Science topic

Endangered Species - Science topic

Endangered Species are an animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
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In other words, can someone who is unable to have an embodied experience in remote wild geographies form ample pictures about them in his/her academic papers and thesis? Or, is traveling to those places a must?
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You don't need to have experienced things to have an informed opinion about them through reading. So yes, you can write about anything you like. Einstein wrote about relativity, but never experienced it for himself, so :)
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Hi everyone, I'm making an index that requires the use of protected area categories to be ranked in terms of their abilities to protect threatened species.
The categories are:
  • Category Ia: Strict Nature Reserve.
  • Category Ib: Wilderness Area.
  • Category II: National Park.
  • Category III: Natural Monument or Feature.
  • Category IV: Habitat/Species Management Area.
  • Category V: Protected Landscape/Seascape.
  • Category VI: Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources.
In terms of actual biodiversity conservation the order of these categories seems to be a bit arbitrary. How would you rank the IUCN Protected Area Categories from highest to lowest protection for threatened species? I have searched numerous sources and all of them seem to have had the same complaint, and suggest the categories should be revised, but don't actually provide any recommendations on the proper order.
Any help appreciated!
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I think that is going to be an impossible task because the ability of each category to protect a threatened species is going to be entirely dependent on the laws (and the enforcement of those laws) that apply to each category in each country as well as the species in question and the threats that it faces.
For example, if you have a rare bat in a national park in the United States it is going to be protected from being killed outright, but if the biggest threat to that bat is human disturbance in caves during sensitive seasons then the National Park designation is irrelevant unless there are specific regulations for that park that keep people out of specific caves at specific times of the year. Even then, unless active management is taking place for that species (posting signs at caves or constructing bat gates), then the regulation won't do much.
Or how about a fire-dependent threatened species in a U.S. wilderness area that just isn't burning as much as it was in the past and in which prescribed fire is not really possible since you can't easily develop firelines? In that case the species may be better off in a more managed protected area.
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We have a locally endemic plant species which distributes just a specific narrow area. It spreads almost everywhere in that area, but it does not occur anywhere except that area. We want to model the distribution of the species with maxent. The bedrock in the distributed area is the same everywhere and the elevation variation is really low. Would it be right to produce artificial presence data and model it by putting artificial (random) sample points into the field?
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The regular way to use Maxent is to use your presence data and your environmental layers. The extent of the environmental variables should be larger than the range of presence points by 10-50%. Maxent will generate random pseudo-absence points for comparison. Never produce presence points. You may also use R package ENMeval to determine best model parameters.
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Bioenergetic use of Araucaria angustifolia branches
Araucaria angustifolia was widely exploited in the past for wood purpose
and currently it is on the red list of endangered species in Brazil
As far as we know, there are no data on the extent of this uncontrolled exploitation (Records suggest that its original extension has been reduced to just 12%).
Currently it cannot be cut or managed,
even the branches - which fall naturally at a certain time are not used.
So, we have the following questions:
Is it possible to see the Araucaria tree in a profitable and ecological way at the same time?
How can the use of branches contribute to the conservation of species?
Can the use of co-products (branches) save Araucaria from extinction?
These and other questions are addressed in this study carried out at the State University of Centro Oeste, PR - Brazil and can be accessed FREE of charge for 50 days
by the link
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Rachan
Thank you for the clarification
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I am about to propose a project involving signs along a river course and lakes where a threatened species of turtle lives; Pseudemys gorzugi.
Old signs exist there now, and have a surprising impact, (see picture), despite the fact that triploid grass carp have not been stocked there in over six years, and none exist now. Just last week I talked to a fisherman that thought that common carp should not be removed, because of the old signs... wrong species.
Clearly the signs have impact. Currently, the species of turtles suffer human persecution from fisherman who perceive the turtles to be a competitor, to casual firearms shooters looking for random targets.
My project needs to educate the public in a positive light. It must also be brief. In the city of Carlsbad, NM, there is the resource of Desert Willow Wildlife Rehab facility. That should be mentioned as well.
Please give me some ideas!
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I would try to identify what matters to your target audience and how the turtles relate, e.g. maybe turtles help maintain a healthy ecosystem that benefits fish preferred by anglers? Obviously it has to be true, but I'd aim for simple, straightforward, and relatable messages that relate directly to the target audience (easier said than done, of course).
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Aware that managed breeding is still a controversial issue, I believe that one conservation endeavor should not discard the other or worse, antagonize the other based on personal opinion or theoretical discipline gain. In situ and ex situ have both proven to be necessary to avoid extinction of critically endangered species.
I could cite several examples but one should be representative for all: the Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Extinct in the wild but some individuals breeding in Zoological Parks. Today the Arabian Oryx is reintroduced successfully in former range areas and numbers in the wild are increasing. Why leave managed breeding as "the last resource"? And when is the time to put in action "the last resource"?
There are conservationists who cannot tolerate the extinction of a species for anthropogenic causes and believe that intervening on specific species is a responsibility. There are others who consider a species better extinct than detached from its habitat, even partially. Discussion can go on forever…but no one can ascertain the future of our Planet with 100% certainty and state which solution is the best.
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There is a problem with this question. Conservation does not need to be binary and by having these terms in-situ and ex-situ can limit ones thinking. A fertile area of conservation is the area at the interface of these terms. Many free-living populations of animals are now managed using techniques that would typically be used to manage captive animals. Hence Kakapo are managed on islands that they have been put on and many species are given additional food or provided with safe nesting sites, such as nest-boxes.
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I am looking of local and national Red Data Lists for Japanese instects, especially beetles (Coleoptera). I would be grateful for any help (PDF version would be great).
Thank you in advance,
Radomir
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Dear Elaheh,
Thank you very much for the link.
Best greetings,
Radomir
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Dear peers,
I am currently making a research proposal on conservation of some endangered Ceropegia and Brachystelma species. Please suggest some advanced models/methods/papers to evaluate the soil, water and climatic requirements for both micropropagated and naturally grown endangered plants.
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studying the agro-pdeological conditions of naturally grown endangered planst and later underatking in-vitro multiplication is quite task . These two exercises have heaven to hell difference. But , all the best to you....
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Catastrophic reports and publications about the rapid loss of species numbers are becoming increasingly frequent. Furthermore, the biomass of common animal species, such as insects or birds, is also being hotly debated.
In contrast, the loss of plant species and their biomass is much less frequently reported. Does anyone know of well-documented reports or publications on massive local or global plant losses and/or massive plant biomass losses?
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Great, thanks for this valuable document and your remarks.
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"The choice of species rank over form or
subspecies for this taxon reflects a more
nuanced understanding of the role of infraspecific
ordering. We consider forms to reflect a
consistent variant within a wider population. ...
Páll-Gergely et al. (2019) argued that the rank
of subspecies was arbitrarily applied based on
“human factors”. These factors reflect the
choices that the taxonomist has to make with
regard to the differentiating of taxa in terms of
morphology, homology and the pre-existing
taxonomic hypotheses (Páll-Gergely et al. 2019).
However, Páll-Gergely et al. (2019) offer no
practical solution to how subspecies should be
identified; rather they are seeking a rule to
“prohibit taxonomic decisions resulting in
uneven subspecies rates across taxonomic
groups.” This raises the serious question of what
is a “subspecies”, and in particular once you
move away from the biological species concept
how do you demarcate between subspecies and
what is considered a full species. We argue that
subspecies should be restricted to cryptic
species, where the difference between taxa are
grounded on the unobservable genetic distance;
there is no morphological difference and
typically no test for biological isolation between
isolated populations or their clines. That is, we
argue that the rank of subspecies should be
applied to reflect genetic differences within a
species complex, rather than used to distinguish
unique taxonomic entities with observable
differences. These are species. Subspecies
therefore, is a rank that should be restricted to
cryptic species. This approach would provide a
level of taxonomic stability to the species rank
and at the same time address the issues
identified in Páll-Gergely et al. (2019). Where a
taxon can be readily identified based on
observable differences we argue, as the case of
the species herein, that the rank of species is
justified." (Maxwell and Dekkers 2019, Festivus, 51(3), 171- 176).
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Some of the comments seem to be based on misinterpretation of the terms "species" and "subspecies". Species is defined by evolutionary separation ("evolving separately from others and with its own unitary evolutionary role and tendencies"), i.e. by permanently broken gene flow (no, or at most only occasional and/or ineffective hybridization); if such [group of] population[-s] does not show clear morphological differences it is called "cryptic", but anyway it is a perfectly "good" species: morphological distinctiveness is irrelevant for the general definition of species category (but of course it may be useful as a "marker" in recognition of species in particular cases, e.g. in case of allochronic or allopatric populations - see the final paragraphs of the attached paper). On the other hand, subspecies is a "morpho-geographical" category: a not isolated reproductively but morphologically significantly (a "rule of thumb" criterion is Amadon's 75% rule) distinctive allo- or para-patric [group of] population[-s]; thus, "cryptic" species, as being morphologically indistinctive, can only in exceptional, never or but extremely rarely realized in practice, situations show subspecific differentition. Generally, the category of subspecies is very useful as largely generalized but highly informative illustration of patterns of geographic variability, in clarification of many ecological, evolutionary and/or palaeogeographic questions &c., but of course only if it is correctly interpreted and consistently applied!
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In the Green List framework , a timeframe of 100 years is proposed to evaluate the recovery potential of species.
Conservation gain is evaluated over the greatest of 3 generations or 50 years. However, what if 3 generations (future gain) are longer than 100 years (future recovery)? This (3 generations greater than 100 years) is the case for longer lived slower growing species.
As we have such an incomplete picture of the worlds species, could future recovery be the greatest of 5 generations or 100 years? Is there an upper time limit that we can reasonably use for future recovery?
Conservation gain: “A suitable time frame for assessing conservation dependence and gain is 3 generations or 10 years, whichever is longer, consistent with the current Red Listing process and providing a realistic time scale for incentivizing conservation action.”
Recovery potential: “setting an aspirational yet achievable vision for the recovery of a species, estimating the maximum plausible improvement that could be achieved in occupancy, viability and functionality across the (indigenous and projected) range of the species, given its life history and habitat characteristics, and the likely land and resource use and recovery technology over the next 100 years.”
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Length of reproductive cycle, gestation period should be studied for each species.
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I want to work on scientific investigation (Ecology+Genetics) and community based conservation of two threatened species i.e. the Himalayan Gray Langur and the Himalayan Musk deer in western Himalayan areas of Pakistan. Can any body would like to guide me that which can be the funding resources for these researches?
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Take a look at the The Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund: https://www.speciesconservation.org/
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Dear RG Colleagues,
What could make a research study conclude with: " This animal or plant species is endangered and must be mentioned in the red list" ?
What are the most important criteria to use the mention 'endangered' ?
Thank you
Abdenour
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Thank you all of you for your consideration and answers
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Dear RG Colleagues,
When we start a research project with the purpose of publishing and sharing the results in a scientific journal, we are often asked to give the geographical coordinates of our study site where the species has been observed and sampled. The problem is here, when the study concerns a very rare species (animal or plant). My question is: How can we publish works (including the sampling site) on a protected species by preventing it from being annihilated forever by poachers (collector, destructive study, herbalist ...). Lately, I've started to observe and photograph every plant and animal species I found in my region (Mediterranean basin: aquatic and terrestrial environment). I asked myself this question a long time ago because there are endangered species but they continue to survive in secret where people do not have access to find them. Do you agree with me ?!, to be a SELFISH, to admire these species in secret, to never divulge their existence … and avoid seeing them disappear forever…
Thank you for your attention
Abdenour
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Arvind Singh Jean-Pierre Jost Ather-Uz-Zaman Zaman Thank you for your suggestions and comments....My wish is to collect and record available data that can make me say one day: We have to create a protected area in this or that place. I am trying to do my best....with my colleagues and also with your advices...Thank you all of you.
Warm regards
Abdenour
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It’s time to put habitats of the environment first. We need to preserve land, stop building, and start restoring. Which environmental issue make you worry the most? Public Health, Land Management & Urban Sprawl, Waste Disposal, Overpopulation, Loss of Biodiversity, Water Scarcity & Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Deforestation, Ecosystems & Endangered Species, Climate Change ?
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continue erosion of "environmental ethics and morality". If citizens are self disciplined specially e.g. plastic menace there can not be such rapid problem plastics. similar are many so many things can be controlled by simple public action but who cares attitude is now fashion!!
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Any research, publication, article, news report, grant proposal etc...
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Please also take a look at this useful link.
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In a recent review we attempted I was amazed to find very few restoration examples in rivers in the southern Balkans (south and southwest of the Danube basin). Could anybody help us in finding such examples? (i.e. riparian restoration, de-daming, fish-passes, eco-flows, re-connectivity works, urban river restoration, wildlife habitat enhancment, rewilding rivers, nature-based solutions, anti-pollution technologies, re-introduction of threatened species, etc).
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Preservation of endemic species and threatened species constitutes a very important part of the conservation of biodiversity. Most of the endemic species grow in protected areas or areas with greater human impact. Determination of biological, ecological, and proliferation of their features would contribute to raising awareness and educating students and people interested in conserving biodiversity in Albania and beyond.
The study will also affect the acquisition of a new and very important experience for our country as a country of democracy in development.
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Dear Olawale Festus Olaniyan, Olawale Festus Olaniyan, Shah Nawaz Jelil
Thank you very much for your sincerely and veryvaluable suggestions.
I will prepare an application and send to any of funds you suggested me.
Marash
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Hello everyone, I am budding biologist and I am planning to study an endangered mammal species in our locality. Due to its status, I want to employ non-invasive method like faecal/scat sampling. But I'm finding a hard time to decide on what to test or to analyze based on the feces. This species has no data yet on its ecology, population, and behavior. I hope you will help me so that I will be able to process the best information I can get from the feces to contribute to its ecology and for future conservation implications. Can you also suggest methods and analyses for it? Thank you!
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Dear Renz Alfred,
Through analysis of fecal DNA you can identify/confirm the species, identify the haplotype, genotype and sex. Furthermore, it is possible to conduct scat-based surveys regarding hormones (e.g. stress), diets, parasites and pahtogens.
On a larger scale, scat surveys can also provide information about species occurence, distribution and habitat use and can be a basis for abundance estimates.
Kind regards,
Laura
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Taxonomic bias in research papers is well established, but the underlying drivers are poorly understood. As professional scientists, we are under enormous pressure to publish, and the type of sophisticated research that appeals to the top journals often requires a well researched study system. This potentially limits research on understudied species. Moreover, limited resources mean that scientists study what is practically convenient rather than the species in most need of research. We are also motivated by personal biases, with many of us drawn to work on charismatic/iconic species.
We are currently constructing a conceptual model to better understand the drivers of taxonomic bias in conservation research, and I would love to hear about people's experiences of why they ended up working on a particular species.
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Back in 2000 I had voiced my opinion on the subject for an Eartwatch issue. I have attached it here. To tell you the truth, I am even more convinced today of what I said back then. Relating to your question - my answer is "convenience." The other problem is that today academia advocates teaching students to be robots - ask a question, go out there and the answer in order to get your degree. There is no real Naturalist's approach. Hence, natural history studies also suffer and it is impossible today to publish any such, in my eyes VERY important studies, without fancy fangled statistics. Sorry if I got carried away.
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I am currently working on a paper describing a new technique to add to IUCN methods of species conservation assessment and need references to countries that use the IUCN methods to produce their national red lists. So, please, if you can provide references for countries that use this method, they will be highly welcomed.
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Canada - specifically the federal government (e.g., Parks Canada), provincial governments (e.g., Conservation Data Centres/Natural Heritage Programs). Also, non-governmental organizations like the Nature Conservancy of Canada (check out some of my ecoregional assessment reports), WWF Canada, and The Nature Conservancy (US).
Here are some useful links:
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Hello,
I work with forensic entomology in Brazil. I am trying to study social wasps that visit carrion.
Finding and collecting wasps (at least those attracted to vertebrate carcasses) are becoming more difficult each day. I wonder if you (or your group) are facing similar issues in your customary collection sites. I know that numbers of bees are decreasing, but would it be the same with social wasps?
Even if you don´t regularly engage in long-term monitoring of social wasps, you are more than welcome to share your thoughts.
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The abundance of social wasps are declining day by day at South American region, but here in South Asia, there's still presence of social wasps at a moderate level.
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I am looking for samples for a running project on the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of freshwater limpets of the family Acroloxidae (see the following link to the RG project)
Our current sampling in Europe is moderate (see attached maps), but some important regions are still missing (western, central and northern Europe).
Please, contact me if you could provide fresh (recent or max. 10 years old) ethanol-fixed specimens (shells including tissue).
Best regards
Björn Stelbrink
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It would be rather easy to collect samples for you in summer. Byt winter time is not the best one for sampling Acroloxus in Latvia.
I remember about 5 years ago we sent samples to Ch. Albrecht - can you ask him? Be sure we can try it again, but not sure how easy it will be to dig them out from under ice and snow.
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Dear colleagues,
In recent days an article was published in the Washington Post trying to sell the idea that we, humans, should not work towards preventing the extinction of as many endangered species as possible, and that we should only focus on saving species that might help us survived as species as longer as possible. This is the article:
Our colleague Dr. Alexandre Antonelli is organizing a rebuttal and everyone is welcome to sign it. It is currently aimed as a short commentary in the Washington Post, but I believe it might be possible that this would lead to a larger perspective piece in a scientific journals. Please take a look at the short 750-words manuscript and feel free to sign if you agree with the text. To do so, please use the following link and open the corresponding documents: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1VJuKuXDP62NQcBdIuIkCi-LqMyRbORv2?usp=sharing
Best regards,
Eliécer
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With my question, I wanted the community to become aware of the initiative to fight back the dangerous and erroneous arguments published in the Washington Post and to gather more signatories. I like when commenters make arguments against the Washington Post piece, but I honestly find unhelpful to make comments about Pyron. Let's focus on ideas/arguments and ways to push back those arguments in the WP article that could be used by insane governments and corporations to continue devastating biodiversity.
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Methodology on field experiment on endangered frog, to establish their breeding success and phenologies. The distribution and their ecology has been assessed, and I would like to set up some pond experiments to check for these parameters. Kindly Help Where possible. Would really appreciate. Thank you
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If you are going to do intensive field work you should look up the material safety data sheet (MSDS) of any sunscreens and insect and tick repellents you plan to use. Most are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. You should avoid your sweat poisoning the subjects of your research. We learned that the hard way when 60,000 eco-tourists per year killed off the golden toad.
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details on the species status in China and Vietnam both ex-situ and in-situ
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Thanks
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I am studying a threatened species of mammal (Philippine mouse-deer) and capturing and marking them is not advisable because they are prone to trauma and stress. I proposed studying their population by camera trapping but I need to individually recognize them so I wont commit a double counting of individuals. Are there any non-invasive ways on how to estimate their population ? and is there anything I can do to avoid double counting? Thank you.
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Kindly see the ideas suggested here in this informative abstract by Gursky,  Salibay and Cuevas.
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Climate refugia have been presented as possible mechanism allowing species to survive rapid climate shifts (e.g. Keppel et al. 2012, 2015; Franklin et al. 2014; Barrows and Fisher 2014; Barrows et al. 2016).  Modeling where climate refugia might occur is straightforward; zones of overlap between current distribution models and climate-shifted models could be such refugia. My question relates to both validating such models, and more to the point what are the population metrics that might characterize a population residing in a climate refugia? Here in California we have (possibly) emerged from a 5-year drought that may have been a window into how populations behave in response to climate change-like conditions. We are tracking communities/populations of lizards across a broad elevation gradient. None went extinct; all declined during the worst of the drought but then behaved differently along this gradient as the drought became less severe. 
1. some have remained at drought-level densities even after near-average rainfall returned.
2. some population densities increased linearly and others exponentially with increasing rainfall.
3. Some maintained at least moderate to expected levels of reproductive recruitment even during the worst dry years, while others showed little or no recruitment until the near-average rains returned.
Conceptually, how should a population behave during severe climate change-like conditions, and can we use those responses to identify and/or validate the location of climate refugia?
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I think in Costa Rica there are some examples with bats in Monteverde.
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My recent researches focus on defining status and distribution of species, especially rare species. I would like to make a conservation plan for the species based on some factors that can affect the species in the future.
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Thanks so much Vladimir A. Kulchitsky for your help. I will look and learn this method. If I have any things that I do not understand, I will send my questions to you. I hope you are happy with this.
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I'm looking for examples of interview-based approaches to determine the potential local presence, or map "possible" occurrence, of species too rare or at too low densities to initially conduct meaningful field surveys for.  The resultant data from such an interview-based pilot study would then be used to plan and direct the location of more intensive field surveys.
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Hi Anthony
I have been using semi-structured interviews to identify areas with wild chimpanzees in degraded habitats with no forests in Sierra Leone. These areas are large and characterised by an agricultural matrix and swamps in which chimps have adapted to live in. I found people know exactly where chimps live in their areas, which later is confirmed by surveys and camera traps. I think interviews are extremely useful not only to find where chimps live in these habitats but also to learn about the problems farmers have with wildlife. I have only one related paper accepted by Oryx on this subject and another pending to be finished. 
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Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan with less population and having many habitats and species of high importance. There is very limited and outdated data available but I want to make inventory of plants and animals. Has there any one to support me technical and financial to carry this crucial work. 
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 Hi Hein,
Thank you very much for useful document. I am very happy that you worked in 1992 in Balochistan. You know a huge drought spell (1998-2004), disturbed the whole system. After that spell water level went down.
Please send me your email ID so I want to make contact with you, and share the present situation of my Province.
Best regards
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Basic data requirement, procedure of analysis
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Nail down the habitat attributes as the very first step.
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Do you know where can I find information about the orchid family in your country?
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Hi Spyros, In France, an atlas of orchids has been published in 2010 for the metropolitan territory. It presents the distribution of each species in a grid of 10 x 10 kms. I think there similar orchid atlas at least in Germany, UK and Switzerland. Did you find similar orchid atlas in other European countries? Cheers, Bertrand
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Please, give tips and the methods for classifications?
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I agree with all that Simon says, but would add that it is often extremely difficult to get enough data to do a formal IUCN assessment for tropical forest trees, which is why so few - I'd guess less than 1-2% - have been evaluated. The IUCN document makes clear that it is better to classify a species on the basis of the best available information than to not classify it at all, but in practice people seem to be very reluctant to do this, particularly for plants. For canopy trees, Asma's suggestion of remote sensing data is an attractive idea, but although Greg Asner's group has shown that identifying trees to species may be possible, I have never seen it used in a conservation assessment. I'd guess that if a species was very distinctive in some way that was detectable from space this would be possible.
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I am working with captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) in a breeding center. This is the most endangered specie of felid in the world. The main goal is to reproduce the breeding group to generate offspring and then release into the wild.
To do so, I will work in their nutrition in captivity but I have to analyse the food habits in their natural habitat. With the proper nutrition the results may be even better.
I am searching for papers about feeding ecology of Iberian Lynx, nutrition, feeding habits, home range but also papers about the main prey, the Wild Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) specially on the chemical composition of their organs.
Thanks for your help,
Tomás Martins
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Hi Tomas. Attached you can find some papers about rabbit. They are very usefull to understand the Iberian Lynx distribution in Spain and Portugal.
Regards,
Jose
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I need a discerption of the habitats in which the following species live; specifically whether they live on a loose sandy substrate or not. I’ve already looked (in vain) for information in the references listed below.
Gerbilliscus vicinus 
Gerbilliscus afra 
Lophuromys zena
Gerbillus nancillus
Rohmbomys opimus
Meriones tamarscinus
Gerbillurus vallinus
Gerbillurus setzeri
Gerbillurus paepa
Gerbillurus tytonis
Refs:
Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013; Smithers' mammals of southern Africa: A field guide, Smithers et al, 2000; The Complete Book of the Southern African Mammals, Mills and Hes, 1997; A guide to the mammals of China, Smith and Xie 2008; Mulungu et al, 2011; The IUCN Red-List of Threatened Species:  www.iucnredlist.org; Encyclopedia of life www.eol.org.  
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One way I can think of, is checking GBIF repository and look for records of those species. Once you have them (with their coordinates), you could use GIS to obtain a map of soils of the world: http://www.isric.org/data/isric-wise-global-soil-profile-data-ver-31
Then, plot the records of GBIF qnd see whether they fall on the type of soil you are interested in. If you dont know how to handle GIS, it might be tricky, so look for someone who can help from your institution.
Granted, this is just one alternative way in which you could solve your problem.
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In the last years there are some examples of description of new species without having type material, mostly in birds (e.g. the owl Strix omanensis, at present not accepted as a valid taxon). There is a key paper about this topic, which I attach for a better understanding of the problem. Usually, the main reason for the lack of type material is because there are rare, elusive and/or endangered species and it is not possible or quite difficult to obtain skins for a full and proper description.  
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The question Is it correct to describe a new species without type material cannot be answered just by citing the formal requirements of the ICZN.
A species description is not just the establishment of a new name (a baptismal act) but it is also a new hypothesis, i.e. that a previously unnamed taxon exists. Whereas the first issue is dealt by the ICZN, the second depends on the current standards of the scientific community.
Thus, there are two issues involved:
1. The availability of the name. For animals, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999, amended in 2012) dictates that a name is only available if there are one or more type(s) (either a museum specimen or an individual which is illustrated). This is a minimum standard *intended* to ensure that a name is unambiguously linked to one particular taxon. It is important to realise that photographs may not always provide that link. Whether a description ‘succeeds’ depends on multiple factors, including the choice of type material. In rare cases, a photograph can indeed establish the diagnostic morphological features of a new taxon at the time of description, and thus serve as a basis for establishing a link between the name and the new taxon. However, as soon as there are doubts about the identity of the new taxon (e.g. when multiple cryptic species are involved), the original photographs may not provide enough information to resolve the matter. If there is no tissue material from the type specimen, and photographs provide insufficient detail, a name may become a nomen dubium.
2. The taxonomic (i.e. scientific) hypothesis that a previously unnamed taxon exists. Any scientific claim should be verifiable and the existence of a new taxon is therefore best documented with as many lines of evidence as possible, including morphology, DNA, vocalizations and field observations from multiple individuals. The body of evidence required to establish a new taxon may differ among various groups of organisms. For instance, a new cryptic species or a new species in a group with much individual variation would require much more evidence than a highly distinctive taxon with multiple diagnostic external character states. In birds, there are cases where there is little or no doubt that a species described without a museum specimen is valid (e.g. Liocichla bugunorum Athreya, 2006). In other cases, even a series of specimens may be insufficient to establish the validity and status of the taxon (e.g. Heliangelus splendidus Weller, 2011, based on 30 museum specimens).
Clearly, there are good reasons to be extremely cautious when you are naming a species without museum specimens. 
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In the Canary Islands (southernmost limit of its distribution) the species is in the verge of extinction, being necessary to adopt some urgent conservation measures and new surveys to know the precise situation of this seabird
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Dear Ruben,
surely rat predation is a major problem for breeding seabirds, but please consider that now, as well as in 2008, there might be an effect of El Niño on the food chain and as such on Manx Shearwater. I think it would give you a better picture of the situation if you can compare "normal" years in the species' monitoring history in the Canaries. 
Best regards
Cecilia
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In this case, I was wondering about how an endangered species of deer endemic to the Philippines, Rusa alfredi, acquired a novel papillomavirus despite being in conservation areas due to its low populations. Is it possibly due to a mutation? 
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Dear Viviane, I am no specialist but the papillomavirus is transmited by sexual relation or by secretion  from genitals. The other mucosa areas of the body like eyes could support the virus too. The papillomavirus has many different type of virus in humans.
Some time the virus are in animal blood  but not express until some determined conditions like inmune depressed are present.
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My partner and I are conducting a research on the conservation of the Strongylodon macrobotrys, and our main focus is to provide a soil environment that is the most conducive to the growth of this certain endangered species.
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Well drained soil is that which allows water to percolate through it. Standing water or  water saturated soil deprives root oxygen. 
Loamy soil is that which has equal proportion of sand silt and clay. It is most ideal soil for plant growth.
Addition of organic matter like compost and composted manure makes the soil acidic.
Aluminium sulphate and sulphur coated urea can also be used to reduce the soil pH.
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I am doing a dissertation at Uni on the trade in Heosemys spinosa so any data on trade or populations that you can provide me with me would be gratefully received. I naturally have the CITES trade data. Thanks.
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Hi Karen, Mark here, tried to contact you via your email but failed - did you leave Brooke? did you finalize your dissertation on Heosemys spinosa? Anything published from it? Greatly appreciate your reply....best by email; mark.auliya@ufz.de...Best wishes, Mark
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In the framework of the project MARISCA (http://www.marisca.eu/) we are trying to create distribution maps for a number of species that are protected under European legislation and international conventions. The main objective is to apply a systematic conservation planning approach to design a representative network of MPAs in the Aegean Sea (including Crete). I would be grateful for informing me of any published or unpublished records.
The list of target species is: Hippocampus hippocampus, Hippocampus guttulatus, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Centrostephanus longispinus, Tonna galea, Pholas dactylus, Lithophaga lithophaga, Pinna nobilis, Zonaria pyrum, Mitra zonata, Luria lurida, Erosaria spurca, Charonia variegata, Aplysina aerophoba, Asbestopluma hyogoea, Axinella spp., Geodia cydonium, Petrobiona massiliana, Sarcotragus fetidus, Sarcotragus pipetta, Tethya spp., Savalia savaglia, Antipathella subpinnata, Antipathes dichotoma, Leiopathes glaberrima, Paranthipathes larix, Callogorgia verticillata, Cladocora caespitosa, Cladocora debilis, Ellisella paraplexauroides, Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata. 
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In India, is there any acts for safeguarding some animal species that fall under RET category. But I have not come across any act for Recovery of Endangered and Threatened plants. Will somebody explain?
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Thanks Beatrice for sending those valuable publications. These will help but am still looking for reports/articles dealing with standard approaches for recovery of endangered and threatened plant species.
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Poachers and wildlife traffickers are targeting newly discovered species of value by reviewing reported findings made to scientific journals. In response, many journals are removing location details from papers.
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This is a same problem that most conservation, taxonomic, photographers are encountering in Facebook groups platforms. In Facebook groups or page, it is easier to regulate since there is an Admin/s per group or page therefore the entry of guests and members is known and identified by administrator. in the Case of RG, I agree with Jean that it is very difficult to regulate admission of the poachers. However, RG provides every account the data (Stats) who interacted, read, download, or request your paper. Perhaps, the regulation will depend on every authors who uploaded their paper. 
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How Sampling can be done for endangered and endemic plant Sps in a forest for population genetics study?
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I do not think there is seperate sampling method for endangered species. And even if there is,  geographical variations interms of species distribution matters alot. You must understand the area you studying first, it's ecology before you begin to think of how you can sampling what. Find Kent and Coker ( 1992) for further information.  Good luck
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Just trying to understand if in literature there is a “concept” for difference among protected areas according to the “percentage” of rare and endangered species occurring in the area.
I’m trying to compare PA and I want to use also the rare and endangered species feature
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I don't know if there is a quantitative index of the sort you are looking for, but IUCN (see their webpage) has stuff in habitats as well as species. If you have a high proportion of rare and endemic species, I would go for "biodiversity hot spot".
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A share of the so called rare, endangered or threatened species may diminish in number due to natural evolution, we may not have to restore the species by which we are altering the natural process
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Dear Sreejith Ashtamoorthy,
Very interesting question! However, I strongly doubt, that there is a more general answer than "it depends on the species and the specific environment".
Perhaps it is a better idea to concentrate on ecosystem processes, for example: how are the seeds of the trees dispersed and are the species involved in this dispersial present? If your forest is near a river - are there still natural / semi-natural flooding conditions? Etc.
If you have an idea ( I hesitate to say "know"), why a species is rare and/or threatened, you might get an idea, what to do.
kind regards
Irene
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As we laid random quatrate in a forest, the possibility of the targeted species inside the quadrate is less or some time missed it completely. The problem arise when we want to work precisely to determined the population status of the threatened species. please suggest me a better method for estimating the actual population status of a species.
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Since plant are usually clustered in populations and habitat specific it would be necessary to design a survey method where
1) The detection probability and group size are taken into account and
2) The sampling area is stratified in some way to reflect the habitat preference of different species
The detection probability and group size relationship will mean that there are additional variance components in the analysis based on group size and additional parameters in the estimation model based on the detection function.
Initially it is probably more efficient to conduct belt transects in order to get baseline information on the density, distribution and habitat preferences of the species concerned before designing a more formal survey methodology.
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I want to vegetatively propagate a rare, endangered, threatened species by taking the explants from the outside of the plants. Can anyone suggest the best method to sterilize the explants for tissue culture of the explants?
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Hi Panda
Please give more information on the type of explant that you will be using. The sterilization procedure depends on explant type...its softness or hardeness. If one knows this it will be easy for one to propose a sterilization procedure.
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I am doing a new research on the theme of biodiversity loss and habitat destruction, and their effects on adaptive responses of endangered species.
Is the response (adaptive, or whatever) induced by climate change, besides other factors? Opinions differ widely among climatologists, ecologists, and conservationists.
Any research which points to  the fact how species are responding to sustained habitat loss? For instance, any new findings on range retractions?
Your responses are highly appreciated.
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Apart from what was said above, climate change can also hinder the ability of species to cope with modified land-cover. If climate change depresses population sizes or causes increased stochasticity in population dynamics, for example as a consequence of increased incidents of extreme events, then habitat networks may require larger patches and improved connectivity to maintain populations. Loss and fragmentation of habitat may also severely hinder the movement of species and their ability to cope with climate change through tracking of suitable climatic conditions. Spatial heterogeneity may help buffer the impact for some species, however the buffering will vary regionally. Population responses to extreme climatic events, such as fire and flooding, are also likely to be affected by habitat quality, area and heterogeneity. Here is some good reading:
Opdam, P., Wascher, D., 2004. Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation. Biological Conservation 117, 285-297.
Brook, B.W., Sodhi, N.S., Bradshaw, C.J.A., 2008. Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23, 453-460.
Thomas, C.D., Franco, A.M.A., Hill, J.K., 2006. Range retractions and extinction in the face of climate warming. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 415-416.
Mantyka-Pringle, Chrystal S., et al. "Climate change modifies risk of global biodiversity loss due to land-cover change." Biological Conservation 187 (2015): 103-111.
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I am looking for information about plant DNA barcode as tool for identification of illegal traffic of endangered species. Thank you very much in advance.
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Hi
I'm plan a new study that will focus on Eliomys melanurus community. I'm aware for two sample methods. the first one is to use Sherman traps and the second is to use IR camera. Do you have other ideas how to sampling population size of this extremely rare species?
Many thanks
Guy
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Because you are dealing with an extremely rare species I would recommend non-invasive sampling techniques like DNA from hair of feces. Once you have a working sampling design it will be easy to do a CMR analysis.
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The rankings I'm referring to go from 1C to 18.  I'm looking for a list of rankings for all species funded under the endangered species act.  I can find data for 2011 in the Recovery Reports to congress from the Fish and Wildlife Service, but reports available on the site do not go up to 2013.
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Not sure from your question what you consider to be "rankings"? Are you referring to the Priority column value associated with Candidate Notice of Review? Are you wanting this information for all years or just from 2011-2014? The latter is relatively straight forward, but the former will be much a more intensive/extensive effort. The 1st link will take you to the USFWS Endangered Species Home Page referred to as ECOS (see Isa's response). You should be able to 'query' species listed from 2011-2015 which should take you to a page with appropriate Federal Register (Candidate Notice of Review). As a courtesy, please consider providing some level of detail regarding why you are requesting the information and/or how the information will be used. Hopefully, this is helpful.
Please see the links below:
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We are attempting to breed fish species Cyprinella bocagrande (we are trying to learn more about its biology and natural history) in a small 1.5 m diameter pond about 40 cm deep. Original stock is 37 specimens, mixed 1 and 2 yrs old. Pond (plastic kiddies pool) has Ceratophyllum sp.  plants in it (covering about 40%), a few pieces of tile as cover set over artificial grass mats (grass is about 4 cms tall). We want to keep the setting (and breeding) as similar to natural habitat as possible, but we are concerned about cannibalism. Any advice?
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Thank you very much Ronald and Mohammad for your advice. There are just a handful of papers about the species, and Mayden and Hills has the best information on the biology. I am assuming that its reproductive behavior should be similar to its closest relative, Cyprinella formosa. I found a ms by Maes and Maughan http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_p005/rmrs_p005_182_199.pdf about habitat use by C. formosa in ponds on the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge; plus we characterized its natural habitat, and a refuge that we built two years ago, where the species, and its companion Cyprinodon fontinalis are prospering and doing excellent.  It has been difficult (given the remoteness of the area and the limited time to do more in depth observations) to determine whether the species spawns in crevices, or on the aquatic vegetation. We are placing both types of structure  in our artificial setting plus nests with marbles. Lets see what happens... Thanks 
Mauricio
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I'm thinking about non charismatic (also charismatic) species and their perception about their role, value and conservation
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Great question! I'm interested in this topic, too, but I can't remember any written work about this matter. I wonder if the book I attach may help you
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I would like to work on species replacement of indigenous insects in an area where invasive species of insects have become more abundant but population of indigenous insects have become very less infesting in a commodity. What is the easy research methodology to study on species replacement?
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The use of occupancy models to evaluate patterns in species co-occurrence is an elegant method. I would take a look at the following papers.
Hope this helps!
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... especially those of the mediterranean sea?
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Due to operation of trawler the benthic biodiversity has been fully damaged when compared with pelagic region.
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To manage and conserve an endangered species, I would know whether the ecosystem based approach can be better or species (population or meta-population) based perspective or not, applying Simultaneously both of them will have appropriate consequences? Any references for further information would be greatly appreciated.
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It depends on the species and its primary threats, there is no universal solution. Many South East Asian species are primarily threatened by poaching ("Empty forest syndrome"), whereas many "reptiles" and amphibians from Madagascar can apparently cope with fairly high levels of collection (e.g. Golden mantella [Mantella aurantiaca]), while the loss of their often small habitat is the primary threat.
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Which can be applied GIS analysis or tests to monitor endangered species? There are daily data coordinates, ambient temperature, population dynamics.
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It may be few way for using GIS-technologies to monitor endangered species.
One of more simple is show the distribution of endangered species at landscape map. You can to see distribution of studied species in relation to placing of several landscape elements (water bodies, marshes, steppe plots etc.).:
More composite and useful method is the using grid mapping when all study region separated on grid cells (often 10×10 km). For example, it is good shown in publications of Alexey P. Seregin:
Also GIS-technologies successfully applied at project "Atlas Florae Europaeae":
Best regards,
Anatoliy A. Khapugin
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Indeed, I would like to conduct a study on the analysis of the reliability of ape populations (Bonobo) and the probability of extinction over a defined time interval. This study is in order to improve protection strategies for this iconic and endangered species in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This is a demographic study with statistics, but a good read enable me to clearly define my question. Thank you for your recommendations
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Morris and Doak 2002 "Quantitative Conservation Biology" is a good intro to pop. viability analysis, goes through non-demographic and deterministic models through demographic and environmental stochastic PVA's, and comes with Matlab scripts you can get started with.
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Because it is one of endangered species in my country, I am interested about it domestication.
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Most of the existing habitat suitability index (HSI) modeling are related to wildlife, very rarely used in case of plants. It is a simple mathematical expressions for calculating one or more environmental variables, not related to demography and survival of parental and their offsprings. The calculated HSI values typically mapped and analyzed potential distribution and high value indicated more suitable habitat, whereas low value is unsuitable habitat.
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If we consider habitat suitability index as quantitative assessments of habitat relationship, you can find lot of them related to plants, they are usually named as species distribution models, habitat suitability models, ecological niche models. As stated before, you can build your own suitability model if you have species occurrence data related to environmental data likely to influence the distribution of the species. You have several methodological approaches, I usually run Generalized Linear Models in R statistical software using the rms package by F. Harrell (e.g. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236870185_Modelling_species_distributions_with_penalised_logistic_regressions_A_comparison_with_maximum_entropy_models)
In some regions this kind of models are already fitted for several tree species and habitat suitability maps and/or species response curves can be generated and downloaded from public online resources (e.g. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/parques-nacionales-oapn/publicaciones/Semillas_-_Anexos_tcm7-320577.pdf, http://www.opengis.uab.es/wms/IdoneitatPI/index.htm, http://spatial.ala.org.au/)
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I need this information for my descriptive paper on distribution and status of clouded leopard in Nepal. 
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Dear Yadav,
   I know Grassman calculated core areas for Clouded Leopards in his research.  Attached is a copy of his dissertation and his paper.
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Can anyone suggest me the best methodology in order to determine minimum size population of Dipterocarpus species since I am new beginner of genetic manner.
Thank you.
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If you have data about population densities, you should try to run a Population viability analysis (AVP). Five hundred individuals are usually ok, but it could vary according to the recruitment rate in different areas.
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The Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus is the only macaque in Africa. The species is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is listed in CITES Appendix II. This macaque has a relict distribution in Morocco and Algeria. Recent studies have indicated a dramatic decline of Barbary macaque populations in the Middle Atlas and Rif Mountains in Morocco but there is limited available information on its distribution in the Central High Atlas. What must we do to protect the this species?
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I disagree with the emphasis on ecological data collection to aid in the conservation of a primate which has interacted with people for thousands of years.  The Action Plan is totally focused on top down interventions which have so far have not achieved any positive benefits for BM conservation in the protected area of Ifrane NP.  Such measures are increasingly perceived as inadequate in achieving conservation benefits by themselves. Ethnographic data collection has proved far more effective in developing conservation strategy in the north of Morocco.  Here complaints of crop raiding by villagers on the periphery of BM habitat  have decreased due to interventions by conservationists to link positive programmes such as the vaccination of village dogs against rabies  to the presence of the Barbary macaques.  Local people no longer hunt and kill the macaques and reports of illegally held macaques by members of the Moroccan public have led to the confiscation of 6 macaques with their vendors/owners prosecuted and fined.
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I am currently in my first semester as a masters student in the school of environmental management at Auckland University in New Zealand. I am beginning to think a lot about what to pursue for the research element of my degree. I hold undergraduate degrees in both teaching and anthropology, and I have a great interest in wildlife conservation. As humans are the main cause of pressure on endangered species, I am constantly thinking of ways to use my knowledge of anthro and experience as a teacher together to promote the wellbeing of endangered species of animals.
Is anyone aware of any elements of this concept that are yet to be explored through research? I want my masters research to be meaningful and useful, and when it is all said and done I want to be an active practitioner working internationally. Any advice or tips from anyone on possible directions that I could take this would be greatly appreciated.
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One of the most important actions to tackle illegal hunting is stopping the recruitment of new poachers. This is when educational activities in the local communities are crucial. Obviously the education approach needs to be non confrontational, helping the kids understanding that the unsustainable taking of biodiversity items has  a direct impact on them and on their livelihood on the short, medium and long run. Sadly this is actually not too obvious and a wrong approach in many instances has caused animosity between the local communities and conservation bodies (GOs or NGOs) who failed to take a softer (but more productive) approach. This is often the case when a body or organization dealing with law enforcement tries to do education without the trained staff this important activity requires.      BirdLife Partners in Italy, Spain and Greece are fighting illegal bird Killing through a communications and education campaign. www.leavingisliving,org
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I have already found out about the Barred Owl (Strix varia) in north-west USA and the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) in Israel.
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Barn Owls (Tyto) have likely benefited from human development of areas that were formerly forested landscapes.  This was the case in eastern North America as European settlement converted vast areas of forest to landscapes dominated by crops, hayfields, and their associated barns and silos.  Over the past 100 years or so, that trend has largely reversed as millions of farms were abandoned and forest cover rebounded.  It's difficult to say for sure how these changes affected the overall *range* of Barn Owl in North America, but they certainly created usable habitat for Barn Owls before farm abandonment then caused that habitat to decline. 
Currently in the US, the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) seems to be adapting well to residential and even urban areas.  There are many anecdotes of owls nesting near people these days - I followed the progress of a pair here on a university building in Oklahoma this year.  The birds nested in plain view of thousnads of people every day, and they seem to have relied heavily on Rock PIgeons for food.  This urban nesting strikes me as a new development, i.e., it's unusual based on my 40 years or so as a birder.  Again, one must be carfeul to interpret this as an example of expanded *range*.  It's just an example of the owls using a habitat that historically they hadn't.
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I love researching mixed flocks. Much of my research into current publications has made it clear to me that these renegade groupings of birds are crucial for neotropical ecosystems. Through my studies I've found that many Antshrikes and other ant following species tend to lead flocks; however are any of these species currently threatened by climate change or loss of habitat? The Neotropics are losing habitat on an unfortunately high scale and I'd love to call attention to some species that may be getting ousted by our unforgiving expansion of urban environments.
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I studied the mixed species flocks of Ecuadorian Amazonia where at least the Yasuní Antwren (Epinecrophylla fjeldsaii) a regular member of the flocks has a high restricted range, although is not currently threatened. Nevertheless, you could focus your analysis in sensitive to disturbance species not to restricted or threatened species.
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I am writing a short paper suggesting that key phases in the life cycles of such species might be exploited to either reduce or increase their population sizes in systems with differing restoration goals. I am using carp (Cyprinus carpio spp.) as a case study, but interested in finding other examples.
UPDATE: SEE MY COLLATION OF ANSWERS AT THE END OF THIS THREAD
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Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) currently a rare species with three small California coastal populations and two Mexican island populations. Each population is suffering significant declines from human threats
But it is invasive in the South America and other southern hemisphere regions.
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Dugong dugon (sea cow) is a marine mammal, it lives in very shallow areas in the sea due to their food habitat. in india it lives in gulf of mannar, but today it faces lots of threats from human being. so it's going to be endangered in India. I dont know the exact number of dugongs in India, does anybody know?
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You should contact Dr. Helene Marsh (helene.marsh@jcu.edu.au). Dr Marsh is a leader of the Sirenian Specialists Group for IUCN and can point you in the right direction for gathering information about dugong status in India.
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What variables most contribute to the paperwork challenges of conducting field observations, catch-and-release sampling, and limited collections of a species that is threatened primarily by habitat degradation?
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From my experience the best approach to this is to partner with US-FWS on any such research. This greatly relieves the amount of paperwork you will have to do and if you can engage one of the folks in the service then you will have an inside track on the permitting. I have generally found folks at US-FWS more than happy to be involved in such collaborative research.
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I am interested in creating realistic simulations of population demographic decline, such as to represent harvesting, disease, invasive species, or habitat degradation. Often in population genetics and even conservation genetics, demographic declines are modeled as occurring instantaneously. What is a more realistic (but very simple) way to model demographic decline that might be applicable to many endangered species? Linear, exponential, logistic? From some species such as Iberian lynx, I might suppose roughly linear, but other species like American chestnut it is exponential or even close to instantaneous. Suggestions? What about in your species of choice?
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This paper on decline dynamics for vertebrate species could be useful - it describes different curves depending on the pressures experienced by populations, calibrated against over 100 wild vertebrate populations. Could be a good place to start:
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I am carrying out an experiment to look at the genetic diversity of individuals from this endangered plant species endemic to Madagascar (Xerosicyos tripartitus). We don't know if these individuals come from the same population. All we know is that they are from the same plant species. So in other words this is an intraspecific study of genetic diversity. I have amplified DNA at 3 different regions(trnE-trnF, trnS-trnG and trnC-petN1R).I am about to send the purified DNA samples to a company for sequencing. So my results are DNA sequences at 3 different regions. Can any of you recommend a program that I could use to in order to analyse the results I would get?
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Hello Paolo, try with TCS from David Posada's Lab. It produces a haplotype network of closely related sub-species: http://darwin.uvigo.es/our-software/
Or, you try with any other program that gives you an information about genetic distance: http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/phylip/software.html
good luck!
carolina
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How to save them using technology and humanity worldwide?
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Your question is simple, but the answer is very complex.
In response to your two points:
1. Yes,, thus would certainly help. There is a whole body of literature on the concept of "ecosystem services" that help doing just that. And practically, the discussions around climate policies and particularly REDD and REDD+ could help providing value to carbon stocks and thus to standing biomass in trees.
2. Many scenario developers agree on one thing: Something has to fundamentally change if we are to reach sustainable development. Yet, in the specific case of the Brazilian Amazon: there is so much degraded land that could be reused, that a growing population could be supported without deforestation.
And besides, I am moderately optimistic that a range of policies that are in place at the moment will be enforced to a level that can help (further) reducing deforestation! So I am not that pessimistic.. See for example the new Forest Code.
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I can think of two instances where very common species suffered severe rapid declines to the extent that they could be considered threatened with extinction - the Chytrid fungus and some species of frogs, and Geomyces destructans and three species of bats; can anyone think of other examples?
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Many Asian vulture species have sharply decreased in recent decades. Plenty of info at: http://www.vulturerescue.org/index_files/Page671.htm