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Which incentive instruments for energy saving and switching to renewable energy sources used in connection with the current energy crisis are more effective?
Which energy-saving incentive instruments and/or restrictions for not saving energy are already in place as part of the current interventionist energy policy in relation to the current energy crisis?
In some countries, energy-saving solutions are already in place or in the pipeline for a smoother transition of the economy through the developing energy crisis. These solutions include systemic instruments implemented by energy companies, local government institutions and incentives for citizens to use less electricity compared to the previous year 2021. Sometimes restrictive instruments are also used, i.e., for example, financial penalties for not applying energy-saving practices. However, among the incentives for citizens, incentives for citizens and/or companies are to be used in the upcoming heating season (autumn - winter 2022), such as a reduction in electricity tariffs if electricity consumption in the 2022 heating season falls by a min. 10 percent compared to the 2021 heating season. In addition, an incentive system for an environmentally, climatically and health-promoting change of energy sources by replacing dirty combustion energy sources with clean, green, renewable and/or emission-free energy should also be applied simultaneously with the energy-saving incentive system. This is also important in terms of taking care of the climate and the environment, and also with a view to air quality, which has an impact on the health of people living in a particular area, region, town, village, etc. At present, there are mainly financial incentive instruments for conversion to renewable and/or zero-emission energy sources based on government subsidy programmes to financially support environmentally friendly business ventures carried out in the framework of green energy development and/or reduction of energy intensity of buildings. As part of the reduction of the energy intensity of buildings, residential and other buildings are covered with additional layers of insulating materials and covered with new façades. In order to reduce thermal and/or electrical energy consumption, attics and roofs are also insulated and windows are replaced with more energy-efficient windows. Government financial subsidy programmes are being used to implement such energy-saving measures. However, the scale of financial support is limited and often insufficient in relation to needs. The issue of applying and improving incentive schemes for energy savings and switching to renewable and/or zero-emission energy sources is particularly important in view of the current energy crisis and also in view of the climate crisis, the scale of whose development and negative impact will increase in the coming years and decades. In view of the above, it is therefore urgently necessary to improve systemic incentives for energy saving and conversion to renewable and/or emission-free energy sources.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
What instruments for energy-saving incentives and/or restrictions for not saving energy are already in place under the current interventionist energy policy in view of the current energy crisis?
Are energy-saving incentives or restrictions, penalties established for not saving energy a more effective solution within the framework of an interventionist, anti-crisis energy policy?
Which instruments of incentives for energy saving and conversion to renewable energy sources applied in connection with the current energy crisis are more effective?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Prof. Dariusz Prokopowicz
Thanks for sharing this topic discussed in detail. I think energy conservation and efficiency are most important in this case. Incentives are also significant, and consumer tariff cuts are lower than in previous years.
I hope the crisis passes smoothly,
Best wishes,
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In the context of rising energy prices and the current energy crisis, how can the state, as part of a frugal energy policy, encourage and/or motivate citizens to manage the heating of their homes sensibly?
In my country, 25 million citizens are using district heating in their flats and houses (flats in multi-family buildings, housing estates, houses in the city heated by district heating plants).
Many people overheat their flats. The thermostats are set too high or, when there are no thermostats and the radiators are hot, instead of turning down the radiator some people open the windows and most of the heat escapes into the atmosphere outside the flat.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
In the context of rising energy prices and the current energy crisis, how can the state, as part of a frugal energy policy, encourage and/or motivate citizens to manage their home heating sensibly?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Dariusz
Thank you for your invitation.
As usual from you, the subject is very relevant.
In my opinion, it depends on education as well as in taxes.
Link consumption with cost per kWr or BTU consummed by levels of consumption
Develop stronger regulation for houses insulation in windows , walls and roofs
Develop laws to encourage builders to use solar heating as well as heat pumps
Recover heat from cloth washers as well as from kinchen, and bathrooms,
Try to produce central heating using heat wasted from industry
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How will you reduce electricity consumption in a situation where electricity prices would rise by several dozen percent due to the development of the energy crisis?
It is already known that energy prices will rise due to the energy crisis. It is not yet known to what extent energy prices will increase. The question of this increase is determined by a number of factors.
On the one hand, there are objective factors such as changes in the price level of energy commodities on commodity exchanges. On the other hand, it is determined by the long-term national energy policy pursued to date (e.g. types of energy sources, development of renewable energy sources, diversification of energy sources and energy security) and by current social policy (subsidies and grants for citizens with the lowest incomes). A lot of data supports the thesis that the development of renewable energy and the abolition of dirty combustion energy monopolies are key ways of solving the energy crisis.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
How will you reduce your electricity consumption in a situation where electricity prices would increase by several tens of percent due to the development of the energy crisis?
Or would you still have time in the near future, before the next heating season, to install new, renewable sources of electricity at home, etc.?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Increase in energy costs also effects other costs like groceries, education, and so on. Therefore, it would be useful to look at overall cost of living and identifying components which affect one's lifestyle.
Of course, adopting Gandhian philosophy and way of life could be the answer but is it feasible, given the pressures of living in the present day society?
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Climate finance, green bonds and the African economy.
Energy policies bordering on delimmas, trilemma and quadrilemma
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Dear Uche Nwogwugwu,
A key issue of the green finance issue is the determinants motivating commercial economic actors, including commercial banks, to finance pro-environmental economic ventures, e.g. for the construction of new power plants generating electricity and/or heat through renewable and carbon-free energy sources. In the context of the operation of commercial business entities, economic profit is an important consideration when making economic decisions and implementing new business ventures. In addition, commercial economic operators finance and implement pro-environmental business ventures in order to improve their image, adding sustainability and green business to their mission promoted in advertising campaigns. Green financing can also be implemented by public institutions. In such a situation, money may come from the state's public finance system, i.e. from the central state budget or from the budgets of local government units. The state sometimes also finances and implements pro-environmental economic undertakings if there is a high level of pro-environmental awareness in society. In such a situation, politicians, not wanting to lose public support, also begin to take an interest in the issues of green economy and sustainable development. As a result, green financing of pro-environmental business ventures is being developed by various business entities and institutions. On the other hand, the scale of participation of green financing in the context of the overall external financing of various economic ventures is still too small. The process of global warming continues to accelerate despite the pro-environmental measures taken to date. This means that the process of pro-environmental transformation of the economy, including the green transformation of the energy sector, transport, agriculture, construction, etc. is still progressing too slowly. Because one of the key factors determining the level of scale of implementation of pro-environmental economic undertakings is the level of financial resources mobilised through green financing. Consequently, the scale of development of green financing is too low. The importance of this issue is particularly important in view of the current energy crisis and the future climate crisis.
Thank you very much,
Dariusz
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Global Peak Oil: Are we running out of ‘applied technology’ or ‘basic science’?
1. Whether the decline in the discovery of oil reservoirs at the global-scale – would necessarily mean that – we are running out of oil?
2. Whether oil a finite resource - in order to have a beginning, middle and end of production – at the global-scale (and not locally) – with reference to geological time levels?
3. Do we have any standard time-frame, by which peak oil remains - purely based on - the observed rise, peak, fall and depletion of aggregate production rate in oil?
If not, with geological time scale, how do we deduce the point in time, when the maximum rate of extraction of crude oil reaches?
4. Does the concept of global peak oil production reflect our technological limitations; or real resource exhaustion – at the global-scale?
5. With 75 million bpd of crude oil in 2000 (as against King Hubbert’s prediction of 34 million bpd), whether 110 million bpd (approximately equaling 200 exajoules of global annual energy consumption) can be considered to be the global peak in crude oil production (possibly around 2025);
OR
Do we still have a long way to go to reach the global peak – associated with the complex unconventional oil/gas resources and reservoirs; and with technological advancements?
6. Whether the advancements in alternative energy technologies – which is supposed to have the ability to replace ‘oil as the resource of choice for transportation’ – have really contributed significantly and accelerated the global peak oil concept?
OR
Are they going as a parallel line?
7. Whether the current dependence on crude oil towards world’s (ever) growing energy needs – can afford to ignore crude oil – at any point of time – in the near future (say, for next 50 years)?
8. Feasible to dream a global economy – in the absence of fossil fuels – in the near future?
9. Whether the pandemic has really forced us to rethink about our energy policy?
10. With 1.5 billion vehicles on the world’s roads – which consume nearly half of the world’s oil – is all set to become electric vehicles?
Whether electric vehicles have really started to make a serious dent in oil use – at the global-scale?
[For example, in the next 10 years, only 10% of vehicles in the US might be electric; and probably, Electric Vehicles adoption might take decades to catch up to gasoline and diesel cars.]
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We certainly need new and creative ideas along with changes in behavior if we are to effectively move into the future and avoid crises, as energy is such a large part of modern civilization. This requires constructive dialog and facing difficult facts. Sadly, Western Society is increasingly less able to discuss anything intelligently, let alone constructively. Much of what we see today (especially on social media) could be described as: state your position in three words or less that will preclude any meaningful discussion and also vilify everyone else in the room. The pandemic has only made it worse, when it should have been a wake up call to remind us how much we need to pull together.
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Energy Policy @ Local and Global Scales: Are they same or different?
With China and India alone would account for nearly 40% of Global GDP in the next couple of decades, whether the current and future policies relating to energy demand and supply at the local-scale (in China and India explicitly) will get along with the global targets, while maintaining the air-quality and enhancing the energy efficiency – by reducing its dependence on coal and limiting the fuel consumption and by expanding the renewable electricity?
OR
The energy balance would change further, when Indian Population exceeds Chinese Population – in the next few years?
Whether the continual increase in global population (nearing 10 billion in the next couple of decades) with a declining Chinese Population (say, from 2026) will have any major impact on global energy policies?
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India MUST also act similar to China!
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What's the best definition you've seen? I would like to use an existing government policy or national lab/academies report. Or, how could I improve these two draft definitions below?
To start, the US Energy Policy Act of 1992 still seems to be the authority on "alternative fuel." (Thank you EERE for making this list easy to find.)
Methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols
Blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline
Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas
Liquefied petroleum gas (propane)
Coal-derived liquid fuels
Hydrogen
Electricity
Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (including pure biodiesel (B100))
P-Series
My first stabs at "drop-in" and "non-drop-in." (Thank you CAAFI for getting me started.)
Drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A perfect drop-in fuel does not require adaptation of the fuel distribution network or the vehicle or equipment engine fuel systems, and can be used “as is” in vehicles and engines that currently operate on that particular fuel. Some alternative fuels may become “drop-in” only after blending with conventional fuel to a certain prescribed proportion.
Non-drop-in Alternative Fuel:
An alternative fuel that is not completely interchangeable and compatible with a particular conventional (typically petroleum-derived) fuel. A non-drop-in fuel requires adaptation of (or special treatment within) one or more components of the existing fuel distribution network or the current fleet of vehicle and equipment engine fuel systems. Some alternative fuels must be carefully segregated from conventional fuels, while others may be safely blended with conventional fuels. Some alternative fuels may remain “non-drop-in” even after blending with conventional fuel.
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Drop-in fuel: replaceable with existing fuels, no need modification of engine or distribution system.
Non-drop-in: need some modification to adapt the new fuels
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Recently, discussions have been held in the public debate on issues related to the development of the green economy concept, the need to introduce pro-ecological policy reforms, etc. to make it possible to achieve globally sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the perspective of the next years.
In the context of the problem of determining determinants of sustainable pro-ecological economic development, the following question also appears:
How should the new economy be developed in accordance with the green economy concept in the field of renewable energy development by means of which instruments and reforms of green energy policy, so that it is possible to achieve globally sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the perspective of the next years?
How effective green economy philosophy should be developed in a pro-environmental energy policy in order to solve key development problems of human civilization, ie environmental pollution, effective and quick to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thus slow down the global warming process , activation of the development of electromobility, development of modern non-emitting harmful waste to the environment, renewable energy sources, development of organic agricultural production, development of biodegradable packaging production, etc. with the use of electricity produced from renewable energy sources?
Therefore, I am asking you the following questions:
How should pro-ecological energy policy be developed according to the green economy concept in the field of renewable energy development?
How should programs for the development of renewable energy sources be financed?
Should the state co-finance, within public-private partnerships with public funds, large investment projects for the construction of power plants producing electricity based on modern technologies of renewable energy sources?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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The development of renewable energy sources is now a key element of the pro-environmental transformation of the energy sector, implementation of the sustainable development goals, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, implementation of the green economy concept, etc.
I invite you to the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear fellow researcher.
Please recommend reputed journals in Energy - focus subject areas on Renewable Energy policy, governance, technology management, energy economics. Preferably scopus indexed, and easy to publish. Thank you.
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I recommend two journals:
1-International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment (begellhouse)
2-International Journal on Energy Conversion (praise worthy prize)
Both are reputable scopus indexed.
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How does actually the net metering with TUOs work. And how is it compensation with real time..?
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you can find answers in this article:
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I am searching for a review article or report on net metering policies....
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Dr. Marc Ringel is currently prospecting for further information concerning the present situation of smart city governing concepts and energy policy measures that are already in place or planned concerning the German cities Berlin, Bremen, Hamburg, Cologne and Munich.
The information is needed for a paper on the development of smart city solutions (especially focused on energy related issues) in German cities in comparison with countries of the MENA-region:
Thank you for your support!
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Despite significant progresses in development of energy-efficient buildings (EEBs), energy demand in building sector is still drastically increasing. This paradox is conceptualized in this study as Inefficiency of Increased Building Energy Efficiency. Marketability failure of EEBs and inefficiency in integrated design approach are the main causes of this paradox. Compared to merely focusing on the energy-efficiency enhancement, increasing the number of EEBs with a better marketability via enhancement of their aesthetic features is proposed as a novel approach for energy demand reduction in the building sector. This article aims to first investigate the current stage of EEBs’ adoption and the associated market barriers, and then to propose a multidisciplinary design approach to scrutinize the role of aesthetic features on buildings’ marketability for development of effective policies. Conducted comprehensive survey among real-estate agencies across 26 UK cities reveals a negative correlation between the energy-efficiency and housing marketability. Moreover, house price and aesthetic features are understood as the most dominant parameters that impact individuals' buying decision. Any extra initial cost of EEBs over 3% is likely to face market resistance. Furthermore, strong empirical evidences have been found to confirm that the proposed approach has a substantial potential to increase the EEBs’ number. Full text can be accessed until 20 March 2019 via: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1YU0v14YGgXiGz
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Discussion of EEB must always refer to which type of climate and although the link between aesthetic marketBility is a pertinent one there is a wide range of definition. While the target of eeb are fairly straightforward and defined in numbers... Of what constitutes good Aesthetic..both hi tech glass box and a timber vernacular expression constitute good aesthetic to different people...
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Merely focusing on the energy-efficiency enhancement of buildings is not enough to reduce building sector's increasing energy demand. This paradox is conceptualised as The paradox of Inefficiency of Increased Building Energy Efficiency. Compared to merely focusing on the energy-efficiency enhancement, increasing the number of energy-efficient buildings (EEBs) with a better marketability via enhancement of their aesthetic features is proposed as a novel approach (aesthetics, energy efficiency, and marketing oriented) to reduce building sector's energy demand and contribute the efforts to minimise the hazards of global warming in the article;
"Aydin, Yusuf Cihat, Parham A. Mirzaei, and Sanam Akhavannasab. "On the relationship between building energy efficiency, aesthetic features and marketability: Toward a novel policy for energy demand reduction." Energy Policy 128 (2019): 593-606" , Full text can be accessed until 20 March 2019 via: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1YU0v14YGgXiGz.
This article contains valuable information about; (1) the current stage of EEBs’ adoption, (2) market barriers of EEBs, (3) the role of aesthetic features on buildings’ marketability for development of effective policies, (4) housing buyers' decision making process when they are buying a house, (5) the potential role of visual aesthetic on buildings’ marketability, (6) the applicability of aesthetic enhancement of EEBs in practice, (7) building components that simultaneously affecting the buildings aesthetic, energy efficiency and marketability, (8) the most important building parameters in consumer decision-making process when they are buying a house, (9) the monetary added value of different building parameters, and (10) impact of window's parameters on market demand of residential buildings.
In this study, several pre-studies and a comprehensive email survey was conducted on residential sales employees from real-estate agencies (n = 289) across 26 UK cities.
I would pleased to discuss with my colleagues about this proposed novel paradox and approach, and hear their thoughts about the necessity of new approaches for reducing building sector's energy demand and contribute reaching the goals of Paris agreement.
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The theoretically motivated response to your question is "of course not!". Why? Because of the so-called "rebound effect". Unless "efficiency" is accompanied with "sobriety", then the augmentation due to increased "lifestyle demands" for artificial comfort, gadgets, conspicuous consumption, prestige etc., say +20%, can easily outrun, on a periodic or exponential basis, the gains of "greater efficiency" (say 10%).
This is a well known consideration, which highlights that meaningful responses to sustainability concerns/challenges cannot be rooted primarily in "efficiency" terms (even if, at thelevel of "means to an end", different facets of efficiency are meaningful performance considerations).
- Martin O'Connor
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More or less similar policies are followed for renewable energy all over the world. Nevertheless, local conditions affect the formulation of an effective policy. In this context, what should be the main feature of renewable energy policy for a major oil producing country in contrast to the policy of other countries?
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Hello
In my opinion, I have to allocate a few percent of the oil exports to the dispersed production (solar cell , Fuel cell, Wind, .......) sector For example, 10% of crude oil sales to solar energy and related issues Such as Energy Exchange, the construction of semiconductor components in the field of solar energy and etc appropriate
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I would like to develop an optimization problem to provide voltage control for LV distribution networks. The goal is to calculate the change in reactive power and active power curtailment to maximize the profit of the prosumers, and to maintain the voltage profiles within accepted limits. I am wondering how the DSO (or TSO) can remunerate the prosumers for providing such a service.
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I have a feeling that concentration on the development and fine-tuning of financial mechanisms in order to stabilise grid voltages is missing the point. The transfer functions between prices and voltage are too complex. As Dr Holmberg suggests, a more simple mechanism such as a feeder level dynamic price might be the answer. But there has to be a dominant time lag in the system otherwise it will become unconditionally unstable.
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I want to know which of these high-quality journals are faster in the review process. Also, it is crucial for me to know which of these journals' editor in chiefs get faster feedback about the early decision (desk reject or accept).
1- Energy Policy
2- Energy
3- Energy Research and Social Science
I would be thankful if you share your experiences with me and introduce any other similar high impact journal in this field which may review faster than these three?
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I have a problem with the attitude that the review process has to be fast. It is in fact ridiculous to want to have a very quick turn-around, as it correlates very strongly with referees doing pretty much nothing, or doing a sloppy refereeing. Be aware that - from my experience - if the reviewing is forced to be quick, then it will most likely lead to a *reject* decision. I would NOT want to ever send a paper to a journal that promises to deliver a verdict within three weeks or something like that; it is a clear indication that they are not serious at all.
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The role of smart grid shaping a large democratic system ??
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Dear Furkan Ahmad
I recommend you to read our paper "Smart grids: A multi-scale framework of analysis" (https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8126728/) where we propose a framework to analyze the compromise between technical and economic efficiency on one hand and citizen participation on the other, which goes from the individual scale (a household) to the society level. We present several case studies within the framework and explore the possibility of arriving at a power “ecosystem” where sustainability and democracy are key pillars for a large smart grid.
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i am interested to know about your country's Renewable energy Law and policy for basic, medium and long term plan to attract users and producers to participate in the development of biomass energy, through effective mechanism to promote the development of biomass energy industry
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thank you dr. isam, dr kumar , dr akram and dr. Aprana for sharing your answers
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I want to know the share of coal for producing electricity and steel production
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The use of coal for product power not way economicaly for stats and co2 critical grow
The world needed to change in all level energy conversion for sustainble development so we researchers should this start the study for renewbles energy to help the world without pallution and enhancment CO2
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Currently, the energy policy of the states draws attention to the need for greater use of renewable energy sources, including geothermal energy. Are its advantages able to increase the level of energy security both on the local, regional and even national level.
Katarzyna
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I am looking for an example feed-in-tariff which is released by any goverment to encourage users for battery installation to consume self-generated electricity in smart homes.
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Does the Rooftop solar consumer have to pay self.consumtion charges in any country?
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As I understand the situation in Germany, the tax is a surcharge on the bill for grid supplied electricity, so it is not a tax on self generation or consumption. To make sure you don't have to pay it, simply ensure your PV system supplies all the electricity you require so you don't draw anything from the grid. However, I just cannot see how this is going to work in Europe in the winter. You just don't get enough solar.
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What do you think about Green Technology introduced by Malaysia's Prime Minister , Dato Seri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak under the Government Transformation Programme (GTP)? Positive and negative responds are appreciated.
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With the Energiewende, the German government pursues a long term energy strategy which aims to transform the energy sector by mid-century. To achieve this it has implemented a comprehensive, long term policy framework which receives broad support across the political spectrum. The United States lacks a similar approach. The reasons are likely manifold. My question is how the character of each country's federalism impacts the long term energy approach of both countries and might help to explain differences?
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You know, the industry is broad. for example, the electricity sector, oil and gas sector, biomass and stuff like that. Are you also, talking about renewable, or ?
thanks, keep it up brother.
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PFA very good information.This might be helpful to you.good luck.
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How the energy storage should be integrated with electric cars? Will energy storage balance the grids and support of the higher penetretion of renewables in the EU, and strengthen the energy security of the EU? Which countries will play a key role as electricity hub of Europe?
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I would like to compare the current regulation of energy distribution system in Chile with other countries so any references of research or professors that I might write would be appreciate.
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At the moment the cap and trade system of the EU has a too low price (4-5.-) to have a incentive to invest in renewable energy. 
What do you think could improve the EU ETS?
Is the free market not producing a effecting price for the caps?
Thanks, I'm looking forward to discuss.
Melvin
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is there a summary about fuel cells and its state of art. I need to know max demand, consumption and lifetime.
Thank you
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I am interested in data related to the shift of investments from industrial countries to developing countries in the field of renewable energies, due to the end of incentives in industrial countries.
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Hello experts, i want to work on the effect of government increasing external debt on financial markets, i want to know if there is existing theory or literature related? Also if there is the need to use an overlapping generation model to determine the payback procedure?
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I want to estimate the effect of public policies supporting renewables on the share of renewables in a countries energy supply (CRES, dependent variable). I added some control variables (GDP; commodity prices, energy dependence etc.). My question is how to construct a variable for Energy Policies and Measures. My database are those measures and policies listed at IRENA/IEA. They distinguish between 6 types of policies/measures ( (1) Economic instruments, (2) Information and Education, (3) Policy Supports, (4) Regulatory Instruments, (5) R&D and (6) Voluntary.
My approach
(1) Either creating a dummy variable which takes on the value 1 if the country has for example more /equal to 20 policies in each category (rule of thumb)
(2) Create a continous variable, attributing the value to each measure, however in this case I assume that each measure has the same weight
Any suggestions/ideas/ contributions are highly appreciated!
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I am looking for data on solar levelized cost of energy. I have US data. I am looking for Europe from 2009-2014. Is there anything available on the public domain? Most of the IEA/IRENA reports seem to be reporting for just one year or two. I am looking for trend data.
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Dear all,
I have a question of how to interpret my results:
I am estimating the effect of a set of determinants on the share of renewables in a countries energy supply (dependent variable).
I have a set of explanatory variable (GDP, commodity prices, energy dependence, public policies supporting renewables etc.). I use the natural logarithm of both dependent and independent variables. I do not take logs of dummy variables (for example Kyoto Protocol). However, the interpretation of the public policies supporting renewables variable is difficult because I constructed the variable following two different approaches:
First approach: Dummy variable (taking on the value 1 if a country has 10 or more policies in the given year)
Second approach: Equal-weighted policy index. If, for instance a policy comes into force in a respective country in 1993, then the policy index will equal to one in 1993, if an additional policy is introduced in 1995, the policy index variable will equal to two in 1995 and so on.
How are results interpreted for the second approach?
Best, Teresa
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Measured energy consumption in same types of buildings (residential or commercial across the world), represented in EUI (Energy Use Intensity), varies by a factor of 3 or more.
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A new approach - System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  to growing rice –
is gaining rapid momentum. So I need to emphasis on the promotion of SRI but before that, I need some qualification related to saving of water and increase in revenue w..r.t conventional method. 
Can anyone provide me some papers and report on SRI implementation in mountains specifically in India. What is the technique and how much water and revenue we can generate? How the saved water can be used to calculate the cost-benefit ratio.  
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Sorry! I only saw this request just now...
You can also do a search of the whole database for other topics.https://www.zotero.org/groups/344232/system_of_rice_intensification_sri_research_network/items/
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- the question is especially focused on Dutch civil law
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From a legal perspective, as Dr. Radics suggests, the issue is one related ti liability and/or responsibility.  AS his response also indicates, you first have to deal with the question of the victim. So, first, victims....
It is entirely possible that the victim is not a single person, but might be a group of people, or an entire nation (as in Islands that have become flooded from rising sea levels associated with climate change).  But, it may also be that the victims are non-human -- they could be. for example, an ecosystem (e.g., a coastal ecosystem that has been submerged by rising sea level);  as well as nonhuman species living in affected ecosystems.
Once there victims are identified, the next problem is determining the value of the harm committed.  To illustrate this point,  i will need to create a hypothetical and relevant example that can also potentially be related to real scientific or economic measures. The things below that are known to be true will be labelled "fact."
In this example, we are concerned with the effect of sea level rise on the Wadden Sea National Park (Vadehavet Park). 
Fact --  One of the key ecological features at Wadden is the tidal flat, and area where, twice a day, the tide recedes significantly to expose sufficient sand area to feed an estimate 10 million migratory birds. 
Harm issue: does the rise in sea level caused by climate change reduce the volume of area migratory birds can access for food resources?  What are the consequences and costs?  EG., Do more migratory birds died as a result?  Are fewer migratory birds nesting? How can one attach an economic cost to the above?  Does the decline in the migratory bird population affect bird watching at the park (e.g., decline in visits)?  What local economic effects might this produce? 
Fact -- the government defines Wadden as the best protected natural park in the country.  What is the value of that protected area? What kinds of other protected portions of nature (e.g., since sea level is rising, land further in land are being flooded -- what kinds of lands are being lost?  What is theri value?  Are species being lost? What is their value?
Fact -- Due to its value to the global ecosystem, UNESCO designated Wadden as a World Heritage site.  Potential meaning -- as a World Heritage site, is now UNESCO among the victims of harm affecting Wadden Sea? Or are the victims the citizens of the world?  The point here is that perhaps the designation of Wadden now affects the definition of the victims.
Unknown (didn't spend enough time looking this up to reach a conclusion)-- Has sea-level risen actually risen in Wadden?
Next, you have to move on to the next issue,  which is establishing the connection between climate change and sea level rise.  Here you need to pay attention to the fact that sea level rise varies in different parts of the world, and so you have to find relevant data.
Next you have to get to OFFENDERS....once you establish that there are victims, that means that logically, there are offenders -- unless there is claim that this is a "victimless" crime -- but usually by victimless we mean self inflicted, in which case the victim and offender are the same.
Now, once you can establish the existence of offenders, you have to identify who they are....
How would you do this?
Well, in some sense, everyone is an offender to the extent that they produce greenhouse gas emissions...So, the question is -- are there significant sources of greenhouse gas emitting offenders in Denmark, since this is your target group... I didn't look up any of this information -- but one issue is, for example, that a very LARGE company is Royal Dutch Shell....how much CO2 does Royal Dutch Shell produce?
In any event,  this kind of analysis can become quiet extensive....
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Geothermal wells increase in popularity as a fossil fuel alternative but are we doing enough?
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International Energy Agency (IEA) declared that there is potential to achieve at least a tenfold increase in the global production of heat and electricity from geothermal energy by 2050. 
According to the European Commission's forecast, the capacity of the geothermal power sector is expected to reach 1 GW in 2020 and 1.3 GW in 2030. The estimated maximum potential for geothermal power in the EU-27 is up to 6 GW by 2020 and 8 GW by 2030. This represents about 1% and 1.3% of projected EU gross electricity consumption by 2020 and 2030 respectively. In the heating sector, the estimated maximum potential for geothermal is up to 40 GW by 2020 and 70 GW by 2030 (direct and indirect use combined).
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Dear All,
Does anyone have any material related to the fuel consumption per household for residential cooking (kg of fuel/household/year or per day/month)?
Thank you so much!
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Dear Prof. Salvador Gil,
Thank you very much for your help!
Best regards,
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There is an issue in a region in the Philippines wherein an excess of renewable energy seems to be the problem. I would like to know how this is considered to be problematic when having an excess of renewable energy is not really 'wasteful' as it is renewable in the first place.
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Don't forget that the cost of the raw material used to generate solar PV electricity is zero, so the value of 'excess renewable energy' is simply what you can do with it. If you can't do anything at all with it, there is no cost involved in just switching it off!
However, the points raised by Dr Rehan are all very appropriate and I think well worth considering. I too would be interested to know which area you consider has excess renewable energy.
A situation arose like this in South Australia some months ago. Due to some  windy weather a lot of the transmission lines from the wind farms blew over (they must have been quite flimsy) and reduced the power supply to the state so much the entire grid shut down. So the wind farms were furiously generating, but had no customers at all. They too all had to shut down! Of course the fossil fuel lobby promptly blamed the renewable energy lobby - but even if the power stations had still been running they would be using the same transmission lines as the wind farms and would have been just as effectively disconnected. All goes to show you need a robust grid system when the source and use points of electricity are well separated.
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Is it safety or fuel eco? Performance? Design?
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Objective (technical) point of view:
1) fulfill all relevant requests/requirements by law, consumer protection
2) produce cost-efficient products (high profit margin)
Subjective (customer) point of view:
1) very good marketing
2) very good price
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Basically I want to know present status of fossil fuel availability in different part of  India in  2016-17 and organization involved in it and policies related to it. If possible provide some current data or research paper.
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Dear Pooja.
My answer includes only the information available for coal. India is the third largest coal producer in the world after China and the US. The total coal production in India was around 612 million tons (MT) in FY 2015, which has increased to 626 MT in FY 2016. For more details, you can visit on following links.  Also, I suggest you do a comparative study of policy related to fossils fuel and policies related to renewable energy like  Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission.
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Hello everyone, 
I am trying to estimate dynamic energy consumption model which contains interactions between some exogenous and endogenous variables. I am using the stata command xtabond2 but don't have to clue to either to include these interaction terms in the gmmstyle-list or ivstyle-list. I have read Roodman's "How To Do xtabond2" but still difficult to figure it out.
To be precise the following is my model:
cit = cit-1 + loggdp + logcap + logpop + rul + corr + ira + struc + polity2 + ira*corr + ira*struc + eit
cit = electricity consumption per capita
loggdp = log of per capita income
logpop = log of population density
rul = % of rural population 
logcap = log of electricity generation
ira = constructed index-dummy(0/1) to indicate if a country has a regulator for a particular year
struc = a composite index that captures 4 of the power sector reform steps, hence, a score of 4
corr = corruption
polity2 = to capture the role of institutions in energy consumption
ira*corr = interaction between regulation and corruption
ira*struc= interaction between regulation and other reform stems
i.year= year dummies
 I will be appreciative if anyone can figure it out for thank as I wait your expert opinions.
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XTABOND2: Stata module to extend xtabond dynamic panel data estimator
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There is a renewed debate on how “real” the energy and resource crisis is in the world. Some say it is based on faulty science and politics and the reality looks different. It seems that we have enough renewable energy which helps use to handle our limited resources of raw materials when using intelligent concepts of reuse after lifetime of our products.
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In order to give you a correct answer, we have to define what you understand for the concept of energy crisis. If we are talking about of lack or energy source, the answer is no, we do not have an energy crisis, because we have enough energy sources to satisfy the current and future energy demand. However, if we talk about a specific type of energy source, the level of reserves and the impact on the environment, then we can say that there is an energy crisis in the case of oil and coal. The reason is the following: We have limited reserves of oil and coal and the impact on the environment due to the use of these energy sources for electricity generation is very high.
If we talk about the use of some types of energy sources as a baseload energy, then we can say that we have an energy crisis, because several renewable energy sources that we now use for electricity generation due to its limited impact on the environment, cannot be used yet as a baseload energy. If we want to reduce the negative impact on the environment due to the use of oil and coal as a baseload energy, then we have only hydropower and nuclear energy as the main energy sources that can be used as a baseload energy, being nuclear energy a very controversial type of energy source for the public opinion of several countries.
If we talk about the level of energy consumption, then we can say that we have an energy crisis, because some energy sources are very ineffective and millions of people do not have no access to electricity.
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Currently, we observe an increase in global challenges for energy markets. The European Union is of the opinion that the only way to deal with these challenges is more Europeanized energy policy. For many people the problem of global warming is a political issue and not an economic or ecological one. Moreover, in this sphere, we deal with numerous myths, stereotypes, conflicting views, distortions and accuasations. What do you think about The European Union energy policy?
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I recommend reading an interesting  text:
European energy policy
The European Union heads into battle with national governments on energy
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For case study of Latvia results reveal that the energy intensity increases during economic downturn, the LMDI analysis showed that this fact is regarded to the expansion of energy demanding sectors.
This reallocation of energy resources for energy demanding sectors have a potential to slow down the convergence of energy intensity or even increase energy intensity in Latvia!
Do you know of any other research with similar of contradicting results?
What is the situation in your country?
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Dear @Lelde, Bulgaria had similar situation as Latvia. 
Energy intensity is a measure of an economy’s energy efficiency. The least intensive economies in the EU in 2013 were Ireland, Denmark, the United Kingdom and Italy, which used the least amount of energy relative to their overall economic size (based on gross domestic product(GDP)). The most energy-intensive EU Member States were Bulgaria and Estonia (see Figure 2). It should be noted that the economic structure of an economy plays an important role in determining energy intensity, as service based economies will, a priori, display relatively low energy intensities, while economies with heavy industries (such as iron and steel production) may have a considerable proportion of their economic activity within industrial sectors, thus leading to higher energy intensity.
Between 2003 and 2013, substantial energy savings were made in the Lithuanian and Romanian economies, as well as in Slovakia, Bulgaria, Poland, Cyprus and the Czech Republic, as the amount of energy required to produce a unit of economic output (as measured by GDP) was reduced by at least one quarter (25.0 %). None of the EU Member States reported a rise in their energy intensity between 2003 and 2013, with the smallest decreases in percentage terms recorded for the Netherlands, Greece, Estonia and Italy.
Fine resource follows.
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When looking at legislation changes to produce a better energy rating system (in Australia) is a prescriptive model, that requires a minimum standard to pass better or worse than that of a reward based model that sets a base model and gives additional marks for innovation and passive design? In terms of achieving higher sustainable energy efficiency within the residential housing scheme. Examples from what countries around the world are doing would be great.
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In Switzerland, both systems are applied: Minergie (ww.minergie.ch) gives a label on buildings that use less energy for heating, ventilating, cooling and hot water than a given limit (about 40 kWh/m², depending on the building use), and laws prescribe, among others, a limit to new and renovated buidings to heasting demand. In addition, these laws require that, in new and renovated buildigns, a given percentage of the hot water production be with renewable energy. 
In fact, both are efficient. More than 30'000 buildings got the  Minergie label, and this label became a reference. However, there are more than a million buildings in Switzerland, and  prescriptions are needed to generalize the building energy performance to the whole real estate business. When there were only rewards and subventions, only a minority of building owners applied measures to reduce the energy use. It was only when the laws were enforced that the energy performance of new and renovated buildings was significantly improved. 
In short: the reward may bring spectacular results for few buildings, while the prescriptions get acceptable results for the whole building stock.
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It has been necessity to develop some mechanism for technology transfer from developed to developing countries to effectively bring down the rising emissions. In respect to this CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) was seen as a mean to carry it out. But the recent studies of PDDs reveals north-south technology transfer has been negligent, instead south-south technology transfer has been done more in most of the projects. This came to give an idea to strengthen south-south technology transfer. But their has not been any concrete step taken regarding this.
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Dear Sagar
I assume you refer to this concept discussion
I recommend two reports, the first compiled by Australia
and the second by China
where references are made to intended south-south tech transfer.
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I am particularly interested in special rewards in energy tarrifs and other regulatory measures employed to promote energy innovations (R&D) by energy regulators. To be more precise: I am not asking about feed in tariffs or other forms of promotion of RES.
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In Iran, some of governmental organization such as SUNA and SABA proposed some financial incentive to self-regulatory industries. For example, any high energy consuming complex that would decrease its energy consume by 4% annually, could receive financial aids, loans and certificates.
It seems that there are not enough governmental incentives to have energy saving manner in Iran. 
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ISO Standard 12655 provides a clear and structured way to represent energy use in buildings.
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You can use ISO 16343 and ISO 15603 standards.
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I'm looking for papers which measure (or simulate) the willingness to pay for energy security. Many Thanks.
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Dear Juan,
The only reference that I know is Dr. Fotouhi-Ghazvini's paper titled "Coordination between mid-term maintenance outage decisions and short-term security-constrained scheduling in smart distribution systems".
I have read this paper several times. It would be helpful for your research although its model is nonlinear.
Regards,
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Looking for examples of laws & regulations on using electricity storage in the energy system.
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I think the use of storage tends to be integrated into other regulation, where it is covered at all. From the consumer side storage looks like generation so fits with the general licensing of generation. The use of storage on networks is a bit more complex, in the UK storage on networks would effectively be included in the new 'RIIO' regulation. It is too early to say whether this will lead to significant volumes of storage on the networks, whether there are sufficient incentives in this regulation and whether the economics will favour storage. The UK DNOs are experimenting with various storage set-ups through the Low Carbon Network Fund. The UK's Smart Grid Forum, which brings together industry, Government and other stakeholders discusses some of the issues relating to storage in chapter three in the linked document.
I'm not sure that too many countries have really given much consideration to things like storage (and its regulation) that will be needed in evolving electricity systems that have to deal with more intermittent generation.
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any references?
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See also:
A technical, economic, and environmental assessment of amine-based CO2 capture technology for power plant greenhouse gas control, AB Rao, ES Rubin - Environmental science & technology, 2002. This paper has over 870 citations in Google Scholar where a report (with the same title) is available.
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ELECTRICITY ECONOMICS
Nowadays, we hear the term 'Electricity Economics' most of the times from all over the world especially in TV, news, or even Energy Ministers' speeches.
I would like to know what the exact meaning or the concept of 'Electricity Economics' is and how much its role is important in our life?
I highly appreciate any help in this regard.
Yours faithfully,
Morteza Shabanzadeh
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The comments above seems very close to what is normally included in "Energy Management".
What is the difference between "Energy Economics" and "Energy Management" then?
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In Poland it's quite a popular way of purchasing electricity and/or gas esp. among industrial end users and self-government bodies. Maybe there are countries that adopted special regulations on such a collective purchasing? Any experience with applying competition law?
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Thanks for your reply. Establishment of such groups, buying together electricity and/or gas enhances their position vs. energy suppliers  (at least in the opinion of buyers). There were examples of buying energy even 20% cheaper comparing to prices previously paid by participants buying alone. Your questions are of course interesting but they do not refer to the core of the problem I asked.  
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Are they effective? Examples and references are welcome.
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To assess sustainability, it is essential to consider all the variables (economic, social, technical, legal, even geopolitical). Know the limitations of the fossil energy system in the country of reference and assess their renewable energy capacity is essential.
If appropriate, you can consult our paper on energy poverty in Spain, in the next week
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I would like to know how electricity regulatory agencies are involved with the energy policy objectives around the world.
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I agree with your(s) point of view that NRAhave to act in the frame of the EU energy policy. Regulatory rules in the EU have been focused on the efficient functioning and further development of the internal gas market. However, implementation and acceptance of the Third Energy Package pose new challenges to energy industry, particulary network energy (natural gas and power). For may opinion, the EU energy strategy which sets obligations for the EU Member Stats , (including Croatia), regarding the share of RES and schedule of their introduction, will certainly afect energy prices.
Best regards,
Darko
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Policy design to add more solar and wind energy is conditioned to find the way to manage with slow and fast variations, thus not affect the stability of the power grid.
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Undoubtedly, renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain. 
To determine the potential role of storage in the grid as an indispensable component in case of a massive use of solar and wind energy, it is important to examine the technical and economic impacts of variable in the use of  renewable energy sources, particularly solar and wind.
It is also important to examine the economics of a variety of potentially competing technologies, including demand response, transmission, flexible generation, and improved operational practices. In addition, while there are clear benefits of using energy storage to enable greater penetration of wind and solar, it is important to consider the potential role of energy storage in relation to the needs of the electric power system as a whole output. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid.
Because the wind doesn't always blow and the sun doesn't always shine at any given location, there has been an increased call for the deployment of energy storage as an essential component of future energy systems that use large amounts of variable renewable resources as well as base-load energy systems. Base-load plants are used to meet the large constant demand for electricity in order to provide the necessary stability in the grid, particularly in case that a high capacity generation of solar and wind are connected to the grid.
However, this often characterized “need” for energy storage to enable renewable integration is actually an economic question.
The answer requires comparing the options to maintain the required system reliability, which include a number of technologies and changes in operational practices.
The amount of storage or any other “enabling” technology used will depend on the costs and benefits of each technology relative to the other available options and the number of base-load system that the grid should have to maintain its reliability.
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The four BRICS countries currently account for 40 Percent population and population is one of main determining factors of energy use. Russia faces a decrease in population...
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Dear Vivek,
Just curiosity ! Is it not BRICS an acronym for Brasil, Russia, India, China and South Africa which is a union of five (not four) countries, If I am not mistaken? 
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In Europe, the EU Commission and Parliament have in their recast of the Directive on Energy Performance of Building made "near zero energy buildings" the future target for the EU.
In their national definition of "near zero energy buildings" the Member State should reflect the national, regional or local conditions, and include a numeric indicator of primary energy use expressed in kWh/m2 per year.
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Minergy is a private company partly owned by swiss states (cantons). Therefore, Minergy has some influence on the regulations. The official regulations only limit the heating requirements to about 15 kWh/m² gross heated floor area (the limit depends on building type and local climate), while the Minergy basic standard limits the energy for heating, cooling, ventilation and hot water to 38 kWh/m². There are no official regulations about other needs, but the Swiss Society of Architects and Engineers, which drafts all building standards, proposes a reference value at about 140 kWh/m² primary energy for all building needs. Once again, the limit depends on the building type. This reference values is used for the building energy certificate according to EN 15217, and corresponds to the top of class B. Class A buildings ¨(that are not considered as NearZEBs) should not use more than half of this.
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With the technological and economic progress in distributed generation technologies and the energy management systems, integrated community energy systems are emerging very fast. In contrast, the majority of utility grids existing today is very old and needs replacement. High share of intermittent renewables also demand for higher investment in new power lines or energy storage facilities. This means the fixed part of the electricity tariffs will rise despite the fact that wholesale electricity price is decreasing due to increasing penetration of renewables. This might lead to grid defection, which means on-site generation becoming cheaper than the grid tariffs hurting the business case for utilities. In the other hand, such local systems might provide flexibility to the integral energy systems when needed through community electricity or heat storage or combined heat and power unit? How likely is the case that community energy systems will play this role?
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In California, we're seeing companies (Solar City, etc) putting their PV systems on homeowners roofs and selling the power back to the consumers, either directly to the homeowner, or indirectly to others via the grid. Utilities are getting into this game too.
This is community-based, in the sense of being at the distribution end of the line, but not necessarily community-owned. It also relies on the presence of the power grid.
I would think there are very few communities that could be self-sufficient in terms of electricity, probably on a energy basis (i.e. average over the year) and certainly not on a power basis. So, the options are to still be hooked into the grid, or use storage. I wouldn't bank on seeing grid-scale storage that is low cost (in terms of money, materials or energy) anytime soon.
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Nuclear fusion seems a great solution for the demand of Energy. It is safe, has infinite fuel, produce a negligible amount of waste etc.
There are enormous technical challenges still to overcome, but let’s assume one moment, for the sake of the argument, that we find a way to solve them and the power plant is now “technically ready”.
Reading around seems that the cost of such plant will be huge: a lot of material required, complexity in the construction etc. Such construction costs include a very relevant energy price. For instance digging all the material and “transform” them requires a lot of energy. I have the feeling that the energy produced all over the life cycle has the same order of magnitude: i.e. at the end the “net balance” is not so convenient. Considered the huge capital cost the ration “Net energy produce / cost” would be quite poor as well.
This is just a feeling; does someone have arguments/publication pro or against this idea?
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Nuclear fusion is the most basic form of energy in the universe. It is what powers the sun (pictured) and all of the stars. It is produced by a nuclear reaction in which two atoms of the same lightweight element, usually an isotope of hydrogen, combine into a single molecule of helium, the next heavier element on the periodic table.
Humans have successfully produced an uncontrolled fusion reaction to make the hydrogen bomb, in which all the tremendous energy of the reaction is released at once in a highly destructive manner. If the same amount of energy could be released gradually, in a controlled fusion reaction, which is what occurs in the sun, this could become the ultimate form of energy on Earth.
But creating a controlled fusion reaction has proven very difficult so far. Because the two hydrogen atoms have the same charge, they will electrically repel each other. The tremendous heat of the sun, which is somewhere in the neighborhood of 12 million degrees C, accelerates them to the point where their momentum overcomes the electric repulsion. Producing these kinds of temperatures in what is essentially a synthetic sun is a great engineering challenge. The elements are heated until they reach a plasma state. No material could possibly withstand such heat without melting, which is why the reacting elements must be suspended without touching the walls in the vessel. This can be done with either gravity, inertia, or magnetism, all of which are very challenging to create and control. The resulting continuous reaction, known as a thermonuclear reaction, could then be used to create steam in a boiler, which could then generate electricity using a conventional turbine.
The experimental reactors that are in use today all use deuterium and tritium as the main elements. Deuterium can be extracted from sea water. Tritium can be made from deuterium in contact with lithium.
Fusion research began in the 1950’s, in England. In 1968 the Russians created the first reaction in their Tokomak reactor, which utilized magnetic confinement. In 1991, the Joint European Torus (JET) reactor produced 1.7 MW. Two years later, the US-based Tokomak fusion test reactors (TFTR) produced 10 MW. Today there are some 25 experimental reactors in existence. The most ambitious is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) currently under construction in France, which hopes to achieve 500 MW of output for approximately 1000 seconds. The earliest projected date for a commercial facility is not expected until around 2050.
No one knows when a successful continuous controlled fusion reaction can be achieved or even if it is ultimately possible. Billions of dollars have been and continue to be invested in research since the potential benefit is considered so great.
Pros of nuclear fusion
• Clean energy. No greenhouse gases.
• Virtually limitless fuel available. (The deuterium can be distilled from seawater and the tritium can be “bred” in the reactor.)
• No chain reaction. Easier to control or stop than fission.
• Little or no nuclear waste. Core remains radioactive for only 100 years. Possibly radioactive structural elements.
• Very low fuel cost
Cons of nuclear fusion
• Unproven at anything resembling commercial scale.
• No full scale production expected till at least 2050.
• Commercial power plants would be extremely expensive to build.
• Requires extremely high temperatures difficult to contain.
• Could produce a net negative amount of energy. If cold fusion could be achieved, it would be much easier to implement.
• The billions in research funding could be spent on renewables or any other energy sources instead.
• Would remove any incentive for restraint in the use of energy.
In many ways, fusion power seems like the perfect energy source. It’s clean, it’s inexpensive, and it uses seawater as its fuel source. If commercial scale fusion plants were to become a reality, we would have an unlimited, nearly free, clean source of energy. And if limited energy supply and climate change were our only problems, or, should I say the only geophysical constraints imposing themselves on our way of life, then that would be the happy ending to the story.
There is one further and perhaps more immediate concern about the fusion scenario. It is not expected to be commercially available until somewhere around 2050. If you believe the projections on climate change, we pretty much need to have our energy house in order by then, with a dramatically lower carbon footprint that needs to begin dropping yesterday. The DOE has forecast that the US can meet 80% of its electricity demand from renewables by that time using existing technology while Denmark will be fulfilling 100% of its total energy needs with renewables by then.
Given that the fusion approach, will not, failing any miraculous breakthroughs, be ready by the time we need it, which is very soon if not now, it could be argued that it makes more sense to spend those billions of research dollars on something that will be.
The description of fusion as “sustainable”, or, alternatively, of it satisfying the requirements of “sustainability”, has become common, particularly in the fusion community itself. According to a recent newsletter of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA): “The path that leads toward using fusion as a sustainable source of energy for the future goes via the exploitation of the next generation of fusion devices, and in particular ITER, which is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion” .
If we look at current world energy supply, the application of the stricter definition of sustainability gives a very negative result. At present, global energy supply relies to the extent of 81 % on fossil fuels, which are – quite apart from being the main cause of anthropogenic
CO2 emissions – valuable natural resources of the planet and threatened by exhaustion in the next centuries. The so-called renewable energy forms – mainly biomass and combustible waste as well as hydroelectricity – only account for 13%. Although the terms “renewable” and “regenerative” are not good physical descriptions, the latter are of course almost by definition sustainable, because their origin is in most cases the sun, which is “limitless” as a source of energy, at least for the next 4 billion years!
Research on renewable energies is now attracting considerable funding. The development of nuclear fusion by the middle of this century is also one of main components of energy R&D policy in many countries. Fusion is seen by some as an alternative to nuclear fission, which at present accounts for 5.9 % of world energy supply (13.8 % of world electricity production), in particular for base-load electricity supply. The application of strict sustainability criteria to fusion focuses the discussion onto two issues: the serious problem of nuclear waste and the availability of the fusion fuels – deuterium and lithium – as well as of other materials in a future power plant, in particular the necessary neutron multiplier(s). If we can assume that recent favourable prognoses concerning the waste in future fusion power plants hold true, then the discussion centres on the extent of natural resources, in particular of lithium. Although this issue has been treated by several experts, there are three reasons for looking at the problem again:
• Firstly, the recent predictions of future demand for lithium-ion batteries are alarming: it is conceivable that the automobile industry may acquire, and according to some estimates even use up, at least the terrestrial lithium reserves in the next few decades.
• Secondly, although this could be regarded as a mitigating factor, the latest conceptual designs for the tritium breeding blankets in the DEMO fusion reactor have much smaller initial lithium loadings than those expected from the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS).
• Thirdly, the debate as to the practical limits of sustainability and of sustainable development has recently moved from the more academic fields of environmental ethics and ecological economics into the more journalistic domain, so that the political implications of the claims of the fusion community in this respect should be carefully examined.
It is important to highlight that a group of scientists in the USA generated more energy from fusion reactions than they put into the nuclear fuel, in a small but crucial step along the road to harnessing fusion power. The ultimate goal – to produce more energy than the whole experiment consumes – remains a long way off, but the feat has nonetheless raised hopes that after decades of setbacks, firm progress is finally being made.
Fusion energy has the potential to become a radical alternative power source, with zero carbon emissions during operation and minimal waste, but the technical difficulties in demonstrating fusion in the lab have so far proved overwhelming. While existing nuclear reactors generate energy by splitting atoms into lighter particles, fusion reactors combine light atomic nuclei into heavier particles.
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Turkey will be building 50 to 86 coal plants and 3 nuclear power plants.
November 4, 2013 - CEE Bankswatch Network:
"Between 50 and 86 new coal plants are planned to be built in Turkey over the next few years. This would rank Turkey first among OECD countries investing in new installed coal capacity, and fourth globally, behind only China, India and Russia."
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I would like to hope that no one in the world would build one of the actual generation of fission nuclear plant.
Turkey is also famous for some major earthquakes..
But you have so much sun !! Probably also some nice mountains with steady wind conditions..
Before you build a centralised (star like) electric distribution system , think of the advantage of delocalised source and flexible interconnection.
France can not go green before it makes all its distribution system new. A lot of new cables have to be buried..
Have the organic grow our mother earth shows us everywhere.
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I'm interested in developing effective interventions in building sector energy policies. Are certifications and energy labels well structured? Is it different to use dynamic simulation or simplified evaluations (under the point of view of the energy level or class obtained)? In some countries energy labels can be obtained by using both strategies, but simplified processes are commonly used. Will it be better to request dynamic simulation for each new construction or renovation?
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I think your question can be divided in two:
Labeling are important for a number a reasons, One being the information and awareness it produces. In that sense, it has a major role in facing climate change. Of course that the certification itself doesn´t produce any reduction on energy consumption. However, the increasing strigent regulations in thermal performance in buildings are already producing a significant reduction of consumption in building services. In my point of view, it is still too focused in new construction.
We have a pretty well structured certification scheme in Portugal. I think you can see more information about the different schemes here: http://www.epbd-ca.eu/.
In my point of view, dynamic simulations are more accurate and take in account a number of factors that simplified calculations obvioulsly not, but it is not feasible from the technical or economic point of view to produce dynamic simulations for every building being constructed or renovated. That being said, I believe that in some cases, energy performance are being over simplified and could result in higher classes obtained. In my opinion, you have to ask yourself: What is the purpose of energy certification in buildings? It is really worthy it to be that accurate? Or simplified calculations serve the purpose?
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Is Sustainable Energy Action Plan the only planning tool?
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Also the following links might be of interest:
The EC research project INTENSE — Intelligent energy saving measures for municipal housing in Central and Eastern Europe was concerned with questions of energy efficient urban planning - see http://www.intense-energy.eu/you-need/energy-efficient-urban-planning/ and http://www.intense-energy.eu/uploads/tx_triedownloads/INTENSE_HolisticPlanning_BG_062009.pdf
The POLIS http://www.polis-solar.eu/ European cooperation project focuses on implementing strategic town planning and local policy measures to utilize the solar energy capability of structures in European cities; it also looked at planning instruments - http://www.polis-solar.eu/Planning-instruments/
Focussing more on existing infrastructures or the re-use of derilict urban land (brownfields), the following projects might be of further interest: EnSURE (Energy Savings in Urban Quarters through Rehabilitation and New Ways of Energy Supply http://www.ensure-project.eu/ ), HOMBRE (Holistic Management of Brownfield Regeneration http://www.zerobrownfields.eu/ ) and TIMBRE (Tailored Improvement of Brownfield Regeneration in Europe - http://www.timbre-project.eu/ ).
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Can anyone advise me or recommend to me a Cost Benefit Analysis Framework for Renewable Energy, specifically Wind Power, and/or Hydrogen production, if any exist?
I am trying to find a gap in energy policy, or supported evidence within it, for my feasibility study.
Thank you.
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Today, the colleagues of the UK branch of H2Mobility (for those interested in the original H2Mobility study, see my previous post) published their findings of phase 1. Please find attached a link to the report.
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I am writing a feature on biofuels for the Economist - my Deadline 25 March. Would it be possible for anyone to answer some of the following questions about the issues raised by biofuels.
1. What, if any, is the environmental case for encouraging production and usage of biofuels in order to reduce carbon emissions ?
2. What , if any, is the economic case for imposing targets on biofuel production and usage in transport and district heating systems?
3. How would you justify the current policy of subsidies for biofuels R&D, production & refining ?
4. Given the financial constraints on both sovereign governments and energy consumers can you envisage any change in government biofuel policy with respect to both targets and cuts in subsidies.
5. Is there a need for global leadership to determine realistic policies for bio-fuels?
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Thank you!