Al, the thermomagnetic hysteresis disappears. For Δμ0H of 0–7 T, the values of...

Objective: to analyze the behavior of technology transfer capability over time in Brazilian public institutions of higher education. Method: the extended case method was adopted in two national institutions of reference in technology transfer management. Interviews, observations, and document analysis were the main techniques for data collection. T...

A well-designed battery thermal management system (BTMS) can achieve optimal cooling performance with less power consumption than a poorly-designed system. However, it is difficult to use the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to perform an effective and optimal design of BTMSs when there are several structural design parameters and multiple...

The geothermal resources in the southwest section of the Mid-Spine Belt of Beautiful China are abundant, but the quantitative prediction and evaluation of geothermal resources are very difficult. Based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) platforms, six impact factors, namely land surface temperature, fault density, Gutenb...

Prevention is of paramount importance in tunnel engineering, especially in operation tunnel. In this study, the deformation data of Suzhou Metro Line 1 are used to evaluate the health of shield tunnel during operation. Firstly, the relationship between effective ratio of bending rigidity and tunnel deformation is analyzed, the results show that the...

Stable and continuous remote sensing land-cover mapping is important for agriculture, ecosystems, and land management. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are promising methods for achieving this goal. However, the large number of high-quality training samples required to train a CNN is difficult to acquire. In practice, imbalanced and noisy label...

The flow over a wedge with activation energy and chemical reaction gains widespread applications in compound creations, food processing, insulation, oil reservoirs, catalysis, etc. The vast applicability of activation energy with a binary chemical reaction comprising multiple diffusions and the time-dependent nature of the entropy-optimized flow ha...

This research aims to identify the factors that affect the export of steel products and then prioritize them using the Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment (WASPAS) method. This industry has a crucial role in various countries and the company involved in the case study is one of the three largest steel exporters in Iran. In our study, 56 effe...

The well-known area-yield crop insurance contract, guaranteeing a certain percent of normal yield over an insured area, is losing its effectiveness due to poor quality yield data. This paper introduces a “satellite-derived crop health index” as an alternative to yield data in such an insurance model. The new approach was implemented in the 2020 cro...

To solve the drawbacks of existing picture enhancement methods which include the error that occur in the pixel intensity expression, a fuzzy inference-centered contextual-dissimilarity histogram equalization (FICDHE) approach is suggested. Proposed system has three components. The first module generates intensity membership functions based on predi...

This paper considers the problem of effective feature extraction of acoustic signals from oil and gas pipelines under different working conditions. A feature extraction of pipeline leakage detection method is proposed based on multi-feature entropy fusion and local linear embedding (LLE). First, seven kinds of commonly used entropy which can reflec...

This study proposes the feature representation method of audible sound (AS) signal in the grinding process. The extracted sound feature is provided as the input for the machine learning model to predict the machining surface roughness. Firstly, a sensitive EEMD-IMPE feature set is extracted from the AS signal basing on the combination of the ensemb...

We derive entropy conserving and entropy dissipative overlapping domain formulations for systems of nonlinear hyperbolic equations in conservation form, such as would be approximated by overset mesh methods. The entropy conserving formulation imposes a two-way coupling at the artificial interface boundaries through nonlinear penalty functions that...

Transmuted distributions have been centered of focus for researchers recently due to their flexibility and applicability in statistics. However, the only few contributions have considered estimation for mixture of transmuted lifetime models especially under Bayesian methods has been explored more recently. We have considered the Bayesian estimation...

In this work, a numerical study of stationary laminar mixed convection in a ventilated square cavity has been presented. The cavity is filled with different nanofluids and contains two gates (ports) to enter and exit the flow. The straight vertical wall is maintained at a warm temperature, while the other walls are considered adiabatic. The equatio...

Studying basic parameters of heat and thermodynamics may explore new principles in science. Gaseous and solid atoms under transitional behaviors can explore remarkable advances in chemical and physical sciences. An anomaly in the first law of thermodynamics can be recognized explicitly when the transitional behaviors of atoms are in the study. By g...

One of the important areas of heart research is investigating how heart activity changes during aging. In this research, we employed complexity-based techniques to analyze how heart activity varies based on the age of subjects. For this purpose, the heart rate variability (HRV) of 54 healthy subjects (30 M, 24 F, 28.5-76 years old) in three differe...

A new method aimed at endoscopic color images’ local contrast enhancement is proposed, based on local sliding histogram equalization with adaptive threshold limitation, color distortions correction, and image brightness preservation. For this, the original RGB image, represented as a tensor of size M x N x 3, is transformed into a matrix of size M...

We construct a new family of non-parametric statistical manifolds by means of a two-parameter class of deformed exponential functions, that includes functions with power-law, linear and sublinear rates of growth. The manifolds are modelled on weighted, mixed-norm Sobolev spaces that are especially suited to this purpose, in the sense that an import...

There is a close coupling interaction between digital inclusive finance and common affluence. By constructing the digital inclusive finance and common affluence measurement index system and selecting the panel data of China from 2014 to 2020, the digital inclusive finance index and common affluence index and their coupling coordination status are m...

Complex network states are characterized by the interplay between system's structure and dynamics. One way to represent such states is by means of network density matrices, whose von Neumann entropy characterizes the number of distinct microstates compatible with given topology and dynamical evolution. In this Letter, we propose a maximum entropy p...

Quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is usually stated as a bound on the expectation value of null components of the stress energy tensor at a point in terms of second null shape variations of the entanglement entropy at the same point. It can be recast as the statement that the sign of the second null shape variation of the relative entropy of any...

Traditional feature selection algorithms rarely consider the dynamic misalignment between different time series, and have poor fault tolerance and robustness. In this paper, a fault feature selection method for rolling bearings based on Dynamic Time Warped Related Searches (DTWRS) is proposed. Firstly, the bearing fault feature set is constructed,...

Entanglement is one of the most fundamental features of quantum systems. In this work, we obtain the entanglement spectrum and entropy of Floquet noninteracting fermionic lattice models and build their connections with Floquet topological phases. Topological winding and Chern numbers are introduced to characterize the entanglement spectrum and eige...

Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2010 to 2019, this paper measured the coupling coordination development of energy-economy-carbon emissions and investigated its regional differences and spatial convergence. The research methods in this paper include entropy weight technique method for order preference by similarity to an ideal...

We employ an exact solution of the thermal bath Lindblad master equation with the Liouvillian superoperator that takes into account both dynamic and environment-induced intermode couplings to study the speed of evolution and quantum speed limit (QSL) times of a open multi-mode bosonic system. The time-dependent QSL times are defined from quantum sp...

This book presents selected entropy-based applications in economics, finance and management research. The high-quality studies included in this book propose and discuss new tools and concepts derived from information theory to investigate various aspects of entropy with assorted applications. A wide variety of tools based on entropy confirms that e...

A new Lossy Causal Temporal Convolutional Neural Network Autoencoder for anomaly detection is proposed in this work. Our framework uses a rate-distortion loss and an entropy bottleneck to learn a compressed latent representation for the task. The main idea of using a rate-distortion loss is to introduce representation flexibility that ignores or be...

Probability distributions and their families play an effective role in statistical modeling and statistical analysis. Recently, researchers have been increasingly interested in generating new families with high flexibility and low number of milestones. We propose and study a new family of continuous distributions. Relevant properties are presented....

At present, most of the encryption algorithms based on chaotic systems use dissipative chaotic systems. However, the dissipative chaotic systems have attractors and are easy to reconstruct, which leads to potential security risks in the process of data transmission. Therefore, a novel ﬁve-dimensional conservative hyperchaotic system is proposed in...

In this paper we study the distribution of order statistics of the inverse Pareto distribution. We consider the single and product moment of order statistics from inverse Pareto distribution. Also, we establish some recurrence relation for single moments of order statistics. The exact analytical expressions of entropy, residual entropy and past res...

State-of-the-art pre-trained language models (PLMs) outperform other models when applied to the majority of language processing tasks. However, PLMs have been found to degrade in performance under distribution shift, a phenomenon that occurs when data at test-time does not come from the same distribution as the source training set. Equally as chall...

A universal upper limit on the entropy contained in a localized quantum system of a given size and total energy is expressed by the so-called Bekenstein bound. In a previous paper [Buoninfante, L. et al. 2022], on the basis of general thermodynamic arguments, and in regimes where the equipartition theorem still holds, the Bekenstein bound has been...

First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties for multi-component Co-based superalloy systems and explored the effect of alloying on stabilizing the γ ′ phase. First, the comparisons were carried out for the γ ′ phase in Co 3 (Al,TM) (TM being transition metals) and Ni 3 Al systems between the...

The real-world data tends to be heavily imbalanced and severely skew the data-driven deep neural networks, which makes Long-Tailed Recognition (LTR) a massive challenging task. Existing LTR methods seldom train Vision Transformers (ViTs) with Long-Tailed (LT) data, while the off-the-shelf pretrain weight of ViTs always leads to unfair comparisons....

We describe a general program for studying the dynamics of surjective endomorphisms of algebraic varieties that are amenable to techniques from the minimal model program. We obtain density results on the pre-periodic points of surjective endomorphisms of varieties admitting an int-amplified endomorphism, and reduce certain cases of the Medvedev-Sca...

Training labels for graph embedding algorithms could be costly to obtain in many practical scenarios. Active learning (AL) algorithms are very helpful to obtain the most useful labels for training while keeping the total number of label queries under a certain budget. The existing Active Graph Embedding framework proposes to use centrality score, d...

Since the appearance in China of the first cases, the entire world has been deeply affected by the flagellum of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. There have been many mathematical approaches trying to characterize the data collected about this serious issue. One of the most important aspects for attacking a problem is knowing what inform...

This paper proposes the 4-parameter odd Lomax generalized exponential distribution for the study of engineering and COVID-19 data. The statistical and mathematical properties of this distribution such as a linear representation of the probability density function, survival function, hazard rate function, moments, quantile function, order statistics...

Nonequilibrium processes break time-reversal symmetry and generate entropy. Living systems are driven out-of-equilibrium at the microscopic level of molecular motors that exploit chemical potential gradients to transduce free energy to mechanical work, while dissipating energy. The amount of energy dissipation, or the entropy production rate (EPR),...

The monitoring of rotating machinery has now become a fundamental activity in the industry, given the high criticality in production processes. Extracting useful information from relevant signals is a key factor for effective monitoring: studies in the areas of Informative Frequency Band selection (IFB) and Feature Extraction/Selection have demonst...

This paper presents the first successful drone detection results using a 5G network as a source of illumination in a passive radar system. Furthermore, a novel adaptive strategy for signal integration is shown. The proposed approach is based on the Rényi entropy. It allows one to select time frames with a densely allocated downlink channel both in...

SARS-CoV-2 has a single-stranded RNA genome (+ssRNA), and synthesizes structural and non-structural proteins (nsps). All 16 nsp are synthesized from the ORF1a, and ORF1b regions associated with different life cycle preprocesses, including replication. The regions of ORF1a synthesizes nsp1 to 11, and ORF1b synthesizes nsp12 to 16. In this paper, we...

In this work, we show that if f is a uniformly continuous map defined over a Polish metric space, then the set of f‐invariant measures with zero metric entropy is a Gδ$G_\delta$ set (in the weak topology). In particular, this set is generic if the set of f‐periodic measures is dense in the set of f‐invariant measures. This settles a conjecture pose...

Green development is a low-carbon, sustainable model for the achievement of the harmonious development of the economy and nature. Nowadays, the problems of resource scarcity and environmental pollution in the process of economic development are pressing, and the promotion of green development is the general trend. As one of the three growth poles o...

This paper proposes a novel spatiotemporal chaotic system with two-dimensional dynamic pseudo-random coupled map lattices (2D-DPRCML) based on partitioned elementary cellular automata (PECA). In the system iteration, coupling lattices are chosen based on the chaotic PECA, and the iterative results of PECA are also employed as the perturbation for t...

The extent of failure evaluation depends on the complexity and significance of electronic products. However, traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) has many shortcomings, which brings large difficulty to failure evaluating work. This paper uses the double hierarchy hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set (DHHFLTS) and the K-means clustering...

Quantum random number generators find applications in both quantum and classical communications schemes, particularly in security protocols where they can be used as a source of random seed or key material. In this work, we describe the implementation of a quantum random number generator on-board a nanosatellite deployed in low Earth orbit. Our gen...

The economic and social structures of Chinese cities are constantly transforming in recent years. The coordinated development of economic, social, and ecological environment is an important path to achieving the construction of high-quality development. Taking Guangdong Province, the largest economic province in China, as an example, the evaluation...

While witnessing the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era and beyond, quantum federated learning (QFL) has recently become an emerging field of study. In QFL, each quantum computer or device locally trains its quantum neural network (QNN) with trainable gates, and communicates only these gate parameters over classical channels, without costl...

Optimized rain gauge networks minimize their input and maintenance costs. Satellite precipitation observations are particularly susceptible to the effects of terrain elevation, vegetation, and other topographical factors, resulting in large deviations between satellite and ground-based precipitation data. Satellite precipitation observations are mo...

The performance of a gearbox is sensitive to failures, especially in the long-term high speed and heavy load field. However, the multi-fault diagnosis in gearboxes is a challenging problem because of the complex and non-stationary measured signal. To obtain fault information more fully and improve the accuracy of gearbox fault diagnosis, this paper...

Mathematical generalizations of the additive Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon entropy formula have been numerous since the 1960s. In this paper we seek an interpretation of the Rényi and Tsallis q-entropy formulas single parameter in terms of physical properties of a finite capacity heat-bath and fluctuations of temperature. Ideal gases of non-interacting p...