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Dear researchers,
I am currently working on the development of a Low Mach Number multi-species solver (a system similar to that used in LMN combustion, but with no reactions at present ...) I am having issues with deriving the exact temperature equation (note that c_p varies for each species...) I emphasize that I am looking for having an equation expressed as a function of the temperature (not enthalpy, not internal nor total energy !)
- Can you please help by providing some references that can help to derive this equation ?
- Shall I start from the conservation equation of the internal or total energy ? should I neglect specific terms ?
- From your experience, is the inter-species diffusion term important and should be taken into account in such a system of GE ?
- Same for the term div(Pu) ? any ideas
- Same for the viscous tensor (u Tau) ... this is so complex to code in fact ....
Thanks for your comments and recommendations !
Regards
Elie
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I suggest that you develop your mathematical approach around the fundamental quantities that are conserved rather than secondary ones. For example, temperature is not conserved, while energy is. Force, momentum (angular and linear), mass, and energy are conserved, while velocity isn't. There are also "conservative" forms of partial differential equations (Google "navier-stokes conservative form") and non-conservative ones. For example ∂(ρCT)/∂x vs. ρC∂T/∂x. Use the conservative forms and ∂E/∂x then calculate ρ, C, and T from H. The same thing goes for pressure, which isn't conserved, while dF=d(ma) works even when m and a are both changing. Solving for T as a function of H and composition (instead of H as a function of T) is just another equation to solve and there are many possible approaches.
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We have shown that the Lorentz transformation diverges to infinite energy at zero volume approaching a relative velocity of c. In the limit of small velocities the Lorentz transformation gives a three times higher field energy increase than the kinetic energy equation. The Galilean transformation does not transform field energy or volume if the relativistic invariant field transformations are considered. The Euclidean transformation allows a description of kinetic energy as a pure relativistic effect of increasing experienced volume. In the limit of small velocities the Euclidean relativity transforms field energy in the same relation as the kinetic energy equation.
Is the invariance of energy density a necessary rule in physics and the violation of this rule a reason to refute Lorentz transformation?
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The elementary discussion of your problem is available in the basic textbooks. Please kindly consider the following source:
All the essential material pertinent to your question is presented in the initial section (3 to 4 pages).
Best regards,
Janusz
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Energy conservation can be expressed in different ways, such as the temperature equation and the enthalpy equation. However, the two equations do not behave the same way when used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation (finite difference method and finite volume method). My question is: why? If someone can give me a brief explication.
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The physical conserved energy is the total energy. You can write equations for other forms of energy but they are never conserved.
The equation for temperature (intensive variable) must be deduced from the equation of the internal energy.
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Circular Economy and Triple Bottom line are two main tools in achieving sustainable development goals. But many academics, professionals and stakeholders are finding difficult to distinguish the difference between them and also fail to interconnect them. In this aspect, how they are inter related in terms of construction industry and technological applications?
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The Built Environment sector consumes a substantial portion of non‐renewable energy and prompts the emission of a significant amount of CO2; contributing approximately 39% of the annual global CO2. A third of the usage of total energy and CO2 emissions is a result of the Construction Sector in the developed and developing nations.
The Smartcrusher is a classic example of Circular economy by Netherlands Circular, 2018. Concrete is strong enough to last for centuries. But every kilogram of cement produces one kilogram of CO2 emissions. This means that today’s concrete and cement industry emits about three times as much CO2 as all aircraft combined. Crushed pieces of concrete can now only be used as low-grade gravel replacements. SmartCrusher is a device that separates the unused cement stone from the concrete rubble. It also produces residual flows of good quality sand and gravel. The cement stone can be used directly in concrete production and thus saves cement and CO2 emissions. With SmartCrusher, 50% of the world’s largest concrete construction flow can be made circular. The revenue model shows that the investment can be recouped within 1.5 years and that the price of concrete is halved. And that without including CO2 pricing
In the category of PROFIT, the price of concrete is halved, allowing more headroom for profit. There is ample savings from less waste and Carbon Tax.
In the category PLANET, the impact of CO2 emissions is the rise in global temperatures that result in shrinking changes of water supplies, changes in weather patterns and increase in sea levels; among others. By reducing emissions these consequences of global warming are curbed.
PEOPLE are better off with less CO2 emissions. Air pollution from construction has a direct effect on construction workers’ health, and the health of citizens near construction sites. As an example, the UK’s Health and Safety Executive has found that over 200 construction workers die yearly prematurely from diseases caused by exposure to diesel fumes (Bellona, 2019). There is no safe amount of air pollution, which means that the less air pollution we can have, the safer it will be for construction workers, and citizens exposed to construction sites.
*The triple bottom line is a business concept that posits firms should commit to measuring their social and environmental impact—in addition to their financial performance—rather than solely focusing on generating profit, or the standard “bottom line.” It can be broken down into “three Ps”: profit, people, and the planet
*A circular economy is "a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible."
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I would very much appreciate thoughts about drivers and barriers for development of ESCOs in Africa. Maybe this particular question should be firstly considered on the more limited markets. Eventually assessing of the situation with drivers and barriers should be done on the level of the regions or even on the level of particular countries. Furthermore, maybe it will be promptly bundled with several more questions including one as Whether SuperEsco may assist in overcoming key barriers?
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Thank You again, Milan, your offer is precious, I'll search who or what institution in Africa may be in a position to come up with meaningful ideas or more (!) to make renewable energy an efficient approach.
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For example ants that developed thermoregulation of their nest. Bees that generate heat through movement and the storing of energy in other forms such as in honey or wasps that just protect their queen long enough to start a fresh in spring. Maybe there is other more exotic and complex or simple examples out there?
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Hello Igor; Here is an example from my own observations. The small desert rodent Neotoma lepida (Desert Packrat) makes a large pile of sticks, bits of cactus, and other bits of vegetation. A large nest may be more than 2 m in diameter and as much as 1 m high. The individual makes a nest deep in this pile. The nest resembles that of a "typical" bird. It is dug into a platform of fine vegetation bits. The animal uses this platform as its toilet! Urine and feces are embedded in the platform and the mass ferments warming the nest by a few degrees. This is the theme in the winter when temperatures may regularly fall below freezing. During the summer the individual occupies another nest placed away from the toilet platform...it is cooler there.
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Arakawa(1966)'s Jacobian(his eq. 46) is a mean of 3 components: J++(eq.36), J+x(eq.37), and Jx+(eq.38), which have different conservation properties. I am trying to show the difference when using different version of Jacobian in the simulation of two dimensional turbulence, which can be formulated as the stream funciton(\psi)-relative vorticity(\zeta) equation:
\frac{\partial \psi}{\partial \t}=-J(\psi,\zeta)
The model was initialized with \zeta(\psi), such that the relative vorticity is a function of the stream funciton and J(\psi,\zeta)=0, therefore the flow field does not change with time. My result shows that energy/enstrophy remains almost conserved for a while but blows up anyway(for the accumulation of round-off error?), no matter which Jacobian implementation was employed, I am confused.
The Fourier-spectral method was emplyed for spatial differencing( so continuous form of J++ , J+x , and Jx+ were used in the code) and I know that the conservation property of Arakawa Jacobian, 1/3*( J++ + J+x + Jx+), should be independent of the sptial differencing technique. So I supposed that 1/3*( J++ + J+x + Jx+) should be better than using any of the 3 alone, in terms of energy/enstrophy conservation. However little difference was observed when different initial condition was used. In the simulation, horizontal diffusion in contained in a wavenumber filter to remove the shot waves beyond 2/3 of the maximum wavenumber. Highly possiblely it is an uneducated question, but would be appreciated if someone can explain.
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Hello Researchers,
Energy is one of the most influential sectors in recent years. So, optimal management of this sector will be of great importance. In your opinion, what will be the energy management issues, in the future?
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Good answer by Y.L. Zhukovskiy
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Dear colleagues,
I need your help. The law of energy conservation in fluid dynamics is associated with Bernoulli equation or, in more general case, with Lagrange-Cauchy equation. I am interesting in the paper were this association was first declared. It is not Bernoulli own thesis, since the law was formulated in the middle of XIX c. I would like to know first arguments and definition of energy of the pressure term in the equation. As far as I know, Rayleigh was first who noted energy of pressure in fluid in his paper "On waves" (1876). But he did not give any definition what is the energy and how it has to be calculated. I am interesting in first definition.
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In powder metallurgy, energy is consumed in powder production, ball milling, powder compaction, and sintering. Whereas in casting, the energy is consumed only in melting the ingot. In some of the papers, I have read that energy consumption is lower in powder metallurgy. How? Can anyone explain, please?
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Powder metallurgy process is a net forming process, more energy saving from the point of view of saving materials
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Redshift of radiation energy density has been taking place since the early universe due to the expansion of the universe. How much energy has been lost? How does our cosmological model account for it?
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That question doesn't make sense, because in a curved spacetime energy isn't a well-defined quantity. The reason is that invariance under time translations-which is the symmetry that expresses the fact that energy is conserved-isn't a global symmetry under these circumstances.
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Case example: Author A stated an equation 'Dk= 4/3K (8RT/M)' in their report.
Author B cites this equation and writes in her/his report as "... the equation of xyz can be expressed as Dk=48 (RT/M) { ref:Author A}."
which probably have the same meaning but in different form. Any opinions?
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I think there is no problem unless the equation defines a different meaning from the original one
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Hello everyone,
I'm studding thermal properties of amorphous SiO2(a-SiO2) via molecular dynamics(LAMMPS) using Tersoff potential( ). But I'm experiencing a continuous temperature increasing issue in nve ensemble with a time step of 0.5fs. Problem can be solved by reducing the time step to 0.1fs. But my calculations are kinda time consuming ones so I really need to have the energy conservation with the 0.5fs time step. Anyone who experienced a similar issue with Tersoff potential (for a-SiO2)? Hope someone could give me an advice on my issue.
Stay safe.
Thank you
Chamara Somarathna
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First, thank you very much for your kind reply.
Back to my problem, I tried to create amorphous silica by melting and quenching method. Initially I tried to equilibrate Beta-Cristobalite at 1800K in NPT and NVE ensembles respectively. However, in the NVE ensemble, system temperature begins to increases as shown in the Fig. 1.
Then I skipped the NVE equilibration and used NPT for the melting and quenching process following http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4983753. However the resultant amorphous silica also not able to handle the NVE ensemble keeping a stable temperature. My timestep size is 0.5fs and used the SiO.tersoff potential file which comes with LAMMPS.
I have attached my input script (SiO2.in) and the SiO.tersoff files herewith. I'm guessing that my initial atomic positions are the issue here since I have borrowed it from the LAMMPS mailing list. I have also attached the initial structure (SiO2.data lammps data file format) of my system herewith.
Can you please tell me about your procedure of creating amorphous silica, such as the initial crystal structure used, timestep size, whether is it ok to use the SiO.tersoff from LAMMPS or did you used a different potential file. I would be really grateful if you could help me out.
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Over the years I have repeatedly encountered the problem that NVT dynamics of simple liquids and solids with a Langevin thermostat do not manage to keep the desired temperature. I have observed this behavior for several atomic and molecular liquids with VASP as well as with ASE. Sometimes this can be fixed by reducing the timestep and/or increasing the coupling constant (within reasonable limits), but in some cases, even this does not help.
My current system is pre-equilibrated liquid pentane at T = 300 K at its experimental volume with all masses set to 10 amu and a semi-empirical GFN0-xTB Hamiltonian. I have tried increasing the coupling constant from 0.02 au (suggested value) to 0.05 au and 0.10 au and decreased the time step from 4 fs to 2 fs and 1 fs, but even after 20 ps of simulation time and a pre-equilibration of 10 ps with an even higher coupling constant the average T of the simulation remains at ~290 K instead of the desired 300 K.
I have made similar observations in countless VASP simulations of atomic liquids and solids (DFT Hamiltonian), so I'm starting to think this is a fundamental problem of the LV thermostat? If I'm not completely mistaken that behavior means that the thermostat can not put energy into the simulation fast enough. But where is the energy going? With such a short time step energy conservation should be really good but obviously it isn't.
What is my misconception, what am I doing wrong, and how can I fix that behavior?
Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Jan
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Hi,
It doesn't look like a problem of LV thermostat. If there is always a 10K offset. It looks like a systematic energy calculation offset, for example, kinetic energy calculated not calibrated with respect to the center of mass of the system. Very often, there might be some translational drift of the whole system during simulation. As a result, the kinetic energy needs to be re-calibrated accordingly in order to obtain the right temperature. Just my two cents
MY
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The smaller, the better? What can we benefit from using mini/micro channel heat exchangers in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems? Any thoughts shared here will be much appreciated. The following are my bits for your comments.
1. Compact from high heat transfer area-to-volume ratio (e.g., the ratio ~ 1/d for a cylindrical flow channel while d is the channel diameter)
2. Reducing refrigerant charge from small refrigerant-side volume with small OD tubes
3. Maximising capacity/COP with trade-off between decreasing pressure drop and increasing heat transfer coefficient by effective refrigerant flow distributing/circuiting
4. Air-side heat transfer coefficient increase from enhanced air flow disturbance with small OD tubes and narrow spacing tube banks
5. Low air flow pressure drop from using small OD tubes so both fan power and noise may be decreased
The smaller, the better for heat exchanger fluid flow channel size? This is one of the hot topics with users of our Refriglab cloud eTools ( www.refriglab.com being available for free trials). For developers and designers, an interesting question is how we can benefit more from a single mini/micro channel air coil design.
This post is a follow-up to my previous ones at LinkedIn:
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I totally agree with Divyesh Ubale
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The 3D Taylor-Green vortex problem is a well-established adademic test problem for decaying turbulence. For a careful comparison of two discontinuous Galerkin-FEM for the incompressible
case at Re=1600, I refer to N. Fehn et al in arXiv:1905.00142 (or IJNMF 2019). Results for under-resolved TG flow at higher Re numbers can be found in the Ph.D thesis by P.W. Schroeder "Robustness of high-order divergence-free FEM for incompressible CFD", Göttingen 2019, Sec. 9.1.3. For the inviscid TGV at Re=\infty, one observes for the method without any stabilization for
the fully turbulent flow for t \ge 10 a simple redistribution of kinetic energy., see Fig. 9.14. This unphysical behavior is sometimes called "thermalization" or "white noise".
To the best of my knowledge, the currently best numerical simulation of the incompressible 3D Euler TGV can be found in N. Fehn et al. in arXiv:2007.01656. The authors show that the kinetic energy evolution does not (!) tend towards exact energy conservation which implies an energy dissipation anomaly. The proper representation of the Reynolds stress tensor requires an appropriate numerical dissipation. In my opinion, it would be good to share the experience of other colleagues regarding the given problem and a proper choice of numerical dissipation which does not perturb the divergence-free constraint.
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M.Kirchhart: Thanks for the remarks. To the best of my knowledge, the paper arXiv:2007.01656 by Fehn et al. is the first to show that the inviscid 3D-TGV develops anomalous energy dissipation. To this goal, the authors make very expensive simulations with up to 8192^3 DOF which is the finest resolution so
far. It seems to be questionable whether even more expensive simulations are
reasonable at all. For good reasons, Fehn et al. look at the evolution of the kinetic energy E(t) and of -dE(t)/dt. Nevertheless, It is interesting to identify numerical convergence rates of E(t) and the dissipation rate based on the finest numerical resolution.
But wouldn't it be better to look for a mathematically reasonable approximation
of the Reynolds stress tensor (RST) as it is done for turbulent 3D channel flow.
A potential candidate for a numerical dissipation could be the recent arXiv paper by Ahmed et al. (July 7, 2020) where they suggest a least square stabilization of the vorticity equation in the linear Oseen case. The generalization to the nonlinear case would add a weighted curl of the vorticity equation. In the critical limit of
viscosity \nu=0, there would remain second order spatial derivatives which eventually could serve as model of RSI. In my opinion, this would be an interesting
analytical approach.
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When we derive differential equations for flow, i.e. the mass, momentum, and energy conservations, we use Taylor's series to determine the relationship between the 2 points. Are there no other series that produce a more precise equations?
Dear respective researchers, please give your reply.
Thank you very much.
Kind regards.
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Thanks dear Mohamed Salaheldin for your reply....
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Energy conservation is the result of several processes, such as productivity increase in terms of technological progress. However, energy efficiency is measure of energy intensity in a specific process.
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The first step is Energy conservation and next is optimal use of this energy ie
Energy Efficiancy = ( Energy Optimization / Energy conserved )
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We know that the energy density of the gravitational field around masses is negative.
This fact is a consequence of the analogy to the electrostatic attraction of different charges. If different charges come closer, the electrostatic field energy becomes converted to kinetic energy. In the electrostatic case this is obvious, because the electric field around both charges becomes weaker.
But in the gravitational case, the situation is just reverted. Approaching masses gain kinetic energy and the surrounding gravitational field becomes stronger. The only possibility, matching to energy conservation, is that the energy density in the gravitational field is negative.
But this fact has consequences. We also know that gravitational waves exist and that they have a positive energy contents. If gravitational waves are pure oscillating gravitational fields, the same fields which surround masses, then their energy content also would be negative. Therefore a gravitational field component, oscillating with normal gravitational fields but with positive energy density must exist.
Further consequences concern the generation of gravitational waves. Large heavy celestial bodies encircling each other generate gravitational waves, which are detectable light years away. The emission of gravitational waves costs kinetic energy. Obviously a mechanism exists, which converts the kinetic energy of moving masses to gravitational waves.
But what happens to the gravitational waves travelling through space? The oscillation amplitude becomes smaller and smaller and the energy density is reduced proportional to the square of the covered distance. What finally remains is a tiny contribution to positive gravitational field energy density.
We then come to the question, is the universe an infinite flat space with giant clouds of galaxy clusters inside or is it a closed S3-sphere. Let us assume it is a closed S3-sphere. In this case all gravitational waves finally would add up to a positive gravitational field energy, surrounding us in the background. In an infinite flat space the gravitational waves irrecoverably would escape together with fast particles and electromagnetic radiation.
What are the consequences of a positive gravitational field density surrounding us? The answer is simple, as long as there are no gradients we would not feel anything. If there are gradients, they cannot be steep, because they would be equalized by a gravitational wave flow, moving with the speed of light. But if there aren’t consequences all the arguments above wouldn’t be relevant.
This leads us to the final considerations. If giant moving masses produce gravitational waves, detectable light years away, tiny moving masses may also produce gravitational waves but with a small amplitude far beyond our detection capabilities. Even quants of electromagnetic radiation then could become a source of gravitational waves. The key point is, that stars contain fast moving particles and a high level of radiation. They therefore must be a considerable source of incoherent non detectable gravitational waves. But this flow actually would lead to a permanent gradient in the density of the positive gravitational field energy in the environment of stars. Dark energy therefore could be the same as the energy density resulting from flows of incoherent gravitational waves out of stars. The influence on galaxy dynamics and the details of the interaction between negative and positive gravitational energy must be investigated.
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As my PhD work, I am working on underwater sensor networks and need a suitable simulator for designing in terms of effective routing and energy conservation.Among all available such as NS2, NS3, OPNET, OMNET, QUALNET, which is the best one to work with?
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Hello Swati,
Here is the detailed survey of the underwater simulation softwares available in the market. Here is the paper citation(Also attached) : Das, Anjana & Thampi, Sabu. (2017). Simulation Tools for Underwater Sensor Networks: A Survey. Network Protocols and Algorithms. 8. 10.5296/npa.v8i4.10471.
Here is the link for the helpful development for ns-2 aqua-sim work :
You can also make contribution to ns-3 which is more reliable right now. P.S. you can not convert ns-2 files to ns-3 directly as ns-2 uses OTcL for development but it can be converted to ns-3. There is new tool for ns-3 which is Aqua-Sim-NG which was developed and maintained by R. Martin, here is the link for the same : https://github.com/rmartin5/aqua-sim-ng
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I am trying to make a smart phone charger by converting the wasted heat while cooking our food using thermoelectric generator (TEG).The main issue is I need to add a 5 V DC cooling fan along with a heat sink in one part of TEG in order to make that part cooler than the other one. If the DC fan is powered from the generated electricity using TEG, then will there be enough remaining electrical energy to charge a smart phone?
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The attached link shows how to build a thermoelectric USD charger
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Some researchers consider rotation variables as work-conjugate with moments, others think that the displacement derivatives is, and others use semi tangential rotation as work-conjugate to conservative moments
Any explanation or more references?
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I concur with Kabir. The potential energy is a function of momentum.
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What you say about, the idea of integration of SPV with an electrolzer and PEM fuel cell, how much energy we will lost?
Is it possible to combine together electrolyzer and fuel cell without external energy source?
As electrolyzer is used to produce hydrogen by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen by using electricity and hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as a fuel to converts chemical potential energy into electrical energy. And it’s common that people use extra waste energy produced by SPV (solar voltaic system) in electrolysis to produce hydrogen and in the absence of sunlight they use this fuel hydrogen to produce electricity by using a fuel cell. And my question is it possible that electrolyzer and fuel cell work together supply each other electricity and hydrogen fuel? If we already lost energy due to heat and always get less energy by fuel cell than we have spent on electrolysis, so maybe these processes are only for energy storage.
Sorry for my bad English as I didn’t explain a very simple question very well.
SPV, Solar voltaic system
PEM, Proton-exchange membrane
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Ibrahim Mohammad Please try to rewrite your question in a way that we can more clearly understand what your question is. What do you mean by Electrolzer, SPV and PEM? It is a good practice to define all acronyms the firs time they are used.
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phosphoric acid plant energy conservation and quality control
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I agree with Ali Agha
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There are different proofs that the quantum nechanics (QM), more exactly the quantum formalism (that was NEVER contradicted by experiment), does not admit a substructure of particles following continuous trajectories. As two rigorous proofs I recommend my article
and section 5, "Does a quantum objecthave a 'particle' ? ", in my article
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
However, with all my efforts until now, I didn't succeed to prove a stronger statement: that the quantum object, which travels in our apparatus(es) does not possess a weird 'particle' which jumps accross disjoints regions, separated by a space in which the wave-function is null. This problem arises very strongly when we have to do with a wave-function consisting in two or more wave-packets traveling through isolated regions, e.g. : |ψ> = |a> + |b>.
In my last article mentioned above, I used as assumption the idea that a particle cannot do such a jump. i.e. cannot jump from the wave-packet |a> to the wave-packet |b>. The motivation is that an instant jump between two disjoint regions would mean, in a suitable frame of coordinates in movement with respect to the lab, that the particle disappears for a while from the universe. That would contradict the energy conservation, which has to be respected in any frame of coordinates.
Could there be a NO-GO here? Could it be that it is impossible to prove that there is no such weird particle? Could it be that it though exists?
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I think we know admit that the quantum (be it ddB or not) is hard or impossible to mix with relativistic frames from the start.
So you just say you do everything on a fixed frame. The only exception I see is maybe Dirac equation, which uses a 4 spinor; built on a Lorenz invariant, the Einstein energy form EE=ppcc+m0m0cccc, starting from a linear equation, treating E as an eigenvalue. Again, the proper conclusion is just maybe a partial incompatibility of two theories, with variants on the quantum side. The main philosophical and general difference I can see is quantum vs. classical. The basic philosophy of the Dirac equation is based on probability density, not trayectories, as in normal QM
However I think that this clash may be particularly strong if definitive trajectories are chosen, as in ddB. That is all.
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The Hamiltonian function H is defined as the total energy of a system, the sum of kinetic and potential energy. Lagrangian function L is defined as the potential energy subtracted from the kinetic energy.
Both functions are essential in solving for predicted movement in a many bodied problem of celestial mechanics. The Hamiltonian is conserved, while the change of Lagrangian with time is minimized in each interval.
That energy is conserved is intuitive. Minimizing the change of Lagrangian takes a bit of explanation that is usually not given. It has to do with the way the action S is calculated from L. One explanation is that in the nature of objects in a group moving under their combined gravities and individual momentums, the path of least resistance is the one in which the least possible conversion of energy between kinetic and potential occurs. This is the simplified explanation for the non specialist.
It's a bit of mystery why a physical system in vacuum space time would be biased against conversion of energy between kinetic and potential. The Lagrangian is suggesting the potential and kinetic energies compete with each other for control of curvature.
In an extreme high gravity the space curvature is tending to enclose the source in an event horizon, like a concave curvature. The opposite must be a convex curvature with respect to the source of kinetic energy. This difference may be a physical cause of bias against conversion between potential and kinetic energy. It is inconvenient in the mechanisms of stress energy and is avoided when another path is available.
In the present question it is recognized and well known in publications that a Legendre transformation is able to compute the Hamiltonian from the Lagrangian subtracted from the change of Lagrangian with logarithm of velocity, for a fixed location. Maybe some additional character can be deduced of space time and the objects it processes, especially how velocity and acceleration relate H to L. Conventional GRT has no such bias, but classical Celestial Mechanics does.
Why Can The Hamiltonian Be Computed From The Lagrangian?
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Good question, i follow that.
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I have done a couple of calculations with this dispersion corrections and range separated functionals. The complex under study is Cinnamic---DMSO from XRD studies, where the ethylene group is 3.4 Angstroems from the S of DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide). The LMO-EDA ends up with reasonable energies, except for polarization energy that is way out of range
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ALL BASIS SET HARTREE KCAL/MOL
------------- wP57X-D / TZV
ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY ES= 35.155915                  22060.69 kCal/mol  ??
EXCHANGE ENERGY EX= 0.001502                                    0.94
REPULSION ENERGY REP= 0.020100                                 12.61
POLARIZATION ENERGY POL= -35.152773                   -22058.72 kCal/mol ??
DFT DISPERSION ENERGY DISP= -0.008141                       -5.11
TOTAL INTERACTION ENERGY HF OR DFT E= 0.016604   10.42
However using MP2 I get reasonable energies.
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ALL BASIS SET HARTREE KCAL/MOL
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ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY ES= -0.006687                        -4.20
EXCHANGE ENERGY EX= -0.015563                                   -9.77
REPULSION ENERGY REP= 0.025771                                16.17 kCal/mol
POLARIZATION ENERGY POL= -0.002422                           -1.52 kCal/mol
MP2 DISPERSION ENERGY DISP= -0.005410                       -3.40
TOTAL INTERACTION ENERGY HF OR DFT E= 0.001099     0.69
TOTAL INTERACTION ENERGY MP2 E= -0.004312              -2.71
Can anyone suggest a reason for that? Does anybody have a reference for H-bonds?
Thanks.
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Dear Victor, I've got the same result with that functional. Unreasonable high values for electrostatic and polarization. Could you solve your problem?
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Consider the one-particle wave-function
(1) |ψ> = α|a> + β|b>, with |α|2 + |β|2 = 1.
where a and b are eigenvalues of some operator, e.g. path- operator.
Then, the amplitudes of probability α and β are usually defined as giving, theough their absolute square, the probability of obtaining the result a or b. We get a detection on path a with probability |α|2, or on path b with probability |β|2 .
But α and β have an additional phenomenological meaning. For instance, in interference experiments, they determine the contrast of the fringe pattern and the position of the pattern.
Though, my question goes further: in each trial and trial of the experiment, what do the amplitudes α and β? Let the detectors be ion-chambers, and let our particle be electrically charged. The detection is due to the ionization of the gas in the chamber by the charge of the particle. But, which effect have α and β in a given trial of the experiment? These amplitudes are not physical properties of the particle, as charge, energy, linear momentum, etc. Then, how do they influence the material in the detector?
No doubt there is an influence, since along the run of the experiment the detection on path a occurs with probability |α|2, and the detection on path b occurs with the probability |β|2. Therefore, it's due to these amplitudes, that in a given trial of the experiment a detector fires, or remains silent, and only one detector fires. But, how does it work, how does a detector interact with an amplitude?
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Dear Sofia,
If I understand you well , when we have any click on any detector on any time then the global wave function was collapse,
and we need to repeat the experiment again to get the same setup again ...
Best regards,
Mazen
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I want to know the share of coal for producing electricity and steel production
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The use of coal for product power not way economicaly for stats and co2 critical grow
The world needed to change in all level energy conversion for sustainble development so we researchers should this start the study for renewbles energy to help the world without pallution and enhancment CO2
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With the Energiewende, the German government pursues a long term energy strategy which aims to transform the energy sector by mid-century. To achieve this it has implemented a comprehensive, long term policy framework which receives broad support across the political spectrum. The United States lacks a similar approach. The reasons are likely manifold. My question is how the character of each country's federalism impacts the long term energy approach of both countries and might help to explain differences?
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i am taking an ieee 14 bus system.i consider an outage and i apply demand response on mostly loaded bus.taking 8,4,10 hrs as valley,peak,off peak periods respectively i want the price variations with respect to demand.
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Recent research has delved into many aspects of aviation fuel consumption. In some ways the analogy with a personal automobile is apt: you fill up, and you drive until the tank is nearly empty, repeat. The difference for aviation is that the weight of the fuel itself significantly adds to the power needed to fly ("it takes fuel to fly fuel").  So, although the equations and ideas are well known, I would appreciate pointers to industry standard methods. Our goal is analytical shortcuts that would allow this idea to be built into a model of a major airlines network.
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Thanks -- appreciate these references.
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If you want to reduce your energy bill, it is quite possible to insulate the roof and walls. However windows are a more difficult subject, and they let out significant amounts of heat. Are there any solutions that can reduce this loss?
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Dear Prof.
Using Energy+ and design builder software can be helpful.
Best regards,
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I am working on a project titled as energy conservation of exhaust gases of SG-34 (18-V) gas engine at thermal power station
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You need to measure the following parameters:
1. Mass airflow of air
2. Fuel flow rate (either directly or using a wideband air/fuel ratio gauge)
3. Intake air temperature
Exhaust gas temperature
With the above measured parameters, you can calculate heat flow using the heat of formation and using basic combustion equations.
If you do not have a possibility of measuring airflow, use volumetric efficiency, intake pressure and temperature, and engine RPM with the known swept volume, and estimate mass airflow rate.
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The future of oil is in ambiguity. Developed countries seem to be replacing oil with other renewable energies. Please leave a comment? Thankful
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Many predictions are taking about the end of oil era in about 2040, by emphasizing on the great progresses in the field of electric and hybrid cars. However it should be noted that although electric and hybrid cars are growing rapidly, and they will be the future of transfer, there are several reasons that confirm the need for oil will be continued many years after 2040.
Transformation is only a limited part of oil needs and since the population of the world is growing and the need for energy as well as the production of petrochemicals (such as plastics) are rising, the need for oil will be rising for at least 20 years from now.
Personally I think the peak point in the rising need for oil in the world will be at least about 20-30 years in the future. and although the need for oil for transformation will be decreasing, the need for the petrochemicals will be rising.
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Hi, I was trying to bring a transient conduction system problem to the frequency domain in order to facilitate the solution and I began to wonder: Can the analogy between electrical circuits and thermal circuits be extended to transmission lines for transient heat conduction? Let me explain my reasoning:
If one rearranges the terms of the Fourier conduction equation, in 1D cartesian coordinates:
q=-k*A*dT/dx
q/A * 1/k = -dT/dx
Now making q/A=q" (heat flux) and 1/k=R' (thermal resistance per unit length), one can write it as:
q"*R'=-dT/dx       (1)
Writing out energy conservation, and considering the source term equal zero:
d/dx(k*dT/dx)=rho*cp*dT/dt
Identifying that k*dT/dx=-q" (the heat flux in an element), we can rewrite it as:
-dq"/dx=rho*cp*dT/dt
Now, calling C'=rho*cp (Thermal capacitance per unit length), the energy conservation can be rewritten:
-dq"/dx=C' * dT/dt      (2)
Equations (1) and (2) are of the same form as the Telegrapher's equations for a 1D transmission line, which for the general case are:
-dV/dx=L' * dI/dt + R' * I      (3)
-dI/dx=C' * dV/dt + G' * V      (4)
Where I and V are the current and voltage, L' is the inductance per unit length, R' is the resistance per unit length, C' is the capacitance per unit length and G' is the shunt resistance per unit length.
The interesting part here is, if one makes L'=0 (no thermal inductance) and G'=0 (no thermal shunts in a flat plate), eq. (1) matches eq. (3) (V~T, q"~I) and eq. (2) matches eq. (4).
The consequence is that all features of a transmission line apply (given L'=G'=0) to thermal conduction: Wave propagation, wave distortion, etc. It also becomes relatively easy to associate different materials by using two-port networks and other basic electrical engineering concepts. 
What do you think? Is that possible? If not, why? I'm really curious!
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I think that the lack of coherence between the thermal carriers and the lack of anything approaching an electromagetic effect will mean that L=C=0 for all conditions and hence anything other than an exp(-kx) function will simply not apply.
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Hi,
I am struggeing with a numeric implementation of the free field 2D Green function of the wave equation in space and time domain, which, according to all references I could find, is proportional to
( t2-(r/c)2 )-1/2
and thus, has a singularity at r/c=t. If I want to implement this function as numeric array that can be convolved numerically with a source distribution to get a wave field, I do not know how to deal with this singularity.
An option would be polynominal extrapolation, but I would prefer a mathematically correct attempt.
I thought I might have to analytically convolve the Green function it with a sinc function first, to attain a function that can be accutely sampled according to the Nyquist criterion, but this still did not resolve the singularity.
In consequence, I am also wondering if the 2D Green function is even integrable. I believe it should be in terms of energy conservation, but I ended up with an infinite integral.
Thanks for your time!
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A few (trivial) remarks: the Green function is studied here, http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/~fratus/Phys100A/Boris/605_wveq_%288%29.pdf , and more details are given in the book by Evans. In general the Green function isn't a function, but a weaker object (a distribution) which can be locally expressed as derivatives of measures.
In order to cope with initial data, it must be a Dirac mass at t=0 (the identity of the convolution operator). Usually, one discretizes a Dirac mass in 1D by putting a weight multiplied by 1/DX, being DX the space step. The rationale is to ensure that, taking the antiderivative (-> Heaviside), it has the correct jump for any value of DX>0. This is a way to secure weak consistency.
Clearly, it's even more delicate to do so in 2d with radial functions ... I know that Anna-Karin Tornberg published years ago some papers dealing with efficient Dirac masses approximation at the numerical level, here is one of these.
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The current density made by electrons with number density n  inside a conductor  is J=qnv. How the energy conservation equation is expressed? and what type of energies these electrons have? I am working on a formalism that connect the quantum and classical nature of electrons moving inside a conductor. In such  a case the energy conservation representing  the particle from the two points of view should hold.
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Dear Berham,
Surely all the references that you have done and last explanations answer the question of Arbab. Surely that Schwinger showed that the conservation of energy in a metal needs a functional derivative of the Hamiltonian (in a Fock space or in Hilbert space?) with respect to the potential vector A(r) (in the Lorentz gauge or better in Coulomb gauge, perhaps another one). I don't know if the renormalization in QED is so important as this equation, but in the book on electrodynamics of Schwinger ( a very good reference for classical electrodynamics) never wrote on solid state physics and lest on electronic transport in metals.
By the way, I don`t remember to finish speaking on the Maxwell equations for superconductivity because I don't know the relation of both things even in London equations or Missner effect (diamagnetism). In any case, you have the reason surely because my memory is quite weak and the posts are written.
Don't put Arbab in troubles for answering, because he needs to start with the comments of Clifford first and the discussion that you have had on the conservation of energy for the electronic transport in metals. Fantastic!
Have a good day!
-
* It is also to employ the canonical quantization or the path integral formalism assuming that we have a symplectic structure.
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Consider 3 hollow conductor spheres A, B and C together with the charged hollow conductor sphere X of charge Q.
Let the spheres A, B, C and X be of a similar capacitance C. i.e.The difference in their capacitances is so small to be significant.
Bring the spheres A, B and C towards X so that the enclose it.
Momentarily earth the spheres A, B, C and X so that A, B and C each gain a net charge Q. Let the volumes of the spheres A, B, C and X each be V. i.e. The difference in their volumes is so small to be significant.
The charge density Z on X was,
Z = Q/V
The charge densities Z on A, B and C are,
Z = Q/V+Q/V+Q/V
Z = 3Q/V
The results show that the charge density of A, B and C charge system is higher than that which was on X.  This is possible because the electrostatic field on the outer most sphere is the vector sum of the electrostatic fields emanating from the charged inner spheres. So the charge density on the outermost sphere is more than that which was on the central sphere if we add the net and induced charges on the surface of the outermost sphere.
Therefore a higher charge density is being created at a certain point in space without as expending energy.
This is compared to crunching a group of like charges together without expending
energy.
This goes against the law of energy conservation.
For more information visit
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I'm sorry, Max, but I give up. The good point of your style of communication is: You do not become aggressive when contradicted; try to remain so. The bad point: You are not responding to the answers. This gives the impression that you do not really have a question but simply intend to circulate your point of view.
My last advice: Build a prototype, and measure the excess energy. And then respond at least to Mother Nature's answer.
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I am confused about how to apply Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Momentum to the following situation:
A horizontal spring-block oscillator moving on a friction-less surface is in motion when a block of equal mass is gently lowered onto the oscillating block and moves together with the lower block.
How does the addition of the second block impact the Kinetic Energy, the Potential Energy, Period and Amplitude of the the spring-block system?
If I apply conservation of momentum to the addition of the second block, then the combined two block system will have reduction in velocity. And since KE is 1/2 mv squared, the reduction in velocity will have a greater impact on reducing KE than the doubling of the mass. In fact, the overall KE will reduce by 50% if velocity halved while mass doubled.
So here is my question, if KE of this spring-block system was reduced by 50%, does that mean that this situation violated Conservation of Energy?  If it does not violate it, then what accounts for the 50% reduction in KE? What did that energy transform into?
Thanks very much.
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Always remember the first law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy). Accordingly, energy cannot be destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.
Professor Yehia Khalil, Yale University, USA
Fellow of the University of Oxford, UK
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In Loop quantum gravity, particles couple on spin foams and not on gravitons (gravitational force exchange boson). And the spin foam changes as it is evolving through space and time. Does it imply by Noether's Theorem that energy is not conserved in this theory due to non-homogeneous spinfoam?
Moreover, some research suggested that Lorentz invariance is broken. And Lorentz group is subgroup of Poincare group. 
Another question:
Implies no translation invariance no Lorentz invariance or no Lorentz invariance implies no translation invariance?
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I am solving the natural convection heat transfer problem within an enclosure with few heat generating components using Fluent.Around this enclosure,I have considered the fluid domain. To consider the solar effect, i have used the solar model ( No radiation model).Will this problem converge? Energy will be conserved? . I have a thought the since this solar load is applied as heat source (heat flux) on the outer surface of the enclosure, It is pumping the heat to the inside fluid. Because of this fact, inside fluid temperature may keep going and resulting in no convergence. Will that be true.
Please share your views.
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Are you considering it an unsteady or steady problem? There are basically two approaches to solve natural convection problems. I think it will be difficult to get convergence in your case if you will consider it as a steady problem. However, problem is still not clear from your explanation. So it is difficult to give any specific comment.
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When we try to find out algorithm to calculate evolution of mechanical system in discrete time, we find, that energy is not conserving. Does this mean some deep law? Is it possible to use momentum or only use coordinates difference / delta t?
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@Ram,
The correct names of the authors of the book to which Robert refers are Leimkuhler and Reich. A very readable book indeed!
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Noether's theorem is the following: To every continuous symmetry one obtains a conserved quantity. 
Example: If a physical theory is homogenous in time (i.e. the physical laws are valid independent on time), energy is conserved.
Question: Are there physical theories, where energy is not conserved? I know that in General Relativity energy is covariantly conserved and in quantum mechanics, energy has uncertainties. But are there any well-known physical theories, where no energy conservation/ homogenity in time exists?
Maybe quantum gravity theories?
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In the quantum domain uncertainty ΔE Δt  ~ ħ says that in very short time scales there is a fundamental ambiguity in the measurement of energy. It is meaningless to discuss conservation principle of a quantity which cannot be measured. Therefore principle of conservation of energy cannot be precisely formulated in short time scales.  An well known example is beta decay where a neutron particle undergoes charged current interaction to produce a proton and a W- boson. We look at the conservation of all internal quantum numbers at this vertex, however mass of W- boson is much higher than that of proton or neutron and hence W- boson must exist for a very short duration. Within that short time interval it must create an electron and a neutrino in the second vertex. The following image is taken from Wikipedia.
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I created this thought experiment but it seems to contradict energy conservation.
Electric charges may have the tendency to mirror energy without transforming it.
Let’s charge a conductor sphere until it gains a positive charge. Let’s enclose it in neutral concentric conductor spheres as shown in the attached image.
The spheres are insulated from each other, are good electric conductors and are close to each other.
Firstly connect the positively charged outer surface of A to the Earth. Then connect the negatively charged inner surface of A to positively charged outer surface of B. Then connect the negatively charged inner surface of B to the positively charged outer surface of C. Then lastly connect the inner negatively charged surface of C to the positively charged sphere at the center. If my sphere at the center held electric potential energy of 10J how much electric energy will I get from all the different electric current movements. I think that with enough spheres I will get more electric energy than the 10J I used in the charging of the inner sphere.
Your thoughts are welcome.
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Henri> I dont say it is possible. I say it is not proven to be impossible
In a way cold fusion is possible! Muon catalyzed cold fusion works as long as the muon lasts. Which, perhaps unfortunately, is for less than 10 reactions on average. So, you only have to find a way to make the muon stable -- or a very energy efficient way to produce muons, and collect the energy back when they decay :-)
Henri> "The universe is a quantum computer"
And we are but instances of a primitive class running on that computer...
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Ideal air loads (heating and cooling) much higher than other HVAC system loads!
As the name suggests, Ideal air loads, this suppose to estimate a small load when compared with HVAC systems. However, when I compare Ideal air loads with any other HVAC system the ideal load is always higher. Does any one knows why?
The figure below shows a comparison of different systems for my building.
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Accurate air load calculations have a direct effect on energy efficiency, occupant comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), and building's durability. Moreover, the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure, as a full HVAC design involves much more than just the load calculation. The loads modeled by the heating and cooling load calculation process will dictate the equipment selection and duct design to deliver conditioned air to the rooms of the building.
The ideal load in higher because it used more conservative assumptions compared to the actual loads.
Hope this helps answer your question.
Professor Yehia Khalil
Yale University
USA
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I want to work on localisation and energy conservation aspects. So far I have come across NS2, NS3 or OMNet++.
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I would recommend NetSim from http://www.tetcos.com . It has excellent support for 802.15.4 based WSNs. You can also interface it with MATLAB and example projects / codes are available at http://tetcos.com/file-exchange.html that you can check.
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When googling for this topic, I don't get helpful results. In one article I have seen u=Re(psi* H psi). However,
i), in stationary cases, the kinetic energy density, psi* T psi, becomes negative in domains, in which E<V ('tunneling');
ii) it leads to energy conservation even in cases,
where the classical potential energy depends on time: V=V(r,t), because it obeys an equation of continuity without source term.
The following formula does not exhibit these two deficiencies:
u = hbar^2/2m |grad psi|^2 + V|psi|^2
Here,
@u/@t * div j = @V/@t |psi|^2
What do you think?
Thank you!
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I think the question is not correctly formulated. If you discuss stationary states one must consider the virial theorem that imparts unique relations between expectation values of the kinetic energy and the potential. This is trivial for bound states, but for the continuum one must find a well-defined spectral density that permits a reasonable decomposition of the initial wave packet.
Hence if you discuss an evolving wave packet, you can Fourier transform the equation of motion. This does not lead to an eigenvalue equation, but rather to an inhomogeneous equation from which one might analyse the evolution in more detail. 
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Hot water heating system for residential use is a norm. The portion of electricity bill for water (and space) heating can be around 30% in some countries. Is there any information of this for Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia and surrounding countries) or reference to areas with arid climate?
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Dear Mohamad
the gulf countries are rich with oil and considered as energy- wasteful communities. Although these countries are hot in general, but the water heaters are used in common and it took from  10 to 22 % of the electricity bill.
Regards
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what should be the considerable variables to find out heat exchanger working at stenter machine ? if heat exchanger engineered with tubes &  Air to Air exchange method?
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Mr. Alatyar is right. The porous media must have high heat diffusivity. You must necessarily have two units and operate them in transient mode with flow switching controls, solenoids, more complicated ducting etc. Instead, you could use rotary regenerative heat exchangers (heat wheels). I did not suggest the regenerative type because, for the rather low temperatures which are involved in your work, the recuperative, plate-fin heat exchanger will work out much more economical. 
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Assume a single-particle wave-packet landing on a beam-splitter. Two wave-packets emerge, one transmitted, |a> and one reflected |b>.
In "which-way" experiments we place a detector on the path of each one of the wave-packets |a> and |b>, i.e. Da and Db . In each trial of the experiment either Da will report a detection, or Db, but not both. Consider a trial in which Da reports a detection; one may be tempted to think that the wave-packet |b> is a fiction, does not exist really.
But this is not true, as it can be shown if we deflect the two wave-packets so as to cross one another, and get interference. Interference can't be obtained between a wave-packet, say |a>, and a fiction. Therefore, we have to admit that both wave-packets contain some form of matter.
Let's recall that if the detector is a photographic plate, during the detection process the wave-packet delivers energy that impresses the plate.
Now, if the wave-packets |a> and |b> are identical, both should contain energy. But the collapse enforces that only one of the wave-packets delivers energy to the detector.
What happens with the energy contained in the other wave-packet? Where it goes?
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My dear Stefano,
It doesn't seem to me enough what you say, a thorough mathematical treatment is needed. And, unfortunately, I am not the one to try such a treatment - as I said, I never learnt QFT. Your idea deserves a serious examination and a trial to set it on a mathematical formulation.
You see, I am asking myself the following question: when we write
|ψ> = ( |a> + |b>)/sqrt(2)
how many quanta of energy carries the component |a>/sqrt(2). Surely, it doesn't carry a half-quantum, there is no such thing. Also, it doesn't carry the whole quantum of energy, because in this case |b>/sqrt(2) is an empty wave, and there are problems between the idea of empty/full waves and the relativity theory. The possibility that the wave-function is an open system, in contact and exchange of quanta with the vacuum, seems to me an idea very worthy to investigate.
But, right now I am in the middle of an article. I told the editor that I'll send it quickly, and suddenly I have some difficulties there. So, I need a couple of days to see what I do with my difficulties.
Kindest regards from me, and congratulations for the interesting idea!!!
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Please pass a logo, a word or a sentence that can change our world. 
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I would recommend the use of :Law & Policies (permits), Education (Awareness creation an and  promoting Research innovations to enhance efficiency); and Taxes, fees and incentives.
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I was searching for a system/architecture that includes a smart meter as well as several smart plugs distributed in the home. In particular interesting would be how such a system integrates smart appliances into the HEMS
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If you are interesting in monitoring the breakers of the power centre (which would be a good option for load >15A) I have used DENT's PowerScout 24 (http://www.dentinstruments.com/power-meter?-md) with is a multi-circuit power meter. I have used DENT's meters to create my AMPds dataset (http://ampds.org) and other datasets.
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I am currently doing research work on Knowledge Based Building Energy Conservation in which I am using various operational strategies and internal loads to minimize energy consumption. My study is based in composite climate of India and I need BEE recommenced EPI for the same to make relevant comparisons. 
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Dear Richa,
Though these ratings are available but they hardly work. Lot of articles are now being written about How green are green rated buildings and so on. I am LEED AP and I know how funny the rules are to get point on rating scale. For every point there is an alternate way to achieve that or bypass it.
So Before using them in scientific work, study them very carefully because most of them are formulated by keeping in mind the business interest.
Like why in composite climate like Gurgaon should have Glass façade buildings with gold and platinum rating. How come this is possible?
So Before applying them in your academic and scientific study be cautious.
Regards,
Manoj
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We've recently started a small (internal) project on Smart Specialisation and energy. In that respect I'm interested in getting connected to others working on that topic. Tips about relevant literature (reports, articles etc.) are also highly appreciated.
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 Hi, I 've worked on the conception of various RIS, including S3. I am sure you know about the platform http://s3platform.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ . There are many articles on S3, not sure about the energy aspect, though. If you have question, just let me know.
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The increasing efforts for insulation of housings often are combined with reduced windows areas to avoid overheating by the sun. This trend does not take in account that the energy of the sun is for free ....especially in the winter time.
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It's a fairly simple thing to design and build off-grid housing in Canada that doesn't need a heating system - just build sufficient thermal glazing, thermal mass, and insulation.  The quick numbers say it costs about the same as conventional construction to build, and costs effectively nothing to operate (still needs maintenance, but even that can be minimalized, and I don't have a good replacement for 'cooking').  And the quick numbers also say that method would work across the entire Temperate zone, but not farther north than that.  It's not much of a reach to see that if people wanted to live that way, they would be.  And they don't, so there is likely a reason we don't want that.  Currently, we demonstrate our wealth and power by what we can afford to waste.  So, unless we expect that energy consumption will become shameful, then we will continue to waste energy.  Which means conventional housing will be the norm for a while yet.
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Typically decentralized energy generation capacities are connected to the power grid with central dispatch. So "decentralized" means "distributed" or "close to the customer". But traditional power stations are in many cases also located rather close to the customers, for example within cities or at the city borders.
Does "decentralized" mean "small" as compared to "large"? Or does it mean "autonomous" which then means the so called "prosumer" concept: electricity self-generation. This concept actually has much dynamic in countries where political levies and electricity tax rates on electricity are significant and self-generation is exempted from these levies. As a result, electricity sales and revenues from grid operation decline. Thus, the issue is relevant for energy policy which has a simple instrument in hand to stop decentralization: charge levies and electricity tax on self-generated electricity.
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considering the efficiency of generation,transmission and distribution network and their associated losses decentralized generation gives us a advantage of generating power where it is needed.  for example roof top solar power plant which is one of a good decentralized generator example which is been used by many industries and domestic buildings.  compared to older days where only one big generation station (centralized) feeding the entire city this concepts of having renewable sources or non renewable sources generating energy (decentralized) reduces the losses of transmission and peak hour demand.
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Buildings often initiated with the plans of reducing energy during its construction and operation period fail to achieve the energy targets. 
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to my experience it is all about the concept behind the plan of execution.  I always advocate that arc's and civil engineers follow Lean manufacturing principles which will reduce their wastes (delays in execution, prolonged work at night that cost more, using a n elephant to lift a brick (poor management of resources) ... and they should use the local green building guidelines like in India IGBC (which advocates try to use what is available with minimum resources - including energy, water, manpower, construction materials spent etc .,)
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I am currently doing a literature review on this topic.
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Thanks Diego. I will check these links
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It is an encouraging trend that building energy modeling has been more used at various phases of the building life cycle to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use. However, is the detailed energy simulation always the best choice? Maybe not. Especially when there is very limited information about the building, or there are lots of measured data available for the building. In these cases other methods or tools might be better choices.
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hi dear,
Other than energy utilization, heating and cooling applications, you can not use detailed building energy modelling. it depends upon your application and the type of simulation program you are using if so. it also depends upon sensitivity of calculations you are making.
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Dear all,
I'm working on cloud workload prediction, focusing on energy conservation. Is anyone aware of high-quality review papers on cloud workload prediction?
Thanks,
Salam 
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There are sections on workload management in a recent survey on cloud resource management that I co-authored:
Brendan Jennings and Rolf Stadler. Resource Management in Clouds: Survey and Research Challenges. Journal of Network and Systems Management 23(3):567-619, 2015. (doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10922-014-9307-7)
There is also a more recent survey paper that deals specifically with forecasting and profiling models, see: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1084804514002252
Good luck with your work :-)
--brendan
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New technologies, such as smart meters, provide access to more detailed energy use information for specific appliances (lighting, refrigeration, TV, radio, smartphone, cellular mobile phone charger, computer, etc) which could support energy use decisions and machine learning in control automation intelligence (ie AC or DC smartgrid microgrid - energy or electricity time of use time series databases for ANN neural network or linear optimization). 
Any appliance disaggregated time-series data sets available for machine learning of PV, isolated power or grid connected power systems ? 
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added to list of valuable energy datasets
ECO data set (Electricity Consumption & Occupancy): http://www.vs.inf.ethz.ch/res/show.html?what=eco-data
Dataset (TC9a) - Domestic Smart Meter Customers on Time of Use Tariffs - Customer-Led Network Revolution: http://www.networkrevolution.co.uk/project-library/dataset-tc9a-smart-meter-customers-time-use-tariffs/
SWISS energy dataset contains the electricity consumption
UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes: http://www.nature.com/articles/sdata20157
Datasets for the 2015 HackVT competition: http://hackvt.com/data/
NYSERDA DG/CHP Integrated Data System East Irondequoit Central School District: http://dataint.cdhenergy.com/Documentation/Monitoring%20Notes/Database%20Notes%20-%20EICSD.pdf
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Usually yellowness appears in solar EVA sheets, after testing in DHT, but when I tried with PID EVAs, it turned into pink colour.
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even if we add tin 770 it wont help in increasing the volume resistivity.
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How I can calculate the total energy consumption in a building?
I have all energy bills (Natural gas, Water and Electricity in cubic meter, cubic meter and kW per hour, respectively) in last year for a case study. I want to have the total energy consumption. But, there are different unit for each. Should I convert them to a specific criteria?
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Useful paper, Thank you Heba
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I am researching on using data analytics for addressing the issue of unintentional islanding in distribution grids given that renewable energy based generators will increase their penetration. I plan to use predictive grid analytics for which I will require data on events of islanding in any real distribution grid. Basically all the instances when unintentional islanding took place or whenever disconnection from the main grid took place are important.
The basic idea is to pinpoint the instances when events (disturbances) took place which are expected to be recorded, in form of alarms , at least. Events like switching surges, transients , overloads and opening of grid Circuit breakers/ CBs at any feeder node, are important.
The main motive is to analyze what were the conditions just before the actual event happening and so power flow conditions and dynamic data preceding the event are more important. A pre-event classifier will then identify the signatures that can truly lead to islanding, preventing false-tripping of the connected solar PV generator. I have tried contacting Delhi utilities but chances are thin. Can any other resource/source/link be provided?
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Dear  Shashank,
Maybe this linkswill be useful:
A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid 
Power Systems Up to 200 kW  by Chris Greacen , Richard Engel, Thomas Quetchenbach 
And these others:
Grid-Connected Inverter Anti-Islanding Test Results for General Electric Inverter-Based Interconnection Technology by Z. Ye and M. Dame  and B. Kroposki
and,
Regards,
Vanessa
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Most of the MENA region countries are blessed with abundant reserves of oil and gas. Due to this the energy cost per KWh is low in these countries so as the energy bill. However, due to low energy cost there is no energy conservation culture in these regions due to which the electricity producing companies are in great stress during the peak hours as the energy demand is very high. This might result is grid malfunctions, however, due to absence of energy conservation culture the consumers are not playing their role to mitigate the difference between supply and  demand. Under these circumstances, what methods could be adopted to encourage the consumers to reduce the energy usage during peak load hours..
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May be we should learn from  western countries, even though they have abundant amount of water yet they conserve water. Also, there is a hadeeth about  Rasool Allahi  PBUH talking about conservation of water even when you have a river passing by you!!!. Therefore, I suggest we need to appreciate the bounties given to us by Allah SWT and educate ourselves.
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The role of energy in the development of humankind is very important.The use of alternative sources of energy will reduce cost in the long run. According to energy experts, the renewable power sector needs to explore alternate avenues of funding through the bond market route. More innovation needs to be done in the area of low cost renewable equipments manufacturing. Conserving energy is the need of the hour.
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Various conveyors are available for different processes...which one will be the most efficient??
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Dear Prabhat, Dr Patil is 150% correct . You presume all conveyers systems are alike and which is not the case. Different processes require different solutions so material, length and application for example need to be defined. For example are the rollers themselves motorised or passive, what conveyer belt material is being used....... Is it above ground or underground etc so as you noted what are the different processes you are referring to.
You have to help others to help you :)
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For example, let's say we set the initial energy input (temperature) at some given value, say 1000 K for the first job. When this job is complete, we take the final positions and velocities and use them as the starting point for the next simulation.
However, rather than set the temperature at 1000 K again (thus adding more energy into the system), we set it at 0 K, and allow the particles to further equilibrate. 
My colleague suggests that, because energy is conserved in NVE, the results will be the same as running the simulation in one go. However, I suspect that the particles will tend toward the 0 K equilibration state, after some time. 
Any insight would be appreciated!
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With Vasp, what SMASS do you use ? For NVE, it should be SMASS=-3.
From what I read in the manual, if you copy your CONTCAR into POSCAR, then it contains the velocities, and VASP should read them and continue the simulation without changing anything.
So, TEBEG should not be indicated.
However, I am not a VASP specialist, and I only used it for NVT calculations.
Regards,
Paul.
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I am trying to understand rotating wave approximation in terms of quantum optics used in Rabi Oscillations. What is the physical meaning of this approximation? And more importantly why do we need it? Energy conservation?
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For a two level atomic system which interacts with oscillating electric field , whose frequency is near resonance with the atomic transition frequency, when we solve the time dependent Schrodinger equation, we get the time dependent coefficient of eigen function to be dependent on the sum (w + w) and difference (w - w) of frequencies. Since w ≈ w, detuning is very small, so we neglect the term which oscillates rapidly , as on an appreciable time scale these oscillations will quickly average to zero.
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Waste management, Energy conservation, Water conservation
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European ecolabel awards the best environmental performers. Criteria for touristic accommodation have been published. See here: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/documents/hotels.pdf
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Any research?
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yes of course.