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Energy Security - Science topic

Energy security is a term for an association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. Access to cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies. However, the uneven distribution of energy supplies among countries has led to significant vulnerabilities.
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The Quest for household energy security globally
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Olivier Serrat has given a good suggestion. Researchers should think about context of the country where s/he will be conducting the research. when the issue of affordability, it means a lot to developing country particularly during this economic recession. the covid-19 pandemic and the Ukraine crisis are an issue of pressing importance any kind of consumption
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Given the current volatile energy scenario (high energy prices and reliance on fossil fuels) in developing countries (like Bangladesh) , what long-term strategies should be implemented to ensure overall energy security?
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You are welcome!
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How can citizens prepare for a future projected energy crisis?
How can we protect ourselves against a future energy crisis?
How should the state transform the energy sector to make the economy more resilient to possible future energy crises?
How should the state ensure energy security for its citizens?
How should the economy be prepared for the projected increase in energy commodity prices and energy price increases?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz
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We have now had over 30 years of doom-mongering about so-called AGW and yet the effects cannot be measured against the natural rebound from the LIA (that destroyed many countries for centuries). Far more important is to develop strategies to mitigate any effects of climate change, e.g. sea-walls and reflective houses. The population of the world will not develop on unreliable power sources.
Ultimately, fusion must be the goal, but that remains decades away.
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In the current world energy scenario, the shortage of energy carriers and the low energy efficiency of industrial processes in Latin America have sharpened productive competitiveness in this region. In this context, do you consider that Small Modular Reactors (SMR) can be an energy alternative for Latin American nations? Please argue your answer. I really appreciate your collaboration.
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They certainly can, especially for those Latinamerican countries which already have experience with conventional nuclear reactors (Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico). Their main advantage is that they already have nuclear technology infrastructure, and the implementation of this new concept will be more accessible. Nevertheless, other countries without this experience can still benefit from the SMR concept. They can be more easily adapted to their national grid than the large Nuclear Power Plants, and the safety and non-proliferation requirements are less complex. In my view, SMRs can be a good energy alternative for many developing nations.
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My name is Bala Vignesh Subramanian, doing my Master's in Engineering Management in Northumbria university . I am currently perusing my final year research dissertation under the topic "Project Management practices towards energy security and sustainable urban development in the UK". The goal of the survey is to attain the sustainable urban development in the UK, I would like to know how professionals are thinking about the sustainable urban development, energy security practices and project management practices towards NetZero Carbon.  Please take a moment to share your opinions with me by taking this survey it will takes around 5 minutes. I would like to welcome you to fill the survey. No personal information would be collected in this survey, instead only research related (on 5 point Linkert scale) and some demographic questions would be asked. All data collected will remain anonymous and stored securely under the university data protection policy.  Thank you in advance for your participation.
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I have some insights into this topic, you can see some of it in my papers, but I have some addiotional materials that could help you. Feel free to contact me.
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I will be guest editing a Special Issue "Climate Variability Impacts on the Energy System". The Special Issue covers issues relating to climate variability and change (CV&C) impact on the energy system and energy system transitions.
Examples of topics within the scope of this Special Issue include (but not limited to) the following: CV&C impact assessment on the energy sector, energy security and SDGs; technology solutions to address CV&C impacts; and robust policies to support the decoupling of GHG from the energy sector.
Original and review articles are welcomed. I look forward to your contributions. See the link below for more details:
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A changing climate has potential effects on the electricity sector, for example with respect to hydro-electric flow (in summer, and from snow melt), from wind resources, and from water abstraction for large generation plant.
I attach a report (sorry, in French) on this aspect in Swizereland.
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Hi Everyone,
I understand that, COVID-19 will strong impact health and also on Nexus components of Water-Energy-Food (WEF). I want to understand more from collective inputs from all the corners of globe who might be working or have knowledge on how this pandemic will show effects on Water, Energy, Food and sustainability, WEF-Nexus, Resources security and etc.
Looking forward for your inputs.
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Current efforts to combat the coronavirus have widened urban-rural disconnects globally by focusing almost totally on urban impacts, while down playing potential rural impacts because of low population density.
Water, energy, and food resources appear to be intact currently, but nexus stability is threatened by the link between COVID-19 mitigation responses and potential negative economic impacts. Some are advocating a shift from societal protection if the economy begins to show major disruption leading to recession. To our knowledge, this is the first time health and economy have been directly linked without consideration of the WEF nexus. Current disruptions to the WEF nexus are related to supply-chain economics and lack of sufficient infrastructure; but, as COVID-19 expands throughout rural areas, agricultural production will suffer from a virus-related reduction in the workforce.
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Despite having the lowest per capita electricity consumption, Bihar is not doing very well in making itself energy secure. There can be broad answers to this question but I want to know that what in your perspective or understanding is the most influential reason for very low level of adoption of solar energy in Bihar.
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I agree with madam Pragya
Regards
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I am looking for research work on energy vulnerability (from a national viewpoint), although that has not been successful up to now since most research work is on energy security.
Thanking you in advance,
Anna
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Currently, the energy policy of the states draws attention to the need for greater use of renewable energy sources, including geothermal energy. Are its advantages able to increase the level of energy security both on the local, regional and even national level.
Katarzyna
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I am interested in the optimisation of energy security-related indicators in order to make sustainable energy planning at country level. Thanks in advance.
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My field of research is energy security literature analysis
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Third party access concerns users of energy infrastructure. It is established under european guidelines in order to enhance competition and energy security in Europe.
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With the Energiewende, the German government pursues a long term energy strategy which aims to transform the energy sector by mid-century. To achieve this it has implemented a comprehensive, long term policy framework which receives broad support across the political spectrum. The United States lacks a similar approach. The reasons are likely manifold. My question is how the character of each country's federalism impacts the long term energy approach of both countries and might help to explain differences?
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For example, PNG is a dedicated medium of the transport of natural gas based on already agreed upon import volumes, price mechanisms and long-term contractual arrangements among the supplier, transit and importer countries. However, LNG needs to be transported through marine ships and can be subject to many insecurities and uncertainties like pirate attacks, geopolitics. 
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For PNG, a pipeline will tie both the seller and the buyer closely together as each comes to rely on the other as a source of supply/demand. Obviously it's very difficult for either party to just dig up the pipeline and buy/sell gas from/to somewhere else! Depending on the extent of that reliance (does the buyer have other ways to import gas, and does the seller have pipelines to other markets?) it's easy to see how market power incentives can emerge, and/or how geopolitical instability can lead to this buyer-seller relationship becoming strained/abused. Essentially pipeline imports don't really leave either side with much optionality.
For LNG, the scope for this kind of reliance on a single region/actor seems less clear cut. Even if a buyer has a contract to import and the counterparty fails to deliver, in principle the buyer can still source LNG cargoes from elsewhere in the global market and bring them in through the same import terminal. The amount of global LNG supply is increasing rapidly as well, and many of the new entrants (Australia, USA) are what could reasonably be determined to be countries with much lower counterparty/geopolitical risk.
So I would say that actually from an energy security perspective LNG is increasingly just as secure if not more secure than PNG, because of this optionality component. Japan, for instance, is entirely reliant on LNG imports, and yet it has not experienced supply problems. The flipside to this optionality aspect of LNG is that it probably has less price security than PNG, as evidenced by the very high prices Japan paid to secure it's LNG post-Fukishima.
For PNG, as others have said its energy security is heavily dependent on the stability/geopolitics of the counterparties and any transit zones. Where this is in doubt (eg Russia, Ukraine and Eastern Europe in 2009) then PNG is probably less secure and prices are more volatile than for LNG. Where there is confidence PNG gas will come (eg Norway to Northern Europe or Canada to US) then PNG is probably more secure and prices are less volatile than for LNG.
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While there are some significant attempts to promote sustainability in military (USA, UK etc. even NATO with energy security concept) these efforts are still on the operational level. Objectives of these efforts are usually oriented towards energy efficiency and environmental protection. My interest is the sustainability on strategic/national level and how it influence overall security/stability. Any comment, idea or reference would be highly appreciated.
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Crucial. But of course depends what you mean.  Both sustainability 1, meaning essentially environmental sustainability, and sustainability 2, systems approach to CSR are essential to security - more details in my text book 'CSR and Sustainability - From the Margins to the Mainstream, (Greenleaf, 2016 and available on Amazon.com'. A question that concerns me even more is the social responsibiity of our defence organisations.  I dont think such an issue is discussed too much.  For instance, drone strikes on human targets are hardly socially responible no matter what the crime, simply because we (so called civilised nations) are civilised since we respect the rule of law and human rights.  Comments?
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I am looking for literature regarding frameworks for assessing energy security, especially for developing countries. This is a meta-assessment of assessment frameworks. 
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Energy security is an evolving concept- much wider than merely securing energy supplies.  It is a complex goal involving equitable provision of available, affordable, reliable, efficient, environmentally benign, properly governed and socially acceptable energy servicesto end-users. Alternatively, it is broadly defined to contain four major dimensions (the four As) i.e. physical availability of energy resources, accessibility to energy resources; affordability (economic element) and acceptability (environmental and societal element).
Realizing the need to answer the three key security questions (security for whom? security for which values and security from what threats), a more recent development conceptualizes energy security as “the low vulnerability (or uninterrupted provision) of vital energy systems”.
Evaluating energy security from this approach entails defining the boundaries of the energy systems and indicators underlying the vulnerabilities of vital energy systems (a combination of its exposure to risks and resilience). Although the meaning of energy security and concerns may differ from one country to another, they typically relate to three distinct but complementary perspectives: robustness (sufficiency of resources, reliability of infrastructure, and stable and affordable prices); sovereignty (protection frompotential threats from external agents); and resilience (the ability to withstand diverse disruptions) of energy systems. Such conceptualization, it is argued, may help to explain and support informed policy making by addressing the above three security questions.
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Based on ongoing research, I would like to find out if there are any sources or publications already available on the costs of terrorism/critical incidents on critical infrastructure (oil, gas, energy, power, water) in the MENA region. If so, please get back to me.
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The terrorism has multi-facet impacts on the entire economy in an interrelated manner and as such  the real cost is more than the estimated energy cost. In this sense, understanding the overall cost is perhaps important first step and for this  illustration,  Somalia cost of terrorism could be a case in point. According to a study in 2011, the international Community has collectively spent just over $55 billion in responding to Somalia’s conflict since 1991. Piracy (ransom, rescue) accounts for the largest chunk of this cost ( 40%) , followed by humanitarian and development aid ( 23%) ; remittances (20%) and the rest 17% is accounted for by  peacekeeping and military responses , counter-terror initiatives and diplomacy; and costs associated with international crime and illicit financial flows.
See Norris, J., and B. Bruton. 2011. ‘Twenty Years of Collapse and Counting: The Cost of Failure in Somalia’. A Joint Report from the Center for American Progress and One Earth Future Foundation.
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I am making a research about the 'Turkish Stream' which is the latest natural gas pipeline between Russia and Turkey. And how could be its affects for the Turkey - EU relations and EU Energy Security. I am looking for some article related or close to these topics. Any favours would be well-recieved... Thank you, Mustafa YÜCE.
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I'm looking for papers which measure (or simulate) the willingness to pay for energy security. Many Thanks.
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Dear Juan,
The only reference that I know is Dr. Fotouhi-Ghazvini's paper titled "Coordination between mid-term maintenance outage decisions and short-term security-constrained scheduling in smart distribution systems".
I have read this paper several times. It would be helpful for your research although its model is nonlinear.
Regards,
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The following factors had a strong influence on development of the competitive natural gas market: economic crisis an recession, Russia-Ukraine gas crises in 2008/2009 and 2014... as well as tight connection between oil and natural gas markets in determining natural gas prices. 
Previous low prices and possibility of natural gas supply from the abundant sources located relatively close to the consumption area are no longer available. Due to more difficult conditions in force during the last years, the security of natural gas supply has become the central issue of the energy politics ...
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Darko, I agree with your point of view that diversification of sources of supply is good alternative to reduce the EU dependency from the gas supply from Russia and the security of gas supply is the central issue of the EU energy politics
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With the recent troubles in Ukraine, the issue of Russian gas security is back on the agenda. Roughly 40% of EU gas imports are from or via Russia, on average. The import share in some countries reaches 100%. On the other hand, the gas export share of Russia to the EU exceeds 40%. Does this mean that the economic impact of an EU gas embargo against Russia is on average more severe in Russia than in the EU? If not, why are economic embargoes discussed in the EU?
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I agree with your point of view, that the construction of LNG terminals in different countries within the EU and diversification of sources of supply is geopolitical imperative and good alternative to reduce the EU dependency from the gas supply from Russia, and the most important for achieving the security of gas supply in the EU.  The main issue at the moment is that the price of gas in Europe is only around 50-55% of the LNG price in the Pacific region, where Japan and China are the main consumers.  However, the security of supply issue appeared already in 1913, on the eve of the First World War when Winston Churchill, then the First Lord of the Admiralty, decided to modernise navy by replacing domestic coal with Persian oil. At that point Lord Churchill said that “safety and certainty in oil lie in variety and variety alone“. Today, just like then, it is proven that the security of supply depends on the variety of the offer. Finally, LNG exports vailable to EU will send a very clear  message to Russia that within a few years, despite its current ability to pressure Ukraine this will no longer be possible.
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Is nuclear energy a real alternative for the generation of electricity in the European region?
Due to different reasons, and particularly after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the debate about the future role of nuclear energy for electricity generation in the energy mix of several countries was reopened once again in the European region. There are several reasons for this. The first of these reasons is the high price of oil. The second reason is the need to reduce the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The third reason is the dependency of the EU and other European States to the import of fossil fuels.
During the consideration of the role that nuclear energy should have in the energy balance in the European States in the coming years, three main realities should be taken into account:
-The level of criticisms of the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation is rising again in several European States after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Germany has shut down 8 of its 17 nuclear power reactors in operation in 2011. The UK shuts down 2units in 2012; other countries such as Switzerland, Belgium and Sweden have plans to shut down all nuclear power reactors currently in operation or have cancelled the expansion of their nuclear programs or the introduction of this type of programs for the generation of electricity in the future.
-Economics comparison. Whether the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation is more economical or not than the use of other energy sources will depend on how cheap it is compared to other alternative energy sources;
-Is nuclear energy a secure energy source for the generation of electricity or it is very dangerous bearing in mind the Three Miles Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents? Does the world have in their hands now any other alternative energy sources that are more secure, can provide the level of electricity generation that the countries need when is needed, and it is clean and economic than nuclear energy? If the reply is yes, then they can be used immediately to generate the total energy electricity produced by the 436 nuclear power reactors operating in 31 countries in 2012, before the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant?
Currently, the European region (including Russia and Ukraine) generates around 31 % of its electricity from 195 nuclear power reactors currently in operation in 17 countries.
According to some expert’s opinion, it is a fact that nuclear energy is already making a substantial contribution to an energy policy that is low in carbon, cost-effective and that provides assured supply.
Today, a strong debate is happening among the oldest and most industrialized EU Member States, which do not want to slow down their economic growth and wish to overcome the current economic and social crisis that some of them are now facing.
This crisis is putting in danger not only the stability of several countries but also the common currency of 23 States (the euro). For this reason, a group of countries is thinking to continue using nuclear energy for the generation of electricity as a real alternative, even after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. On the other hand, others countries are taking measures to slow down the expansion of their current nuclear power programs or will shut down some or all of their nuclear power reactors in the coming years. The problem that the world is now facing is how to meet the foreseeable increase in the demand of energy using all available energy sources in the most efficient and economic manner and without increasing the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere.
Undoubtedly, one of the available types of energy sources that have proved in the past that can be effectively used for the generation of electricity is nuclear energy. The International Energy Outlook for 2011 (IEO 2011) indicated that electricity generation from nuclear power worldwide is expected to increase from 2.6 trillion kWh in 2008 to 4.9 trillion kWh in 2035, an increase of 88 %. However, there is a great concern about building new nuclear capacity due to construction costs, energy security and greenhouse gas emissions in several regions of the world.
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Every year, the IAEA makes low and high projections of global nuclear power generating capacity: this year's low projection indicates 17 per cent growth in world total nuclear power capacity by 2030, while the high projection suggests a 94 per cent growth, i.e. nearly a doubling in global generation capacity. In other words, growth in nuclear power following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is expected to continue, however at a rate lower than estimated prior to the accident. http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/2013/np2020.html
The annual projections made since 2011 have indicated that growth has slowed, but not reversed. The 2013 updates, taking into account developments through April 2013, reinforce this conclusion. Over the short term, the low price of natural gas and the promotion of renewable energy sources in some energy policies are expected to impact nuclear growth prospects in several regions of the developed world. These low natural gas prices are partly due to low demand as a result of macroeconomic conditions, as well as technological advances, notably with fracture techniques to extract shale gas. Moreover, the on-going financial crisis continues to present challenges for capital intensive projects such as nuclear power.
"Nuclear energy can be viewed as a critical component of a country's energy infrastructure, providing a clean and dependable long-term source of energy," says David Shropshire, Head of the IAEA's Planning and Economic Studies Section.
In the long run, nuclear generating capacity is expected to play an important role in the energy mix due to growth in population and in demand for electricity in the developing world, as well as climate change concerns, security of energy supply and price volatility for other fuels.
Challenges remain, and policy responses to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident are still evolving. However, over the past year, most countries have finalized their nuclear safety reviews, providing greater clarity with respect to nuclear power development. The final result of those reviews, reactor safety modifications, and in some cases even reactor shut-downs, is that greater confidence in nuclear power is expected as a safe and secure energy source.
In the 2013 updated low projection, the world's installed nuclear power capacity grows from 373 gigawatts (GW(e)) today to 435 GW(e) in 2030. In the updated high projection, it grows to 722 GW(e) in 2030 (A gigawatt, or GW(e), equals one billion watts of electrical power).
The strongest projected growth is in regions that already have operating nuclear power plants, led by Asian countries, including China and the Republic of Korea. From 83 GW(e) at the end of 2012, capacity grows to 147 GW(e) in 2030 in the low projection and to 268 GW(e) in the high projection.
Eastern Europe, which includes Russia, as well as the Middle East and South Asia, which includes India and Pakistan, also show strong growth potential. Nuclear capacities grows from 48 GW(e) in 2012, to 79 GW(e) and 124 GW(e) in the low and high cases, respectively.
Western Europe shows the biggest difference between the low and high projections. In the low projection, Western Europe's nuclear power capacity drops from 114 GW(e) at the end of 2012 to 68 GW(e) in 2030. In the high projection, nuclear power grows to 124 GW(e).
In North America, the low case projects a small decline, to 101 GW(e) in 2030, while the high projection shows an increase from 116 GW(e) at the end of 2012 to 143 GW(e), or a 24 per cent increase.