Science topic

Energy Economics - Science topic

Energy efficiency and economic structural system, including topics related to supply and use of energy in societies.
Questions related to Energy Economics
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Would you please share your experience from where I can collect firm-level green patent citations for green innovation? Please mention the name of the source ( I prefer free one).
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Espacenet and google patents are free databases. They are no less comprehensive than the alternative (paid) databases. PatentScope from WIPO is also free but will cover PCT (international) applications only. The fancier (paid databases) might have better searching interfaces and tools - although Espacenet has been recently improve din that regard and I think it is pretty good once you get the hang of it- , but if you already have the patent numbers then stick with the free sources. I'm not aware of a database for exclusively "green" inventions. If you are hoping to track patenting trends in green tech areas, then you could have a go at looking for specific clasifications but that may not be straightforward.
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Though it has been a few decades since Chaos Theory made its way into Economics and Finance through the works of Baumol & Benhabib, Alison Butler, David Levy, Philip Mirowski, Michael McKenzie, Robert Gilmore and Blake LeBaron
(among others), it is observed that most of the mainstream economics and finance journals are reserved towards publishing empirical papers on chaos in financial markets. Publications to this end are very few and most of them are published in a handful of journals.
As I am looking forward to write empirical papers examining the evidence of chaos in commodity markets, I wish to know the odds of my work seeing the light of the day. Any useful suggestion/information in this regard would be highly appreciated.
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Using chaos theory, a change in price is determined through mathematical predictions of the following factors: a trader's personal motivations (such as doubt, desire, or hope, all of which are nonlinear and complex), changes in volume, the acceleration of changes, and momentum behind the changes.
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I would like to ask, why the discount rate is also being taken into account for the energy production(Denominator) and not only for the costs(numerator), during the LCOE calculation?
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I believe the trick is to think about it that way:
LCOE x Elec Generated = Life Cycle Costs
So in that case we need to discount both sides of the equation that is the life cycle costs (RHS) and the revenue (LHS)
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The line losses including electricity theft and non payment of dues are around 30%. Is it possible to lower the supply of electricity (more load shedding) more where non payment or theft is higher as compared to the areas where line losses are relatively less? I am looking for such a formula to do regional distribution of power management.
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Optimal load shedding is an ultimate emergency action to prevent tripping and blackout for power systems (Mostafa et al. 1996).
Check the website below for formulas on power variable loads;
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Does adding renewable energy sources to smart grid change the price?
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We analyse energy market management performance of a fractional-order PI controller in the case of communication and operation delays in a multi-source energy market model. Market simulation results are discussed to demonstrate the possible advantages of the fractional-order PI controller for smart grid energy market managements.
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Coal based power plants are one of the cheapest and more effective instruments to produce electricity. Many developed countries have already applied this plants and had the benefit from it. Although some of the countries have now stopped using coal based plants because of the negative impact being created towards the nature.
At present, many developing countries specifically in Asian and African region, are choosing Coal to produce more electricity as the demand is at the highest peak; even though a huge environmental degradation is happening due to these circumstances.
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Coal is cheapest source of energy production, if we use new technology for removal of the pollution
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Dear fellow researcher.
Please recommend reputed journals in Energy - focus subject areas on Renewable Energy policy, governance, technology management, energy economics. Preferably scopus indexed, and easy to publish. Thank you.
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I recommend two journals:
1-International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment (begellhouse)
2-International Journal on Energy Conversion (praise worthy prize)
Both are reputable scopus indexed.
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Dear Researchers,
I Hope All is Well with You.
Finally, our article, the most comprehensive review-research article in the field of forest biomass and bioenergy supply chain resilience, is published in the journal of sustainability.
You will find everything you need to learn and know in the field of forest biomass and bioenergy supply chain resilience in this article including research gaps, suggestions, future directions, set of resilience barriers, set of resilience enablers, set of resilience main factors, the relations among them etc.
It is OPEN ACCESS!
Use the Following Link to Access the Article:
You Can Take Advantage of it Freely.
Please Share it with Others.
Thank You.
Best Regards,
Dashtpeyma
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Mosayeb Dashtpeyma excellent and yes i ahve been personally looking for such a paper and was also involved in the studies related to biomass assessment when we are talking about feedstocks related to Biomethanation or anaerobic digestion plants
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In energy economics, many researchers consider calculating COE ($/kWh) considering capital costs, operation, ROI duration, and this is the minimum price at which energy should be sold, while others follow a different approach by calculating the net profit of selling energy and divide it by overall sold energy (kWh). Are these 2 values comparable?
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In this link you can find a lot of information on this thematic.
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I am interested in carrying out a Cointegration Analysis about the international prices of a few energetic resources (coal, oil, uranium, plutonium, agrofuels, eolic, hidroelectric) in order to stablish or to discard any type of relationship.
Could you advise how to preceed for this task?
Thank you to everyone reading.
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Thanks for your good advise Mr. Ravichandran K R P
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For instance, lately, I've seen that many authors use a summary table with relevant papers.
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A literature review should address each of the concepts that you used in the theoretical foundation of your study, and concepts that readers need to understand to evaluate and interpret your findings and discussion. Organize them so that there is a logical flow of ideas.
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Hydropower, being a mature technology with respect to other renewable energy sources, is often regraded as a field that does not require more research effort and investment by governmental agencies. However, even in countries that have pioneered its development there are active research programmes. I am looking for documents that compile the proposed current subjects of research, considering technological aspects, but also the integration of small, medium and large hydropower in challenging economic, social and environmental conditions.
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Topic suggestions for research project
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I'm doing research on the performance efficiency of different oil companies in the world. It has come to my attention that many scholars use DEA Analysis to measure it. However, it is not clear which variable should be treated as an output or input, for instance, should revenue be considered an output? How about oil reserves? Choosing the wrong variable alters the results.
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DEA is taken as Drug Enforcement Agency, USA . The following inputs and outputs variables should be considered.
• Input would be circulating capital, Investment, labor, selling cost, expense, and energy consumption.
• Output would be revenue, monetary income, profit and net value of output value
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I would like to use this discussion section to announce our new non-profit research network focused on industrial decarbonisation (RENEW-Industry).
Are you a researcher working on technological, economic or policy aspects of industrial decarbonisation? Then we would really appreciate it to have you on board. The idea is to better connect researchers in this very important field, which still faces uncountable uncertainties in the face of rigid low emission targets in order to comply with the Paris Agreement. Already more than 50 researchers from renowned institutions based in 9 European countries have joined. Now we count on you to increase that number even more.
Feel free to message me or comment below in case you have any questions or comments.
[Update 04.03.2020]: The first newsletter is online on our web page, now:
[Update 12.05.2020]: Newsletter #2
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I really like this idea. I am a professor of thermodynamics, and transfer of heat and mass. My research focuses on the energy optimization of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. In addition, I investigate the integration of (HVAC) systems to renewable energy sources and energy storage systems. The research area that I work on, as an indirect result, causes the decrease of carbon emission in the electricity generating industry. My question is: With my research profile can I be part of this work team?
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PV system can be optimized for different design parameters such as tilt, azimuth angle, row spacing, etc to maximize the energy and economical benefits.
Where is the scope for improvement in PV performance modeling functions (MATLAB) by Sandia for both mono and bifacial performance modelling script? Additionally, which factors can be carefully looked into for accurately predicting the energy production?
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follows and recommends this question
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- Long Term investment decision.
- Maximize gains
- Main constraint is to fulfill the demand
- Capturing all the uncertainities.
- Deterministic.
- Energy economy dispatch.
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I'm a big fan of the IRR approach for ranking projects. But none of these cash flow methods takes into account the opportunity costs of negative externalities.
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I'm using DMSP-OLS time series to check the impact of renewable energy use on energy poverty in Turkey. Due to the data characteristics I just have 22 numbers of observation (1992-2013).
Is it possible to conduct time series analysis or should I make panel data? if so, how can I choose the countries?
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It is possible to increase the number of views converted to quarterly or monthly data in order to show results realistic or choose countries with characteristics similar to the Turkish economy and approach the potential of the Turkish economy.
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The liquefied natural gas industry is developing rapidly today and is actively covered in the news. The relevance of its development is quite obvious - increasing the flexibility of supply routes. However, almost all materials on this topic are related to large and medium-scale facilities with marine delivery.
The scope of my interests is connected with small-scale LNG production and automobile/railway/river delivery for various purposes: the production of heat, electricity, fuel for gas vehicles, etc. Unfortunately, i couldn't find any relevant information or publications with prospects and technical-economic assessments of such technological chains.
I would be grateful for any comments, suggestions, experience and literature recommendations, related to small-scale LNG topic.
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I have been coming across several studies in top journals that use Copula technique in their analysis. I find them to be more technical and difficult to comprehend in full. My limited interactions with a few professors did not bear any positive results as they were also new to this technique.
While I totally understand that it is the objectives and data under study that should drive the methodology used, I am really keen to know as to what these Copula models are and why they are gaining high acceptance in finance literature in the recent past. When does one use them? What are its advantages over all the other GARCH family of models?
I would really appreciate if someone could share the codes (RATS/MatLab/R) for a trivariate Vine-GARCH analysis. Any useful reads to better learn and understand Copula models would also be a great help.
Thanks in advance.
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Simplified explanation and relevant references at this wiki link:
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I am in the final stage of my PhD and I am looking forward to submit my thesis by August September 2019. I work broadly in the area of 'Nonlinear Dynamics in Crude Oil Prices'. Given that it might take another 6-9 months post submission of thesis for the awarding of thesis, I wish to know of some renowned universities that considers applications from candidates who have just submitted their thesis.
Additionally, it would be a great help if any of you could guide me with the requirements and the process involved in securing admission in an institute of high standings with full scholarship.
Many Thanks.
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Dear all,
My background is in Energy Economics and Political Science and I would like to improve my knowledge on the Energy Transition issues.
In your opinion, what are the most relevant and comprehensive articles written in the last years that address policy, economic, technical, or multidisciplinary aspects of energy transitions?
Also, with the exception of the Sussex Energy Group of SPRU (University of Sussex), what in your opinion are the universities and think tanks at the forefront of research on the transition to a low carbon economy?
Thank you in advance for your suggestions.
Best,
Gianluca Trotta
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Based on my learning experience and given the research topic that you're interested in , I'd recommend the universities I graduated from:
1) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, USA
2) Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
3) Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Hope this helps answer your question and good luck!
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) was one of the most promising technology for CO2 emission reduction without large-scale transition to renewables. Moreover, there are such options like CCS-EOR which can be really profitable even without state support. Or highly promising extraction of coal seam gas with help of CO2. But during the last years i saw some articles argued that expectations from such projects will not come true, and further research in this area is the waste of time and money. What do you think about it? I mean not only the influence of these technologies on the fight against global warming but also their economic and technical potential in the closest future.
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Difficult question. There are many technical and financial issues - with others in this conversation have intelligently identified. I am keen to point out two things:
a) with a CO2 emissions tax in Norway (for over 25 years), real industrial-scale CCS project can be realized (there are also similar projects in e.g. Canada and USA)
b) Do humans really want to use valuable hydrocarbon chains without emitting the CO2 molecules to atmosphere?
There are two simple answers to (b) either "No - stop using fossil fuels" or "yes - so lets use CCS"
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I would like to develop an optimization problem to provide voltage control for LV distribution networks. The goal is to calculate the change in reactive power and active power curtailment to maximize the profit of the prosumers, and to maintain the voltage profiles within accepted limits. I am wondering how the DSO (or TSO) can remunerate the prosumers for providing such a service.
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I have a feeling that concentration on the development and fine-tuning of financial mechanisms in order to stabilise grid voltages is missing the point. The transfer functions between prices and voltage are too complex. As Dr Holmberg suggests, a more simple mechanism such as a feeder level dynamic price might be the answer. But there has to be a dominant time lag in the system otherwise it will become unconditionally unstable.
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High-penetration of renewable power generation throughout the network might increase transmission/distribution congestion. What are the effective tools in both transmission and distribution level for managing congestion due to renewable penetration?
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Pena, I., Martinez-Anido, C. B., & Hodge, B. M. (2018). An extended IEEE 118-bus test system with high renewable penetration. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 33(1), 281-289.
Burchett, S. M., Chow, J., Kar, K., Zimmerman, R., Swider, M., Marwali, M., & Zhang, G. (2018, June). Investigation of Generator Ramp Rates in High Renewable Penetration Systems using an Academic New York Network Model. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Schermeyer, H., Vergara, C., & Fichtner, W. (2018). Renewable energy curtailment: A case study on today's and tomorrow's congestion management. Energy Policy, 112, 427-436.
Zakeri, B., Price, J., Zeyringer, M., Keppo, I., Mathiesen, B. V., & Syri, S. (2018). The direct interconnection of the UK and Nordic power market–Impact on social welfare and renewable energy integration. Energy.
Thanks,
Sobhan
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The role of smart grid shaping a large democratic system ??
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Dear Furkan Ahmad
I recommend you to read our paper "Smart grids: A multi-scale framework of analysis" (https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8126728/) where we propose a framework to analyze the compromise between technical and economic efficiency on one hand and citizen participation on the other, which goes from the individual scale (a household) to the society level. We present several case studies within the framework and explore the possibility of arriving at a power “ecosystem” where sustainability and democracy are key pillars for a large smart grid.
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Hello Everyone,
I would like to know what is Battery Size Factor?
How it is related to Battery Testing and when it should be considered?
Thanks in advance
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Please check the attached files
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List of scopus indexed journals with free publication in Economics
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Mr. Ajibola, you may find Scopus-indexed journals in Economics and Management that do not charge a submission fee at this web page:
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Hi!
My name is Matthias and I am currently writing my Masters Thesis about an infrared heating system. I aim to identify pros&cons of existing products (eg. infrared heating systems in various designs: mirrors, paintings, wall-systems) Therefore, I would appreciate it to receive a lot of professional input regarding topics like: energy savings with infraredheating, critizism, new application areas, potential cooperations (e.g. manufacturers of home solar power plants) and so on.
I just started to collect information about the topic myself currently. Any ideas to the topic "Infrared heating systems as a way to save energy" are welcomed. Please note, I am a student of Marketing&Sales and not an engineer.
Thank you for your help!
Matthias
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Does the Rooftop solar consumer have to pay self.consumtion charges in any country?
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As I understand the situation in Germany, the tax is a surcharge on the bill for grid supplied electricity, so it is not a tax on self generation or consumption. To make sure you don't have to pay it, simply ensure your PV system supplies all the electricity you require so you don't draw anything from the grid. However, I just cannot see how this is going to work in Europe in the winter. You just don't get enough solar.
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The increasing demand for biofuels and their production in the developed world drive not only grain prices up, but the effect is felt most acutely in developing countries where grain comprises a larger share of food budget/expenditure. In as much as the rich benefit from comfort in using bio-fuels, are there any safeguard/measures to help minimize or if possible prevent the trade-off links
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I intend to explore the views regarding securing energy in West Africa and how sustainable current situation is. Knowing these views, I move to further exploring the options available for short to long term solutions in securing energy in West Africa. What role can the West African Power Pool play in this option? 
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I'm trying to find a way to optimize power transmission expansion planning in a given network topology. The problem is to be programmed in GAMS with the simplified DC model approach where the optimal power plant dispatch is also optimized.
Expansions of the transmission network could be either the adding of circuits of existing lines or the voltage upgrade of existing lines.
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I would like to have reference for a study that has calculated a Hicksian cross-price elasticity between electricity and other energy categories. Also would like to know the own-price elasticity of demand for electricity in Australia or any state.
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I am interested in data related to the shift of investments from industrial countries to developing countries in the field of renewable energies, due to the end of incentives in industrial countries.
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Any reference to theory and companies that offer services which have proven to be effective?
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I know Madrid and my research is about the city and urban renovation to apply in neighboorhoods of Madrid.
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I am currently working on a project exploring the management of silt in river intakes at low flowing rivers. Some of these intakes will make use of an infiltration gallery to transfer the raw water from the river to a sump. I am exploring the options of desilting these infiltration galleries. One of the methods that I have come across are backwash systems for these.
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I would like to know the opinions of professionals about the production of second generation biofuels and to find out if Jatropha is one of the second generation feedstocks.
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I'm doing Energy Audit study for a distribution utility, and there are two studies one for energy efficiency improvement and the second focuses on the economic analysis, I have searched and found that mainly the energy audit is done for building or any energy dependent place, but for an electric distribution substation, the economic study is not clear for me, if anyone can help understand it briefly or if there are articles supporting the study, please do share them.
Thanks,
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I am looking for data on solar levelized cost of energy. I have US data. I am looking for Europe from 2009-2014. Is there anything available on the public domain? Most of the IEA/IRENA reports seem to be reporting for just one year or two. I am looking for trend data.
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for make a presentation.
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I m doing my final thesis in Energy losses evaluation in Submarine HVAC & HVDC cables in an offshore wind farm. Therefore, I required calculating the energy losses in cables in HVAC and HVDC systems. What would be the user-friendly software to calculate with providing less data?  
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Has anyone calculated the economics of the reserve provision by wind and solar in the reserve markets?
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For the semi-detached house in the Berlin district of Zehlendorf end of 2007, a comprehensive analysis was carried out by the DIMaGB Energy Advice. During the period April / May 2008, the site planning was done by the DIMaGB Project Planning. The goal was to create more comfort and save energy.
In a first section, a basement ceiling insulation was made with polystyrene sheets and an inner lining with ThermoShield, the IR reflective micro-silicate paint to improve the indoor climate. In the living room a skirting board heating system was installed.
Affixing Wood Fibre Heat Insulation Composite System in the Berlin area is a first, knew many professional firms are not yet requested. This was an unusual wealth of detail and accuracy were the specifications.
The manufacture of a Wood Fibre HICS is subject to the relevant technical regulations. Nevertheless, a good learning curve and craftsmanship assets belongs to. Care spending is for the entire surface glue-down, the anchors of the plates is a must.
After the filling and reinforcement a slice plaster was applied, the conclusion was the outer coating with ThermoShield Exterior. Thus, a full-sorption wall construction with improved thermal insulation and sound-developed arose. The renovated building, with its gleaming facade is an eye catcher.
Project data: semi-detached, built in 1963, 330 sqm., 2 floors, basement, 6 m eaves height, street frontage 20.3 m, 75 m outward processing, gross facade area 445 sqm, 95 sqm windows, design, tendering, construction supervision: DIMaGB, Realization : 2008, Cost: reasonable
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If you are interested in moisture transport, here is a document concerning this theme, written in Ngerman and in English:
go to folder MOISTURE
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Processing products for the consumer or industrial markets. Marketing cooperatives enable producers to 1) correct market failure where prices are too low or buyers have left the market; 2) provide a service not available otherwise; 3) gain market power (negotiating power) against much larger buyers; 4) spread risks and costs; and 5) have enough volume to operate a processing plant efficiently or enough to meet the demands of buyers. Marketing cooperatives are found in every region of the United States and handle most types of farm product. The importance of these cooperatives to particular commodity sectors varies.
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Dears
1. Mirna Leko-Šimić
2. Masnat Al Hiary
3. Emmanuel Vijayanand Murray
4. Arshad Ali
5. Hamit Can
Many thanks for your helpful efforts
Best Regards
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Dear all,
I have a question of how to interpret my results:
I am estimating the effect of a set of determinants on the share of renewables in a countries energy supply (dependent variable).
I have a set of explanatory variable (GDP, commodity prices, energy dependence, public policies supporting renewables etc.). I use the natural logarithm of both dependent and independent variables. I do not take logs of dummy variables (for example Kyoto Protocol). However, the interpretation of the public policies supporting renewables variable is difficult because I constructed the variable following two different approaches:
First approach: Dummy variable (taking on the value 1 if a country has 10 or more policies in the given year)
Second approach: Equal-weighted policy index. If, for instance a policy comes into force in a respective country in 1993, then the policy index will equal to one in 1993, if an additional policy is introduced in 1995, the policy index variable will equal to two in 1995 and so on.
How are results interpreted for the second approach?
Best, Teresa
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I need to implement multilateral model in my research, which focusing on generation revenue. I need more mathematical models to develop my innovative economic transaction. I would be grateful if you could recommend practical references such as a paper/ journal of this modelling.
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Canandian Economist Ross McKitrick has offered an alternative policy measure to combat anthropogenic climate change; imposing a tax which is indexed to temperature change.
McKitrick has suggested a tax of 20 cents per each 100th a degree Celsius increase in the tropical troposphere.
I found this concept a novel Pigovian tax, since most alternatives target the action rather than the result and installs a flexibility in the event that IPCC estimates are overstated.
However, it seems that it would be relatively ineffective in determining the optimal social cost and realigning the private and social cost of emissions.
Thoughts?
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We are interested to find one or more locations for the pilot installation to transform marine waves energy into electrical energy and hydrogen production.
The ideal characteristics of this/these locations should be:
- to be located in the sea or ocean, in an area with waves during most part of the year;
- a minimum of 30 cm for the waves; ideally, around 1.5 m amplitude;
- the required surface: min. 25 sq.m (5 x 5 m);
- the water depth – min. 10m; ideally, between 25-50 m;
The preferable locations would be situated in North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediteranean Sea, Aegean Sea, Atlantic Ocean – a marine area close by Europe.
Optimum variants:
- The area between the pillars of a marine oil platform which is or not into operation ;
- The area between the pillars of a marine fort, as in the case of Thames Estuary;
- Locations close by seawalls of a harbour.
Among locations proposals, we’ll choose one or two, depending on their particular characteristics.
Necessary information:
 the location's coordinates: latitude, longitude, map positioning;
 specification of the authority whose jurisdiction is to be taken into account.
 the agreement of the authorities' approval to perform experiments/researches through installment of floats and of some systems to capture waves energy and its conversion into electrical energy and hydrogen.
If it is possible, please provide photos.
We are waiting for your proposals and eventually ideas.
Thank you very much for your collaboration and help.
Sincerely yours,
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I'm working on the monitoring of the renewable energy diffusion among EU member states. I'm producing a literature review on this matter, but it is very difficult to find enough literature about indicators already used in this field.
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Electricity demand forecasting 
what are the basic steps to be considered?
Provide me the links and data or any suitable software which is used for the forecasting 
Kindly help me in this 
Regards,
Leela Krishna 
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i am thinking of doing a time series analysis to check the effect of education on energy consumption. while trying to find relevant literature i have managed to exhaust google to some extent but couldn't find any thing satisfactory. needed help with the channel as of how should i check the channel and what other things also needs to be checked and what are possible proxies.
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I have shown in a paper (in French) that highly educated people (and environmentally aware) consume more energy than less educated ones. Indeed, income is the main driver to get a bigger home, more appliances, a (bigger) car, etc. And there is a strong correlation between education (measured through the level of diploma) and income.
Moreover, I have observed in my researches that there is a big difference between what you call "education" at large (and usually measured by the last acquired diploma) and "energy awareness". So I can understand that theoretically higher education would deliver more aware users, in practice this is not always the case.
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For Germany and other European countries, regelleistung.net delivers market data for balancing markets. For my current research i am looking for data for balancing market or anillary service market in California.
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May I suggest you to browse websites as follows :
 - California Energy Commission : www.energy.ca.gov
- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory : www.lbl.gov
AND/OR its Energy Technologies Area : www.eta.lbl.gov
Sincerely
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how does energy affect the economy of a country
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In one of my latest books on energy matters, I wrote the following: Energy constitutes the motive force of civilization and it determines, to a high degree, the level of economic and social development of the countries. Despite the increased use of different types of energy sources, particularly renewable energy sources, fossil fuels are, and will continue to be during the coming decades, the dominant type of energy source within the world energy mix for many countries. However, it is important to know that fossil fuel reserves are declining, particularly oil reserves, and this situation would have a negative impact in the future economic and social development of many countries from all regions. The limited fossil fuel reserves,
the negative impact on the environment due to the use of this type of energy source for electricity generation, and the high price of oil, among other elements, is forcing many countries to look for other energy sources, like hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, hydrogen, including in some cases nuclear energy, for this specific purpose. Nevertheless, one thing is true: There is no other substitute for oil, coal, and natural gas for a stable and secure energy production, both now and in the near future, and alternative ways of producing energy will play only a minor role in the energy balance of many countries at least until the period 2035–2050.
For this reason, the stable and reliable supply of oil, carbon, and natural gas is of key national interest to many States.
According to International Energy Outlook 2010 (IEO 2010), the global economic recession that began in 2008, and continued during 2011, 2012, and 2013, has had a profound impact on world energy demand in the near-term. Total world market energy consumption contracted by 1.2 % in 2008 and around 2.2 %
in 2009, as manufacturing and consumer demand for goods and services declined.
Although the recession appears to have softened in the past months in several countries, the pace of recovery has been uneven so far, with China and India leading, and Japan and the European Union (EU) member countries lagging. In some EU countries the crisis has deepened significantly.
Liquid fuels remain the world’s largest energy source for the coming two decades. To satisfy the foreseeable increase in world liquid fuels expected demand, liquid fuels production should increase by 26 million barrels per day from 2007 to 2035, including the production of both conventional liquid fuel supplies (crude oil
and lease condensate, natural gas liquids, and refinery gain) and unconventional fuel supplies (biofuels, oil sands, extra-heavy oil, coal-to-liquids, gas-to-liquids, and shale gas). It is expected that sustained high world oil prices will allow for the economic development of unconventional energy resources and the use of
enhanced oil recovery technologies to increase production of conventional energy resources. High world oil prices also incentivize the development of additional energy conventional resources through technically difficult, high-risk, and very
expensive projects, including wells in ultra-deep water and the Arctic region.
World production of unconventional liquid fuels, which totaled only 3.4 million barrels per day in 2007, should increase to 12.9 million barrels per day (around 3.7 folds) in 2035, and is expected to account for 12 % of total world liquid fuel supply in that year. It is expected also that world liquid fuels consumption during the period 2007–2035 should increase from 86.1 million barrels per day in 2007 to 110.6 million barrels per day in 2035; this represents an increase of 28.4 %.
In the European region, the energy import dependency is rising. Unless Europe can make domestic energy more competitive in the next 20–30 years, around 70 % of the EU’s energy requirements, compared to 56 % today, will be met by energy imported products some of them from regions threatened by insecurity. The future
energy requirements of the different countries in the world are so high that, for the first time in humanity’s history, it is indispensable to consider all available types of energy sources and their proven reserves to plan the economic and social future development of the countries. At the same time, there is also a need to use these
energy sources in the most economic and efficient possible manner in order to sustain that development, particularly for electricity generation, in order to reduce, as much as possible, the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere.
The EU leads the world in power demand management, and in promoting new and renewable forms of energy for the generation of electricity. If the EU backs up a new energy policy with a common voice on energy issues, Europe can lead the global search for energy solutions in the coming decades. However, EU must act urgently because it takes many years to bring innovation on stream in the energy sector, as well as to make productive the investments that are needed to update the energy infrastructure in the region.
Summing up the following can be stated: the economic development of a country depends significantly of the possibility to use, in the most effective manner, all energy sources available in the country. 
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Consumption could be measured according to the water,gas tarriff of current retail price. 
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As first step, 
we can use Excel table or open office table for simulation.
best regards!
Dr. Adel OUESLATI 
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I think that CSA is a suitable for developing technologies that will be used in cross-boader environments. Unfortunately CSA is offten utilized to avoid tax. Some companies without invention to avoid tax may avoid using CSA to avoid authorities' suspects, I' d like to know the histry of CSA and clarify the qualified usage of CSA.
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I mean the formula for obtaining the price through the demand and supply of emission allowance credits
I am currently working on Malaysia Energy Decarbonization. Emission trading scheme has been seen as a promising economic tool toward low carbon power generation. I need to model the carbon market via allocation and carbon price determination. I will appreciate if you can help with the mecahnism(formula) along with appropraite refrence. Thanks
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According to the US Department of Energy, carbon price rages from $30 to $40 per ton. I've attached a simple and accurate formula for calculating the carbon price.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, UK
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i am conducting my thesis on "impact of Oil price fluctuation on industrial profits and investments of oil exploring, marketing and consuming companies of Pakistan".
Please guide me about transmission mechanism of oil prices at 
micro level.
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During the 1970s, the experience had been that higher prices due to the frequent OPEC led to recessions, and lower profits in the United States. It sparked investments in oil exploration, but the investment plans were rendered infeasible  by the cartel’s manipulation of temporary lower prices.
Two causes were attributable then to the inflation. One was that oil was used on a widespread basis by manufacturer. The other was that consumers were expecting higher prices, enhancing the inflation.
Elaborate substitution was going on at the micro level. Travelers were postponing, taking fewer, or taking more local vacation that usual. Homeowner looked for energy saving ways to cut costs. The then US president read a letter on TV from a child who mentioned that she was opening and closing the refrigerator more quickly to save energy. Famed Nobel prize economists, Milton Friedman, explained that these micro substitutions should have absorbed all the supply shocks cause by the cartel on inflation. But the demand shocks, created by rapid increase in the money supply to accommodate the inflation, especially by presidents Nixon and Carter, had dominant effect on inflation.
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IWEC is still available by the DOE and EnergyPlus website for energy simulation while IWEC2 are sold by ASHARE.
Are they both reliable to be used for building energy simulation? Have anyone tried both of them and observed any differences in the results?
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I ran two simulation using IWEC and  IWEC2 , for a two floor building (conditioned area 280 m2), the change in heating energy consumption is -7% and in cooling is 9%. But the change in total annual energy consumption is 1.5%.
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I have a partial adjustment regression with dummy variables in regressors. N=17 and T=18. because of dummies can't use GMM methods. how can I solve autocorrelation problem?
this is my model EIB = C(1)*EIB(-1) + C(2)*PB + C(3)*PG + C(4)*PN + C(5)*PK + C(6)*PL + C(7)*RD + C(8)*D1 + C(9)*D2 + C(10)*DS + C(11)
D1,D2 are industrial dummies and DS indicates time dummy.
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 Dear Ehsan,
Dorood
Thank you so much
good luck 
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Could anyone explain the whole procedure of costing, starting from gulf countries to cylinder reached to common Indian household at  the subsidized price?
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The below pdf will be more helpful
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We have a power system in which generators compete in an energy market. Market clearing has been done and LMPs in all buses are determined. How can we find marginal generator?
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In other cases in which there are multiple congestions in the system, it is very difficult to identify the marginal generators because you cannot relate the final LMP with the cost of the marginal units. Whoever runs the market (clearing the market) knows exactly which units are the marginal units. But, if you are a market participant, you have NO WAY of knowing which units are the marginal units. One US university got funded and spent lots of money to solve that very problem you are mentioning. Even with that, the results are just approximate. The main reason lies in the mathematical formulation of the LMP-type market clearing.
Hope this helps.
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Dear colleagues,
Analysis of renewable energy sources economy and technology has many aspects, but one of them is given disproportionately little attention, that is the analysis of net energy production. There have been very few studies on this subject, and they were ambiguous in the sense that the authors claimed that the ERoEI of photovoltaics might be below 1. For example, Ferroni and Hopkirk concluded that "the calculated value for ERoEI is <...> 0.82. It is estimated that these numbers could have an error of 15% " [Ferroni, F., Hopkirk, R.J., 2016. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation. Energy Policy 94, 336–344. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.03.034]
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We are so used to the fact that our food (plants, animals) is a "renewable" ressource. So it should be "natural" that also the technically used energy comes from renewable sources. However, still many people don't believe that this will be our future. Let me remind you that there is a similar problem involved with food as there is with conventional energy: Only due to the usage of synthetic fertilizers we are able to produce as much food as is needed. But most likely during this century mankind will run out of the mineral ressources that synthetic fertilizers are made from.
So, will most of us die from hunger, then? Maybe -- at least if we are unable to establish an agricultural recycling management, or if we don't have enough energy to synthesize the fertilizer from other sources. Of course, things will be a lot easier the more technically usable energy is available. So, this line of thought heavily underlines the future importance of renewable energy sources.
And now I come back to photovolatic energy sources: Even if today still their ERoEI<1, this doesn't mean to abandon PV employment -- quite the contrary: From the history of PV it becomes clear that only due the massive worldwide installations, solar cells have become cheaper (cf. Swansons Law) and better, so that they use up less and less ressources in production (cf. Fraunhofer ISE report mentioned in my first statement). Only in this way there is a chance to bring the PV yield to where we need it in the future. Waiting for the high demand of renewable energy as a "starting sign" for the development of PV (and other renewables) will not work.
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As we grapple with the challenges of climate change, increased energy demand and growing community-level concerns about protecting the environment it is clear existing regulatory structures and processes in the energy sector need to be changed. What are the options we should be considering?
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It is not just about economic incentives. It is also about technological and policy learning, adaptation, social acceptance and breaking more fundamental lock-ins. See for example here in case of renewable electricity in Europe: http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/5/2/323
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Which software is applicable for run parametric bootstrap versions of WG and FD-GMM estimators and how can I run it?
I have a panel data n=17, T=19 and a partial adjustment model
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Dear Ehsan and Mousumi
Thank you so much
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Hello everyone, 
I am trying to estimate dynamic energy consumption model which contains interactions between some exogenous and endogenous variables. I am using the stata command xtabond2 but don't have to clue to either to include these interaction terms in the gmmstyle-list or ivstyle-list. I have read Roodman's "How To Do xtabond2" but still difficult to figure it out.
To be precise the following is my model:
cit = cit-1 + loggdp + logcap + logpop + rul + corr + ira + struc + polity2 + ira*corr + ira*struc + eit
cit = electricity consumption per capita
loggdp = log of per capita income
logpop = log of population density
rul = % of rural population 
logcap = log of electricity generation
ira = constructed index-dummy(0/1) to indicate if a country has a regulator for a particular year
struc = a composite index that captures 4 of the power sector reform steps, hence, a score of 4
corr = corruption
polity2 = to capture the role of institutions in energy consumption
ira*corr = interaction between regulation and corruption
ira*struc= interaction between regulation and other reform stems
i.year= year dummies
 I will be appreciative if anyone can figure it out for thank as I wait your expert opinions.
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XTABOND2: Stata module to extend xtabond dynamic panel data estimator
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Hi dear RG members.
I plan to use Archimedean principle for the measurements of liquid steels density. I need to select a sinker body material which can resist high Manganese steels (possibly alloyed with Titanium) - up to 10% Mn and 10% of Ni.
Previously BN-Zr2O3 ceramic sinkers were used. But steel had heavily damaged them.
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Dear Dr. Fyk,
Thank you for the answer!
As far as I understand from phase diagrams, W, Nb, Mo have eutectics with Fe in the temperatures well below 1650C. It means that my sinker will be partially melt in the steel. In particular, W has eutectic at the temperature of 1820K - 1547C.
Therefore I'm looking to the side of ceramic materials.
Best regards,
Iurii Korobeinikov
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Hi! I'm currently doing a thesis on pool based electricity market model in term of generation revenue. From Australian spot market, I can understand how the spot price determine. My question is, how to determine the generation revenue for the generator involved in dispatched from the spot price? Is there any statement or mathematical equation can describe how this generation revenue is calculate?
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Zuraidah,
In the US electricity market regimes, a generator earns an energy-market based revenue which is the 'product' of its output and nodal price for each 5 minute internal (aggregated over one hour). US electricity markets are based on the nodal pricing schemes, meaning, pricing is at the node/bus-level. If a particular market is based on zonal pricing, such as in some markets in Europe, a generator's revenue will be based on the zonal price for  a zone at which the generator is located.
Revenue from the spot energy market is JUST one component for a generator in many markets. A generator can earn revenue from energy, ancillary services (reserve, regulation, etc.), and even capacity markets (some US markets have capacity markets). 
On the flip side, a load customer would pay the nodal price at the bus at which the load is located. We call it 'load payment'. At least in US markets, since there is congestion occasionally, the load customer has to pay higher prices because the price at the congested part of the system will generally be higher than the price at the uncongested part.
Hope this helps.
Regards,
Jeremy
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For example, PNG is a dedicated medium of the transport of natural gas based on already agreed upon import volumes, price mechanisms and long-term contractual arrangements among the supplier, transit and importer countries. However, LNG needs to be transported through marine ships and can be subject to many insecurities and uncertainties like pirate attacks, geopolitics. 
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For PNG, a pipeline will tie both the seller and the buyer closely together as each comes to rely on the other as a source of supply/demand. Obviously it's very difficult for either party to just dig up the pipeline and buy/sell gas from/to somewhere else! Depending on the extent of that reliance (does the buyer have other ways to import gas, and does the seller have pipelines to other markets?) it's easy to see how market power incentives can emerge, and/or how geopolitical instability can lead to this buyer-seller relationship becoming strained/abused. Essentially pipeline imports don't really leave either side with much optionality.
For LNG, the scope for this kind of reliance on a single region/actor seems less clear cut. Even if a buyer has a contract to import and the counterparty fails to deliver, in principle the buyer can still source LNG cargoes from elsewhere in the global market and bring them in through the same import terminal. The amount of global LNG supply is increasing rapidly as well, and many of the new entrants (Australia, USA) are what could reasonably be determined to be countries with much lower counterparty/geopolitical risk.
So I would say that actually from an energy security perspective LNG is increasingly just as secure if not more secure than PNG, because of this optionality component. Japan, for instance, is entirely reliant on LNG imports, and yet it has not experienced supply problems. The flipside to this optionality aspect of LNG is that it probably has less price security than PNG, as evidenced by the very high prices Japan paid to secure it's LNG post-Fukishima.
For PNG, as others have said its energy security is heavily dependent on the stability/geopolitics of the counterparties and any transit zones. Where this is in doubt (eg Russia, Ukraine and Eastern Europe in 2009) then PNG is probably less secure and prices are more volatile than for LNG. Where there is confidence PNG gas will come (eg Norway to Northern Europe or Canada to US) then PNG is probably more secure and prices are less volatile than for LNG.
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What is the best proxy for energy price in a country if country's energy price is subsidized? Can Subsidized price be used in estimating energy demand function? 
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Dear Ashish, there is high correlation between growth in energy consumption and economic growth, but only in developing economies. OECD countries grow now without increase of energy consumption due to investment in energy saving technologies and primary development of hi tech sectors with low energy intensity.
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What do you think is the most actual problem in energy supply chain risk management?
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The most problematic phase (or phases) in any energy supply risk management chain is dependent on the type of energy source being evaluated. Here are a few examples to illustrate my point:
1) In a nuclear-based electricity generation supply chain, the most problematic phase from a risk standpoint is the high-level waste (spent fuel) disposal phase. In particular, if there is no spent fuel reprocessing in the uranium fuel cycle, as it is the case in the U.S., then spent fuel disposal becomes problematic not only from the radiation risk standpoint but also from the security threat standpoint.
2) In a fossil-based electricity generation supply chain (let us consider coal-fired power plants), the most problematic phase is the operational phase where emission of carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere is a serious air pollution issue that impacts global warming and human health. If the coal-fired power plant is equipped with a technology for carbon capture and storage (CCS) like the amine absorption process, then the economic cost of this technology (cents per kWh) becomes an issue.
3) In solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation, the most problematic phase in the supply chain risk management is the manufacturing of the PV wafers which is dependent on the availability of rare earth metals.
4) For electricity generation form wind turbine farms, the operational phase is the most problematic phase because of the unreliability risk of wind turbines during its field operation.
In summary, you need to consider all the phases of the energy source life cycle (cradle to grave) in order to understand which phase (or phases) ii the most problematic either from an environmental/ ecological standpoint, security threat, or economic efficiency.
Hope this discussion helps!
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Researchers report max power density, current density, voltage and current values over time. If I want to know the value that can be generated using their MFC and if it is economically worth considering, how can I do it ? 
My idea is to use the mean power density if available, multiply it with anode area and get the mean power. Then, we can multiply it with the time of operation of MFC to get the total power generated. If that was being used at a location where power costs x $ /W, then the total value generated from MFC would be x*total power generated. Is this right ? If not, how to go about it ?