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Engineering Design - Science topic

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STEM fue el tema principal de la conferencia internacional ASTE 2019, con al menos 8 pósteres, 27 presentaciones orales y 3 talleres que promovieron las aulas STEM, la instrucción/enseñanza STEM, las lecciones STEM, los campamentos de verano STEM, los clubes STEM y las escuelas STEM sin proporcionar una conceptualización o definición operativa de lo que es STEM. Algunas presentaciones defendían la integración de las disciplinas, pero el ejemplo proporcionado fue principalmente prácticas "indagatorias" y de "diseño de ingeniería" que de hecho no diferían del tipo de actividades en el aula hands-on/minds-off mal conceptualizadas y epistemológicamente incongruentes.
Por lo tanto, vale la pena considerar:
(1) ¿Por qué lo llamamos STEM si no difiere de las prácticas aplicadas durante décadas (por ejemplo, indagación, actividades hands-on)?
(2) ¿Qué beneficios (si los hubiere) puede aportar esta mentalidad/tendencia de STEMinificación a la educación científica y su investigación?
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1) Moda
2) Igualdad supuestamente.
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AutoCad and Solid Works are two of the most famous CAD software for Engineering Design.
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For 3D, Solid works is the best!
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As we know in this epidemic, everything seems difficult to control. which research I hope can discuss and share their research ideas at this time. Especially with regard to product design and mechanical innovation design
In addition, what are the innovative design methods for products? (except TRIZ,QFD,C-K theory)?
What product innovation design theory can be combined with TRIZ in addition to the combination of QFD theory and TRIZ theory?
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  • TRIZ can be combined with several other methods. I personally combined it with
  • FMEA for improving design/problem-solving considering risk assessment,
  • FBS (Function Behaviour Structure) thery (Gero, 1990) to improve early and conceptual design,
  • LCA to enhance eco-design/eco-innovation to have at the same time a quantification of the environemtnal impacts of the initial problem and the provided solutions. in this field I developed a set of guidelines.
  • Finally I am using TRIZ also for classifying documents (papers and patents) about different products avvording to evolutionary logic.
  • If you are interested, please see my research.
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Engineer design is unimaginable without standardization. However, as they are now, the standards have not been adaptable and they cannot be used to predict future requirements. In the last couple of decades self-organizing has been increasingly used for solving complex problems in certain contexts. The intention of this question is getting answers regarding the introduction of expectations of changes in the development process. How can we expect the unexpected?
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The answer is simple. The nature teaches us that strong ecosystems are diverse. The medicine and epidemiology teach us that strong species are genetically diverse and physiologically robust.
The way to implement those approaches in technology is to have multiple designs that will mutually compete and which can adjust to changing external and internal conditions dynamically.
When we look at paleontology, we see that most of the time ecosystems adjust. Some species are disappearing and others are taking their place. Yet there are observed event of mass extinctions.
What happened there? The used design was unable to cope with too much of the change that occurs too quickly. The way to go in engineering is to develop self-organization adaptive systems that will get the capability of healing.
We are yet to discover those principles upon which such a system will be working. Our best teachers are biology and microbiology with their endless capabilities to self-regulate, self-replicate, and self-repair.
Computationally mimicking such systems is one of the core parts of my research. It is a really fascinating area to be in.
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Selected research from many authors dealing with the discussed issues can be found in the project "Complexity Digests ..."
See for details:
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Factors of safety (FoS) are a part of engineering design. For bolts joining, some value of FoS is required to ensure the system safety. Thus, which range value of FoS is suitable for the bolts joining according to its application.
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Nature of load, shear load, ductility etc.
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Unlike computational fluid dynamics (CFD), I have noticed that most studies reporting the use of physical scale models for airflow or temperature study rarely present any information on model validation. As it is widely known, model validation is a step when building a mathematical model for a real system. However, this is not clear in the case of physical scale modeling. I want to know, "is model validation, not an important step when adopting a scale modeling approach?"
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In short: scale model experiments are one of the multiple steps in a design procedure. The complementary steps provide a validation of the procedure as a whole.
Of course, similarly to numerical calculation validation, there are elementary steps one should carry. This would be calibrating your instruments before using them in a scale model experiment. Such steps are often reported in good publication, by indicating the accuracy of the meaurenents (reproducibility, absolute accuracy...).
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This is Gagandeep Singh pursuing Masters in Electrical and Computer Engineering with the research focus on the design of the PV solar system. 
Currently, I am carrying out the pre-feasibility, feasibility study and engineering design of a PV system for one of our University's building. Project work also investigates the technical issues involved, and whether such a system would be considered financially feasible by businesses in today’s market. To carry out the project I need of the real-time electrical consumption data of the building. Since the building is a part of the university, so I was supposed to go through many stages or levels to reach the administration for getting the access of required data. However, all my efforts went in vain, because the administration refused to provide the data by saying it's not actual or formal project work. 
Based on this, my professor has asked me to shift the project's objective from Canada to some other part, and later if possible we can scale up the data as per Canada's requirements. After doing a lot of research, I've decided that India is the most suitable country for my project work. 
Therefore, I would like to know what is the possibility if I request you to help me for providing the real-time electrical consumption data of the project.  The data can be from your ongoing project or the project that has been done in the past by you. 
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Incentives play a key role in enhancing the economic feasibility of renewable energy investments. Delays in the project because of permitting issues might take up to 50 % of project time in some cases and which rises the project cost. Without subsidies and with given development of investment cost and production rate, PV System is not feasible for the company. With 30 % incentives, the payback time was 15 years and with 15 % incentives, the payback time is 18 years.
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I want to design with uncertainty. Anyone pls share your ideas
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Dear Rajkumar,
A closed-loop supply chain essentially combines the traditional supply chain (forward logistics) with reverse logistics, considering the item after it’s served its original purpose. Once the item has been manufactured, shipped, and distributed through a reseller, the manufacturer works to encourage the item’s return once it’s no longer functional or needed. Reverse logistics then kick in, and the items can either be repaired and resold, or they can be broken down for reuse in future products. The “closed-loop” term refers to the fact that the chain is intended to maintain and recover value from unused products, while helping to create as little waste as possible.
How to design?
The design of supply chain network involves strategic level decisions, such as locations of facilities for distribution and manufacturing and selection of suppliers. During this planning horizon, the parameters of the business environment such as customers’ demand may change. Stochastic programming for classical models, Scenario-based robust optimization (The Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model (Scenariobased Robust Optimization Model) are the important and effective channel by which you can design for supply chain. A scenario-based robust model has two types of variables: (1) structural or design variables, whose optimal values are not dependent upon the realization of uncertain input parameters, (2) control variables, whose optimal values depend upon the realization of uncertain parameters, as well as the optimal values of the design variables.
Once the original product is made, it is sent along the supply chain as usual, going to a distributor and retailer, eventually reaching the customer. But that’s where new reverse logistics come in the product must be recyclable or manufacturers must offer take-back programs and returns to close the supply chain.
Ashish
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(Proposal) Oil Refinery Production: What is the company's goal?
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[Purpose: get Engineers & Scientists thinking outside their box ... think -large- problems. What's possible today vs. needs for tomorrow?]
Question: Are you interested in increasing your sales income by several orders of magnitude? Are you willing to think outside the box? If so, please read on. This is a large proposal, the size of NASA's Apollo Space program back in the early 1960s.
A new level of Computers and Software will be required for this Oil Production proposal. Today's Computers are Algebraic, i.e. bare bones, conceived designs that run similar to a 'model T' car. They 'run' along at a '30 mph' clip. We need fast super Computers like the Wright Brothers 'Airplane' that can run at a '3,000 mph' clip. These super Computers need 'Automatic Differentiation' based technologies; i.e. smart thinking abilities. NASA realized this when starting the Apollo space program; spent tons to get it and put us on the moon.
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Oil production depends on many factors; e.g. Supply, Demand, present inventory, etc. An oil company may have many refineries with many distillation units. How can a company simulate extracting products 'a', 'b', and 'c' from its crude oil? Assume the company wants product 'a' on the west coast, 'b' in the middle of US, and 'c' on the east coast. Assume the company has refineries 'x' on west coast, 'y' in middle US, and 'z' on east coast. How does one model such a company's oil production so as to produce/refine the 'right' amounts of each product at each refinery site in order to meet the company's goal of maximizing profits?
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) will be used to model the crude oil distillation for each distillation unit at each site; i.e. many PDEs must be solved at once! Are there computers large enough to handle such problems today? Are there plans for some super computer that will be able to handle many (1,000s) PDEs at once?
With maintenance of distillation units being continual, e.g. fix one, stop another, this will be a constant problem when trying to simulate the next day's crude oil work load. For example, assume a company has 600 distillation units overall. That means a computer program would be required to solve 600 PDEs ASAP; i.e. 10 hours of PDEs. My past experience with modeling in FortranCalculus™ language/compiler, I was taught that a modeling requiring 'Tmod' time to execute the model, would require around 2'Tmod' time for the optimal solution. That would then get us into the 20 hr. time range for 600 PDEs. Too long! Need faster computers and solvers to get into reasonable solution times. Ideas how this could be done today? For more, visit http://fortrancalculus.info/apps/fc-compiler.html ... Solves Algebraic Equations through Ordinary Differential Equations.
Many people thought that the Wright Brother's idea of an 'airplane' would never fly. But, what if it did? What if Oil sales income doubled or more? Would crude oil prices increase? (Everyone is going to want more for their piece of the pie, right?) How would this effect your company?
John D Rockefeller was quoted saying, "If you want to succeed you should strike out on new paths, rather than travel the worn paths of accepted success."
Any future John D Rockefeller's reading this proposal? Are you interested in increasing your company profits by several orders of magnitude? Does your company have a company goal or objective that all employees know about and follow? If so, continue reading on this proposal by reading my article "Company Goal: Increase Productivity?" (a dozen pages). Go to web page eBook on Engineering Design Optimization using Calculus level Methods, A Casebook Approach and click on the 'download' link, its free!
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Dear Phil,
The complexity of the refining business grows every day with new markets, new feedstocks and new regulations. Additionally, refineries are facing declining profit margins. I think, to sustain their profitability, refineries must leverage process simulation technology and capabilities to achieve best-in-class operational excellence. I think advance process simulation could be more helpful towards the inclining profit margin. Couple of areas where it can use effectively to reduce the market burden.
1. Heat exchanger maintenance and monitoring-thorough simulation of heat exchanger operations within the broader process simulation model. The heat exchanger design tool must also simulate all major heat exchanger types used in the refining industry. Furthermore, the solution should allow process engineers to easily develop and integrate their heat exchangers’ simulation as part of the refinery flowsheet without leaving their familiar process simulation environment.
2. Column operations troubleshooting-an integrated process simulator that accurately simulates the thermal and hydraulic behavior of the column unit to provide enough information to support column operations. With the correct process simulation software, users can accurately simulate thermo-hydraulic functioning of columns based on their construction and operating conditions. As a result, they can better understand the columns’ behavior and avoid operational mishaps. Simulating the operation of the column in the broader setting of the overall process enables users to identify root causes of the problems and determine the optimal point of operation for the overall process unit.
3. Integrated refining and gas plant analysis-Refineries need a solution that meticulously simulates the entire gas plant including acid gas treatment units, sulfur recovery, tail gas units and flare systems together with the mainstream refining process units, such as distillation units and reactor units. Advanced simulation technology would provide the refiners enough confidence to push the levels of sour crudes closer to the limit the refinery can process while meeting regulations. Feed flexibility, capacity creep and operating expenditure optimization, enabled using integrated refining and gas plant process simulation, can save refiners millions each year in operating margins while ensuring maximum reliability and plant uptime. In addition, the rigorous simulation of the gas plant operation offers refineries visibility and the ability to better document their emission levels. This capability is valuable for boosting their profit margins.
4. Planning model update for refineries-The ideal option is to give refinery process engineers the ability to maintain the planning models with the help of advanced process simulation software that can offer a streamlined workflow to update the planning models, enabling frequent updates when the models become out of sync with the operating range of the refinery.
5. Refinery-wide process analysis-With an advanced integrated solution for process simulation and refinery planning, refineries can develop a refinery-wide process model out of their refinery-wide planning model in a relatively short period of time. The accuracy of the simulation model can be enhanced by selectively incorporating rigorous models of reactor units to the refinery-wide flowsheet.
Ashish
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- Could you please point me out to some Computer science, and Computer Engineering applications modeled, described, or analyzed using partial differential equations?
- Preferably, involving heat, reaction-diffusion, Poisson, or Wave equation.
- If possible in fuzzy environment.
Best regards
Sarmad.
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I suggest that you read
"Modeling Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks with Partial Differential Equations".
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RSPMatch09 software provides the spectra match ground motion data. When I check the default example given in the RSPMatch09 manual, the result matched.
First, I am trying to match the given ground motion data with MCE (maximum considered earthquake) or DBE (design based earthquake), the RSPMatch09 provides the spectra match with the spectra of the ground motion. However, I am unable to get the spectra match ground motion data for code based MCE or DBE level spectra match.
Next, can the RSPMatch09 provide the spectra match exactly with the code base spectra for MCE or DBE level earthquake. 
I am glad to receive some advice to get spectra match data.
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sir How can I download RSPMatch
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The goal is to connect ideas and concept in highlighting antagonisms and synergies
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Very nice question. Math can be induced from anything. So is physics.
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A factory manager has requested his engineer to design a packaging system which can process W number of apples loaded into the system at one time. This system should be able to produce 3 different packaging sizes: A, B and C.
The largest packaging size (A) must contain X1 number of apples per box where the total apples loaded into the system (W number of apples) shall be divided into 13 boxes, with 3 apples leftover to be used for sampling analysis. The medium size box (packing size B) must contain X2 number of apples where the loaded apples shall be divided into 25 boxes, with 8 apples leftover to be used for sampling analysis. Finally, the smallest box must contain X3 number of apples where the loaded apples shall be divided into 27 boxes, with 10 apples leftover to be used for sampling test.
What is the minimum value of W?
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If the numbers of leftover apples are changed to 4, 20 and 22, one of the solution is W = 11470. Not sure whether this is a minimum value or not?
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Hello there,
I would like to dig deeper into the concepts and techniques for learning with less data.
  1. Where would you recommend me to begin from ?
  2. What sources would you recommend me to refer to for techniques like Zero-shot, few-shot and K-shot?
  3. Also, is that any literature survey paper that can help me understand the concepts and techniques regarding learning with less data?
Kindly help me out. Thank You.
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You could have a look at transfer learning, where you can train with "less data".
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STEM are Science Technologies Engineer design Mathematics
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The main challenge of modern technical education is the сontinuous acceleration of technical progress and shortening of the products life cycle. Thus, the curriculums and courses are quickly aging and we need to keep them up to date. This process can be very complicated for traditional universities chained by bureacracy. The possible solution is trivial and well-known - individual curriculums, personal tutoring, project-based education that is deeply connected with business, science and real world applications. I heavily doubt in distance learning - in my opinion, it produces semi-professionals without real practical background and with lack of academic values. Nevertheless, distance learning can be effective for requalification and advanced courses, as well as for self-educational purposes.
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Since strains measured in the middle of the bars of SHPB by gauges don't represent what happens at specimen/bar interfaces, we must establish calibration files for both incident and transmitted bars. These files will be introduced to a post processing program.
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The article, "Evolution of Specimen Strain Rate in Split Hopkinson Bar Test," by H Shin and J-B Kim reports a method of validating the experimental result of the split Hopkinson bar. It cal also be used for the calibration of the instrument. The article can be downloaded at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0954406218813386
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STEM was the main topic at the 2019 ASTE international conference, with at least 8 posters, 27 oral presentations and 3 workshops promoting STEM classrooms, STEM instruction/teaching, STEM lessons, STEM summer camps, STEM clubs, and STEM schools without providing an operational conceptualization or definition of what STEM is. Some oral presentations advocated for disciplines integration, but the example provided were mainly "inquiry based" and "Engineering Design Process" practices which in fact did not differed from the overly used, poorly conceptualized and epistemologically incongruent hands on/minds off type of classroom activities.
Therefore, it is worth considering:
(1) Why do we call it STEM if it does not differ from practices being implemented for decades (e.g. inquiry, hands on activities)?
(2) What benefits (if any) can this STEMification mentality/trend bring to science education?
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STEM was first conceived as a collective concept by the National Science Foundation in the USA about 30 years ago out of concerns for the quality of undergraduate education , leading to the establishment of Project Kaleidoscope (Elrod, 2010). This and other American funded initiatives have tended to focus on individual teaching enhancements based on the premise that many evidence-based individual improvements will lead to a collective change. However, this has generally not worked out the way these funders originally anticipated.
American interest in STEM education increased rapidly following the publication of Friedman’s (2005) analysis that China and India were on course to overtake the USA in the global economy by surpassing their STEM educational output. Subsequently, other Western countries have followed America’s lead, such as the UK which ran a National HE STEM Programme (2013) from 2009 to 2012. STEM educational reforms are therefore mainly driven by economic rather that pedagogical concerns, leading Fairweather (2008: 6) to describe them as, “solutions in search of a problem”.
References
Elrod, S. (2010) Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for twenty-first-century STEM education. Liberal Education, 96(4), pp. 24-33.
Fairweather, J. (2008) Linking evidence and promising practices in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate education. Washington, DC: Board of Science Education, National Research Council, The National Academies.
Friedman, T. (2005) The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
National HE STEM Programme (2013) Enabling the HE sector to engage with schools, enhance curricula, support graduates and develop the workforce, http://www.hestem.ac.uk/.
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For a student research assignment/project myself and a team are tasked with creating a railway vehicle that must brake (mechanically) at high speeds. Our brake housing is to be made from carbon fiber and the brakes are to be attached to this housing, while facing inward to the rail which they will act upon. What methods can be used when joining mechanical metal parts to carbon fiber?
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There are several methods available, bolting, clinching, riveting, adhesive bonding or heat conduction joining. All have their advantages and disadvantages.
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We say that our students should have the capability to innovate once they graduate. At the same time companies seek talented and innovative graduates. So to what extent should industry (external forces) drive new learning and to what extent should (internal forces) new technology and research wisdom guide the curricula that address tomorrow's breakthroughs?
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Speaking from a chemical engineering perspective (spread out to chemistry and engineering) I think that creativity is claimed vastly more than it is delivered, and that innovation is rare, and largely should not be encouraged.
An important duty of the engineer is to be safe. Thus using proven techniques, materials and methods of design (especially design standards) means that the engineer is not relying on their own limited knowledge and experience, but that of others, generally largely experts in the field.
Something innovative is by definition untried and not well understood (though the innovators may kid themselves they do). Companies and individuals should only do so when they are sure they can cope with failure. Individual inventors commonly fail many times for every success. Many small and innovative companies go out of business for every successful rise you read about.
In chemical engineering degrees we run design projects as the capstone of the degree courses. We can encourage students to attempt a new process or market, safe in the knowledge that the plant will not actually built, so any errors of safe design or economic evaluation will not have consequences other than the loss of a few marks.
The fundamental safety feature of engineering is getting the sums right, and this should be the service that universities can deliver to industry, along with an awareness of some proven technology and techniques. The average graduate is not expected to come up with something totally new, and in my personal experience companies are very wary of novelty.
Many papers I have seen claiming to teach creativity in engineering give examples of the occasional group where one bright student (possibly with the help of a relative in the field) has come up with what sounds like a good idea, but offer no evidence of getting all graduates to produce even one good idea. Others talk about taking a holistic view. This I am happy with. We can teach ways to explore more options and consider wider aspects, which will sometimes suggest a different way of going about things. The example I give is this:
A factory is being doubled in size, so the effluent treatment is also being doubled, using the same design as before at a cost of say £5 million. Consider if you could spend some of that sum to improve the process to produce less effluent and/or to improve the current effluent plant.
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Dear Colleagues,
I have designed a pair of concentric ellipsoids, which are needed to be connected with each other to form a solid shell in .STL format.
Can I join them together?
Please help.
Thanks and Regards,
Hirak
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Dear Hirak,
I suppose that these two ellipsoids have the same shape, but the second one is a smaller (scaled) copy of the first ellipsoid?
You don't mention anything about what CAD software you have used for creation of these ellipsoids, but most of them have a function "Make a shell" from solid body. So, if you create the "big" ellipsoid as solid, than you can use the function to make a "Shell" and you will obtain what you looking for (I believe).
An example about how to make a shell form solid body in CAD software SolidWorks can be seen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlSXfTITlGE . After obtaining the shell ellipsoid you can save as in STL format and use it in FEA.
Regards,
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We are working on a high temperature and pressure process. As the system is lab scale we are using tubing. DEC provided us with the different tubing classes that can be used for the system. However, we found out that for two tubing classes, having same dia and wall thickness, the pressure and temperature ratings are different. Is there some difference in tube manufacturing process that results into varying T&P ratings? The tube data are as follows: (Both the tubes are SS 316/316L swagelok tubing)
Dia (inch)      Wall Thickness (inch)       Temperature (C)       Pressure (Psi)
0.5                       0.049                                 204                        195
0.5                       0.049                                 204                        515
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The following variables should be considered when ordering
tubing for use with Swagelok tube fittings:
■ Surface finish
■ Material
■ Hardness
■ Wall thickness.
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I am doing a project on Centrifugal Pumps - basic design, flow analysis, increasing pump efficiency. I have tried designing using formulae formulated by IIT Madras. But unable to find some factors (constants) using their data book. Also the design of Casing is not in full detail.
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Pls describe your new questions and problems.
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I am attempting to be controversial in the run up to the festive holidays.
Therefore, my question is based on an observation that major advances in engineering methods (such as fracture mechanics, damage tolerance etc) appear to follow major engineering disasters; such as frequent airplane crashes, the failure of large structures such as oil rigs, chemical plant, power plant etc.  
To what extent does this observation that industrial needs drive innovation in structural analysis hold true?  
Or is a counter view that academic research drives innovation in structural analysis true?    
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Hello everyone
First of all...advance wishes of Christmas to all of you.
My opinion…yes.
No one, even the normal public outside engineering community accepts a catastrophic mechanical failure (even if causalities are not involved). A such disaster could not be viewed in its scientific aspects alone, it have financial, social and political implications also. If a component is not capable to provide its functional aspect up to mark (for example efficiency of a power plant) there will be only financial implication. Engineers will have a chance to improve it in next version. But if a mechanical failure of magnitude, which is considered as disaster occurs…loss will breach the threshold of acceptance. Such a failure could even lead shutting an organization/company.
There is a big history of engineering disasters https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_structural_failures_and_collapses and this question could be replied in light of any one of it.
Today for the design of all critical engineering components codes and/or standards are available and one such code is ASME BPVC. During the late 1800's, accidents were occurring at the rate of one every four days, resulting in 50,000 deaths annually (https://www.michigan.gov/documents/dleg/dleg_bcc_boiler_division_history_254535_7.pdf). due to explosions of pressure vessels, which forced to develop ASME-BPVC (http://www.psig.sg/Birth%20of%20a%20Code.html). It was a humanitarian need but definitely an industrial one also. I don’t know if birth of a design code could be fit in the definition of innovation. Birth may be a consolidation of existing scientific knowledge. But definitely the improvement in these codes over time come out through lot of innovation.
As per my experience, whenever a component works well everyone claps and post success data is not analyzed that critically. But if there is a mechanical failure each nook and corner of component is analyzed critically, engineers work up to their limits and something new comes out. Every disaster forces the scientific community to rethink, a lot of money is pumped and something new comes out.
Regards
Naveen Bhatt
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I am thinking of a way to mimic the internal lumen surface topography of rat blood vessel. Therefore I need to know the physical parameter of the surface structure like its roughness, height of fibrillar, diameter of fibrillar, the distance between fibrillar.Can this be characterised by using Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM)? Can anyone help me out? Thanks a lot. =D
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Look at this link it may be helpful. Good luck.
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I’m planning to design a portable dental chair, and i would like some advice about recommended techniques. I’m really looking to find out what you’d suggest to be the most appropriate material and method in order to design a sturdy structure like airline in which specified size and allowable weight are already being fixed for luggage.
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Dear Syahmi Uzair, the opinion of Shuaibu Ochetengwu Yakubu is reasonable. The requirement of maximal size decreasing may be satisfy if we use transformer-like design of this chair. Such construction assumes the application of reliable joints and bars which were developed in robotics (manipulators, exoskeletons) and prostheses (artificial legs and hands) for medical needs.
Good luck!  
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1.Have you carried out FEA on an engineering design of a either pressure or non pressure vessel?
2.Does the cost of FEA justify any change in the design comparing the original design to the modified design?
3. Does FEA prove the probable life of a design and has the new design actually lasted as long as predicated in the FEA?
An answer to 1 or more of the questions would be appreciated. With thanks.   
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The London Millennium Bridge was designed using FEA, which proved that the bridge would be stable. After completion it was found to have the famous wobble. The FEA software was used to ensure stability at 2 Hz, but not at 1 Hz. I read, but cannot find any relevant source, that the grid spacing in the model used was such that the 1 Hz problem would not have been detected.
If FEA has been used elsewhere and the results verified then it may be possible to use it again with lesser need for experimental verification. If yours is the first time I would park it as interesting but needs verification. Credible, but not verified credible.
Your question [3] would expose the weaknesses of FEA  - are you sure of how the material properties change with ageing? The effects of corrosion, or thermal cycling? I think (= I'm guessing) that either generous safety factors are used, or accelerated ageing physical tests (as found in the nuclear and aeronautic industries).
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Suitable ratio of water in increasing the performance of the diesel engine
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This is for Mr. Sharma: the reference ICMPE.pdf is missing an important measurement: that is the performance with no water addition in the numerous graphs. In most graphs it was the lower water content that seemed best so a "zero" point of reference would be most helpful.
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I use solution tank with gas inlet which drives the solution to outlet. so, when  I give a pressure in the initial, the rate of solution outcome decreases as time goes.
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Dear Balaganapathi,
If you are able to buy a new nozzle I strongly suggest you to buy an ultrasonic impact nozzle. With this nozzle, you will be able to process films at constant infuse rate (even though microliters per minutes). I think following articles will help you to understand the working mechanism.
All the best.
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Visual thinking helps engineers to reason technical problems as well as ideate design solutions. Schemes and sketches are fully applies by engineers for their work, in adición, visual thinking is linked to creativity. 
Current engineering educations includes CAD Geometry into engineering graphics subjects, but traditional sketching is displaced, meaning a decrease on spatial abilities and so visual thinking skills. Despite creative aspects are considered in for engineering educations, visual thinking is not. What do you think? What is your experience as educators/students?
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I have taught problem solving, and tell the students that expressing a problem visually on paper is often a very helpful step.  Some research showed that for groups who were given the same problem, the ones who were told to draw it first came to an answer much more quickly than those who were not.  (Can't give the reference now.)
One of the difficulties is that students no longer write or draw.  The physical act of carrying this out helps memory.  In addition if the teacher draws something on the blackboard and the students copy it, they see how to construct it and are less likely to make mistakes by putting lines in the wrong places.  I find students get standard engineering symbols wrong because they copy without understanding.  This is also relevant to languages such as Chinese and Japanese, where the order of constructing the word is important.
I would say the educators have in general forgotten this.
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I am looking for some studies on the quantitative and usage evolution of loudspeakers production.
Is seems obvious that since the invention of the loudspeaker late 19th century, the number of loudspeaker produced and in service has always increased as well as their functionality spread-out, but I could not find studies on that subject yet.
If you know some works on the matter, please let me know.
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I am observing speaker consumption from last two years in Chennai & suburban region (South India), There are hundred of labours involved in this seasonal work & They are assembling customised speaker in the rural region.
Urban population buys through online.
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when i meshing it in ansys ICEM its blade don't mesh. so kindly suggest me how to design and to mesh it 
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I will try to provide you with a mesh, if you can share your CAD file (iges or step format).
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There may be any conversion factor or method. Please assist me in this regard. Thank you 
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For fundamentals of the dc chopper, you can read in "Power Electronics- circuits, devices and applications" by: M. H. Rashid. For advanced informations, you can go through "Pwer Semiconductor Controlled Drives" by G. K. Dubey, and "Power Semiconductor Drives" by: S. B. Slemon et. al.
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I'm interesting the design process of some goods or services produced by foresters. Could you share your experiences  on it? If somebody in educational institutions share their lecturing background, I'll be grateful for their contribution.
All the best
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Dear Friends,
Many thanks for your contributions.
Kenan
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Dear friends in the similar field: Happy new year and all the best wishes for you! Can anyone suggest papers about built Motor for skylaunch?
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
Sincerely yours
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Zouhir,
Are you asking about reaction motors (like a rocket) or for electrical motors that are fit for powering aerospace mechanisms?
If it's the first type, it would be useful to know the thrust levels and impulse that you are looking for: and whether you demand a solid-state motor (basically a large firework) or need the thrust to be throttled, which requires either an electric or chemical engine.
Simply, more details please.
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Methods based on functional decomposition and morphology belong to the so called systematic design methodology. They are widely taught in accademia, but their diffusion in industry has not reached the same success. Some hypothesis have been formulated by literature, but it is still not possible to identify concrete reasons.
What do you think about that?
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Because everyone believes that without these methods, you can still design well. There is no comparison between design following a design method and not following. (How can we vigorously compare?)
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We are facing the problem of grunt noises in our steering systems. Please advise whether we should increase the number of balancing grooves on the spool.
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thanks
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Currently, I am doing a project in simulating and improving a production line using WITNESS software. However, I do not know how to feed the material from 1 machine to another using labor. I have only managed to move my labor to the 1st machine and he just stopped there afterwards. Can some one guide me the steps on solving this?
Thanks in advance. 
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If u choose the machine u can edit the labor rule. I'm not sure on the instruction you should put in,the manual could help you i guess.
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Moreover, not necessarily improve the condition but stop irritation and aggravation and thus improve the patients wellbeing and enabling recovery and strengthening of the supporting muscles. 
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Dear Harry, 
There is evidence in Anatomy and Kinesiology that the fact that the angle between the ischial and ileum part of the pelvis in humans always give backwards rotation of the pelvis when sitting on a "chair" . By this the spine is forced into  kyphosis wich add a tremendous lot of extra compression forces on our discs. 
By combining the useful designs that provide adapatation to lower the position of the knee as in the tilted seat solution ( Stokke) , the ball, a saddleseat we came up withe the patented (designer Kokke) double curved ( two parabole curves) seat. It is called the Zami ( www.zamilife.com) , and gives immediate and simple solution to keep the spine in the protective lordosis we should also have in the optimal standing posture.
The "chair"as we use now widely is a cultural product and was already in the 18th century pointed as causal factor in getting spinal deformations as scoliosis in girls or  (serious)kyphosis in children leading to low back pain .  
Orthopedic care to prevent our spines of bad postures during growth and care in the way we do our sitting work ( also in our youth)  can prevent or postpone a lot of troubles in the most common lifestyle diseases reagrding the locomotor system. 
piet
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We are not engineers, so we want to know of some problems that appear adjusting different parameters in design of engines. Using artifical intelligence methods, we think that can infer the different values and get an optimal configuration.
Thanks
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This deals with heuristics type of knowledge.
A methodology is presented for for obtaining ENGINEERING DESIGN SOLUTIONS. Methodology can be extended to engine design easily.
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i.e. toxicity PLA, ABS, and other materials which are using in 3d printing
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To give you a more precise answer please define toxicity in your specific application. There is a vast difference evaluating the toxicity of a material i.e. for industrial usage contrary to clinical purposes.
If you want to use both materials for implants, i´d strongly disadvise it. The same with longterm skin contact. I know that "lego" was mentioned. But there are differences between purity grades of ABS.
PLA was described as modified corn starch - this tells nothing about its toxicity at all. It  may be toxic after cells (and mostly) water degrade the material, it becomes an acid (Poly-Lactide-Acid). The question remains how fast it degrades and how fast the by-products are reduced by the organism.
I absolutely agree with the powder bed systems as well as the photopolymer systems.
Again, it is of uttermost importance if your focus is the usage of the technology or the usage of its products (and in which context).
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expecting your suggestions
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Dear friend, very interesting question. I am interested to your question and will explain in detail soon (similar to my case). A bit hurry for this time, please remind me.
However, the easiest way is searching the related document by typing the keywords into google scholar. You will find some related articles.
If yet to find the articles, do not hesitate to let me know. InsyaALLAH I will help you in detail.
Good luck. Dr Zol Bahri - Universiti Malaysia Perlis
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In magic formula tire model, tire forces are depended on Fz0 and lambdaFz0, but Fz0 is a constant parameter. Therefore, should we change the scaling factor lambdaFz0 in order to make F'z0  equal to tire normal load?
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first you need to search for the wheel nominal load Fz0 if you didn't find it search for the maximal wheel load ( the wheel that you are working on ) , then use some kind of percentage from your choice in general 80% of the maximal wheel load if good enough so Fz0=Fzmax*80% for exemple ... i hope this helps inchallah .
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Dissimilar Joint specimens for tensile test purpose
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We have welded such things in recent past. SS and Cu. Please specify if stresses are your concern. We have used one generic design, most probably as suggested by Sergio and Enrique. And also another improvised one to adjust stresses.
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The methodology for my PhD project is based on data collected from the existing published paper, such as journal(figures), thesis and articles et al..
I was wondering if any researcher knows is this a proper way to analysis the data? the other question is when I use the plotdigitizer(software) to read the figure's data(from other reaserchers' publication) is it acceptable to do this in PhD(the data is not given by the institutes or the researcher, it it OK)? 
I raise this questions is because I have seen there are plenty of publications in the field of creep damage analysis which using the existed data and I could not find out if the author obtain those data from the original researcher or read by themselves and cites the resource?
I am really appreciate for your help!
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In my view it is ok if you digitize data from the literature, analyze and apply the data for your PhD project and cite the original.
For the analysis of creep and creep damage some features may be of importance Creep data for the same material tested in different laboratories may deviate essentially, since creep is very sensitive to the type of processing, tempering, grain size, etc. 
If possible, collect creep vs time  curves, rather than some characteristics derived from creep curves. In some papers you may find minimum creep rate vs. stress curves, please ask the authors, how the minimum creep rate was computed.
It is also important to document, how (at which rate) the specimen was loaded, before the creep process started. 
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Hi
Friends, if someone has found a good source on the application of value engineering in the design of construction projects, please refer to my source
Thanks
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Vijayaraghavan, Thank you for the excellent references. Should help Amir in his  quest for the Value Engineering research., Satyamurti
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I find many strange problems in using ultra-low noise operational amplifier. It's very difficult to keep it in stable condition. The power supply is carefully designed and optimized. And everything is realized according to suggestions given in datasheet. I can't get noise performance given by ADA4898's datasheet. 
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I agree with Paul. and add to him, There is a device noise and circuit noise. In order to verify the performance parameters of a device you have to stick strictly to the given instructions in the manufacturer data sheet for measuring such parameters specially the noise performance.
The noise given in the data sheet is the root of the spectral noise power density in nV/ square root of Hz.  So if you measure the total noise you have to integrate the spectral noise density over the amplifier bandwidth.
You have to take into consideration the noise generated by the external input resistances or input sources. As Paul; said you have to choose metal film resistors which is less noise that the carbon film resistor. Also, the external resistance at the amplifier input must be as small as possible. Also, it may be very helpful to restrict the bandwidth of the amplifier to just the required frequency range.
Concerning the ripples you must suppress then by good regulation and filtering.
One reaming  note, what do you mean by the stability? is it the frequency stability?
or what? or noise? 
wish you success
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Can any one suggest (other than standard benchmark problems in multi objective design optimization such as welded beam, disc brake, gear train etc) new multi objective design optimization problem of machine elements such as springs, flywheel, couplings, shafts, gears etc in real time applications with clear objective functions, constraints and design variables
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One example from automotive applications:
Active damping systems of vehicle suspension have to be optimized under consideration of mechanical aspects (e.g. suspension kinematics, spring characteristics), electrical aspects (e.g. adjustable damping units), electronical aspects (e.g. sensor technology) and software-related aspects (e.g. control strategy, parameter processing). The development of an optimized actice suspension system for a certain car requires a model-based integration of all these aspects.
Regards,
Mario
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I am working in the analysis of the hydraulic performance of engineering designs under different rainfall intensities. I simulate direct rainfall and runoff over these systems (pervious pavements and filter drains (French drains)) and I need to find the IDF curves to compare their performance against the conditions in the field.
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Dear Luis Ángel,
The file attached is about a revised model of rainfall depth-duration-frequency to be applied across the whole of the UK. It's proposed to replace both the Flood Estimation Handbook model (Faulkner, 1999) and the present guidance given to Defra panel engineers (Defra, 2004).
Bye..
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Some sources are making a correlation between the capabilities to achieve certain geometrical tolerances and capabilities to achieve some dimensional tolerances related with that specific GT.
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During the calculation the tolerance zone and the machining error are compared.
Generally the capability index will be good if the tolerance zone 2-3 times larger than the machining error.
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I had worked for a Magnetorheological fluid clutch project, and its on half way, I had developed mass matrix using MATLAB. I wanna continue in this topic. Are there any designs?
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Dear friend
The easiest way is searching the related document by typing the keywords into google scholar. You will find some related articles.
If yet to find the articles, do not hasitate to let me know.
Good luck. Dr Zol Bahri - Universiti Malaysia Perlis
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I have a complex geometry and there is no node connectivity as for transferring lodes I think it is necessary. There are more the 400 instance in it so partition and meshing every is very tedious I have tried both dependent as well as Independent meshing but unable to merge. Is there any method in which it can be merged easily.
Thanks in advance
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In the Assembly module you can merge parts, with various forms of control.  If you have already meshed your parts, and you've planned it so that the meshes of each part should have nodes on the boundary in the same place, you can use Merge Mesh.  Node that are recognised as coincident are highlighted in a different colour.  If you don't see all the expected nodes highlighted, you might need to change the tolerance setting.
An alternative approach is to mesh individual parts separately, and then define a tied boundary.  Abaqus then calculates the right loads to be transfered to the right nodes - note that if you use this method, you should avoid having the boundary in an area where you might expect to see interesting or critical stress levels.
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Using the macro and custom interface can avoid the repeat work to build the model just by modifying the parameters in the interface.
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thanks
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I have to make a bolted assembly. After reading a lot I found out that in order to join so many parts by dastners I can used assembled fastner for which I have to make a template script to join two plates (or template model in which two plates are joined by MPC connector wire and outer nodes are connected by MPC tie which I tried to make). But how can I use this continuously and how can I make it as template. Please suggest.
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 you can use the GUI to record the script and then edit this script to do this automatically after that:
Open the file in ABAQUS. Then go to "Macro Manager" and record a new macro. create tow instances of the part and apply required constraints or place them accordingly in space. Use meaningful names for the instances so that you can recognize them later in the macro file. Then his stop record button. In your home folder you should see a file abaqusmacros.py
Open the file in text editor and find the section where you assembled the part. before section starts, create a loop using "for" construct in python with proper indentation. you'll need to indicate names for the new instances that chronologically increase. You can use "str" command to add an index to the name so that ABAQUS does not complain. try it for 3 instances and once you were sure, change the "for" command to go up to 120.
Then save the file and go back to Macro Manager and hit reload. Then just play the macro and should work now.
Hope it helps.
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By this parachute prototype, initially we make parameter analysis and then cognizing the parameter analysis, we go for actual designing of parachute model?
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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Dear all, here in China , I'm doing some research into the wide heavy plate mill and put forth a new theory in this field, but I could'n get enough rolling schedule data, can you help me? thanks
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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What are the parameters to be included in it?
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Dr. Rajaji,I think these three publications may be useful for you. Regards, I.H.
Costello, G..A., and Costello. G. A. . Theory of wire rope. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
Raoof, M., and Kraincanic, I. "Simple derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial/torsional coupling of spiral strands." Computers & structures 55.4 (1995): 589-600.
Jiang, W.G.,  Henshall, J. L. and  Walton, J. M. "A concise finite element model for three-layered straight wire rope strand." International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 42.1 (2000): 63-86.
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6dof robot arm controller
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Dear Ahlam 
which kind of robot do you have?
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I am working on a design method based on CBR and TRIZ, and I want to improve the efficiency of cases searching, then what should I do?
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Try looking at BS7000.
Some Triz curses also teach how to apply the Triz methodology, in my view this is another name for case based reasoning.
Regards
Paul
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The first axiomatic accounts of preference for flexibility and freedom of choice are due to Koopmans (1962) and Kreps (1979), who assumed that a Decision Maker always enjoys having more alternatives available. After that, e.g. Puppe (1996) refined the idea and distinguished the essential alternatives in an opportunity set as those whose exclusion “would reduce an agent’s freedom”.
Most applications I know of consider social choice problems that are relevant to economics theory. What other fields have seen applications of those concepts? I'm particularly interested in corporate decision-making and engineering design.
References:
T. C. Koopmans, “On flexibility of future preference,” Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 150, 1962.
D. M. Kreps, “A representation theorem for ”preference for flexibility”,”
Econometrica, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. pp. 565–577, 1979
C. Puppe, “An Axiomatic Approach to 'Preference for Freedom
of Choice'” Journal of Economic Theory, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 174–
199, January 1996
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Hi Carlos! Flexibility and adaptability are considered now key elements in the design of engineering systems, since they enable reacting to uncertain futures. You may want to look at these papers:
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I am planning to use a superheated steam and water drum in my plant to heat up the water (actually the steam flow rate is not that much to extract work). I would like to know if it is conceptually correct and feasible injecting superheated steam into water to heat it up. Thanks in advance, Reza.
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No problem with injection steam to heat up the water. You need just energy balance as mentioned above to make the caculation needed. 
Best wishes Reza
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I am doing response spectrum analysis on a water tank. I need to find out base shear, overturning moment, story drift and lateral displacements.
After analyzing, SAP2000 does not give these results directly.
So, using the available results, how can I obtain the required parameters?
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if you are done by doing analysis, go to display function and you can see the show results or show table option. U can obtain all results you want to. But u need to select a nodal point or a element to do so.
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Creativity methods.
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But the matter is if for creative design taks is better the use of visual thinking methods. Inspiration sources, such as materials you mention, are good, but the point is how to express the idea. It seems that brainstorming is widely used for all creative tasks, but by my point of view, it is not rather adequate for engineering design purposes.
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The reason for limiting power transmission & distribution to 3 Phases (instead of 6 Phases or 9 Phases or further) by varying the electrical phase shifts is due to the increase in cost of Circuit Breakers and Copper Busbars & Busducts.
When and how can we expect distribution to be multi-phase ?
Will this change be significant ? 
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For a given power transfer, with a given line-to-neutral voltage, the total cross section of conductor needed is the same for 3- or 6-phase system. On the other hand, the cost of insulation, fuse, switchgear, cables, etc for 6 lines is higher than 3.  6-line system however has a specific benefit in reducing line reactance through parallel lines, which is lacking in 6-phase. Thus there does not appear any practical benefit for higher phase transmission system.
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Hi all,
In my research I am considering several source and sink temperature couples for analysis purpose, for instance -10,70 and -25, 90 and . . ., for each case, system efficiency is going to be determined. Here, I am trying to find a way in excel to show my temperature couples as X-axis but I can not figure it out. 
Please let me know if you have any idea about my problem. Thanks, I think I need to use another drawing software, so if you know, let me know the name of it. thanks.
Regards
Reza
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Hello Reza
Change cell format from numeric to text, so you may put comma instead of decimal point. It's easier way, See attached file.
Alternative: change international setting of operative system, with a lot of side effects....
Regards
Giorgio
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I am looking for a manufacturers and/or engineering and design  of high pressure reactors for the continuous production of nylon 6-12 material. Low pressure reactors are common but there are very few producers of nylon 6-12 so there does not seem to be many sources of this equipment. It is more likely that it will need to be custom engineered.
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Dear Mr. Wells,
 Because I was involved in the production of some types of polyamide, for instance my first advice is to contact some companies that have recognized experience in the production of polymerization plants (i.e. for polyamides). Of course, you need to give more details, a continue polymerization process can imply some high financial costs, but you did not specify some about the capacity of this laboratory plant (this is my assumption).
I will give some limited examples of companies of engineering equipment /plant manufacture that can be concerned by you for a preliminary information:
etc. I will attach also some documentation, maybe helpfully in your approach.
Finally, I will you wish you to find  ASAP the most convenient offer, so good luck and best regards,
Marius
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There is a wide range of social media/Web 2.0 tools available on the market. Social media tools seem to be more promising in product design and development contexts in order to keep pace with ever changing trends and styles. Where do you use (or see major benefits of) these tools?
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YOUR RESEARCH DIMENSION IS NOT CLEAR YET HOWEVERY, I have recommended the Jouke Casper suggestion
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I am going to work on a project which is feasibility study of hydrogen in engine from the electrolysis of water so if someone have worked on it or have some solid knowledge so kindly guide me.
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You are talking about the perpetuum mobile: If you want to generate HYdrogen in a car you need energy. I would rather use this energy for propulsing the car directly - energy efficiency is much better, because you have no losses.
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| t | = (( PD /2 ( SE + PY )) + C)
where :
t = |pressure design thickness
P = |internal design gauge pressure
D = |outside diameter of pipe
S = |allowable stress of material
E = |material and pipe construction quality factor
Y = |coefficient of wall thickness
C = | Corrosion, erosion allowances and mill tolerance
whereas our simple text book formula is PD/2S for thickness.
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Dear Mr. Anirban Mukherjee!
Actually the formula comes from the one you mentioned from the text book. If you use that simple formula, usually student does, so you have to include the safety factor, e.g. 2 or 3?
In ASME formula you do not have to use this safety factor because the formula had been analyzed and modified according to the real life condition. This based on the ASME's experience or from the best recommended practice.
t = PD/(2S) it means that if all concerning the pipe is in the ideal condition, for example pipe's manufacturing process and its material content.
However in a real life activity, we can not make a pipe precisely  according to the NPS or DN which is required. There must be some tolerance in the product of pipe manufacturing. This tolerance will be in a range of figure for the inner and outer diameter. We are interest in the pipe's thickness. Due to the max.  and min. tolerance, the thickness becomes thicker or thinner. The thinner is the important one to have our intention. So the ASME put a factor of Y which is coeff. of thickness. The thickness will correlate with the pressure so that the figure PY come.
On the other hand, the material and pipe construction quality has the same issue so that the ASME put the material and pipe construction quality factor. Foer example: for the pipe which is constructed using welding and inspect the weld quality using x-rays only in some spots so this factor will be less than 1. However if you inspect the whole weld using the x-ray, the factor will be one.
In general, the ideal condition is Y=0 (no tolerance) and E=1 (welding). You will find E=1 for seamless pipe. So if you put ideal condition above the formula will be
t = PD/{2S(1)+P(0)} + C ==> PD/2S  + C
So the difference is +C.
C is added for the all allowance which makes the pipes become thinner such as the effect of corrosion, erosion...etc. Usually we have to know the behavior of fluid flowing inside the pipe. As the oil company which has many years experience they will know the behavior of the crude oil or gas affecting the pipe's thickness. So the rate of loosing thickness can be monitored year by year. As the oil company want to run the pipeline in 30 - 50 years so the rate of corrosion, erosion..etc  per year will be multiplied by this period.
So I hope you will understand how this formula comes. In my opinion we can not derive it such as theoretical way. But this one comes from experience.
Best Regards,
Adri Maldi Subardjah
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I want to explore how to make strategic management to manage solid wastes in an industrial area in a developing country. What is the proper method for this? SWOT analysis and/or any other recent methods?
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Dear Emma, 
In order to be useful for drawing up the strategic plan, as Deshmukh says, I suggest to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). There are several studies that deal whit solid wastes and LCA.
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In Indian market fuel economy is important. Will removal of muffler affect the back pressure and engine design, thereby increasing fuel economy.
I did simple analysis of a theoretical muffler approximated to a car size, and predicted the values of Sound Pressure Level and reduction in SPL.
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I was thinking for a long time of using what so called a smart resonator.
that automatically changes its size based on excitation, i made a literature research about that and found some people used a mechanical way, but i am thinking of using an electric way .. we can discuss it in details if you like the idea
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I want to develop a new test standard for oxygen masks used by flight crew members.
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Which kind of oxygen mask do you develop : for fighter aircrafts ? safety oxygen mask in commercial flights ?
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I found it's not easy to get the answer.
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Which equation set?
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I am looking for a good spraying material to coat a solar concentrator. What is the best material for this and what are the materials that can be coated?
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Not sure if this works in your case...but try same method used in making mirrors....it will give uniform silver coating ...otherwise silver deco sprays are easily available...
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A CT X-ray generates voluminous data in a 2D plane and re-constructs the imaging in 3D for visualisation purposes to know about internals. Though it was very popular in medical imaging earlier, it is now becoming more popular in product inspection, re-engineering etc.
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Although not open source, Materialise Mimics is a reliable software. http://biomedical.materialise.com/mimics. It allows you to import DICOM data and create 3d models
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I am working on CFD analysis in a carburetor. Can anyone suggest me a new material? The material should be low in cost.
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One question .... what is the purpose of your research?
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If I have two parts that will mate at an interface, is there a way to link the dimensions of one face to another face on a separate part? This operation is very strait forward in UGS NX, but I am unable to figure out how to accomplish this in Solidworks. Additionally, I prefer to design from bottom up which might affect how this is done.
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Working with an assembly and editing the second part dimensions related to the first part is a quite simple solution for your problem.
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Do you know what's the meaning of the numbers in the red box?
It's displayed when I execute a macro in command view.
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